Construction Industry
Safety & Health Training

10-Hour OSHA Construction
Safety & Health Outreach Course

Electronic Version is Section 508 Compliant

International Brotherhood of Teamsters ­— IBT Worker Training Program


10-Hour OSHA Construction Safety & Health Outreach Course
Electronic version is 508 Compliant
2012 Edition

The project described was supported by Award Number U45ES014084 and
U45ES014103 from the National Institute Of Environmental Health Sciences.
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily
represent the official views of the National Institute Of Environmental Health
Sciences or the National Institutes of Health.

© Copyright 2012
International Brotherhood of Teamsters
Safety & Health Department
25 Louisiana Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202) 624-6963

Table of Contents
Module 1: Introduction to OSHA................................................. 10
Module 2: Fall Protection............................................................ 24
Module 3: Electrical Safety.......................................................... 40
Module 4: Struck-By and Caught-In Hazards............................... 54
Module 5: Personal Protective Equipment.................................. 62
Module 6: Health Hazards and HAZCOM..................................... 76
Module 7: Stairways and Ladders................................................ 96
Module 8: Materials Handling, Storage, and Disposal............... 106
Module 9: Tools - Hand and Power............................................ 120
Module 10: Scaffolds................................................................... 132
Module 11: Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators and Conveyors... 152
Module 12: Excavations............................................................... 168
Module 13: Heat, Noise & Ergonomic Hazards............................ 184
Module 14: Fire Prevention Plans and Fire Protection................ 196
Module 15: Confined Spaces....................................................... 210
Module 16: Motor Vehicles......................................................... 220

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This manual covers the topics that OSHA prescribes for
10-hour courses under the OSHA Construction Industry
Outreach Safety and Health Training Program. This course
may only be taught by authorized instructors who have
successfully completed the OSHA Construction Industry
Trainer Course, OSHA 500.
This manual was prepared by the Worker Training Program
of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters - the
Teamsters Union - with funds from the National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences.

OSHA Outreach
Training Program

The requirements of the OSHA Outreach Training Program
for the Construction Industry are outlined on the following
page. You may download a complete copy of OSHA’s
Guidelines for this program at (Click on


This is a basic, introductory safety and health course, and
there is no prerequisite for taking it. There is also no required
refresher for this course, although employers and employees
might benefit if workers took this course again from time to
This course may be taught over a period of time, no longer
than six months, with each session lasting at least one hour.
Although OSHA prescribes the topics that must be included
in this course, the specific content of each topic should be
chosen to best meet the needs of the workers involved,
taking into account their job tasks, and the hazards that they
OSHA subpart references are provided for informational
purposes; training should emphasize hazard awareness.

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Inspections. Subpart M • Electrical.g. and Penalties. trench hazards. General Duty Clause. OSHA 800 Number. Record Keeping Basics. cranes) • Caught in-between (e. Subpart N • Excavations. Storage.. crystalline silica) Elective . equipment) Personal Protective and Lifesaving Equipment .Two hours (minimum 15 minutes on each of four areas) • Fall Protection. OSHA Focus Four Hazards .g. Hoists.Page 5 - . OSHA Web Site and Available Resources. Whistle-blower Rights.Hand and Power. Subpart K • Struck by (e. Use and Disposal. & Conveyors. General Safety and Health Provisions.Subpart E (30 minutes) Health Hazards in Construction (30 minutes) (e. Employer and Employee Rights and Responsibilities. Subpart X Optional – 3 hours For the remaining three class hours: Teach any other construction industry hazards or policies and/or expand on the mandatory or elective topics. Citations.2 hours Choose at least two of the following elective topics. noise. falling objects.g. Subpart H • Tools ..5 hours Introduction to OSHA (at least two hours) The OSH Act. Subpart I • Scaffolds.10-Hour Construction Industry Outreach Training Program OSHA Required Topics Mandatory . Value of Safety and Health. Subpart P • Stairways and Ladders. trucks. Derricks.these topics must add up to at least two hours (a minimum one-half hour each) • Materials Handling.. Competent Person. Subpart C. Instructional time must be at least 10 hours . Subpart L • Cranes. hazard communication. Elevators.

with 1. The local unions and their members are the heart and backbone of the union. Unlike other labor unions. and clerical staff. One out of every ten union members is a Teamster. and of the various conferences and councils in the union’s structure. organizers.4 million members. the Teamsters Union is structured to promote strong local unions. is one of the largest labor unions in the world. the locals benefit from the expertise and assistance of the International Union. It is also the most diverse union in the United States. compatible with the International Constitution and Bylaws. .Page 6 - . The Teamsters represent all types of workers . and strong local leaders. Locals retain their own expert labor lawyers. Since the locals negotiate most Teamsters contracts and provide most of the services to the members. While enjoying their independence. They provide an informational clearinghouse for locals that negotiate in the same industry or bargain with the same employer. The Members of each local elect their own officers.from airline pilots to zookeepers.About the Teamsters The International Brotherhood of Teamsters. certified public accountants. They also help solve problems and decide some jurisdictional and judicial matters. and vote on their own bylaws. Teamster Trade Divisions and Conferences aid Teamster leaders throughout the country who share common interests and problems. full-time business agents. Joint Councils help coordinate Teamsters activities in those areas. devise their own structure. Teamsters Joint Councils are set up in areas with three or more local unions. There are hundreds of Teamsters Local Unions across North America. they keep most of the dues money.

The Safety and Health Department provides many educational resources on and click on “Members”. their families and their communities from chemical.” The Teamsters offer safety and health training throughout the United States for: • Construction Workers • Hazardous Waste Workers • Industrial Workers • Hazardous Materials Transportation Workers • Port Workers • Emergency Responders • Radiological Workers . The Safety and Health Department is committed to protecting the health and well-being of Teamster members. biological. Visit www. industrial hygiene and adult education. Teamster Safety and Health Department The IBT Safety and Health Department includes professionals in safety. and physical health and safety hazards. and then “Safety & Health.teamster.The Teamsters were one of the first unions to establish a Safety and Health Department.Page 7 - Teamster Training .

and realistic hands-on activities. DC 20001 (202) 624-6963 (202) 624-8125 (fax) www. Each Instructor is certified in first aid / CPR. Teamster instructors have experience doing the same types of jobs that trainees . Teamster instructors complete a period of supervised teaching and evaluation. construction and remediation. and practice teaching. Instructors have completed the OSHA 500 and 501 Construction and General Industry Trainer Courses. N. Instructors use participatory adult teaching techniques and hands-on activities. anywhere.teamster. or to schedule a course. Each instructor attends an annual Instructor Development Program that includes new regulations and work procedures. Washington. contact: IBT Worker Training Program 25 Louisiana Avenue.Teamster Training Centers Teamster instructors use effective adult education. real equipment. company locations and union halls . For more information.. Teamster Instructors For More Information Teamster Training Centers have classrooms and outdoor areas for realistic hands-on activities. construction projects.Page 8 - . warehousing. The Training Centers also have mobile units that can transport instructors and equipment to hold courses at hazardous waste sites.W.. including hazmat transportation.

notes - .Page 9 - ..

IDENTIFY the safety and health rights and responsibilities of employers and employees. 7.Page 10 - . DESCRIBE briefly the history and purpose of OSHA and the OSH Act. EXPLAIN the General Duty Clause.Module OSHA 1 Introduction to OSHA Learning objectives This module introduces the OSHA standards that apply to construction work. . IDENTIFY the qualifications of a competent person. DESCRIBE what to do if you feel that it is unsafe to do an assigned task. IDENTIFY the basic OSHA record keeping requirements. 6. 2. IDENTIFY the rights of whistle-blowers. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. RECOGNIZE that there are resources available from OSHA through its web site and 800 number. 3. 4. and the rights and responsibilities of workers and employers with regard to occupational safety and health. 8. 5.

In addition to creating OSHA. This federal agency studies safety and health problems.OSHA stands for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. States that have their own Occupational Safety and Health Program Alaska Arizona California Connecticut* Hawaii Michigan Minnesota Nevada New Jersey* New Mexico South Carolina Tennessee Utah Vermont Virgin Islands* Indiana Iowa Kentucky Maryland New York* North Carolina Oregon Puerto Rico Virginia Washington Wyoming * The programs in CT. NJ. and gave OSHA the power to write safety and health standards. This law created OSHA. or OSH Act. the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. .Page 11 - NIOSH . NY and VI only apply to public employees. In 1970 Congress passed a law called the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It is the federal agency that enforces safety and health standards to protect workers. the OSH Act also created NIOSH. recommends standards. OSHA and the OSH Act In 26 states there are state safety and health agencies that do this job instead of federal OSHA. and gives advice to workers and employers.

.to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources.. The General Duty Clause means that even if there is no OSHA Standard about a particular safety or health problem. and (2) to comply with OSHA standards. (2) shall comply with the occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act.Purpose of the OSH Act The OSH Act says: Responsibilities of Employers Section 5 of the OSH Act declares the responsibilities of employers with regard to safety and health: The Congress declares its purpose and policy.Page 12 - . .. healthy and free of recognized hazards.. General Duty Clause The first of these employer responsibilities is called the General Duty Clause. Each employer (1) shall furnish to each of its employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to its employees. the employer still has to make sure that your workplace is safe. Your employer has two responsibilities: (1) to provide you with safe and healthy work and a safe and healthy work place.

