Algae

DIVISION
Cyanophyta
Cyanobacteria
Dinophyta
Dinoflagellates

Chrysophyta
Golden algae
Bacillariophyta
Diatoms

PREDOMINANT
PIGMENT
Chlorophyll a
(Photosynthetic)

ACCESSORY
PIGMENTS
Phycocyanin
Phycoerythrin

RESERVE
FOOD

COMPONENT
OF CELL WALL

Cyanophycean

Peptidoglycan

Xantophylls
(brownish-red or
pinkish-orange)

Chlorophyll a &
c
Fucoxanthin
Carotenoids

Oils
Polysaccharides

Cellulose plates

Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll c

Fucoxanthin
Carotenoids
Xanthophylls

Laminarin

Silica

HABIT

HABITAT

ASEXUAL

SEXUAL

Colonial
Filamentous
Unicellular

Marine
Freshwater
Soil

none

None

Solitary
Some colonial

Marine
Freshwater
Blooms in
warm water

Cell division
Spindle outside
nucleus
Permanently
condensed
nucleus

Not all members
undergo sexual
reproduction

Solitary

Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll c

Fucoxanthin
Carotenoids
Xanthophylls

Chrysolaminarin
Oils
Carbohydrates
Leucosin

Silica

Solitary
Colonial/
filaments

Euglenophyta
Euglenoids

Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll b

Carotenoids
Xantophyll

Paramylon/
Paramylum

--no cell wall--

Solitary

Chlorophyta
Green algae

Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll b
(Chloroplast,
photosynthetic)

Carotenoid
Xantophyll

True starch

Cellulose
Some have
scales rather
than cell wall

Solitary
Colonial
Coenocytic
siphonous
(tubular)
Filamentous

Phaeophyta
Brown algae

Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll c
Fucoxanthin?
(Photosynthetic)

Carotenoids
Xanthophyll

Rhodophyta Red
algae

Chlorophyll a
(Chloroplast)

Phycocyanin
Phycoerythrin

Laminarin
Mannitol

Rhodophycean
or floridean
starch (similar
to glycogen)

Cellulose
Algin

Cellulose
Agar
Carrageenan
Calcium
carbonate

Cell division

Formation of
sperm and eggs

Gliding

Cell division

Not known

Two flagella

Fragmentation
Cell division for
unicellular

Isogamy,
anisogamy,
oogamy
Conjugation

Most
flagellated at
some pt in life
cycle
Some
nonmotile

Zoospores
Fragmentation of
thalli

Gametes
(flagellated)

Freshwater
ponds and
puddles that
are rich in
organic matter
Freshwater or
land

Warm coastal
waters of
tropical oceans
Freshwater
Soil

Acrasiomycota
Cellular slime
molds

Spore: cellulose
V: no cell wall

V: unicellular
R: multicell..
slug

Oomycota
Water molds

Z: no wall
V: Cellulose
Cellulose, chitin,
both

Coenocytic
mycelium/body
made of
hyphae

Sh
int
cel
som
Sto
po

Marine
Freshwater

Filamentous
Some
unicellular

Multinucleat

2 flagella:
transverse
groove and
longitudinal
groove

Cell division

Mostly marine

Spore: Chitin
and/or cellulose
V:

DI
FE
Ge
Gra

Marine
Freshwater

Multicellular

Myxomycota
Plasmodial slime
molds

LOCOMOTION

Leaf mulch
Forest floor
Moist soil
Damp,
decaying
forest floors
Moist soil
Parasitic
Aquatic
Terrestrial

Spores in
sporangia
(haplid; nuclear
wall made of
chitin or
cellulose)
Spore formation

Zoospores
(biflagellated) in
zoosporangium

2 flagella for
reproductive
cell

Ra
bila
sym
Sili

Fle
cov

Bla
Sti
Ho
Ga
So

Gametes
(no flagella)

