The Basics of Uveitis

The fundamental management of this painful condition involves careful patient evaluation and
aggressive control of inflammation.
By Walt Whitley, O.D., M.B.A., and John Sheppard, M.D., M.Msc.
Release Date: AUGUST 2011
Expiration Date: AUGUST 1, 2014
Goal Statement:
Uveitis is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in developed countries, which makes it
crucial for practicing optometrists to understand how best to diagnose, differentiate and treat it. This
course helps optometrists to distinguish the different forms of uveitis by outlining the appearance
and symptoms of this painful condition. In addition, this course enumerates specific laboratory tests
to pinpoint the underlying causes of uveitis. In addition, this course describes the appropriate
treatment regimens for the different forms of uveitis.
Faculty/Editorial Board:
Walt Whitley, O.D., M.B.A., and John Sheppard, M.D., M.Msc.
Credit Statement:
-COPE approval for 2 hours of CE credit is pending for this course. Check with your local state
licensing board to see if this counts toward your CE requirement for relicensure. This course is
COPE approved for 2 hours of CE credit. COPE ID 32130-AS. Check with your local state
licensing board to see if this counts toward your CE requirement for relicensure.
Joint-Sponsorship Statement:
This continuing education course is joint-sponsored by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry.
Disclosure Statement:
The authors have no relationships to disclose.

Uveitic conditions are much more common than you may think. The prevalence of uveitis in
the general U.S. population is 38 per 100,000 persons, with the mean onset at 30.7 years of age.1
Roughly 5% to 10% of these cases occur in children under age 16.1
Uveitis was once considered a single disease entity; however, we now know that uveitis can be
caused by autoimmune disorders, infections, malignancy, exposure to toxins or may be idiopathic in
nature. Uveitis has more than 85 different causes, with approximately 50% due to idiopathic
conditions and 20% due to trauma, which leaves about 20% due to a systemic underlying cause,
such as rheumatoid arthritis or sarcoidosis, and 10% due to a localized ocular condition, such as
herpes zoster or toxoplasmosis.1
Although the prevalence of uveitis cases seen by general primary eye care practices varies,
anterior uveitis makes up 60% to 90% of those cases reported.1 The percentage of idiopathic
anterior uveitis, among all etiologies of anterior uveitis, ranges from 38% to more than 70%; this is,
by far, the most common form of anterior uveitis.2 Often, the presentation of acute anterior uveitis
is urgent. It is typically a very painful condition for the patient, and has the potential to be sight
threatening if not managed properly or promptly.

how can the condition best be treated and managed? The following steps will help answer those questions: • Acute or chronic? The first step in classifying uveitic patients is determining whether the clinical course of the disease is acute or chronic. Acute conditions typically have an abrupt onset lasting several weeks. whereas chronic conditions can wax and wane over months to years. red eye. physical examination and review of systems. intermediate uveitis (primary site of inflammation is the ciliary body and the vitreous). photophobia and pain. damage to the retina and macular edema. our goal is to determine: What is the extent of the current condition.3 This patient demonstrates signs of severe anterior uveitis: 3+ cells in the anterior chamber and fibrin on anterior lens capsule. According to the International Uveitis Study Group. which makes it crucial for the practicing optometrist to understand how best to diagnose. painful.The sight-threatening complications of uveitis include glaucoma. (Later in this article. whereas posterior uveitis presents with complaints of floaters and visual disturbances. When patients present with a nonresolving.) . the anatomical classification of uveitis is anterior uveitis (primary site of inflammation is the anterior chamber). the key to targeted and efficient patient evaluation is a thorough history. If left untreated. intermediate and posterior. posterior uveitis (primary site of inflammation is the retina and choroid) and panuveitis (primary site of inflammation involving all anterior and posterior structures). What ocular structures are affected? What is the underlying cause? And. Patient Evaluation As in any medical examination.4. we further discuss uveitis by anatomical classifications— anterior. • What structures are affected? The next step is identifying the anatomical location of the inflammation or infection. Uveitis is currently the third leading cause of preventable blindness in developed countries. with each presenting with different patient complaints.5 Common signs and symptoms of anterior uveitis include redness. an acute condition can develop into a chronic cellular response. differentiate and treat it.