You have the right to talk to the OSHA inspector. called OSHA Standards. standards for the safe operation of forklifts. OSHA can issue correction orders and assess penalties against the employer. As an employee you are expected to comply with the instructions issued by your employer. These include following safe work practices and wearing personal protective equipment required by OSHA. or standards for electrical safety. and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct. and to see a copy of the inspection report. OSHA does not issue orders to workers. There are many OSHA standards that may apply to your job. to point out hazards. OSHA writes rules. If you fail to follow your supervisor’s instructions you might be disciplined or terminated. regulations. OSHA inspects work sites.Page 13 - OSHA Enforces Rules . It does not fine workers. For example: standards which limit the concentration of toxic substances in workplace air. OSHA Makes Rules OSHA standards have the force of law.Section 5 of the OSH Act also describes the duty of employees: Responsibilities of Employees Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules. . to protect workers on the job.

As an employee. Your own medical records. Your employer’s Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses (the OSHA 300 Log). The right to receive safety and health training. Hazard communication training.Your OSHA Rights OSHA requires your employer to: • Provide a safe and healthy workplace. The right to a safe and healthy workplace. E. Respirator training (if applicable). The right to information. B. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs).Page 14 - . Your OSHA rights include: 1. C. A. Point out hazards and suggest corrections. D. 2. Copies of any OSHA citations. Your employer’s written safety and health plans. B. B. 3. Confined space training (if applicable). A. F. Results of workplace monitoring and surveys. HAZWOPER emergency response training. you have legal rights. C. The right to take part in safety and health activities. . D. and you also have the responsibility to work in a safe manner in compliance with OSHA standards. Discuss safety and health concerns with your fellow workers and your union representative. 4. • Comply with OSHA standards. A.

) 8. put it in writing. You or your union representative accompany the OSHA inspector during the inspection.5. A.Page 15 - Your OSHA Rights . B. D. Protection from retaliation or discrimination because of your safety and health activities. and cite the exact standard that’s being violated. A. (See the next page for more detail about this right. You or your union representative participate in the opening and closing conferences. C. File a discrimination complaint with OSHA if you have been discriminated against for discussing safety and health. Have your name kept confidential by OSHA. . Respond to questions from the OSHA inspector. Be told by OSHA of actions on your complaint. The right to file an OSHA complaint if a hazard exists. Keep a copy for your records. B. or refusing dangerous work. The right to participate in OSHA inspections. Object to an abatement period proposed by OSHA. pointing out hazards. filing an OSHA complaint. Be notified if your employer contests a citation. 6. The right to refuse to do work that would expose you to imminent danger of death or serious injury. If you file a complaint with OSHA. Be sure to also contact your union representative. 7. C. be specific.

Point out the danger to the supervisor and to your fellow workers. If you are disciplined. You should also consider filing a complaint about your discipline with OSHA and with the National Labor Relations Board.Whistle-blower Rights You have the right to file a complaint with OSHA because of safety and health hazards at your work site. Don’t leave the site unless ordered to do so by the supervisor. 3. Don’t act alone. If you are a union member.. To preserve your rights: 1.. of any right afforded by this Act. The Right to Refuse Dangerous Work What if a situation arises where you believe it is unsafe to do a task? For example. Explain that you will do the job if it can be done safely. Usually you.. or your union steward will be able to resolve the problem by discussing it with the supervisor. 2.Page 16 - .. 5. . Section 11(c) of the OSH Act makes it illegal for the employer to discipline you for using your OSHA rights: No person shall discharge or in any manner discriminate against any employee because such employee has filed a complaint or . 4. Be clear that you are not insubordinate. Offer to do other work. contact your shop steward or union representative. your union representative can help you to file a grievance. The union contract and the law give you rights if you feel that you must refuse to do dangerous work. because of the exercise . Don’t walk off the job. Talk with your fellow workers. you are assigned a truck with faulty brakes.

A competent person is someone who understands the work and its hazards. • A significant injury or illness diagnosed by a doctor or other licensed health care professional. and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. .Page 17 - Record Keeping Requirements . You also have the right to see the employer’s OSHA 300 Log. The employer must post the OSHA 300 Log for each year in a conspicuous place from February 1 to April 30 of the year following the year that the log describes.32(f)] One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary. OSHA requires your employer to keep records of the OSHA recordables .injuries and illnesses that result in: • Death. You have a right to see any records about your own injury or illness. which is a list of all the recordable accidents and injuries that occur in your work place each year. hazardous. and has the authority to correct unsafe conditions. • Restricted work or transfer to another job. OSHA defines a competent person as: Competent Person [29 CFR 1926. • Loss of consciousness.Many OSHA regulations require there to be a competent person who takes responsibility for inspecting or approving work or equipment. • Medical treatment beyond first aid. • One or more days away from work after the day on which the injury happened. or dangerous to employees.

. so it’s citations start with 29. shall have approved ground-fault circuit interrupters for personnel protection.” • 1 is the first subtopic in b. Section 404 in the example above is in subpart K. Electrical”.” • b is the second topic in Section 404. Scaffolding”. Each subpart has a different general topic and a different letter. Every paragraph has its own citation.” Part 1926. Construction Industry Standards. • CFR stands for Code of Federal Regulations. OSHA is part of the Department of Labor.and 20-ampere receptacle outlets on construction sites. • 1926 is the part of the OSHA standards that apply to the Construction Industry. is divided into several Subparts. However. • 404 is the Section of the Construction Industry Standards titled “Wiring design and protection. the subpart letter. This paragraph has a number called a citation. All 120-volt. which are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in use by employees. single phase. 15. In this case. “K”. It is called “Ground fault circuit interrupters. It is called “Ground fault protection. and it makes it easy to refer to a particular requirement. “Subpart L.Page 18 - . b is called “branch circuits. The citation is 29 CFR 1926.Numbering System for OSHA Standards Here is part of the OSHA Electrical Standard: Ground-fault circuit interrupters. This is a set of law books containing all the regulations of all the federal agencies. etc.404(b)(1)(ii). The citation helps you find it in a law book. For example: “Subpart K. is not used in the citation.” • ii is the second item in part 1. • 29 is the number for the US Department of Labor.

(a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding conductors– (1) Identification of conductors . 15. which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in use by employees. need not be protected with ground-fault circuit interrupters.Page 19 - . (ii) Ground-fault circuit interrupters.. OSHA Construction Standards are in 29 CFR Part 1926.U. Federal Regulations are published in a set of books called the Code of Federal Regulations or CFR. All 120-volt.. (3) Use of grounding . (2) Polarity . The employer shall use either ground fault circuit interrupters as specified in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section or an assured equipment grounding conductor program as specified in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section to protect employees . where the circuit conductors of the generator are insulated from the generator frame and all other grounded surfaces. single-phase... Receptacles on a two-wire.S.and 20.. single-phase portable or vehicle-mounted generator rated not more than 5kW. . shall have approved ground-fault circuit interrupters for personnel protection.Ampere receptacle outlets on construction sites... Department of Labor regulations are in CFR’s with the number 29. § 404  Wiring design and protection..... (b) Branch circuits– (1) Ground-fault protection– (i) General..

The employer must instruct each employee to recognize and avoid unsafe conditions and how to avoid hazards. hazardous or dangerous. Employees required to handle hazardous substances must receive instruction regarding safe use. [29 CFR 1926. The employer must provide first aid services for every employee. and personal protective equipment. [29 CFR 1926. it can’t be used.20(b)(3)] Safety Training. The employer must have a program for fire protection and prevention. Only properly trained or experienced workers shall operate machinery.General OSHA Safety & Health Provisions The OSHA Construction Standards contain several general safety and health requirements that apply to all construction sites and to all types of work at those sites.23] Fire Protection and Prevention.Page 20 - . regular inspections of the job site. protective equipment and emergency procedures. [29 CFR 1926. materials and equipment. A competent person must make frequent. potential hazards.24] . [29 CFR 1926. [29 CFR 1926. to look for safety and health hazards. A contractor shall not require an employee to work in conditions that are unsanitary. precautions to take. First Aid. Contractor Requirements.21(b)(3)] Employees required to enter confined spaces must receive instruction on the nature of the hazards involved. If it’s not safe.21(b)(6)] Your state might also require that there be one or more persons on the job certified in First Aid and CPR. This includes making sure that fire extinguishing equipment is available. All machinery and tools must comply with OSHA standards. [29 CFR 1926.20(a)] Accident Prevention.

26] Sanitation. The employer must provide waste containers. offices. [29 CFR 1926.28] Access to Employee Medical Records. The building or structure under construction must have exits that allow escape from all areas at all times in case of emergency. stairs.33] Escape Exits. (In the case of work at an occupied prison or mental hospital. such as air sampling results.27] Personal Protective Equipment. The employer shall provide necessary respirators and other protective equipment and require that it be worn when necessary. and must remove combustible debris and scrap with protruding nails.Housekeeping.) [29 CFR 1926. [29 CFR 1926. As an employee you have a right to see and copy any medical records about you that your employer has. The employer shall provide sufficient natural or artificial illumination for work areas. [29 CFR 1926.Page 21 - You can authorize another person. [29 CFR 1926. shops and storage areas on the construction site. You also have the right to see and copy any records of exposures. [29 CFR 1926. doors can be locked provided supervisory personnel is continually on duty to facilitate emergency escape.25] General OSHA Safety & Health Provisions Illumination. such as your union representative or attorney to get these records for you. ramps. that indicate the exposure that you might have experienced on the job.34] . . The employer is responsible for providing adequate drinking water and sanitary facilities at construction sites.

