Journal of Food Engineering

4 ( 1985) 29 l-3 12

An Experimental Study of Twin-Screw ExtrusionCooking of Maize Grits
S. I. Fletcher, P. Richmond and A. C. Smith
Food Research Institute, Colney Lane, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK

ABSTRACT
The use of a twin-screw extrusion-cooker to process maize grits is
described. The expansion, bulk density, colour and aqueous dispersion
rheology have been related to the extrusion cooking variables: screw
speed, feed rate, moisture content and barrel zone temperature. A pseudoviscosity quantity has been defined to describe the extrudate viscosity at
the die which was also related to the extrusion-cooking variables. The
pressure and temperature profiles in the extruder were recorded together
with the mechanical and thermal energy consumption as a junction of the
extrusion-cooking variables. These experiments with a highly instrumented
cooking-extruder indicate the condition of the material in the barrel
prior to formation of the product.

NOMENCLATURE
D

Drive power input (kW)
Feed rate (kg h-l)
H
Heat power input (kW)
M
Moisture (% dry weight basis)
R 2 Coefficient
of determination
s
Screw speed (r.p.m.)
T
Temperature
(“C)
71RT Dispersion viscosity as-made (Pa s)
71~
Dispersion viscosity after heating to 80°C (Pa s)
x
Expansion ratio (area based)
Bulk density (g cme3)
P
7
Torque (% of maximum)
F

291
Journal of Food Engineering 0260-8774/85/$03.30
- 0 Elsevier
Publishers Ltd, England, 1985. Printed in Great Britain

Applied

Science

292

S. I. Fletcher, P. Richmond,

INTRODUCTION

A. C. Smith

AND REVIEW

Extrusion cooking is now an important process in the manufacture
of
food products. In particular, cereals processed by this technology have
revolutionised
the production of snack foods, breakfast cereals, ‘health’
products and ‘instant’ commodities.
The full development of the extrusion cooking process requires a study of the function and operation of
the cooking-extruder
combined with a characterisation
of the structural,
physical and rheological property
changes in the food materials. The
twin-screw extrusion-cooker
has received relatively little study even on
simple food systems. The majority of publications
on the extrusioncooking of maize grits refer to single-screw extruders. The extruded
product has been characterised
by various properties including colour,
expansion ratio, bulk density and the viscosity of dilute aqueous dispersions.
This last has generally
been measured
by Amylograph
techniques.
The colour of raw and extrusion-cooked
maize was studied by
Manoharkumar
et al. (1978) who used a single-screw extruder. Their
results identified the variables which affected the colour; these included
moisture content and particle size. They found that the extruded maize
was darker and less yellow than the raw material in the case of a
number of maize varieties.
The expansion ratio and bulk density of the extrudate
have been
more extensively
measured. A summary of reported trends in these
quantities is given in Table 1.
The paste rheology of extrusion-cooked
maize grits has generally
been reported
in Brabender
units. In the Brabender
Amylograph
technique the temperature
is increased to 95°C and returned to ambient
in 103 min. A summary of some Amylograph results is given in Table 1.
The table also includes the results of Seiler et al. (1980) who used a
cylindrical
measuring system with a winged stirrer and imposed a
temperature
profile resembling that of the Amylograph, and of Launay
and Lisch (1983) who used a Couette flow rheometer.
Power measurements
have been made by some experimenters
and
these are summarised in Table 2. Van Zuilichem and co-workers have
discussed the importance
of the pressure and temperature
profiles in
determining extruded product characteristics (van Zuilichem and Stolp,
1976). In particular, the pressure protiles for different die sizes and
extrusion moisture contents were reported. Harmann and Harper (1973)