muttonfat keratic precipitates (KPs) and inflammatory cells (epitheloid cells and macrophages) in the anterior chamber. especially in patients with anterior uveitis. Granulomatous inflammation may present acutely. Patients may present with a decrease in vision ranging from mild to severe. There are multiple clinical signs that are important for practitioners to look for to help with the differential diagnosis. Unilateral conditions are more commonly acute and can be infectious. With significant inflammation. tuberculosis or a local reactivation of herpetic viral infection. the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group developed a process to standardize the approach to reporting clinical data in research to help all clinicians improve consistency in grading. less commonly. red blood cells (may be seen in traumatic conditions) or flare (proteins) and grade them by severity. Patients rarely have a watery discharge or tearing.• Granulomatous or nongranulomatous? Ocular histopathology is another classification used to differentiate the condition as granulomatous or nongranulomatous. or from the host’s immune response to a systemic infectious process. such as syphilis. Nongranulomatous inflammation usually involves the anterior segment of the eye and has an acute onset accompanied by a cellular reaction in the anterior chamber that represents smaller cell types (lymphocytes) than those in granulomatous inflammation. Behçet’s disease or. In an effort to better organize the classification and grading of various uveitic entities. nongranulomatous presentations are idiopathic or due to HLA-B27 involvement. corneal edema may be present.” below. • What are the symptoms and signs? Patients with uveitis typically present with abrupt. while bilateral conditions are likely due to chronic. systemic conditions. Evaluate the anterior chamber for the amount of white blood cells. Autoimmune diseases are less common in the very young or very old. but may experience mild epiphora from the pain response. Standardized Grading Scales for Uveitis One of the difficulties in uveitis management is the inconsistency of grading scales used by practitioners. infectious uveitis. redness denser toward the limbus with no mucopurulent discharge and blurring of vision. Nongranulomatous uveitis occurs more frequently than does granulomatous uveitis.5 SUN Grading Scheme for Anterior Chamber Cells Grade Cells in Field 0 <1 0. (See “Standardized Grading Scales for Uveitis. Lyme disease. Circumlimbal injection of the conjunctiva is commonly seen along with the classic presentation of cells and flare on the cornea and in the anterior chamber. a hypopyon may be present. so consider masqueraders in these patients. dull pain and photosensitivity that worsens the patient’s discomfort. but more often than not it presents as a chronic condition with large.6 Most commonly. This presentation is often associated with systemic conditions and autoimmune reaction. Additional signs and symptoms include pain that may be referred to the temple or periorbital region. which is highly suggestive of diseases associated with HLA-B27.) In chronic uveitis.5+ 1–5 . • Unilateral or bilateral? Laterality can help classify the type of uveitis.

which may suggest a chronic condition related to a systemic cause. Low IOP is due to decreased aqueous production in acute phases. and high IOP is found in viral conditions such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratouveitis. bilateral. retinitis and macular edema. the optometrist must remember the importance of the review of systems.3 (See “Causes of Uveitis.1+ 6 – 15 2+ 16 – 25 3+ 26 – 50 4+ 50+ (using 1mm slit beam) SUN Grading Scheme for Anterior Chamber Flare Grade Description 0 None 1+ Faint 2+ Moderate (iris/lens details clear) 3+ Marked (iris/lens details hazy) 4+ Intense (fibrin/plastic aqueous) Intraocular pressure should also be taken into account in the diagnosis. Although less commonly seen. Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome.” below) Causes of Uveitis (in no particular order) Idiopathic Traumatic Autoimmune . choroiditis. including a wide spectrum of infectious and noninfectious causes. whenever patients present with a recurrent. Epidemiological studies of uveitis reveal that approximately 25% are due to systemic causes. Posterior subcapsular cataracts may develop with recurrent episodes due to chronic steroid use. The iris also plays a role in the differential of uveitic conditions. • Is there a systemic cause? Patients may present with signs of a cellular response with minimal symptoms. chronic uveitis. Viral conditions can be differentiated by iris atrophy. uveitis is a disorder of diverse etiologies. Additionally. herpes simplex conditions cause diffuse atrophy while herpes zoster more commonly causes sectoral atrophy. As we know. with its characteristic heterochromia. which is mostly due to infectious causes such as toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus that may present with vitritis. posterior involvement may occur. can cause iris atrophy due to chronic lowgrade inflammation and loss of iris stromal architecture. optic neuritis. Peripheral anterior synechiae or posterior synechiae have the potential to lead to secondary glaucomatous conditions.