Department of Transportation (DOT): www. and they will direct you to your state . and you do not know the phone number. All have links to other useful sites. For More Information about Health and Safety The IBT Safety and Health Department has many fact sheets about safety and health.S. call 1-800-321-OSHA. If you are in a state that has its own state program.” Or call (202) 624-6963. There are hundreds of internet sites with health and safety Go to the Teamsters web site and click on “Resources” and then “On Safety and • New Jersey Department of Health: www.Page 22 - . Here are just a few sites to help you get started. • U.osha.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): • U.hazmat. teamster.nj.cdc.1-800-321-OSHA If there is an emergency or if a hazard is immediately lifethreatening. call your local OSHA Regional Office or • National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): www.state.

mechanics. and freight handlers from discrimination or discharge for: • Refusing to operate a vehicle if to do so would violate a safety regulation. DOE Order 440. or give you another. you should talk to your shop steward or union representative.” Section 405 of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act protects drivers.1A says that workers at DOE facilities can “decline to perform an assigned task because of a reasonable belief that.Page 23 - For Workers at DOE Sites For Drivers. make sure that you first ask your supervisor to correct the problem. or injury to the public.If you work at a Department of Energy Facility. If you belong to a union. If you feel that you must refuse to operate the vehicle. Mechanics and Freight Handlers: Section 405 . coupled with a reasonable belief that there is insufficient time to seek effective redress through the normal hazard reporting and abatement procedures. . • Refusing to operate a vehicle if the employee has a reasonable apprehension of serious injury. Any complaint must be filed within 180 days. under the circumstances. you can file a Section 405 complaint with OSHA. because of the unsafe condition of the equipment. If you believe that you have been penalized for refusing to drive an unsafe vehicle. • Complaining or testifying about violations of vehicle safety requirements. safe vehicle to use. the task poses an imminent risk of death or serious bodily harm to that individual.

IDENTIFY the working surface height at which fall protection is required.Module 2 Fall Protection Learning objectives This module reviews the proper procedures and equipment for working safely at heights . EXPLAIN the main components of a personal fall arrest system. 5. 4. IDENTIFY the main components of a safety net system. .in order to prevent falls. IDENTIFY the main components of a guardrail system.Page 24 - . 2. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. DESCRIBE the requirements of a Fall Protection Training Program. 3.

501 Fall Protection Systems.503 Five Non-Mandatory Appendices (a) General (b) (1) Unprotected Sides & Edges (2) Leading Edges (3) Hoist Areas (4) Holes (5) Form Work & Reinforcing (6) Ramps. Runways. Walkways (7) Excavations (8) Dangerous Equipment (9) Overhand Bricklaying (10) Roofing & Low-sloped Roofs (11) Steep Roofs (12) Precast Concrete Erection (13) Residential Construction (14) Wall Openings (15) Walking/working Surfaces (c) Protection from Falling Objects (a) General (b) Guardrail Systems (c) Safety Net Systems (d) Personal Fall Arrest Systems (e) Positioning Device Systems (f) Warning Line Systems (g) Controlled Access Zones (h) Safety Monitoring Systems (i) Covers (j) Protection from Falling Objects (k) Fall Protection Plan (a) Training Program (b) Certification of Training (c) Retraining A B C D E Determining Roof Widths Guardrail Systems Personal Fall Arrest Systems Positioning Device Systems Sample Fall Protection Plan .Fall Protection Standard Scope.500 Duty to Have Fall Protection 29 CFR 1926. Criteria and Practices 29 CFR 1926.Page 25 - [29 CFR 1926 Subpart M] . Application and Definitions 29 CFR 1926.502 Training Requirements 29 CFR 1926.

The employer can use other methods as long as they get the same result. Falls Can Kill Falls are the leading cause of construction worker fatalities. between 150 to 200 workers die and more than 100.000 are injured in falls.Page 26 - . . Each appendix is “non-mandatory” (the employer doesn’t have to do exactly what the appendix says).Fall Protection Standard [29 CFR 1926 Subpart M] Fall Protection is Subpart M of the OSHA Construction Standards. Each year. Criteria and Practices • Training Requirements • Five Non-Mandatory Appendices The appendices show ways to comply with the Standard. It has four sections and five non-mandatory appendices: • Scope and Application and Definitions • Duty to Have Fall Protection • Fall Protection Systems.

Page 27 - . When You Work 6 Feet Up The standard allows the employer to select the fall protection measures that are right for the type of work being done. Scope and Application Areas that require fall protection: • Ramps • Holes • Walkways • Form work and rebar • Excavations • Wall openings • Hoist areas • Unprotected sides and edges Activities that require fall protection: • Leading edge work • Residential construction • Precast concrete erection • Roofing work Fall protection for workers on scaffolds is covered in Subpart L. Some state programs require fall protection at five or even four feet. • Overhand bricklaying OSHA requires construction employers to protect employees from fall hazards when they work 6 feet or more above a lower level.The OSHA Standard covers certain construction site areas and construction activities. Scaffolding. These can include: The Employer Chooses How to Do It • Guardrail Systems • Positioning Device Systems • Safety Net Systems • Personal Fall Arrest Systems • Safety Monitoring Systems • Warning Line Systems .

If manila or synthetic rope is used. When guardrail systems are used at hoisting areas. it must be flagged at least every 6 feet with high-visibility material. . Screens or mesh can be used in place of mid rails. gate or removable guardrail section must be placed across the access opening when hoisting operations are not taking place.Guardrail Systems [29 CFR 1926. the top edge height must be increased an amount equal to the height of the stilts. If guardrails are used on ramps and runways. If wire rope is used for top rails. Steel and plastic banding cannot be used as top rails or mid rails. If workers are using stilts. The top edge height of top rails must be between 39 inches and 45 inches above the walking level. Guardrail components must be free of damage that could cause lacerations.Page 28 - .502(b)] If the employer chooses to use guardrail systems to protect workers from falls. The guardrail system must be capable of withstanding a force of at least 200 pounds. a chain. the systems must meet the following criteria: The top rails and mid rails may be made of wire or rope which is at least one-quarter inch to prevent cuts and lacerations. it must be inspected frequently to ensure strength and stability. No opening in the guardrail system may be more than 19 inches across. they must be erected on each unprotected side or edge.

13 feet Safety nets shall be capable of absorbing an impact force of a 400-pound bag of sand 30 inches in diameter dropped from 42 inches above the highest surface on which employees work or walk........Safety nets must be installed close under the walking/ working surface they protect and never more than 30 feet below that surface... The openings.... Items that have fallen into safety nets must be removed as soon as possible and at least before the next shift......502(c)] . of mesh ropes or webbing................ Safety nets must have sufficient clearance underneath to prevent contact with the surface or structure below..Page 29 - Safety Net Systems [29 CFR 1926.... 10 feet More than 10 feet......... No opening in the net can be more than 36 inches square and no more than 6 inches on any side... Safety nets must extend outward from the outermost projection of the work surface as follows: How Far Out Nets Must Extend Vertical distance from working level to the net Minimum horizontal distance from the working surface to the outside of the net Up to 5 feet....... Defective nets must not be used. measured center-to-center............ Safety nets must be inspected at least once a week for damage............... 8 feet 5 feet to 10 feet ............. must not be more than 6 inches..... . The potential fall area from the walking/working surface to the net shall be unobstructed....

If a personal fall arrest system is used for fall protection. Snap hooks must be the locking kind. not manila. a body belt may still be used in a positioning device system. 1998. A competent person must supervise the design and installation of lifelines and anchorages. Remove defective components from service immediately. • Strong enough to withstand twice the impact of an employee free falling 6 feet or the free fall distance of the system. it must do the following: • Limit maximum stopping force on an employee to 1. whichever is less. Body belts were prohibited as of January 1.502(d)] These consist of an anchorage.Page 30 - . However. Ropes and lanyards must be of synthetic fibers (like nylon and kevlar). • Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3½ feet. lifeline. They may also include a deceleration device. Inspect the personal fall arrest system before each use for damage and deterioration. • Not allow the employee to free fall more than 6 feet or hit a lower level.Personal Fall Arrest Systems [29 CFR 1926. The fall arrest system must include a body harness. connectors. .800 pounds. lanyard. and a body harness. and must be designed for the object to which they are attached.

A warning line system consist of ropes.) . • All points must be between 34 and 39 inches above the walking surface. A warning line must be: • Flagged at least once every 6 feet with high visibility material.502(f)] . but to alert them to danger so they do not get too close to a fall hazard area.Page 31 - Warning Line Systems [29 CFR 1926. or chains. and supporting stanchions. • Posts that hold up the warning line must resist tipping by a moderate force of 16 pounds. wires. • The line must be rigged so that pulling on one section does not take up the slack in an adjacent section before the stanchion tips over. Compare these requirements to the control line used in a controlled access zone. The purpose of this system is not to physically prevent workers from falling. (See the next page.