The principal screw configuration used in these experiments is shown in Fig. The barrel was split horizontally and could be opened to enable the rapid removal of samples after a sudden stop. 1984~). twin-screw extrusion cooker with a smooth barrel and an L :D ratio of 15 : 1. A ‘viscosity’ term for the material in the die was defined from the die pressure. Two circular. Recent work in the present authors’ laboratory has concentrated on the effect on product characteristics of extrusion-cooking variables. b). EXPERIMENTAL Extrusion apparatus The machine used was a Baker-Perkins MPFSOD. 1984a. e. torque and power consumption) and on product properties (expansion ratio. The colour. This paper reports the effects of various controlled variables (screw speed. The barrel had five controlled temperature zones heated by cartridge heaters and cooled by an ethylene glycol-water mixture supplied from a refrigeration unit. screw speed.Twin-screw extrusion-cooking of maize grits 293 noted the torque changes of a single-screw extruder. colour and aqueous dispersion viscosity) when using maize grits.and twin-screw extruders have been employed. co-rotating. the torque decreased with increasing temperature or extrusion moisture content. The temperature and pressure of the material at positions inside the extruder were measured by seven combined strain gauge/thermocouple sensors mounted with their diaphragms flush with the inside of the barrel walls. feed rate. 2.g. feed rate and temperature in the extrusion-cooking of maize grits.. bulk density and aqueous dispersion viscosity have been measured and the pressure and temperature profiles recorded (Fletcher et al. barrel temperature) on dependent extruder variables (pressure and temperature profiles. . flow rate and die diameter.. Both single. The screws were built up of screw elements and lobe-shaped paddles which could be assembled on the shafts to give different screw geometries. intermeshing.0 mm diameter dies were used for these experiments. The transient response of the twin-screw extrudate properties to a sequence of operating variable changes has also been studied (Fletcher et al. bulk density. 1. Drive power and heat consumptions were measured electrically. expansion ratio.

9 . (1980) Launay and Lisch (1983) This work Feed rate Harmann and Harper (1 973)d van Zuilichem and Stolp (1982)d Temperature Mercier and Feillet (1975) Reference Review of Extrusion-Cooked - - Bulk density + _c + Before heat treatment _b _c -a _a + L* +- a* Colour b* from Published and After heat treatment Dispersion rheology TABLE 1 Effect (+ or -) of Increase in Variable Indicated Present Results 2 “s 50 g 2 3 P n 9 11 g tr .~~ -__ + +- + <18O”C -> 180°C + Radial expansion Maize Grits Properties: Harmann and Harper (1973) Anderson et al. (I 969) Seiler et al.

Twin-screw extrusion-cooking + I I + I + I i-t+ + + + II of maize grits 295 .

(1977) Harmann and Harper (1973) This work Feed rate van Zuilichem and Stolp (1976) van Zuilichem and Stolp (1982) This work Screw speed This work Moisture Bruin et al. Fletcher. C. solids feed rate and liquid flow rate were logged on a Vector Graphics 2 microcomputer and stored on disk. I.6% (dry weight basis . screw speed. (1977) van Zuilichem et al. A. (1975 j van Zuilichem and Stolp (1982) Harmann and Harper (1973) This work Drive power Heating power + + + + + + + + - + The maize grits were fed into the extruder by a ‘loss-in-weight’ auger feeder mounted on load ceils. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the extruder via an inlet port in the top of the barrel. positive displacement pump (Howard proportiometer). The maize had a moisture content of 14. Smith TABLE 2 Power Consumption During Extrusion-Cooking of Maize Grits: Effect of (+ or -) Increase in Variable Indicated for Published and Present Results Reference Temperature Bruin et al. using a variable speed. Temperatures.14 m downstream of the centre of the solids feed port. Materials The feed material used was degermed yellow maize grits (average size 572 pm). The hardness of the water was approximately 360 ppm. 0. The water feed tank was mounted on load cells to enable the water flow rate to be determined.296 S. variable stroke. torque. P. Richmond. pressures.

eight 30” forwarding paddles. 3 in pitch screw. 74% (N X 6. 1 in. colour and expansion ratio as a 15 min were allowed for taken. 4 in pitch screw. single-start. 3 in barrel valve element and 4 in spacer. 1. . Operating conditions The extruder was run ‘starve-fed’ and at least it to reach a steady state before samples were pressure profiles along the barrel were obtained the microcomputer.25) and less than 04% fat. two-start. three 30’ forwarding paddles. 4 in pitch screw. The screw configuration comprises (from left to right): 2 in. two-start. 2 in. (d. 3 in. single-start. 2 in.Twin-screw extrusion-cooking of maize grits 297 Fig. 8 in. Moisture contents were determined ‘as the weight loss of two samples of grits after drying in an oven for 1 h at 130°C. 1 in pitch screw.)). eight 30’ forwarding paddles. $ in pitch screw. 1 in pitch screw. Temperature and from the data logged by calculated for extrudate function of temperature.b. three 30’ forwarding paddles. single-start.w. Linear regressions were bulk density. two-start. Eight 50-kg bags of grits were mixed together to provide a homogeneous feed. Screw configuration used in this study.