1 The next most common etiology is HLA-B27 positive. and systemic lupus for patients with musculoskeletal symptoms.• • • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Ulcerative colitis • Crohn’s disease • Reiter’s syndrome • Lens induced Infections • Syphilis • Tuberculosis • Herpes zoster • Herpes simplex • Adenovirus Malignancy • Retinoblastoma • Leukemia • Lymphoma • Malignant melanoma Posterior • Cytomegalovirus • Toxoplasmosis • AIDS • Herpes simplex • Herpes zoster • Candida Asking patients about their medical history and other associated symptoms of their condition provides invaluable clues to possible diagnoses. postsurgical inflammation or it may be lens-related. such as sarcoid for pulmonary symptoms. including scleritis. a granulomatous response and a posterior extension of uveitis in the eye. posterior segment disease. Anterior Uveitis Anterior uveitis (AU) is the presence of cell and flare in the anterior chamber. bilateral presentation. Be sure to perform a thorough case history and a complete review of systems before diagnosing a patient as idiopathic. Any time a patient presents with minimal signs and symptoms. The largest number of anterior uveitis cases is idiopathic (or HLAB27 negative). be sure to consider systemic causes. ulcerative colitis for patients with GI symptoms. .7 AU can be associated with other ocular inflammatory conditions. iridocyclitis and anterior cyclitis. episcleritis. keratitis. and may also be referred to as iritis.

According to one study of 514 patients with anterior uveitis. predominantly those with the HLA-B27 gene.9 Traditionally.1 Of these cases.9 Causes of intermediate uveitis include 69% of unknown etiology. syphilis and tuberculosis.10 Helpful questions include asking patients about difficulty in breathing or symptoms of eye pain. Other terms used in the literature include chronic cyclitis. peripheral uveitis and pars planitis. . formerly juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or JRA). every year. herpes simplex/zoster virus. but more often than not it presents as a chronic condition with large. 22% due to sarcoid. 7% had some autoimmune condition. neurological symptoms consistent with multiple sclerosis and any history of tick bites.S.8 Intermediate Uveitis Intermediate uveitis is defined as intraocular inflammation that predominantly involves the peripheral retina. Crohn’s disease.Granulomatous inflammation may present acutely. Reiter’s syndrome. An appropriate referral may have a significant impact on the patient’s general health if the correct diagnosis of any underlying condition is the cause. and more than half of those patients were diagnosed after a single episode of uveitis. It is imperative to rule out these potentially lethal conditions because both infectious and noninfectious causes of uveitis are responsible for 30.1 Other associated conditions commonly seen with anterior uveitic patients include juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. the proportion of patients with intermediate uveitis is estimated to be 4% to 8% of uveitis cases in referral centers. 1% due to multiple sclerosis and Lyme disease. For instance. The term pars planitis is reserved to describe a subgroup of patients with carefully evaluated idiopathic intermediate uveitis with snowbanking and/or snowball formation. ankylosing spondylitis had the highest frequency of incidence. autoimmune disease is often associated with uveitis.000 cases of legal blindness in the U. mutton-fat keratic precipitates (shown here) and inflammatory cells (epitheloid cells and macrophages) in the anterior chamber. ulcerative colitis. pars plana and vitreous.