• Connected at each end to a wall or guardrail. Control lines can be ropes. • Strong enough to sustain force of at least 200 pounds. wires.Page 32 - .502(g)] A controlled access zone is an area where certain work (such as overhand bricklaying and leading edge work) may take place without the use of conventional fall protection systems. The Standard includes minimum and maximum distances for locating the control line from various activities.Controlled Access Zones [29 CFR 1926. • All points must be between 39 and 45 inches above the walking surface. The control line must be: • Flagged at least once every 6 feet with high visibility material. or tapes with supporting stanchions. . There must be a control line that defines the controlled access limits so that other workers don’t enter. Control Line. This is allowed because a fall protection system may interfere with the work and create a greater hazard. It may be as high as 50 inches if overhand bricklaying is being done. • A control line for a leading edge must be roughly parallel to the edge.

Page 33 - Covers [29 CFR 1926.502(i)] Protection from Falling Objects [29 CFR 1926. No materials or equipment except masonry and mortar shall be stored within 4 feet of working edges.502(j)] .502(h)] • Be located on the same walking/working surfaces of the workers and able to see them and communicate orally to warn them of fall hazards. then it must be able to support twice the axle load of the heaviest vehicle that might drive over it. . Safety Monitoring Systems [29 CFR 1926. if the cover is on a hole in a roadway. This safety monitor must: • Be competent to detect unsafe work practices and recognize fall hazards.When no other alternative fall protection can be implemented. • Have no other duties to distract from the monitoring function. When guardrail systems are used to prevent materials from falling from one level to another. For example. A cover for a hole must be strong enough to support at least twice the weight of anybody or anything that might rest on it. the employer can appoint a competent person to monitor the safety of workers. any openings must be small enough to prevent the passage of potential falling objects.

501(b)(2)] If the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to implement these systems. If tools or materials are piled higher than the top edge of a toe board. Toe boards must: • Be capable of withstanding a force of at least 50 pounds.502(j)(8)] When used as protection from falling objects. • Be at least 3½ inches tall. canopies must be strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by any objects that fall on them. Canopies [29 CFR 1926.502(j)] When toe boards are used as protection from falling objects.Toe Boards [29 CFR 1926. the employer must implement a fall protection plan that will protect these workers. or personal fall arrest system. safety net system. • Have no more than ¼ inch clearance above the working surface and no gap or space greater than 1 inch along their length.Page 34 - . they must be erected along the edges of the overhead working surface for a distance sufficient to protect persons working below. [29 CFR 1926. Leading Edge Work Each employee who is constructing a leading edge 6 feet or more above a lower level must be protected by a guardrail system. . paneling or screening must be erected to protect employees below.

501(b)(3)] If the guardrail (or part of it) must be removed to facilitate hoisting operations. as during the landing of materials. the same as for fixed ladders. OSHA does not require fall protection for employees while moving on the vertical face of rebar assemblies built in place. and a worker must lean through the access opening or over the edge of the opening to receive or guide materials. it must have a guardrail or a cover. However. .501(b)(5)] . that employee must be protected by a personal fall arrest system.Page 35 - Form Work and Rebar [29 CFR 1926. Hoist Areas [29 CFR 1926. OSHA considers the multiple hand holds and foot holds on rebar assemblies as providing similar protection as that provided by a fixed ladder. an employee must have fall protection when moving at a height more than 24 feet. If a hole is more than 6 feet deep. then workers near the hole must use a personal fall arrest system. Holes [29 CFR 1926. if the work requires the hole to be open or the guardrail removed.Each employee in a hoist area must be protected from falling 6 feet or more by a guardrail system or personal fall arrest system.501(b)(4)] A hole may not have more than two sides with removable guardrail sections. However.

or personal fall arrest system. safety net system. or safety monitoring system.501(b)(7)] If an excavation is 6 feet deep. or personal fall arrest system. or personal fall arrest system. barricade.501(b)(10-11)] Sides and edges 6 feet or more above lower levels must have a guardrail system. On a low slope roof there can be a combination of a warning line system and guardrails.501(b)(6)] Overhand Brick Laying [29 CFR 1926. it must have guardrails. On low-slope roofs 50 feet or less in width.Excavations [29 CFR 1926. fence. then the employee must be protected by a guardrail system. If the job requires the employee to reach more than 10 inches below the surface on which they are working. personal fall arrest.501(b)(9)] If a ramp. safety nets. it must have a guardrail if it is 6 feet or more from the walkway to the lower level. then employees working near the excavation must be protected by a guardrail system. . the use of a safety monitoring system without a warning line system is permitted. runway or walkway is more than 6 feet above the level below. or more. or shall work in a controlled access zone.Page 36 - . If there is a walkway to cross over the excavation. safety net system. Ramps and Walkways [29 CFR 1926. Roofs [29 CFR 1926. or cover. Each employee performing overhand bricklaying or related work 6 feet or more above lower levels must be protected by a guardrail system. safety net system.

safety net system or personal fall arrest system. Appendix M has alternative fall protection plans that may be used. the employer must implement a fall protection plan that will protect these workers. If the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to implement a guardrail system. then it must be guarded with a guardrail system. Precast Concrete [29 CFR 1926. If a wall opening is less than 39 inches above a work surface on the inside of the opening and 6 feet or more above the lower level on the outside of the opening.501(b)(12)] If the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to implement these systems. . the employer must implement a fall protection plan that will protect these workers. or personal fall arrest system.Page 37 - Residential Construction [29 CFR 1926.Each employee who is erecting precast concrete members and related operations such as grouting 6 feet or more above a lower level must be protected by a guardrail system. safety net system or personal fall arrest system.501(b)(14)] . safety net system.501(b)(13)] Wall Opening [29 CFR 1926.

Retraining also must be provided when necessary. • The correct procedures for erecting. disassembling. The Fall Protection Training Program must include: • The nature of fall hazards in the work area.Training Requirement [29 CFR 1926. safety net. • The use and operation of controlled access zones and guardrail. • The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of roofing work on low-slope roofs. • The correct procedures for equipment and materials handling and storage and the erection of overhead protection.503] Employers must provide a training program for employees who might be exposed to fall hazards. . and inspecting fall protection systems. and safety monitoring systems. • Employees’ role in fall protection plans • The standards in Subpart M. The employer or trainer must sign the certification record. Employers must prepare a written certification that identifies the employees trained and the date of the training. warning line. maintaining. personal fall arrest.Page 38 - . • The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when the system is in use.

.Page 39 - .notes - .

IDENTIFY five safety requirements for electrical installations that supply power and lighting at construction sites.Page 40 - . 6. 5.Module 3 Electrical Safety Learning objectives This module describes the hazards created by electric installations. IDENTIFY five requirements of an assured equipment grounding conductor program if the employer chooses this option. and reviews the safe work practices that will reduce the risk of electrocution and other injuries or damage. 3. IDENTIFY where GFCIs shall be used if the employer chooses the GFCI option. 2. . After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. IDENTIFY five safe work practices to protect construction workers from electrical hazards. IDENTIFY four safety requirements for areas where batteries are stored. wiring and equipment at construction sites. IDENTIFY four preventive measures to prevent heat stress. 4.

417 Environmental Deterioration of Equipment 29 CFR 1926.400 Applicability General Requirements Wiring Design Wiring Methods Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations Hazardous Locations 29 CFR 1926.441 Definitions 29 CFR 1926.416 to 29 CFR 1926. It has 14 sections. as shown in the boxes below.The Electrical Standard is Subpart K of the OSHA Construction Standard.403 29 CFR 1926.431 Batteries and Battery Charging 29 CFR 1926.402 to 29 CFR 1926.405 29 CFR 1926.432 Safety Requirements for Special Equipment 29 CFR 1926.407 Special Systems 29 CFR 1926.417 Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations 29 CFR 1926.449 .416 Maintenance of Equipment 29 CFR 1926. Electrical Standard Introduction 29 CFR 1926.402 Installation Safety Requirements 29 CFR 1926.408 Safety-Related Work Practices 29 CFR 1926.404 29 CFR 1926.441 General Requirements 29 CFR 1926.Page 41 - Lockout and Tagging of Circuits 29 CFR 1926.408 29 CFR 1926.431 to 29 CFR 1926.432 .406 29 CFR 1926.

. there might be a spark which could ignite flammable gasses. In order to prevent fire and explosion. burned or killed. If too much current flows through a wire or a piece of equipment it might get hot enough to start a fire. In order to prevent shock or electrocution. There is also a provision for ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) which in many situations can save your life even if you do come in contact with a live circuit. If you come in contact with a live circuit you may be shocked. OSHA has requirements for electrical installations. there might be a spark which could ignite flammable gasses. vapors or dust in the air. vapors or dust in the air. Even if the shock itself doesn’t cause injury. Equipment such as a motor creates sparks as it operates. When you turn a switch on or off. (1) Shock or electrocution. it might make you have an accident like falling from a ladder. When you turn a switch on or off. Equipment such as a motor creates sparks as it operates.Electrical Hazards Electricity creates two main hazards at construction sites. or connect or disconnect a cord. OSHA has requirements for special wiring and equipment in areas where flammable materials may be present in the air. maintenance of equipment and safe work practices. or connect or disconnect a cord.Page 42 - . The purpose is to keep workers from accidently contacting live wires or parts. (2) Fire or explosion.