Ex trudate properties The diameters of 20 pieces of extrudate taken at random were measured with a pair of vernier callipers and the average calculated. Rheological measurements were carried out using a Couette viscometer (Contraves Rheomat 115). This was repeated three times for each sample. and the ‘b’ scale -100 for blue and + 100 for yellow. The apparent viscosity was calculated at the maximum shear rate (qRT). Q is the volumetric flow rate and d is the die diameter). Smith screw speed. The bulk density of the extrudate was found by weighing about 30 cm3 of extrudate and measuring its volumetric displacement with fine sand. RESULTS Results of the linear regressions relating to the extruder operating conditions are: various extrudate properties . The viscosity at 148 s-’ was termed ?I~. defined as P/(0. The ‘L’ scale has a value of -100 for black and + 100 for white. p. then placed in the viscometer. feed rate and temperature was also carried out (where P is the die pressure. Samples were milled to between 185 and 250 pm with a centrifugal mill to standardise any particle size effect on the colour values. The shear rate was increased linearly to 148 s-’ in 431 s..5Q+-d3) (which indicates the viscosity in the die) with moisture content.298 S. C. The expansion ratio was taken as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the extrudate to the cross-sectional area of the die. screw speed. Ground extrudate (185-250 pm) was added to distilled water in the proportion of 9. Fletcher.1% w/w dispersion at 25°C and stirred continuously for 15 min at room temperature. placed in the viscometer and subjected to the same shear programme as before. A. The same dispersion was then stirred for 15 min at 80°C. The colour of the milled extrudate was measured in tristimulus units (Hunter Labscan LS-5 100). the ‘a’ scale -100 for green and + 100 for red. on a dry weight basis. Richmond. The moisture contents were obtained by combining the amount of water entering the extruder via the water pump with the moisture already present in the feed entering the extruder. P. A non-linear regression of the quantity. moisture content and solids feed rate.. I.

697 for final temperature zone.9 T + 1.000294 0. screw speed. and total moisture r)RT = 0. S = 300-400 83% d.w. and total moisture content.w.p.479M T = lOO-140°C r.0.2185 a* = -9.00271 S + 0.0116 T -. The trends in the properties of extrusion-cooked maize grits in ponse to the extrusion variable changes are summarised in Table 1.3 -0. + 0.p. screw speed.m.b. and total moisture content.00334 S-0.000085 R2 = 0. M = 17- M M for set final temperature zone.336 -0. feed rate. 25resThe .476S-0.110 T-O. h-l.959 F + 0.747 + 0.0337 S + 0.887 F + 0.601 R2 = 0. M = 83% d.000533 S .0.0651 M R2 = 0.0293 F + 0.m.135 F-0.b.b.688 .m. M = 17-36% d.976 H = -8.0493 R2 = 0.0136 T + 0.0125 S + 0.793 M T-0.0343 S + 0.005 84 M R2 = 0. D = -45.8 R= = 0.193 of maize grits 299 F + 0.00022 R* = 0.p.p. T = 12O”C. T = lOO-140°C feed rate. r.0884 M b* = 276 + 0.147 R2 = 0.w. F = 40-60 kg h-r.0. S = 150430 r.530 M F .Twin-screw extrusion-cooking X = -23.49 + 0. feed rate.m.0520 M R2 = 0.891 7180= 0. S = 365-400 d. content.0.707 1 S -0.650 S + 0.b. L* = -268 . M = 17-32% F + 0.984 for final temperature zone. screw speed.00137 T + p = 0.109 T.209 + 0. and moisture content.0.001994 F = 30-60 kg h-l.913 for final temperature zone. F = 30-60 kg h-l.127 feed rate. S = 300-400 r.0.w. T = 100-l 4O”C. F = 30 kg screw speed.