toxoplasmosis. There are many systemic causes for posterior uveitis. it is associated with the highest risk of severe vision loss. or is recurrent. optical coherence tomography. birdshot choroiditis and pars planitis. Additionally. patients with uveitis that worsens with tapering. is the most common cause of posterior uveitis and accounts for up to 90% of patients presenting with focal necrotizing retinitis. such as a gastroenterologist. recalcitrant or hyperacute. is causing decreased visual acuity or is seen in an immunocompromised patient should always be given lab tests. Noninfectious causes may include immunologic or allergic origins. are useful. proteins) • Lyme titers • HLA-B27 (ankylosing spondylitis and other seronegative spondylarthropathies) • Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test (juvenile idiopathic arthritis) • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) test (sarcoidosis) • Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test (syphilis) • Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test (syphilis) Chest X-ray should also be performed when testing for tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Choose Appropriate Tests Obtaining lab tests to better differentiate these diseases is now considered standard of care for uveitis patients with the clinical suspicion of systemic conditions. retinal arteritis and aneurysms. Avoid ordering a standardized battery of tests in every patient with uveitis because this practice is often useless. is inflammation that is limited to the posterior segment of the eye.Posterior Uveitis Posterior uveitis. dermatologist. frosted branch angitis. which are more commonly due to infectious processes. Unlike anterior and intermediate uveitis. costly and confusing.5 The condition may be further characterized based on whether the retina or the choroid is the predominant site of inflammation. For the first occurrence of an isolated acute anterior uveitic episode. ancillary testing. acute retinal necrosis. unknown causes and masquerade conditions (such as neoplasm). Lab testing should be ordered if the uveitis is bilateral.8 Ocular diseases associated with posterior uveitis include sarcoidosis. no lab testing typically is warranted because it can be very expensive and may give nonspecific information. for example. Eales’ disease. rheumatologist or pulmonologist. Patients with significant systemic complaints should also receive directed initial screening tests or referral to the appropriate specialist. . Thereafter. Ocular toxoplasmosis. it becomes important to understand the most appropriate disease-specific labs for suspicious presentations in order to target the pertinent clinical features and arrive at a tentative diagnosis. Minimal laboratory testing should include: • Complete blood cell (CBC) count • Urinalysis (psoriatic arthritis. affects an atypical age group. as defined by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group. additional laboratory testing may be required. B-scan ultrasonography and visual field testing. If a clinical diagnosis cannot be determined from these tests. such as fluorescein angiography.

sinus films. scleritis ANCA. fever. pulmonary. and what tests to order. weight loss PPD. urethritis. knee radiograph Inflammatory bowel disease Ulcerative colitis. clinical features of the associated condition. females. optic atrophy. diarrhea. serum . malaise. chills. VDRL. abdominal cramps HLA-B27. GI referral for endoscopy Sarcoidosis African Americans. CRP Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Slight male predilection. fever.1 Condition Clinical Features Tests Indicated Ankylosing spondylitis Young male. exposure to cats. vitritis ACE. maculopathy HLA-A29 Lyme disease Recent tick bite Lyme Western Blot Wegener’s granulomatosis Sinus. low back pain. conjunctivitis HLA-B27. sacroiliitis common ANA. sacroiliac X-ray Reiter’s syndrome Young male. kidney disease. chest X-ray or CT scan Tuberculosis Prolonged cough. history of eating raw meat. chest pain HLA-B27. chest X-ray Syphilis History of sexual contact with infected person. RPR Toxoplasmosis Immunocompromised status. RF. night sweats. posterior segment inflammation including vasculitis. joint pain FTA-ABS. chest X-ray. ESR. headache. punched-out retinal lesions (which may be seen with vitreous haze or “headlight in the fog” sign) Toxoplasma IgG or IgM for acute acquired cases Birdshot retinochoroidopathy Diffuse atrophic choroidal granulomata. rash. arthritis.Lab Tests When You Suspect Systemic Disease This table shows some common conditions related to uveitis.

but insufficient • steroid therapy may potentiate permanent • irreversible cicatricial anatomical alterations. but steroid injections and oral steroids are often needed in cases of intermediate and posterior conditions. Alcon).) Use Steroids Aggressively One of the most common pitfalls in the management of uveitis is not using steroids aggressively enough.11 Uveitis Pearls • Sufficient steroid therapy may induce • a readily treatable cataract.d.) One of the newer topical treatment options.creatinine Current Treatments for Uveitis The goal of uveitis treatment and management is to alleviate the patient’s symptoms and control inflammation. steroids should be pulse-dosed frequently upon initial presentation. has been very effective in prospective randomized trials in addressing the inflammation and pain associated with both ocular surgery and uveitis. be sure the patient follows a tapering regimen after resolution to decrease the risk of any rebound effect. . Prior to initiating treatment. (Be attentive to the frequent pharmacy practice of substituting the generic 1% prednisolone acetate for Pred Forte— ask the patient to show you the bottle. 4+ cells to 2+ cells). Durezol (difluprednate 0. Additional instructions may be useful for patients.. including how to instill drops. with the initial dose ranging from q1h to q. Additionally. Instead. but currently it is an off-label use.05%. with a gradual taper over several weeks depending on the response to treatment. Pred Forte (prednisolone acetate 1%. Steroids should always be used aggressively to treat and suppress the inflammatory response.g. Steroids should not be tapered until there is a two-grade improvement in clinical signs (e. and should not be stopped until there a complete resolution of all cells. Compliance with these drops is crucial for the resolution of uveitis. specific dosage schedules and the importance of shaking bottles with steroid suspensions. the accurate treatment of inflammatory reactions preserves vision as well as prevents systemic morbidity and mortality. so emphasize its importance to the patient. explaining its significant success in treating intraocular inflammatory reactions.” below. Allergan) has been the gold standard in uveitis treatment and continues to be a very effective treatment today. In order to be effective. (See “Use Steroids Aggressively.11 Current uveitis trials may establish an FDA indication for uveitis. Durezol is at least two times more potent than proprietary prednisolone acetate 1%. you must rule out any infectious condition. A cold turkey discontinuation of topical or systemic steroid therapy is ill advised. Topical steroids are the mainstay of treatment for the majority of uveitis conditions. Steroid treatment should be continued even after the resolution of all cell and ocular inflammation. flare and macular edema.i.