Obviously. You will die within minutes. . This is many times what it takes to kill you.Page 43 - As little as 100 milliamperes (1/10 of an amp) will kill you if it passes through your heart. Anytime that you are working with 120 volt electrically powered tools. This means that your heart muscles start to vibrate rapidly.000 mA 15 Amp = 15. it can cause ventricular fibrillation. How Much Juice Does It Take to Kill? A typical 120 volt circuit can supply 15 or 20 Amps. lighting and equipment. If a current of 1/10 Amp passes through your heart.000 mA 20 Amp = 20. higher voltages like 220 and 440 are also deadly.000 mA 20.000 mA .000 mA Definitely FATAL! Available from a typical outlet 1 Amp = 1. there is more than enough electricity to kill you. 3 mA You can feel a tingle 10 mA You can’t let go 50 mA Possibly fatal 100 mA 15. and don’t pump blood.We measure current in Amps.

Boxes intended for permanent installations may not be used in extension cords. [29 CFR 1926. Approved Equipment All electrical conductors and equipment must be approved by a nationally recognized testing organization such as UL.Page 44 - . switches and breakers. For example. service panels. . All components must be approved.Applicability of the Standard The OSHA Electrical Standard applies to temporary and permanent installations on the job site. They must have a label.403(g)] This requirement also applies to extension cords made on the job. Marking Electrical equipment must have a label that tells the manufacturer and the electrical rating (voltage. this includes extension cords. Extension Cords Made on the Job Extension cords made on the job are acceptable provided they are assembled by a qualified person in a manner equivalent to cords that are factory-assembled and approved. amps and watts). and must be compatible with the other components. but does not apply to permanent installations that were in place before the job began.

Can the equipment cause overheating? • Arcing and sparks. Any other factors that affect workers’ safety. To assure safety the employer shall consider: • Suitability. Is the insulation on tools and extension cords in good condition? • Heating effects. and current capacity for the job? • Other factors.403(h)] . or the circuit disconnect shall have a label. Is the equipment the right type. Can arcing and sparks occur where flammable materials are present? • Classification.403(b)] • Insulation. You need to know how to turn it off in an emergency. All disconnecting switches must be clearly identified. Will it provide protection? Will it last? Installation and Use of Electrical Equipment [29 CFR 1926. unless it’s location makes it obvious. The “OFF” switch on a machine. Is this the right equipment for this purpose? • Strength and durability. size. voltage.The employer shall make sure that electrical equipment is free from recognized hazards. .Page 45 - Identification of Disconnecting Means [29 CFR 1926.

Place on a pole or elevated location at least 8 feet up. Here are some ways to achieve safe guarding: • Cabinet. On a balcony or platform that excludes unqualified persons. The grounded (green) wire must stay connected.Page 46 - .403(i)(2)] Live parts of electrical equipment operating at 50 volts or greater shall be guarded so that workers cannot accidently come into contact with them.404(e)] Too much current can cause wires and equipment to overheat. room or vault. Strong. Only accessible to qualified persons. • Each circuit shall have a proper fuse or circuit breaker. • Partitions. Fuses or circuit breakers shall be in a location that is easy and safe to get at. It should not have a fuse or circuit breaker. • No fuse on the grounded conductor.Guarding of Live Parts [29 CFR 1926. • Locate fuses and circuit breakers properly. • Elevate. Wires must be large enough to handle the load that they are expected to carry. Overcurrent Protection [29 CFR 1926. and where there are no flammable or combustible materials stored. Protection from overcurrent means: • Large enough conductors. • Platform. . permanent partitions to exclude unqualified persons.

most. and touches the tool’s metal case. If the ground circuit is not in good condition. This only works if the ground wire is in good condition and properly connected all the way back to the service box. but a little bit might still pass through your body. You have heard that “electricity takes the path of least resistance. but a little might still pass through the person’s body. but do not necessarily protect you from shock or electrocution. then even more electricity will pass through the person. .” This isn’t exactly correct. It might be enough to kill! . If too many tools are connected (or too big a tool). A circuit breaker (or fuse) disconnects the circuit if more than a specific current tries to pass. The wire will overheat. Most current will return via the ground wire. The idea is for the ground wire to provide such a good path that the electricity will take this route.Page 47 - Most of the current will take the path of least resistance. but not all. then electricity can pass into the hand of the person holding the tool.A wire can only handle a certain amount of electricity. This protects equipment and property. Circuit Breakers and Fuses Breakers and fuses protect equipment and property. rather than through the body. but does not necessarily protect you from shock or electrocution. then some electricity will pass through the person’s body. This easy path should also allow so much current to flow that the circuit breaker or fuse trips. then too much electricity will try to flow. takes the easy path. If the wiring inside a tool becomes frayed. possibly starting a fire. Grounded Circuits (Third Wire) The green ground wire in a tool’s cord is attached to the tool’s metal case. This wire is supposed to be connected. Faced with two possible paths. via the third prong. to a wire that returns to the service box. If the person is also in contact with something that conducts electricity (like damp ground).

. • Equipment used by workers standing on the bare ground. This requirement applies to: • Hand-held motor operated tools. as long as it’s not broken. on metal floors.404(f)(7)(iv)] Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of corded tools and equipment must be grounded.Grounding Equipment Connected by Plug and Cord [29 CFR 1926. Double Insulated Tools Some hand tools don’t have a third wire ground. or inside a metal tank. but they do have a plastic case that doesn’t conduct electricity. • Portable hand lamps. • Portable x-ray equipment. The plastic case is intended to prevent injury. Exception: A double insulated tool doesn’t have to be grounded.Page 48 - . • Equipment used in damp or wet locations.

Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). Electricity moves in
a circle, down the black wire, through the tool, and back on
the white wire. The tool does not use up the current. The
same amount of current leaves the tool as enters it. Under
normal conditions, the same current flows through each of
the two wires. If there is damage, then some current might
return via the green ground wire – or through your body.
A Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) senses flow in the
black and white wires. If it’s not the same, the GFCI shuts off
the circuit. If some current is flowing through your body, the
GFCI will sense less current in the white wire. The GFCI will
trip before your heart does. A GFCI can sense a difference
as small as 5 milliampere, and can shut off in a fraction of a
second, before there’s enough current to cause ventricular
OSHA requires construction sites to have either an assured
grounding program or use GFCI’s. An “assured grounding
program” means that the ground wires are checked at least
daily.[29 CFR 1946.404(b)(1)(iii)]
However, something could happen between checks. So,
GFCI’s provide better protection against electrocution.
The best protection is a combination of all three:
1. A circuit breaker (or fuse) to protect against fire caused by
overheated circuits,
2. A grounded third-wire to provide additional fire
protection and some protection against electrocution,
3. A GFCI for the best protection against current that is
enough to kill but too small to blow the breaker.

- Page 49 -


We have described what
happens if your body acts
as a path for some of the
current. However, if you
contact both regular wires,
you are part of the regular
circuit. Equal current will
still flow through both of
the wires. The GFCI won’t
notice. No device can
protect you in this case.


[29 CFR 1926.404(b)(1)(iii)]

The grounding conductor — the green wire — normally
doesn’t carry current. However, if there is a ground fault,
then the ground wire is supposed to provide an easy path for
the fault current to go to ground.
This only works if the ground conductors have continuity,
which means that the ground connection has to be complete
through all cords, plugs, receptacles and wiring ­— all the way
back to the service panel.
To ensure that the ground conductors are in good working
order, OSHA requires the employer to develop an Assured
Equipment Grounding Conductor Program. This program
must include:
• A written description of the program that includes all
procedures, tests and the test schedule.

Test Schedule

• Before each piece of
equipment is used
for the first time.
• At least once every
three months.

• One or more competent persons who inspect and test
the ground connections and make records of the tests.
• No damaged or defective equipment should be used.
• Visual inspections every day. Visually inspect cords,
plugs, and tools for defects and damage before each
day’s use.
• Continuity test. Test the continuity of the ground
conductor on cord sets, grounded tools and equipment,
and receptacles. Use a lamp and battery, ohmmeter or a
receptacle tester.
• Proper terminal test. Use a receptacle tester to assure
that the ground at each receptacle is connected to the
correct terminal.

- Page 50 -

Cranes and other equipment must maintain a sufficient
clearance from overhead power lines. 
The minimum distance from any power line is 10 feet. A
greater distance is required for lines carrying more than 50
[29 CFR 1926.550(a)(15)]

Overhead and

A Teamster operating a boom truck is focused on picking and
placing the load, and can lose track of how close the boom
is getting to a power line. Use a spotter when working near
power lines. The spotter can make the difference between a
safe job and a potential fatality.
Always assume that any overhead line is energized, unless
the owner or the utility has certified that it is not energized –
and you can see that it’s grounded.
Before any digging or excavation takes place, the contractor
must locate all underground power lines, gas lines,
communications cables, pipe lines and sewers. Contact utility
companies for information. All lines should be marked, and,
if possible, disconnected.

- Page 51 -

The minimum clearance is
10 feet.