with the extrusion operating variables is shown in Table 3. (1985) Cervone and Harper (1978) - Fletcher et al. The die temperature is plotted as a function of the drive power consumption in Fig. cc. Smith effects of various changes in the extruder operating conditions on the heat and mechanical power consumptions are given in Table 2.300 S.302 + @0237X s where 7 is the percentage of maximum torque. The change in the ‘viscosity’. For the extrusion-cooker of this study. P. the drive power. although a shear rate based on flow rate was employed. (1985) Cervone and Harper (1978) Feed rate Screw speed Moisture - . I. Richmond. 4. (1985) Cervone and Harper (1978) - Fletcher et al. Figures 2 and 3 show the temperature and pressure profiles in the extruder at different extrusion moisture contents. D. A. TABLE 3 Viscosity of Maize Grits in the Extruder Die: Effect (+ or -) of Increase in Variable Indicated from Published and Present Results Viscosity ‘indicator’ p Shear viscosity q Reference for shear viscosity Temperature - Fletcher et al. was related to torque and screw speed according to the relationship D = 0. C. Fletcher. where An equation of this form has been used by Remsen and Clark (1978) and Harper (1981).

44. and barrel temperature profile = 27-53-93-120-120°C. 51.p. - - 110 I - 00 f loo / - m LQ H ‘1 .50 060 070 0. 83.30 0. screw speed = 300 r. .b.): A.Twin-screw extrusion-cooking 301 of maize grits 15Cl- 14C l- a 130 l- 120 . Solids feed rate = 30 kg h-l.66. 0.w. l. m.m. (a) Temperature and (b) pressure profiles along the extruder at different extrusion moisture contents. 2.E 80 I 5 70 z 860 f s 1” )-40 30 20 10 0 1 010 I I I 1 I I I 0. Effective moisture content (% d.80 Distance akwg th barrel (m) Fig. Distance is measured from the centre of the feed port.20 0.40 0.

C.0. Fletcher.10' 1. P.10' t! iz g & 2.10' 1. Smith 45.20 Distance Fig. 0.10' 35.10 0. Richmond.0.contd.0.5.10' 2 2.10' 3.70 along the barrel 2 .10' b 4.5. (m) 060 . I.0.S.10' 05. 302 A.10' 0 1 I 0.

3. .b. 8.G f - 90- 8O- $ al 5 Q. screw speed = 400 r.30 0.): A.- 60 f iij 8 50- - E e 40- 30 - 20 - 10 - 0 I I I 0. 0.42.80 (m) Fig. Effective moisture content (% d.Twin-screw extrusion-cooking 160 - 140 - 130 - 120 - 110 - 303 of maize grits a 100 .70 Distance along the barrel 1 0. and barrel temperature profile = 27-53-93-120-120°C.m.10 0.p.20 0.40 I 1 I 0.50 0. 32. 48. 9 70- c” . a.w. 25. (a) Temperature and (b) pressure profiles along the extruder at different extrusion moisture contents. Solids feed rate = 30 kg h-l.60 0.

5.1 o-5. 4. 1. Smith - b 4x 3-E 3.10’ A.0.1 ( Distance along the barrel Fig. (m) .con rd. I. C. Fletcher. P.0. 3 . Richmond.!5.0 s 25 r a fJ h 2.' 1.304 S.

Twin-screw extrusion-cooking 305 of maize grits A A A A A A A A 1 20 1 4. The die temperature in the extruder as a function of drive power consumption.0 I 6. . Circled points were obtained with a different screw configuration.0 I 80 Driva power consumption (kW) Fig. 4.

