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(no(tes)toc balls)
5 Kingdom System
 Plantae
 Fungi
 Animalia
 Protista
 Monera

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
 Genetic material
 Plasma membrane
 Ribosomes
 Production of ATP
-phyta → phylum
-opsida → class
-ales → order
-aceae → family
Genus (monomial): Zea
Genus species (binomial/ scientific name): Zea mays

-prokaryotic, may be unicellular, colonial, or have simple multicellular forms
Cyanobacteria/blue-green algae

with chlorophyll a and c Recall parts of cell wall: 1˚. Archaebacteria) -prokaryotic body plan (DNA. radicle. plumule _____________________________________________________________________________________________ K. cell appears pink/red from the dye) Plasma membrane (periplasmic gel) .KINGDOM PROTISTA -eukaryotes with 9+2 flagella and cilia -most are unicellular. etc. flagellum) Gram-negative Cell Wall -outer membrane -thinner peptidoglycan layer (layer between plasma membrane and outer membrane. some colonial. crystal violet is easily rinsed from the cytoplasm. ribosomes. plasmodesmata. puffballs Thallophytes (thallus: undifferentiated body): Algae (autotrophic) Fungi (heterotrophic) Embryophytes (embryo-forming) -cotyledon. cytoplasm. shelf fungi. nearly all multicellular Division Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Bread molds Sac fungi Mushroom. 2˚. Fungus-like Protists Division Myxomycota Acrasiomycota Oomycota Chytridiomycota Plasmodial slime molds Cellular slime molds Water molds and downy mildews Chytrids KINGDOM FUNGI -eukaryotes. and some multicellular with tissues arranged in simple body parts Algae Division Dinophyta/Pyrrophyta Chrysophyta/Chryophyta Bacillariophyta/Xanthophyta Euglenophyta Chlorophyta Phaeophyta Rhodophyta Dinoflagellates* Golden algae* Diatom* Euglenoids Green algae Brown algae Red algae *Chrysophyta. Monera (Eubacteria.

Flagellated stage b.Gram-positive Cell Wall -thick peptidoglycan layer (traps the crystal violet in the cytoplasm. alcohol does not remove the crystal violet. nucleus in stolon Halimeda Udotea Micrasterias Caulerpa racemosa – edible! . not to host) (puro pictures ng mga pangalan nito) Euglena (flagellum. Alzheimer’s *Gymnodinium breve – toxic Synura Diatom shells – siliceous frustule: hypotheca. which masks the red safranin dye) Plasma membrane     Stain with purple Stain with iodine Wash with alcohol Counterstain with safranin Cyanobacteria (chlorophyllous eubacteria) Nostoc – N-fixing heterocyst. upper) *Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (toxin is toxic to humans who eat. 2nd flagellum. chloroplast. resting spore (akinete) (kinakain daw ni mam ang cyanobacteria na ito) Oscillatoria 09/30/14 Dinoflagellates (Dinophyta) a. nucleus) Chlamydomonas (2 flagella) Ulothrix Scenedesmus – colonies of 4 cells Coenobium Ulva (alga) Gametophyte (1N) Sporophyte (2N) Green Algae Volvox – colonial Codium – dichotomous branching Acetabularia – single-celled. Amoeboid stage c. eyespot. epitheca (larger. paramylon granule. Encysted stage Pfiesteria piscicida *Pyrodinium bahamense – cytotoxic. contractile vacuole.

wag lang sana black and white ang picture kung meron man) Eucheuma (mukhang lomi na specimen sa lab) . green ang Ulva.Caulerpa taxifolia – toxic Brown Algae/Phaeophyta Ectocarpus (microscopic) Red Algae/Rhodophyta Porphyra – looks like Ulva (red ang Porphyra.