[29 CFR 1926.432]

Some environmental conditions can damage wires and
equipment. In the following situations, only use wire and
equipment that is approved for that situation:
• Wet or damp locations.
• Where gases, vapors, fumes, liquids or other agents
might cause deterioration of conductors or other
• High temperatures.
Equipment and wiring that is approved only for dry locations
— and will be protected when the building is finished — shall
be protected from the weather during construction.

with Fire and
[29 CFR 1926.407]

OSHA has special requirements intended to assure that
wiring and equipment cannot cause gases, vapors, dusts, or
fibers in the air to ignite or explode.
Some of the methods discussed in the OSHA Standard
• Thermal insulation so that hot equipment doesn’t start a
• Gaskets to prevent gases and vapors from contacting
• “Flame paths” designed into equipment so that if gases
and vapors do get inside and cause an explosion, it will
be contained in the device and the combustion products
will cool before they escape.

- Page 52 -

• Protect charging equipment from damage by trucks.441(b)] . lead-acid type batteries — are used. • Ventilate so that gas does not accumulate into an explosive mixture. and to protect workers and equipment from exposure to the corrosive electrolytes in batteries.441(a)] • Locate batteries where gases. • Provide facilities for washing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte and for fire protection. aprons and rubber gloves to workers who handle batteries. • Use racks and trays that are acid resistant. The purpose of these requirements is to prevent the accumulation of explosive gas released from batteries. Battery Use [29 CFR 1926. . • Provide face shields. Safety requirements for charging batteries: • Only charge batteries in a location designed for that purpose. • Provide acid resistant floors.Page 53 - Battery Charging [29 CFR 1926.There are special requirements for locations where unsealed batteries — for example. fumes and electrolytes cannot contaminate other areas or equipment. • Provide an emergency shower and eyewash station. • Keep vent caps in place during charging.

EXPLAIN the importance of wearing a hard hat to prevent injuries caused by falling objects. IDENTIFY safe work practices that will reduce the possibility of struck-by and caught-in accidents.Page 54 - . 2.Module 4 Struck-By and Caught-In Hazards Learning objectives This module reviews the risk of struck-by and caught-in accidents. . and how to prevent them. 3. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. IDENTIFY examples of struck-by and caught-in hazards.

The contractor responsible for the site must establish a traffic management plan and make sure that all drivers and operators know: • Which roadways and grades are acceptable for their type. Struck-by and Caught-in Accidents It is important that you are aware of the hazards at your work site. and are leading causes of construction fatalities. • Crushed beneath a vehicle that tips over on soft ground. . • Pinned between a vehicle and a concrete wall. • Direction of traffic flow.Page 55 - Traffic Management Plan . size and weight of vehicles.the situations that can cause struck-by and caught-in accidents.a far as possible . • Speed limits. Examples of struck-by and caught-in accidents include: • Severely injured by a falling tool or brick . and that your employer promote safe work practices that reduce . • Struck by a backing vehicle.because you are not wearing a hard hat. • Hit by an automobile while working along a highway. • Caught between the turning platform and the frame of a crane. • Struck by the bucket of a back-hoe as it swings.Being struck-by something or being caught-in between objects are two of the most common types of accidents at construction sites.

Drivers and Operators Drivers and operators must follow safe work practices to reduce struck-by and caught in accidents: • Do a complete pre-job inspection of your vehicle. . • Lower or block the blade. bucket. Chock the wheels if on an incline. • Make sure that your equipment has necessary rollover protection. • Use extreme caution on slopes or near excavations. • Do not speed. or dump body when not in use.Page 56 - . • Dump trucks must have a cab shield or canopy to protect the driver from falling materials. • Make sure that all other personnel are in the clear before dumping. • Don’t exceed a vehicle’s rated load or lift capacity. Be sure to check the brakes and the backup alarm. Leave all controls in neutral. • Drive in reverse only if: • The vehicle has an audible reverse alarm. or the driver must leave the cab during loading. • Stay in your vehicle until it has come to a complete stop. • Set parking brakes when vehicles and equipment are parked. or • A spotter or flagger signals that it is safe. • Drive only on roadways or grades designated for the kind of vehicle you are operating.

• On highway jobs. • Listen for . • Beware of rotating equipment — watch for loose clothing. or is dumping. do not walk in active travel lanes.back-up alarms.Many workers are injured or killed on construction sites when they are struck by a vehicle or other construction equipment. . • Wear your high-visibility vest or jacket. Remember to: • Stay alert.and pay attention to .Page 57 - Working around Vehicles and Heavy Equipment . • Stay well clear of equipment that is loading or being loaded. or caught between a vehicle and another object.

• Barricade hazard areas and post warning signs. etc. scaffolds. such as wire rope.. or anywhere that work is being performed above you. are in good condition. • Don’t work or walk beneath loads being moved by cranes and hoists. . lifting hooks. • Secure tools and materials to prevent them from falling on people below. • Inspect cranes and hoists to see that all components. • Do not exceed the lifting capacity of cranes and hoists. • Install debris nets where appropriate.. falling. • Make sure that the scaffold has toe boards. • Stack materials to prevent sliding. Follow these safe work practices: • Wear a hard hat.Falling Objects You are at risk from falling objects when you are beneath cranes.Page 58 - . or collapse. etc. chains.

. and only use with appropriate guarding and protective equipment. blindness. . to insure that protective guards are in good condition. • Inspect tools. Follow these safe work practices: • Wear a hard hat. or activities like pushing. • Never clean clothing with compressed air. where machines or tools may cause flying particles. may cause objects to become airborne. • Use safety glasses. pulling.There is a danger from flying objects when power tools.Page 59 - Flying Objects . • Make sure you are trained in the proper operation of powder actuated tools. face shields. or death. Injuries can range from minor abrasions to concussions. etc. • Reduce compressed air used for cleaning to 30 psi. such as saws and lathes. or prying. goggles.

Page 60 - . and even death. or when shoring is required until structures can support themselves. • Only allow those who are essential to and actively engaged in construction or lifting operations to enter the work area. such as securing each end or turning the roll over.Concrete and Masonry Walls Constructing concrete and masonry walls is especially dangerous because of the tremendous loads that need to be supported. when jacks or lifting equipment are used to position slabs and walls. • Take measures to prevent unrolled wire mesh from recoiling. . • Adequately shore or brace structures until permanent supporting elements are in place. • Do not load lifting devices beyond their capacity. There are risks of major accidents. or concrete has been tested to assure sufficient strength. • Use automatic holding devices to support forms in case a lifting mechanism fails. Follow these safe work practices: • Do not place construction loads on a concrete structure until a qualified person indicates that it can support the load.

Page 61 - .notes - ..

face shields and respirators.Module 5 Personal Protective Equipment Learning objectives This module reviews the OSHA requirements for the safe and effective use of personal protective equipment. 5. IDENTIFY the factors to consider in order to select the correct type of respirator and the correct cartridges or filters for that respirator. EXPLAIN who pays for personal protective equipment that is necessary to work safely on a construction site. including work boots. EXPLAIN the importance of making sure that your respirator fits correctly. 4. hard hats. 2. 3. . DESCRIBE how to inspect your hard hat. IDENTIFY the two main types of respirators. EXPLAIN the importance of using the correct shade lens when welding or cutting. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1.Page 62 - . 6.

they must be submitted to a NIOSH approved laboratory for testing and certification. gloves. It must say which standard it complies with.96] . (Note. and other specialty footwear. the OSHA standard just mentions ANSI. There are many different kinds of safety shoes and safety boots. Some boots have an additional metatarsal protector further up to prevent the middle part of the foot from being crushed. face shields and goggles for eye and face protection. Respirators must not only meet the NIOSH design standards.) . Most have a steel cup in the toe end to protect your toes from being crushed. OSHA does not write the design standards. They also usually have a steel shank in the sole to prevent punctures from nails.Page 63 - Safety Shoes and Boots [29 CFR 1926. OSHA requires that safety shoes and boots comply with industry design standards written by ANSI or ASTM. electrically non-conductive boots. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) There are design standards that the manufacturers of PPE must follow to make sure that the PPE works. boots.Personal Protective Equipment or PPE includes glasses. in fact ASTM has taken over the design standards for shoes and boots. hard hats. Look at the label inside the tongue. but it does require that PPE comply with design standards from other organizations such as ANSI and ASTM. OSHA requires that you use personal protective equipment whenever it is necessary to protect you from injury including overexposure to contaminants. protective clothing and respirators. and works safely. There are also chemical resistant boots. but.

ANSI has standards for two types of hard hats: • Type I .100] OSHA requires workers to wear hard hats on a construction site wherever there is a possible danger of head injury from impact or flying objects.Page 64 - . All hard hats must comply with ANSI standards.Hard Hats [29 CFR 1926. motorcycle helmets and bicycle helmets do not meet ANSI standards for hard hats.Protects against impact on the top. or if there is the possibility of electrical shocks and burns. and may not be used on construction sites for head protection.) • Class E .Electrical (for work around exposed electrical conductors and equipment. .) • Class C .Protects against top and side impact. Each type of hard hat is available in three different electrical conductivity classes: • Class G .) Bump caps.Conductive (for areas where it is critical to prevent static charges from building up. • Type II .General (for most construction work.