They postulated three contributing factors: (a) dough viscosity. The axial expansion of the product also varies with extrusion conditions as emphasised by Launay and Lisch (1983). A decrease in extrusion moisture resulted in improved moisture distribution and a more elastic dough which favour expansion. I? Richmond. the ‘melt’ viscosity (u decreases (Table 3). 198 1). The degree of superheating of water in the extruder would be increased leading to greater expansion. Typical pressure fluctuations contents in Fig. Fktcher. In all the cases mentioned above the expansion (and drive power) increased with increasing die temperature. The latter indicates that the shorter the experimental time period compared to the molecular relaxations. 1979). The elastic forces normal to the flow direction have been observed to increase with increasing flow rate (Cogswell. . Recent data on the transient response in twin-screw extrusion-cooking of maize grits indicate that the axial expansion changed in the same sense as the radial expansion in response to feed rate and screw speed changes. 1984~).. C. More generally. the elastic nature of the ‘melt’ increases with increasing Deborah number (Tadmor and Gogos. the greater the elastic response. The expansion data may be examined following Harmann and Harper (1973). On increasing the screw speed. although in this case the extrusion temperatures exceeded 180°C. An increase in the barrel temperature decreased the ‘melt’ viscosity (Table 3) resulting in easier expansion of the extrudate. Smith are shown for different extrusion moisture DISCUSSION Product properties It is appropriate to note that the expansion ratio data have been calculated from the extrudate diameter. but in the opposite sense with extrusion temperature changes (Fletcher et al.306 S. 5. This results in a more readily-deformed extrudate. (b) evenness of moisture distribution and (c) normal forces (die swell) in the extrudate. It follows that both increasing feed rate and screw speed lead to greater elastic effects. An increase in screw speed also results in a more even moisture distribution (Harmann and Harper. f. 1973). A. The results of Mercier and Feillet (1975) are exceptional in that the expansion increased with the extrusion temperature.

58 m.42.w. 3. distance from feed point = 0.52 m. before or after heating to 8O”C. The dispersion viscosity. distance from feed point = 0. does not generally follow the same trends as the initial Amylograph viscosity .25% d. die probe. All measurements of viscosity.b.70 m.46 m. 2.Twin-screw extrusion-cooking of maize grits 307 6. distance from feed point = 0.0 t The barrel pressure versus time at the different extrusion moisture contents of Fig. 32. 3. The moisture content decreases from left to right (48. The pressure probes are number identified as: 1. were made at ambient temperature and the dispersion was sheared in Couette-flow. 5. 4. The final arrow indicates a further moisture decrease which caused the extruder to stall. distance from feed point ~0.) at the arrows. The ‘aqueous dispersion viscosity’ as reported here differs from the majority of ‘cooked paste’ or other consistency measurements reported in the literature. r)ur. Fig.

The decrease in die temperature with increasing moisture content is also consistent with a decrease in shear energy dissipation (Fig. The importance of the screw configuration in determining the dispersion viscosity characteristics has not been fully explored. and ngo decreased. An increase in the barrel temperature or screw speed increased the drive power. C. P. The present experiments extended the extrusion moisture range well over 23% and did not lead to an upturn in the viscosity despite a decrease in the die temperature. The shear configurations are. Preliminary experiments have however shown that the viscosity response may be similar to that of unextruded maize for a . Smith (Table l). Van Zuilichem et al. A. The dispersion viscosity. (198 1) observed both an increase and decrease in final Brabender viscosity with increasing extrusion moisture depending on the screw speed and die size combination. r)80. The initial Amylograph viscosity corresponds to starch swelling at room temperature which is not so sensitive to starch damage as the final viscosity. markedly different.308 S. Richmond. may be likened to the final cooked paste viscosity of the Amylograph sequence as shown in Table 1. The opposite case of undamaged starch in unextruded maize gave the highest final Amylograph viscosity. I. however. D. 4). Launay and Lisch (1983) observed an irregular dependence of cooked viscosity on extrusion moisture. The final Amylograph viscosity is then low for a highly starch damaged extrudate and corresponds to a high mechanical energy consumption (van Zuilichem et al. The trends in the Amylograph viscosities were related to the extent of starch damage in the maize extrusion experiments of van Zuilichem and Stolp (1976). The same arguments apply to the aqueous dispersion viscosity. The response of the dispersion viscosity and the Brabender viscosity to extrusion moisture changes shows the least consistency among the published results. They attributed the rise in viscosity at water contents above 23% to a decrease in mass temperature. qso. 1975). Fletcher. despite similar concentrations. The exception in the present results was the extrusion moisture content which when increased resulted in a decrease in both D and nso. vso (Table 1). An increase in feed rate increased the drive power but the mechanical energy dissipated per unit mass fell with the result that rjso increased. This principle is generally consistent with the effects of the extruder variables on the aqueous dispersion viscosity..