Nonmotile

So
bu
So
a&
Ho

Swarm cell
(flagellated) +
myxamoeba

Cytoplasmic
streaming
Flagellated
repro cells

Co
Ch

Amoeboid
Cytoplasmic
streaming

Ha
Se
Pse

Flagellated
cells at some
point in life
cycle

Co
Ce
Dip
life

Observed only
occasionally

Oospores from
zygote

septate . if asexual stage is present Conidia SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygospores protects diploid zygote (fused hyphae) Zygospore germinates to form aerial hypha PARTS Chitinous cell wall Dikaryotic hyphae –grows from fused hyphae – forms ascocarp (fruiting body) where asci develop Diploid zygote forms within ascus à meiosis à 4 haploid à mitosis à 8 haploid develop into 8 haploid ascospores (in ascus) Mature basidiospore à primary mycelium (monokaryotic haploid) upon contact with environment à secondary mycelium (dikaryotic haploid) upon fusion of 2 primary à dikaryotic hyphae intertwine (buttons grow) to form basidiocarp à fusion of nuclei forms diploid zygote on gills à meiosis à 4 haploids move to edge of basidium à finger-like extensions develop à becomes 4 basidiospores Chitinous cell wall. sapotroph HYPHAE/MYCELIUM Coenocytic zygospore Septa separates hyphae from reproductive structures Septate (perforated) Non-coenocytic Septate (perforated) Non-coenocytic Monokaryotic haploid hyphae of primary mycelium Dikaryotic haploid hyphae of secondary mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Nonmotile haploid spores called sporangiospores (zygote à meiosisà mitosis) in sporangia (spore sacs) at aerial hyphae/sporangiophore Conjugation Conidia (asexual spores produced by mycelium) in conidiophore tips (specialized hyphae) grows into a new mycelium upon contact with food Budding for yeasts Conidia. septate Not observed Pileus Gills Stipe Annulus Volva Chitinous cell wall.Chytridiomycota Chytrids Chitin Unicellular Aquatic Moist soil Parasitic Co Kingdom Fungi DIVISION COMMON TYPES Zygomycota (Algal-like fungi/zygote fungi) Black bread mold Ascomycota (Sac fungi) Basidiomycota (Club fungi) Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi) Yeasts Powdery mildew Molds Morrels Truffles Mushrooms Bracket fungi Puffballs Rusts Smuts Molds Verticillium Wilt Athlete’s foot fungus HABITAT Soil Decaying plant or animal matter Parasitic.

lobed thallus Underside: tubular. turns golden brown at maturity Foot. remains attached Nutritionally dependent on gametophyte Smallest and simplest among modern plants Has cuticle. capsule/sporangium (calyptra. which generate gametophore (gamete-producing structure) Anthocerophyt a (Liverworts) Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Xanthoph yll Carotenoi d Damp environme nt Develops from a zygote Nutritionally dependent on gametophyte. perennial plant Protonema + gametophore Filamentous rhizoid Gametangia formed by gametophytes: F: archegonia M: antheridia Initially green and photosynthetic (has plastids). capsule Gemmae (reproductive bodies formed by gametophyte) in gemmae cups (saucershaped structure on thallus) Thallus branching Hepatophyta (Hornworts) Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Xanthoph yll Carotenoi d Disturbed habitats Dominant Flattened. stomata SEXUAL REPRODUCTION DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS Nonvascular Dioecious Most closely related to vascular plants Lacks lignin Sphagnum produces peat (undecayed organic material) Archegonia and antheridia on thalli Nonvascular Thalli resemble lobes of a liver Herbaceous Single large chloroplast in each cell Herbaceous . unicellular rhizoids F: archegoniophores with archegonia M: antheridiophores with antheridia Dominant Superficially resembles liverworts Produces multiple sporophytes Archegonia and antheridia are embedded in gametophyte thallus Unicellular. green. seta. remains attached Smallest and simplest among modern plants Has stomata Protonema from germinating moss spores produces buds with tissue-producing meristems. peristome) Nutritionally dependent on gametophyte. tubular rhizoids Bryophyta (Moss) Needle-like Projects out of gametophyte thallus after fertilization and development Continues to grow for the remainder of gametophyte’s life. ribbon-like. seta. remains attached Smallest and simplest (simplest among bryophytes) among modern plants Foot.Kingdom Plantae DIVISION PREDOMIN ANT PIGMENT Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b ACCESSO RY PIGMENT Xanthoph yll Carotenoi d HABITAT GAMETOPHYTE (haploid) SPOROPHYTE (diploid) ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Moist environme nt Dominant Leafy.