carageenan) → phycoerythrin Phycobilins: phycocyanin. Oomycota. phycoerythrin Cyanophyta: phycocyanin::Rhodophyta: phycoerythrin Fungus-like Protists Division Myxomycota.(nuks may picture) K. coenocytic forms  Cell wall predominantly chitin  Inhabit aquatic or moist soil. septate (with crosswalls) Myxomycota – plasmodial slime mold  Coenocytic (multinucleated as a result of repeated nuclear divisions. agarose. Chytridiomycota} hyphae (filaments) – mycelium (hyphal network) Aseptate (no crosswall). many are parasites of diatoms and some insects  Possibly the ancestral group of some fungi Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) -no known reproductive structures 10/02/14 Fungi Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota *Deuteromycota motile spores with flagella resistant zygosporangium sexual spores borne internally in sacs called asci sexual spores borned externally on club-shaped structures called basidia *Neurospora (ascomycete) – produces sac-like structures Gametangia – conjugation of gametes Zygomycota Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold) – zygosporangium . white rusts (yung sa corn tip). many parasites in crop plants Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)  Most are microscopic  Unicellular.Rhodophyta (deeper parts of ocean. aseptate)  Heterotrophs although many are pigmented Acrasiomycota – cellular slime mold  Dictyostelium Oomycota – water molds. cell wall solidifying agents: gelatin. Acrasiomycota. Monera – Algae (Cyanophyta) → phycocyanin K. Protista – Dinoflagellates (Dinophyta) . downy midlew (yung sa curtains)  Coenocytic hyphae  Cellulose present in cell wall (no chitin)  Zoospores lack cell wall  Aquatic and terrestrial.

Ascomycota Candida albicans – bad yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae – good yeast Eupenicillium Morchella Basidiomycota Club fungi life cycle .

crustose (bark of old trees). fruticose [fungal hyphae. collenchyma Phylum Hepatophyta Anthocerophyta Bryophyta Liverworts hornworts mosses .Amanita muscaria Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) Arthrobotrys dactyloides Lichens: alga (phycobiont) + fungus (mycobiont) -symbiotic relationship. algal layer (green algae/cyanobacteria). soredia (asexual)] TRUE PLANTS Non-Vascular Bryophytes – parenchyma. can exist even if separated from each other Foliose.

veRnation kasi Roderos) yung sa fiddlehead Pattern of sori at the back of leaves – identifying key Evolution Chara (Charophytes) Mosses (Bryophytes) Spore-bearing vascular Gymnosperms (naked seeds) – cone-producing Angiosperms (covered seeds) – flower-bearing Vascular Plants Division Coniferophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta conifers cycads Ginkgo Gnetae D. Anthocerophyta Anthoceros – can see both gametophyte and sporophyte P. cannot see sporophyte Riccia P. absorbs water Vascular Plants Spore-producing plants (Pteridophytes) Phylum Lycophyta Pteridophyta = Pterophyta Sphenophyta Psilophyta *most primitive living vascular plant lycophytes (club mosses) Ferns Equisetum Psilotum* P. aerial Selaginella P. edi nasaan daw ang chlorophyll? (di ba free lang siya) . Sphenophyta Equisetum – whorled (3 or more leaves) Circinnate vernation (hindi venation. no chloroplast. Anthophyta Tanong ni mam: bakit pinaghiwalay yung naked at covered seeds? Cyanobacteria ay prokaryote so no membrane-bound organelles. Lycophyta (microphylls. Hepatophyta Marchantia – dichotomous branching. Bryophyta Moss – protonema (young gametophyte). thallus. rhizoids -gametophyte dominant. in cold areas. not upright) Lycopodium – terrestrial. ornamental.P.

Bacteria reproduce by binary fission.wherein bark is removed to expose the vascular cambium. dead at maturity [sorry talaga medyo all over the place ang notes. ganun din kasi ang lecture ni mam eh] Asexual structures Gemmae cups – asexual structures . then icocover with moss. one copy of the origin begins to move toward the other end of the cell. Soon. non-motile. Chromosome replication begins. coconut husk tas magdedevelop ito ng roots Tissue culture – orchids Sieve tube – without nucleus Companion cell – with nucleus Fiber – sclerenchyma. 2. vegetative propagation -cutting -grafting -marcotting . Cellular reproduction -binary fission -mitosis Asexual -budding: protoplasmic extension -spores: conidia. Replication continues. One copy of the origin-------inalis na ni mam (hanapin niyo na lang yung part na ito ) Diatoms reproduce by mitosis. thereafter. derived from vegetative cell) -zoospores -fragmentation: spontaneous splitting of cell -regeneration: wherein parent is injured. akinetes (thick-walled.10/07/14 Family Asteraceae – sunflower Family Magnoliaceae – most primitive family Medicinal Morphine – Opium poppy – pain reliever Quinine – Quinine tree – Malaria preventive Taxol---------excited si mam Bacteria Asexual: binary fission Sexual: conjugation (no spindle fibers) 1.

