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CO] 29 Oct 2012

**TOTAL GAME COLORING OF GRAPHS
**

T. BARTNICKI AND Z. MIECHOWICZ

Abstract. Total variant of well known graph coloring game is considered. We determine

exact values of χ′′g for some classes of graphs and show that total game chromatic number

is bounded from above by ∆ + 3∆+ . We also show relation between total game coloring

number and game coloring index.

1. Introduction

Graph coloring game was first introduced in 1981 [6] by Steven Brams, but only after ten

years graph game parameters were first time considered in mathematical paper [4] by Bodlaender. Various variants of graph coloring game have been studied until now. Profoundly

explored is the original version of the game, in which players alternately color vertices of

given graph (see survey [2]), but there is also a lot of results about game chromatic index,

the parameter connected with game in which players color edges of a graph ([1],[3],[5]).

Natural extension of this research is to consider a game in which players color both, vertices

and edges of a graph.

Let a graph G and a set of colors C be given. Total graph coloring game is a game with

the following rules:

• Two players, Alice and Bob alternately color vertices and edges of G, using colors

from C with Alice playing first,

• both players have to respect proper coloring rule: in each moment of the game each

pair of incident objects in graph G (i.e. vertex-vertex, vertex-edge, edge-edge) have

to receive different colors,

• Alice wins if whole graph has been colored properly with available colors and Bob

otherwise.

With this game we can relate a natural parameter. The total game chromatic number,

denoted χ′′g , is the least number of colors in C for which Alice has a winning strategy.

In section 2. we present some basic properties of χ′′g and exact results. In section 3. we

give a strategy for Alice to win the game with ∆ + 3∆+ colors. To show the strategy we

define total game coloring number and show a strategy for Alice in related marking game.

We also show that gcol′ (G) ≤ gcol′′ (G).

2. Basic observations

We start with trivial bounds for the total game chromatic number and give two simple

examples, showing that the total game chromatic number can be larger than the usual total

chromatic number, and that χ′′g is not monotone on taking subgraphs.

Upper bound for χ′′g is given by counting neighbors of edges and vertices. Since every

vertex, or edge in a graph G have at most 2∆(G) incident objects we have the following

inequality:

1

that connects gcol′ (G) and gcol′′ (G). Bob can answer by coloring unique object in K3 . It is true also for total game chromatic number. BARTNICKI AND Z. We know that χ′′ (K3 ∪ K1 ) = 3. such that Alice has a winning strategy in total marking game on G with parameter k. We can see it analyzing these two examples. otherwise Bob wins. We will show the strategy for Bob in the game with 4 colors. She colors the only object nonincident with the one colored by Bob in his last move with the same color. so the whole graph can be colored properly with 3 colors. This anomaly causes. . Total marking game with parameter k is a game with following rules: • Two players Alice and Bob alternately mark vertices or edges of G with Alice playing first. we have χ′′g (G) ≤ gcol′′ (G). In her first move Alice colors isolated vertex with any color. So. χ′′g (G) ≤ 2∆(G) + 1 Typical property of this type graph game parameters is.he colors the only object nonincident with the one colored by Alice in her last move using the last available color. Total game coloring number A very useful tool in finding upper bounds for game parameters is the activation strategy. which is nonincident with the one chosen earlier by Alice. is the least k.total marking game. denoted gcol′′ (G). Now we have only one uncolored edge. Let k ∈ N and a graph G be given. 3. But we can apply well known activation strategy. Observation 2. χ′′g (K3 ∪ K1 ) = 3 Proof. Now Alice have to use third color.2 T. using second color. and Bob answers in the same way. χ′′g (K3 ) = 5 Proof. Analogous marking game was defined for edge coloring and the parameter related with it is game chromatic index denoted by gcol′ (G). in each part of the game each unmarked vertex and each unmarked edge in G have at most k − 1 marked neighbors. for every graph G. that if Alice has a winning strategy in total marking game on G with parameter k. We can define parameter concerned with that game. It is easy to see. From the trivial upper bound we know that 5 colors is enough for Alice to win the game on K3 . that they are not monotone on taking subgraphs. Total game coloring number of graph G. and one uncolored vertex left and they both have neighbors in each of available colors. In her first move Alice have to color one of the vertices or edges using first color. Now Bob has to start game on K3 and Alice have good answer for every Bob’s move. that induction methods can not be used to explore total graph coloring game. holds. MIECHOWICZ Observation 1. We will show the strategy for Alice in the game on K3 ∪ K1 with 3 colors. An expected inequality. • Alice wins if. she has also a winning strategy in total coloring game on G with a set of k colors. To use it we define auxilary game . Observation 3.