Treatment Considerations • A growing number of practitioners now use Durezol as a firstline. reactivate latent herpes simplex infections and potentiate bacterial. consider using an ester-based steroid. • If you have a patient with diagnosed systemic disease. the patient may still benefit from systemic antimetabolite therapy. In addition. When considering IOP lowering agents.• • • • • • • • • • • • Topical steroids can be withdrawn if necessary while awaiting diagnostic laboratory testing. Thus. for a long-term taper once the inflammation is brought under control. off-label treatment for uveitis. vitreous opacification . To alleviate some concerns of long-term use of such a powerful steroid. Uveitis often presents with decreased IOP due to diminished ciliary body aqueous production. toxoplasmosis or tuberculosis. ciliary process fibrosis. such as Lotemax (loteprednol 0. • Although cataracts are well known complications of topical. because the primary goal in treating uveitis is to reduce or eliminate the inflammation as quickly as possible to avoid the dangerous and sight-threatening sequelae of inflammation. such as syphilis. As long as the pressure is continuously monitored and treated when indicated. but injectable steroids cannot and thus should only be administered to patients who clearly do not have an untreated infectious condition. posterior synechiae. Bausch + Lomb). implantable and systemic steroids. peripheral anterior synechiae.5%. use caution with prostaglandin analogues because they may exacerbate the inflammatory response. always monitor for increased intraocular pressure and cataract formation. topical steroids may delay wound healing or epithelialization. varicella zoster and cytomegalovirus. In rare instances. Be sure to stay in constant contact with a rheumatologist in these cases. toxoplasmosis and herpetic conditions. a fully treatable cataract is far preferable to permanent corneal scarring. fungal or acanthamoebal infections. injectable. Lyme disease. trabecular cicatrization with attenuated aqueous outflow. when a patient does not have a diagnosed systemic disease and the chronic uveitis is difficult to manage. the benefits of steroid treatment outweighs the risks involved. The exceptions are those conditions that produce stellate keratic • • • • precipitates and trabeculitis: Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome. Whenever you prescribe steroids. including herpes simplex. modern cataract surgery is extremely safe and effective. chronic uveitis is often well controlled with immunomodulatory or antimetabolite systemic therapy.

