Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics concerned with the use of language in

social contexts and the ways in which people produce and comprehend
meanings through language.
- The term pragmatics was coined in the 1930s by the philosopher C.W.
Morris. Pragmatics was developed as a subfield of linguistics in the
1970s.
SPEECH ACTS THEORY
Words do not have meaning by themselves.
(Searle, J.R. ; Kiefer, F. & Bierwisch, M. 1980).
Speakers can perform actions while making utterances
Situation: At work, boss has great deal of power
you’re fired.
more than just a statement, actually ends your employment
Other examples:
You're so great (compliment)
You're welcome (acknowledgement of thanks)
You're mad! (expression of surprise)
To you…up a little higher…up a bit more…okay, to the left…no no no…to the
right…almost there…okay, let’s set it down.
Speech in this case acts to ………….

Speech in this case acts to control a person’s physical activity.

So we can classify speech according to ITS FUNCTION.

FOR EXAMPLE THESE VARIOUS CATEGORIES:

To obtain information: Where is the kitchen?

For expressing emotions: I am so angry with you!

Requests: Will you bring me a cup of tea please?

Give orders: Move your car!

Give thanks: Thank you so much.

Offer apologies: I’m so sorry I scratched your CD.

offer.  EXAMPLE ‘CLOSE THE WINDOW’  ILLOCUTIONARY ACT What one does in saying the words. Small talk: nice day out. promise or warning  LOCUTIONARY ACT This is the act of saying the words. isn’t it?  Speech acts are: - Locutionary act - Perlocutionary act - Ilocutionary act - locutionary act: basic act of utterance.speecht acts are often interpreted narrowly as just the illocutionary force of an utterance - . The performance of an utterance Semantic and syntactic aspects. can be a statement. Real intended meaning . explanation etc. producing a meaningful linguistic expression - Aha mokofa (not a locutionary act) - I've just made some coffee (locutionary act) - illocutionary act: function/communicative force of the utterance (also called illocutionary - force). - perlocutionary act:intended effect of the action (also called perlocutionary effect) - .the same locutionary act can count as different illocutionary forces - I'll see you later can be a prediction.

in addition to talking other activities such as eating. An event may consist of a single speech act. Hymes (1974) proposed three levels of analysis. fights. drinking. It takes into account all the features of the situation.  In a family meal situation. speech event and speech acts that ‘speech event’ analysis is the most important one dealing with particular instances of speech exchanging.EXAMPLE: The person who is talking is cold  PERLOCUTIONARY ACT What one does by saying the words. or how the words affect the audience or are intended to affect the audience. It’s actual effect.  After Chomsky’s (1965) concept of ‘linguistic competence’ which is the native speaker’s underlying knowledge of rules of grammar. EXAMPLE: The action of closing the window -------------------------------------------------------------------------------SPEECH EVENT Speech event: "The term speech event will be restricted to activities. but will often comprise several" (Hymes 1972: 56). meals and the like’ (Hymes. speech situation. hunts. and feeding infants are taken into consideration. the social situation in which speaking takes place. 1972: 56). They are the rules that allow the native speaker to speak appropriately. enquiry and etc. like exchange of greeting.  Hymes (1972) proposed the concept of ‘communicative competence’ which is the underlying knowledge of the rules of speaking. . Hymes means socially-contextual situations like ‘ceremonies. Some of them may not be linguistic.  The highest-level unit of analysis is the ‘speech situation’. or aspects of activities. By speech situations. namely. that are directly governed by rules or norms for the use of speech.

defense. an interview. . a Ph. speech is crucial and the event would not be said to be taking place without it’. a trial. Use of language should be crucial to the social practice to be called speech event. a conversation during the party (speech event). or a phone conversation. is the basic unit of every day communication.  Hymes (1972) offers the example of ‘a party (speech situation).D.  Speech events are constituted by the use of language. ‘speech event’: Ethnographers of communication hold that ‘the speech event is constituted by the interaction of several components of which language is only one. a joke within the conversation (speech act)’ to illustrate the three terms.  Duranti (1985) : ‘In a class lecture.