runners Asexual – same strains Sexual – different strains Isogamy – offspring same as parent Heterogamy – offspring different Spirogyra -zygospore – sporophyte Life cycle ng Spirogyra Zygote (2N) → mitosis → sporophyte (2N) → meiosis → spores (N) → mitosis → gametophyte (N) → mitosis → gametes (N) → fertilization → zygote (2N) Sexual reproduction mycelium (N) → plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) → dikaryotic stage (n+n) → 2 nuclei. fern does not require H2O Bryophytes: sporophyte dependent on gametophytes (dominant) Ferns: Large dominant sporphyte and small independent gametophyte Seed plants: reduced gametophyte dependent on dominant sporophyte Accessory Part – collective term Sepals – calyx Petals – corolla Sepals + petals = perianth (gamo-.Kalanchoe – plantlets along edges of leaves Potato tuber stem – with nodes (eyes) Strawberry . caryogamy (fusion of nuclei) → diploid stage (2N) → meiosis → spore-producing structures (N) → spores (N) → germination → mycelium each ascus 8 ascospores Moss: protonema::fern: prothallus Moss requires H2O. poly.+ accessory part + ous) Essential Stamen – androecium Filament (stalk) Anther Pistil/carpel – gynoecium Ovary Style Stigma Flower -solitary (gumamela) -inflorescence .

1 functional egg (3 degenerate) 2. sperm (N) (mitosis)→ germinating pollen grain (MALE GAMETOPHYTE) Megasporogenesis Megaspore mother cell (MMC) (2N) (megasporocyte) → megaspores (N) (3 degenerate. pistillate (cob) . Incomplete Regular vs. 1 functional) → (nucleus mitosis 3x. w/o cytokinesis) → 8-nucleated embryo sac (FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE) 2 synergids (guard ng egg) + 1 egg + 2 polar nuclei in central cell + 3 antipodal cells = 8 nuclei () 4 functional sperm.Sessile – no stalk 10/09/14 Floral Variation Complete vs. Caesalpinaceous (Alibangbang. Papilionaceous (Hypogea) 1 standard petal – largest 2 keels – medium 2 wings – small b. Inferior Pollen grain Outer covering: exine. inner: intine Smooth. Pollination -self or cross of same species -pollen tube grows into micropyle -moisture in stigma helps in pollination Corn: staminate (tassel). Caballero) 1 standard petal – smallest Keel inner wings May be grouped/united. Sporogenesis – meiosis Microsporogenesis Pollen Mother Cell (2N) → germ cell → microspores (N) → (encapsulated) pollen grain (N) → tube nucleus. rough exine can be used in taxonomic identification. or free Hibiscus – five pistils Superior vs. Irregular -do not use to distinguish monocots from dicots Irregular a. generative nucleus → sperm (N). Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms 1.

endocarp) Baka tanungin: Which parts are edible? (baka kainin ni mam) Pulp bits – outgrowths of endocarp Ripe mango.Perfect flowers/bisexual (M + F) Imperfect/unisexual (pistillate or staminate) Monoecious – corn Dioecious – papaya 3. guyabano -multiple/collective – langka. plumule. bread fruit -accessory Pericarp 1. Double Fertilization Sperm nucleus (n) + egg (n) → single-celled zygote (2n) →(mitosis) embryo (cotyledon. meso-. if absent → cotyledons provide nutrients PMC → 4 pollen grain → 4 generative nuclei → 2 sperm per nucleus → 8 sperm nuclei 10/06/14 Parthenocarpy –seedless fruits Parthenocarpic fruit – banana Origin -simple -aggregate – atis. radicle) Sperm nucleus (n) + polar nucleus (n) + polar nucleus (n) → endosperm (3n) Embryo + endosperm → seed Endosperm nutritive tissue. Fleshy (exo-. fibrous endocarp and tinatanim Coconut – endocarp – shell Endosperm – liquid at solid (eto edible na naman) .

first to grow (for absorption) Coconut Shoot – first to grow (may food na sa endosperm.2. Dry Simple ang cherry. Aggregate ang raspberry. Exalbuminous – food stored in cotyledons (enlarged.g. no need for roots) “sponge” yung embryo Toge: radicle:: niyog: shoot . Multiple ang pineapple. castor bean) Toge – seedling Radicle . swollen) Albuminous – food stored in endosperm (e.