anterior uveitis cases respond favorably to topical treatment within a few weeks. • The majority of acute. stabilizing the blood aqueous barrier to prevent the leakage of proteins. If the inflammation still doesn’t improve.i. • Pain and photophobia are common symptoms in uveitis that can be treated effectively with cycloplegics. This is preferred due to the less risk of systemic side effects due to steroids. cyclosporine or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. (Posterior synechiae affect the movement of aqueous into the anterior chamber. and breaking synechiae formation. sub-tenon triamcinolone injection has been effective as adjunct therapy in recalcitrant. Abbott). Cataract with IOL implantation. which should be comanaged with a primary care physician. intravitreal VEGF inhibitor injections and specific surgical procedures when indicated. oral steroids are warranted. Cycloplegics improve comfort by immobilizing the inflamed iris and ciliary body. internist or rheumatologist. Make sure to inform the patient that the course of mydriasis does not equal the length of analgesia. such as Humira (adalimumab. (with a duration of action of about eight hours). and can lead to an iris bombé and possible secondary angle closure glaucoma when allowed to fuse circumferentially.i.25% t. periocular steroid injections.and traction. immunosuppressants. (with a duration of up to several days) and atropine 1% (which may act up to a week). scopolamine 0. longand shortacting intravitreal steroid implants. Cyclopentolate is not as effective for maximal cycloplegia. Just because the patient stays dilated for a day or two that does not mean the pain will subside for that long. topical or oral NSAIDs (for analgesia). the next steps are injectable or oral steroids and the consideration of lab testing. selective laser trabeculoplasty and glaucoma drainage procedures are very common in advanced chronic or recurrent uveitis cases. Other systemic treatment options include methotrexate. non-infectious cases. In our experience.d. . permanent macular architectural changes or papillary fibrosis resulting from inadequate steroid therapy. intravitreal steroid injections. • Additional treatments for uveitis include sunglasses.) The most popular cycloplegics used are homatropine 5% b. For a case that does not respond to topical treatment or worsens with tapering.d. and phenylephrine is a mydriatic with no cycloplegic effect.

Allergan) or fluconisone (Retisert. Va. . Anterior uveitis is a very manageable condition. 2007 Mar. Dr. Am J Ophthalmol. Whitley is the director of optometric services. 4 Bloch-Michel E. Further Uveitis Treatment Several other treatment options for uveitis are available and more are in the drug pipeline. Sheppard is the president. Clin Exp Optom. Incidence and prevalence of uveitis in Northern California. and to be aggressive in treatment with both topical steroids and cycloplegia when indicated. 3 Conditions and Treatment.Posterior synechiae (shown here) affect the movement of aqueous into the anterior chamber. and when treated promptly and effectively. Accessed June 13. 2006. more importantly. the Northern California Epidemiology of Uveitis Study. to understand the appropriate laboratory and radiologic testing pertinent to each unique case. Ophthalmology. Nussenblatt RB.103(2):234-5.111(3):491500. Acute anterior uveitis in primary care. Wong IG. References 1 Gutteridge IF. clinical trials are now evaluating the efficacy and safety of TNF inhibitors. and Dr. Currently. Hall AJ. 1987 Feb 15. International Uveitis Study Group recommendations for the evaluation of intraocular inflammatory disease. such as iontophoresis.90(2):70-82. Uveitis Support | Canada. 2004 Mar. Alberta Uveitis Society. bring great relief to the patient. it can be satisfying for you as the managing clinician and.ca/info. Available at http://uveitis.htm. 2011. and can lead to an iris bombé and possible secondary angle closure glaucoma when allowed to fuse circumferentially. Meanwhile. It is important to critically evaluate patients with anterior uveitis based on their clinical presentation. at Virginia Eye Consultants in Norfolk. 2 Gritz DC. calcineurin inhibitors and alternative steroid delivery systems. Bausch + Lomb) are being used. intravitreal implants of dexamethasone (Ozurdex.

Louis: Elsevier. Davanzo R. Available at: www. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther.medscape.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jabs DA. Available at: http://emedicine. Foster SC. Durezol (Difluprednate Ophthalmic Emulsion 0. 2008:587. Flynn TE.parsplanitis. St. Uveitis evaluation and treatment.05%) compared with Pred Forte 1% ophthalmic suspension in the treatment of endogenous anterior uveitis.140(3):50916. Jannus S (eds. Anesi SD. Foster CS. Kabat AG.).26(5):475-83. 3rd ed. 2011 Feb: 37-41. What is Pars Planitis? The Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation. Medscape Reference. Advanced Ocular Care.org/whatis. Rosenbaum JT. Posterior uveitis: an overview. In: Bartlett J. 2011. et al. Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group.com/ article/1209123-overview. Uveitis. Nussenblatt RB. 2008. Foster CS. Advanced Ocular Care. Clinical Ocular Pharmacology. 2005 Sep. . Standardization of uveitis nomenclature for reporting clinical data. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011.htm. Results of the First International Workshop. August 19. Accessed June 13. Accessed June 13. Janigian Jr RH. 2011. 2011 Feb: 32-4. Anterior uveitis: etiology and treatment. 2010 Oct. Dayani PN. May 21.