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# FOR EXCITATION SYSTEM MODELS FOR POWER SYSTEM STABILITY STUDIES

IEEE
Std 421.5-2005

Figure 10-2—Type UEL1 circular limiting characteristic
Since the Type UEL1 model derives the operating point using IT and compares it with a radius and center
proportional to VT, this model essentially represents a UEL that utilizes a circular apparent impedance
characteristic as its limit. Since generator loss of excitation relays often utilize a similar circular impedance
characteristic, this type of UEL generally allows close coordination with a loss of excitation relay. Also, the
UEL limit boundaries in terms of P and Q vary with VT2, just as the steady-state stability limit varies with
VT2, so the UEL limit changes as terminal voltage variations alter the steady-state stability limit.
Under normal conditions when the UEL is not limiting, VUC < VUR and the UEL error signal VUerr shown in
Figure 10-1 is negative. When conditions are such that the UEL limit is exceeded, VUC > VUR and the UEL
error signal VUerr becomes positive. This will drive the UEL output in the positive direction, and if the gain
is sufficient, the UEL output will take over control of the voltage regulator to boost excitation to move the
operating point back toward the UEL limit.
Sample data is provided in H.23.

10.2 Piecewise linear UEL (Type UEL2 model)
Figure 10-3 shows the Type UEL2 model. For this model, the UEL limit has either a straight-line or multisegment characteristic when plotted in terms of machine reactive power output (QT) vs. real power output
(PT). The UEL limit can be unaffected by terminal voltage VT by setting the exponential constant k1 = k2 =
0 (such that F1 = F2 = 1). If instead the UEL senses the real and reactive components of machine current IT,
the UEL limit characteristic can be made proportional to VT by using k1 = k2 = 1. Similarly, if the UEL is
configured to limit based on the real and reactive components of the apparent impedance looking from the
machine terminals, the UEL limit characteristic can be made proportional to VT2 using k1 = k2 = 2 in the
model.