Assume that Bob has a winning strategy in edge marking game with parameter k on G. But in the same moment the edge ei in G has at least k marked neighbors in G. Let D be a directed graph obtained by orienting the edges of G such that ∆+ (D) ≤ k. when some of the vertices of L(G)... During the game Alice (and only she) will activate vertices and edges of D. For any unmarked object we will count the maximal number of active objects incident with it after Bob’s move. Then gcol′ (G) ≤ gcol′′ (G). Note that after Alice’s move each marked object is also active. Theorem 5. Let G be a graph which can be oriented in such a way. After Bob’s move there is at most one more marked inactive object.jump” on the edges and vertices of D and activate it according to the following rules: (1) Alice always jumps according to the orientation of D. Let G be a graph with the set of vertices V = {v1 .. (3) after Bob’s move Alice jumps to the object he has just marked. Bob can see which edges or vertices are active. there must be a moment in the game. will mark every vertex of L(G) as corresponding edge in G.. so Alice can always win the marking game on G with parameter ∆(G) + 3k + 1 . (4) from an oriented edge xy ~ Alice jumps to y.. but this information does not help him. where nKn is n isolated vertices. We will show the winning strategy for Bob in total marking game with the same parameter on G. she marks last visited and activated object. If Alice jumps to active object. Proof. Hence he has a winning strategy in marking game on L(G) ∪ nK1 . unless y is already marked. activates it and starts her jumping procedure from it. before the game. each unmarked edge or vertex has at most ∆(G) + 3k marked neighbors. Let G be a graph. . . (2) in her first move Alice starts jumping from any edge. and remaining vertices of L(G) ∪ nK1 with v1 . she starts jumping from any edge. Bob plays total marking game according to the wining strategy at marking game on L(G)∪nK1 . Bob. Modification of the activation strategy from edge marking game [3] will give a bound of gcol′′ (G) in terms of ∆ and maximum outdegree of graph. as she chose in G. His winning strategy on L(G)∪nK1 make him chose vertex vi . she activates it. . Hence this game is monotone on taking subgraphs [?] Bob can also win marking game with the same parameter on L(G)∪nK1 . (6) if Alice jumps to inactive object. His strategy is the following.. (8) if Alice can’t make further jump. he can also win marking game on linegraph L(G) with the same parameter. she marks it and stops. or the vertex once activated will be active till the end of the game. and in his move in a game on G he will chose an object with exactly the same label. . vn . Then gcol′′ (G) ≤ ∆(G) + 3k + 1. say ei ... For a vertex x of directed graph D we denote the set of its out-edges by E + (x) and the set of its in-edges by E − (x). Before Alice marks an edge or vertex she will .. (7) if Alice can’t make first jump. We shall describe a strategy for Alice guaranteeing that at any moment of the game. that it’s out degree is at most k.TOTAL GAME COLORING OF GRAPHS 3 Theorem 4. The edge. em }. If Bob can win in edge marking game on G.. In that case Alice jumps to the unmarked edge from the set E + (y). Proof. Bob will simulate every Alice’s move on L(G) ∪ nK1 by marking object with the same label. (5) from x ∈ V (D) Alice jumps to any unmarked edge from the set E + (x). vn } and edges E = {e1 . or edge ej . has more than k − 1 marked neighbors.

Kern. Computer Science. MIECHOWICZ Let x ∈ V (D) be an active and unmarked vertex. Bartnicki. Careful study of the proof and earlier observations let us formulate following conjecture. 2 (1991). University of Zielona Go ´ ra. Bartnicki. It is incident with at most ∆(G) vertices. [5] U. 133-147. [2] T.zgora. Kierstead. J. that they all can be active. as claimed. Anders. Mathematical games.uz. Bodlaender. Kierstead. [3] T. Faculty of Mathematics. and they all can be active. Gardner. Comput. Conjecture 1. Found. References [1] S. Poland 65-516 Zielona Go E-mail address: T.pl ´ ra. Vertex x has at most k out-edges.pl . On the game chromatic number of some classes of graphs. Graphs and Combinatorics 24 (2008+) 67–70. J. Zhu. Grytczuk. Trotter. One from which Alice jumped to x. Vertices x and y can be active as well. which are incident also with y. Scientific American 244 (1981) 18–26. On the complexity of some coloring games. A. so xy ~ has at most 2 (∆+ − 1) more active in-neighbors.uz.Bartnicki@wmie. Let xy ~ ∈ E(D) be unmarked and active edge. and Econometrics. J. [4] H. H.4 T. and one more. If vertex x is also marked there can be one more active in-edge of x (it was activated because of the jump from one of already counted edges). Grytczuk. ´ ra. Only two among its in-edges can be active. ~ In the worst case all of them are marked. It has at most ∆ − 1 incident edges. Computer Science. Internat. X. So unmarked vertex x can have at most ∆ + k + 2 active neighbors. Ars Combin. T. and they all can be active.zgora. L. 154 (2006) 1317–1323. BARTNICKI AND Z. The game chromatic index of forests of maximum degree ∆ ≥ 5. Vertex x can have at most ∆+ − 1 active out-edges other than xy. H. American Mathematical Monthly 114 (2007) 793–803. ~ So xy ~ can have at most ∆ + 3∆+ active neighbors. Then gcol′′ (G) = gcol′ (G) + 2. and one just marked by Bob. W. A note on the game chromatic index of graphs. D. and we assume. and to each Alice jumped twice from different in-edges of x. University of Zielona Go ´ ra. and Econometrics. The map-coloring game. from which Alice jumped to xy. Sci.miechowicz@wmie. 35 (1993) 143–150. Faigle. Faculty of Mathematics. Let G be a graph. U. [6] M. Discrete Applied Math. Poland 65-516 Zielona Go E-mail address: z. A.

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