You must make sure that you have lenses that are dark enough to block out the dangerous rays . . Sometimes the damage is permanent.102(a)] OSHA requires workers to wear eye and face protection whenever there is the possibility of eye or face injury from flying objects (including dust. If you need corrective lenses.Eye and face protective equipment include safety glasses. and face shields. Lenses come in different shade numbers. or safety goggles that fit over your regular glasses. goggles. and in the case of electric arc welding.102(b)] . All eye and face protective equipment must comply with ANSI standards. then you can use safety glasses that have your prescription ground in. However. Welding and cutting produce both heat and intensely bright light that can quickly damage your eyes. Some of this light you can’t see (infra red and ultra violet) but it can still severely damage your eyes.Page 65 - Welding Shades [29 CFR 1926. the darker the lens . you must never wear regular glasses with a respirator.including the ones that you can’t see. the amperage. Read the label to make sure that it does. and you must use the type that is appropriate for the work that you are doing. Eye and Face Protection [29 CFR 1926.and the more harmful rays it blocks out. because the arms of the glasses will prevent the respirator from sealing against your face. The higher the number. The correct shade number depends on the type of welding or cutting. chemical splashes or radiation. There are many types. shavings and splinters).

These are individual molecules that become part of the air itself. There are two ways that this can happen: 1. Oxygen Deficiency 19½% oxygen is the lowest level OSHA allows. Liquid particulates: mist and spray. These are tiny pieces that float in the air. 14% • Dizzy • Confused • Hard to breathe • Death in a 6% few minutes • Normal oxygen 21% level Too Little Oxygen deficiency can occur in confined spaces where the oxygen has been used up. it must be small enough to stay in the air and small enough to be inhaled. Particulates.Page 66 - . and there is poor ventilation so it doesn’t get replaced. Oxygen and Health . oxygen deficiency is the leading cause of confined space deaths. fiber and fume. Gases and Vapors. Solid particulates: dust. In fact. 2. Just Too Right Much 23½% • Oxygen enriched • Fire danger • OSHA minimum 19½% for safe entry 16% Below 19½% you must have a respirator that supplies breathing air.Air Contaminants For something to be an air contaminant.

3. You breath the dirty air around you. Solid particulates: dust. The OSHA respirator standard for construction is identical to the general industry standard. clean air supply from a cylinder on your back (SCBA). 2. Atmosphere supplying respirators. The lowest level you are allowed to breathe is 19½%. or when emergencies or other temporary situations arise. APR’s do not supply oxygen.Page 67 - Types of Respirators . Respiratory Protection [29 CFR 1926. or an air line. These are tiny pieces that float in the air.29 CFR 1910. These are individual molecules that become part of the air itself. These are three hazardous conditions in the air that require workers to use respirators: 1. . fiber and fume. Gas and vapor contaminants. Particulate contaminants. In an oxygen deficient atmosphere you must have an atmosphere supplying respirator.134] When Do You Need a Respirator? 2.OSHA requires workers to wear respirators when there is no other way to prevent harmful exposure to air contaminants. Liquid particulates: mist and spray.103 . Air Purifying Respirators (APR’s). There are two basic types of respirators: 1. These have a separate. The respirator has filters or cartridges that try to clean that air before you inhale it. while engineering controls are being installed or repaired. Oxygen deficiency. You may have all three conditions at the same time.

and you depend on the filters or cartridges to catch the contaminants before you breath them in. If you use the wrong respirator. • Never use a respirator or cartridge unless it has the NIOSH TC number and the NIOSH symbol.for different situations. Air purifying respirators do not supply oxygen. the air you breathe is the air around you.Use the Correct Respirator Respirators are serious equipment. Before wearing any respirator that requires a tight seal against your face. Fit Testing If the respirator doesn’t fit your face almost perfectly. You need to know how to select and use the proper respirator.Page 68 - . With an Air Purifying Respirator or APR. you must have a fit test to make sure that the respirator fits you correctly. you could be exposed to toxic chemicals or oxygen deficiency. It starts out contaminated. There are many chemicals for which there is no filter or cartridge that works. valves or parts from one make of respirator on another make. Air Purifying Respirators (APRs) NIOSH has standards for approving respirators. It could even be fatal! NIOSH Approval TC means: Tested & Certified. . dirty air will get in around the edge of the respirator. • Never try to use filters. There are different kinds of respirators .

The word dust mask can refer to two different things. This means that mask will clean at least 95% of the particles out of the air as it passes through the mask. This helps to make the mask fit against your face. it won’t seal well against your face . it won’t seal well against your face. Dust mask type respirators that are NIOSH approved have a technical name: filtering face piece respirator. Dust mask type respirators are filters. They only work for particulates in the air. One is a NIOSH approved respirator. NIOSH approved dust masks have a rating of 95. This helps prevent the mask from soaking up moisture from the air you breathe out. The material it’s made of doesn’t collect enough of the contaminants. It may be cheap. The material the mask is made of acts as the filter. You are just fooling yourself if you think that it does.Page 69 - Dust Mask Type Respirators . but you are just fooling yourself if you think that it makes your work safer. . A dust mask that is not NIOSH approved provides no protection against air contaminants. and if it only has one strap.and it’s not NIOSH approved. All NIOSH approved dust mask type respirators have two separate straps. and the other is not. You need to know the difference. Never use the kind that has only one rubber band. Remember that a dust mask that is not NIOSH approved provides no protection against air contaminants. Some dust masks have an exhalation valve. Dust masks provide no protection against gas or vapor contaminants.

• Chemical cartridges are for gases and vapors. Particulates are small solid or liquid pieces floating in the air. Gases and vapors are individual molecules in the air.Respirators with Replaceable Filters and Cartridges Some air purifying respirators use filters or cartridges: • Filters are for particulates. One of the most common mistakes that people make is to not understand the difference between a filter and a chemical cartridge.Page 70 - . Filters do not trap gases and vapors. If you are exposed to particulates. then you need to use a combination filterchemical cartridge. . but there are many gases and vapors for which there is no cartridge that works. If you are exposed to gases/vapors and particulates at the same time. A filter traps these particulates. use a filter. Chemical cartridges do not protect against particulates. use a chemical cartridge. If you are exposed to gases or vapors. Chemical cartridges catch some kinds of gases and vapors.

OSHA also allows you to use a chemical cartridge that has an End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI).) You must never use an APR in an IDLH situation. . If you are exposed to an IDLH concentration (or greater) for thirty minutes or more. or • Suffer permanent damage to your health. This is something that changes color when the cartridge is full. If the APR stops working. which means that the filters are getting clogged. The only type of respirator allowed in IDLH conditions is an atmosphere supplying respirator. IDLH means Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health.Page 71 - Never use an APR in IDLH conditions. However. then you will risk death or permanent damage to your health. for example if the filter or cartridge gets used up. OSHA requires the employer to use a change-out schedule that is based on the concentration of contaminant in the air and on how hard you are working. you can use them until you sense increased breathing resistance. How Long Do the Filters or Cartridges Last? Breathing resistance does not increase when a chemical cartridge gets used up. or • Become unconscious or otherwise unable to leave the area (after which you might die.OSHA says that for filters. . This has to be determined by a person with technical expertise. there are very few of this kind of cartridge available. For chemical cartridges. you will likely: IDLH • Die. or suffer permanent damage to your health.

000 . OSHA Assigned Protection Factors (PF) [29 CFR 1910.000 Air line without escape cylinder: 1. For example. then the air in the respirator – what you breathe – ought to be 100 ppm. If the contaminated air has 1000 ppm.000 .134(d)(3)(i)(A)] Quarter-face APR: 5 SCBA: 10. a PF of 10 means the air in the respirator is supposed to be ten times cleaner than the outside air. compared to the contaminated air outside the respirator.Page 72 - Full-face PAPR: 1. If you pass a qualitative fit test.000 Half-face APR: 10 Full-face APR: 50 Air line with escape cylinder: 1. (In the qualitative fit test we don’t actually measure the air – that’s why we use an assigned protection factor to assume how much cleaner it is inside the mask.Assigned Protection Factors The protection factor means how much cleaner the air in the respirator is assumed to be if you pass a qualitative fit test. you assume that the respirator has at least the protection indicated by the PF.) The protection factor means how much cleaner the air is supposed to be in the respirator.

• There is a correct APR filter or cartridge available. then it is unsafe to enter the area with an APR. • There will be no confined space entry (unless it is established by air monitoring before and during entry that contaminant levels cannot rise above the range of the available APR filters or cartridges). If there is a possibility that the situation might change for the worse – a leak might occur or a fire might start – then you won’t know what the contaminants or concentrations are. . . • You know the concentration of the contaminants – so you can know if the respirator is rated for this concentration. Don’t rely on an APR. • You know the identity of the contaminants – so you can pick the right cartridge or filter. Look at the NIOSH Pocket Guide and at the manufacturer’s selection chart to see what type of respirator you need to use. Then you have to use an atmosphere supplying respirators. Unless you can say “yes” to all of these conditions. Choosing the Right Respirator APR’s can only be used when: • There is at least 19½% oxygen. • There are no IDLH concentrations.It is important that you understand when you can – and cannot – use an air purifying respirator.Page 73 - Under certain conditions it is unsafe to use an air purifying respirator.