and (iv) surging of material (see Fenner et al. The die temperature differs from the set zone temperatures of the extruder. (iii) pressure effects due to screw rotation. Their origins may be multiple. such that the die temperature became the highest of the profile. In equilibrium operation the drive energy input was much greater than the direct thermal energy input. below a certain moisture content. . 1985). The temperature fluctuations were not sensitive to the extrudate moisture content. 2). The temperature increased with decreasing moisture. 1975). The die pressure and the pressure gradient increased with decreasing moisture content (Figs 2 and 3). pressure and torque. although the correlation with die temperature was best for the drive power alone. including: (i) temperature control through switching of heating and cooling phases. similar 309 mechanical Extruder response The effect of moisture content changes on the pressure and temperature is shown in Figs 2 and 3. 4). The pressure fluctuations showed an increase with decreasing moisture (Fig. (ii) dependence of pressure transducer response on temperature (Davidson. A good linear relationship was found between the drive power consumption and the die temperature for the experiments of this study (Fig. Fluctuations in extruder response In nominally steady operation the extruder showed fluctuations in temperature. The temperature reached a maximum before the die in the lower screw speed experiments (Fig. 3 show that.Twin-screw extrusion-cooking purely conveying energy dissipation of maize grits screw configuration even for (Richmond and Smith. 1979). the temperature gradient prior to the die changed sign. 5). The data of Fig. These data support the comments of Launay and Lisch (1983) that the mass temperature falls with increasing extrusion moisture. In addition the die pressure decreased with increasing screw speed which indicates that the increased shear in the extruder barrel is effective in reducing the viscosity as measured at the die.

The response of the heating energy input is emphasised in achieving a fixed set temperature profile in the extruder. die temperature and die pressure. in the present starve-fed extrusion studies. whereas an extrusion moisture increase caused decreases in drive power consumption. A reddening of the maize with increasing set temperature and screw speed was observed. or Amylograph viscosity. This quantity responded in a similar manner to the material shear viscosity as reported in the literature. Smith CONCLUSIONS The results presented in this paper show that there is a general similarity in the response of expansion and bulk density of extruded maize to the controlled barrel temperature and to extrusion moisture content changes. A. An increase in set temperature or screw speed resulted in increased drive power consumption. They showed effects on the extrudate expansion similar to published results from flood-fed extruders in which feed rate increases directly with screw speed increase. The final dispersion.310 S. The degree of starch damage may be inferred from the effective shear energy dissipation. The . The paste consistency of extruded materials is probably one of their most extensively-studied properties. P. C. after allowing for the extruder pumping energy. The trends in the die pressure as a function of the extrusion variables were expressed using a viscosity term consisting of the die pressure normalised by the flow rate. (1975). In starve-fed extruders the feed rate and screw speed may be varied independently. generally decreased with increasing starch damage as proposed by van Zuilichem et al. The colour changes in the extrudate were examined using a tristimulus reflectance technique. increased die temperature but in decreased die pressure. A decrease in feed rate resulted in increased drive power consumption per unit mass and decreased die pressure and die temperature. II Fletcher. The present work used a Couette rheometer and measured the aqueous dispersion viscosity before and after heating to 80°C. The trends in these properties are less clear although feed rate and screw speed had opposite effects on the viscosity after heating. Richmond. The use of a highly-instrumented extruder has a number of advantages for the understanding of the response of the extruder to changes in the operating variables. The time-dependence of the pressure and temperature imply different stabilities of equilibrium operation. Both expansion and drive power consumption increase with the die temperature.

Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd. S. 20. expansion and mechanical properties of extrudates. E. I.. R.83-95.733-6. (1975). J. and Smith. Richmond. A study of the extrusion cooking of maize grits. A. Greece). Prescott. Surging in screw extruders.. D. Trans. I. 67-77. T. P. Cogswell. (1981). and Stolp. Richmond. F... 64. Vol. Davidson. Amer. Richmond. P. R. S. A. Paris. 12-14 January. Rheology and extrusion of maize grits. and Lisch. (1969). Fd Rot. S. George Godwin Ltd.. and Smith. eds P. A. T. J. . M. I. E.. and Smith. V. V. Zeuthen et al. McMaster. Florida. Fletcher. (1983). D. Launay. London. Cox. C. Chem. J. P.. I.. Gelatinization of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking. (1984a). Harper.Twin-screw extrusion-cooking of maize grits 311 temperature and pressure profiles in the extruder may also be measured. N. PolymerMelt Rheology. H. F. 14 (l). 259-80. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd. London. McMaster. McKenna. 16. London. Conway. Food Engineering.. Richmond. (1984b) Physics and extrusion of soft solid foodstuffs.. C. 1175-8. D. P. 32. 2.. J. J. 273-7. A. I. P. P. H. Chemical Engineering Communications. Twin-screw extrusion cooking of starches: flow behaviour of starch pastes. L. In: Engineering and Food. Eng. and Harper. J. Fletcher. European Seminar on Extrusion Cooking of Foods. (1977) Fundamental and engineering aspects of extrusion of biopolymers in a single screw extruder. Viscosity of an intermediate moisture dough. Whilst the shear profile is not currently known. Fletcher. Bruin. Environmental influences on pressure transducer performance. 223-34. 1. T. J. E. A. W. Boca Raton. Cervone. Pfeifer. Cereal Science Today. (1985). Physical and rheological assessment of extrusion cooked maize.. T. B. 8 (7).. Sot. M. Effect of extruder geometry on torque and flow. (1984~). S. pp. and Smith. and Griffin. REFERENCES Anderson. 277-85. M. pp. Symposium: Profitability of Food Processing. D. Fletcher. A. D. 4-12. W.239-62. J. Athens.. C. McMaster.. Extrusion of Foods. Harmann. Agricultural Engineers. S. N. CRC Press Inc. I. Polymer. Centre de Perfectionnement des Cadres des Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires (CPCIA). M. C. P. F. (1981). A. (1979). (1973). (1978). B. Fenner. the drive power consumption may be used to estimate the overall level of shearing work. and Isherwood. J. J. and Harper. Vol. van Zuilichem. 2. In: Thermal Processing and Quality of Foods (Proceedings COST 91 Conference. ed. Measurement and Control.

Poly. (1975).. Seiler. E. 17. B.I. and Stolp. London. New York. (1975).. Seiler. Richmond. pp. (1979). P. P. A. Z. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd. C. In: Food fiocess Engineering. C. P. and Bolling. P. Tadmor. van Zuilichem. and Smith. van Zuilichem. K. .. A viscosity model for a cooking dough. On measurement of colour of maize and its products. and Clark. (1976). Fletcher. 2. (1981).. G. Vol. Solingen. ed.. Food Science and Technology. van Zuilichem. (1980). J. W. and Stolp.. Central College of the German Confectionery Institute.. C. Weipert. H. J. J. Modification of carbohydrate components by extrusion cooking of cereal products. D. D. Progress in Food Engineering Symposium. Federal Republic of Germany. and Gogos. L. Mercier. Solingen. Gerstenkorn. P. . Cereal Chemistry. W. 6th European Symposium Engineering and Food Quality. 52. B. Theoretical aspects of the extrusion of starch based products. Smith Manoharkumar. W. D. Wiley Interscience. Proc.312 S. J. 808-20. C. Eng. and Stolp.. I.. A. 15. Presented at International Seminar ‘Cooking and extruding techniques’. J.39-M. I. 7-11. J. H (1978). M. Extrusion of reacting biopolymers. Remsen. International Snack Seminar. W. W. P. Principles of Polymer Processing. J. P. 246-50. and Stolp. Janssen. Milan.283-97. and Feillet. Influence of process variables on the quality of extruded maize. K. Viscosity behaviour of ground extrusion products in relation to different parameters. and Seibel. Cambridge. D. van Zuilichem. Lamers. Richmond. Linko et al. New twin screw extruder equipment for food extrusion. (1978). Br. (1982). Food Proc. D. (1985). In: Direct Extrusion Cooking Processes. C. The effect of processing on biopolymeric structures.