Positive pressure check. then you should be able to feel the face piece being sucked toward your face. When you put it on you should perform a couple of quick seal checks.Inspecting and Checking Your Respirator Every time before you use a respirator you should inspect it.Page 74 - . User inspection. • Again. cover the inlets to the filters or cartridges. You should be able to feel the respirator expanding away from your face. . • Make sure that you have the correct respirator and the correct filters or cartridges. • Exhale. straps and visor. • Hold your breath for 10 seconds. • Inhale. • Inspect the inhalation and exhalation valves. Negative pressure check. • Cover the exhalation valve with your hand. hold it for 10 seconds. • Inspect the face piece. The face piece should remain sucked in. • With your hands. If the respirator is working properly.

• If the employer provides separate metatarsal guards. such as respirators. pants. then the employer can require the worker to pay for the replacement item. sunscreen. raincoats.95(d)] . parkas. If the only way to make the work site safe and healthy is to use personal protective equipment.if the employer permits you to wear these shoes and boots off the job. hard hats. • Items used solely for protection from the weather. A new OSHA standard. rubber boots. In the past there was some uncertainty about which types of personal protective equipment the employer was required to pay for. then the employer does not have to pay for special boots with the guards built in. and chemical protective clothing. then the employer must pay for it.even if they have steel toes .Page 75 - Your Employer Pays for Most Personal Protective Equipment [29 CFR 1926. with which employers must comply beginning May 15. • Non-specialty work shoes and boots . makes this requirement clear. Your employer must pay for all necessary personal protective equipment except: • Everyday clothing like long-sleeve shirts. gloves.Your employer is required by the OSH Act to provide a safe and healthy workplace. such as winter coats. . 2008. hats. street shoes and normal work boots. face shields. • If the worker is responsible for loosing or damaging an item of personal protective equipment. and sun glasses.

Systemic Effect 3.Module 6 Health Hazards and HAZCOM Learning objectives This module reviews the health hazards caused by chemicals that you might use or be exposed to on a construction site. IDENTIFY the proper definition of these terms: A. . 5. 4. This module also reviews the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard . Local Effect G. Cancer D. Latency Period B. Target Organ C.Page 76 - . After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1.known as HAZCOM . 2. IDENTIFY two examples of acute effects of chemical exposure. Acute Effect E. IDENTIFY examples of adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chemicals.that requires you to receive training and information about the hazardous chemicals at your work site. IDENTIFY five routes of entry: five ways that chemicals get into or on your body. IDENTIFY two examples of chronic effects of chemical exposure. Chronic Effect F.

6. IDENTIFY the five major requirements of the OSHA HAZCOM Standard.Page 77 - . . 8. LIST three types of information which must be on a chemical label. IDENTIFY the kinds of information about a chemical that you can find on its SDS. 7.

The effect depends on the chemical. how much you absorb. We divide hazardous chemicals into several categories: • Asphyxiants (lack of oxygen). feel sick or become dizzy. You might get a rash. A single chemical might fit into more than one category. Your ability to have children might be affected.Chemicals and Your Health There are many ways hazardous chemicals can affect you. • Corrosives. • Irritants. • Sensitizers. Your liver. lungs or other organs might be damaged. For example. and your own state of health. • Toxins (poisons). an acid might be corrosive (burn your skin) and be a poison (if it gets inside you). You might get cancer.Page 78 - . .

) Irritants cause redness. and bases like ammonia and lye.) . nickel. or difficulty breathing. mouth. itching or burning of the eyes and skin.) Sensitizers cause some people to become “sensitized”. eyes. (Examples: formaldehyde.Lack of oxygen is called asphyxia. and react to even a very small exposure. and toluene-di-isocyanide. they cause coughing. or skin irritation. esophagus. Corrosives Irritants Sensitizers . nose. (Examples: acids like sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. weak solutions of ammonia.146(b)] Corrosives burn any tissue they contact: skin. The normal amount of oxygen in the air is 21%. There are two ways that chemicals can cause a lack of oxygen: • Displacing the oxygen in the air. If inhaled. stomach. They suffer asthmalike symptoms.Page 79 - Any gas or vapor can be a simple asphyxiant if enough is released to displace oxygen in the air. swelling. (Examples: solvents. [29 CFR 1910. Lack of Oxygen (Asphyxia) • Interfering with how the body uses oxygen. and lungs. weak solutions of acids. OSHA says that you may not work in an area with less than 19½% oxygen.

(Example: benzene. headaches. Other neurotoxins affect the nerves that go to other parts of the body (peripheral nervous system) causing numbness.Toxins (Poisons) There are many kinds of toxins (poisons) – depending on what organs or parts of the body they damage. vinyl chloride. infertility. tingling. Asbestos and silica cause lung scarring. Possible effects include low sperm count. Ozone and phosgene gas cause fluid to collect in the lungs (edema). or the organs that make blood cells. or liver failure. mercury. mercury.) . impotence. menstrual irregularities. Asbestos and tobacco smoke can cause lung cancer. (Examples: ethyl alcohol. cirrhosis. (Example: ethyl alcohol. Blood toxins (hematopoietic toxins) affect the blood. nausea. and may cause kidney failure.) Respiratory toxins damage the lungs and airways.) Kidney toxins (nephrotoxins) damage the kidneys. cadmium. Liver toxins (hepatotoxins) can cause hepatitis. (Examples: lead. healthy children. deformed sperm. or behavior changes. Some affect the brain (central nervous system) causing dizziness.Page 80 - . poor coordination. weakness or tremors. (Examples: lead. methyl alcohol.) Neurotoxins affect nerves. carbon tetrachloride. low birth weight and birth defects.) Reproductive toxins affect your ability to conceive. or give birth to normal. miscarriage. carbon tetrachloride. organic solvents. PCB’s.

Page 81 - . then this mass of cells is called lung cancer.  Chemicals that increase your risk of cancer are called carcinogens. pigments. roofing and sealing compounds Naphthalene Bladder cancer Manufacture of dyes. Chemicals that increase your risk of getting cancer are called carcinogens. skin cancer and so forth. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that interfere with the way your body is supposed to work. To decrease your risk. smelter residue Benzene Leukemia Chemical manufacture. plating fume and residue Coat tar Skin and scrotal cancer Fly ash. Some Examples of Chemical Carcinogens Chemical Type of Cancer Chemical Uses Asbestos Lung cancer. lung cancer. chemicals Vinyl chloride Liver cancer Manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) . We need to identify the ones that do. plastics. Cancer is what happens when some cells begin to “misbehave”. rubber. Very few chemicals have actually been studied to see if they are carcinogens. leukemia (blood cancer).Cancer Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. mesothelioma Insulation. brake linings Arsenic Lung cancer Pesticides. Just because you are exposed to a carcinogen doesn’t mean you’ll get cancer. and enough of these “cancer” cells grow so that they cause a problem. chemicals Chromium Lung cancer Welding fume. Because there are different kinds of cells. Not all chemicals cause cancer. keep your exposure as low as possible. For example. the cells in your lungs form a structure which expands and contracts as you breathe. If some cells grow into a mass that interferes with the passage of air or the normal expansion and contraction. solvents Benzidine Bladder cancer Manufacture of dyes. others let oxygen pass into your blood. there are different kinds of cancer: liver cancer. and keep our exposure as low as possible. Some cells form the air passages.

fibers and very small dusts we need a much better filter than we would need for sawdust. Vapors and gases are difficult to capture in a respirator cartridge. fumes. might be caught in the nose. also penetrate deep into the lungs. A larger particulate. like asbestos. mists and sprays. Very small particulates.Chemical Forms and Health Effects The form of a chemical has a lot to do with how it affects our health. and with how we protect ourselves. and we can blow it out. fibers. Fibers. Particulates include dusts. For fumes. Vapors and gases. like welding fumes. can penetrate deep into the lungs – where they can be absorbed into the blood. In order to be small enough to stay in the air and be inhaled. For many gases and vapors there is no cartridge that works – we have to use a respirator with its own air supply. penetrate deep into the lungs when we inhale – and stay there. like sawdust. All air contaminants are either: • Gases and vapors • Particulates Gases and vapors are the same thing: individual molecules in the air. Small particulates are also harder to trap in a respirator filter than larger particulates. Air Contaminants Air contaminants are hazardous chemicals in the air. because they are individual molecules. thin shape. because of their long.Page 82 - . . the chemical must either be in the form of a gas or a particulate.

Particulates Dust: Tiny solid particles – floating in the air. . Vapor: a gas that evaporates from a liquid or solid.Air Contaminants Gases and Vapors Gas: individual molecules – flying around in the air.Page 83 - . Fume: Very tiny solid particles – from hot processes – floating in the air. Mist and Spray: Tiny liquid pieces – floating in the air. Fibers: Tiny solid particles – much longer than wide – floating in the air.

. It then enters the blood and is carried to other parts of your body. For example. and reach your liver or other organs. 1. It can also soak through.Routes of Entry In order for a hazardous material to affect your health.Page 84 - . it has to get into or on your body. and then on the sandwich you eat. It may damage the lungs. and inhalation. The different ways that chemicals do this are called routes of entry. This might happen if the material gets on your hands. you may get some on your hands. skin absorption. Chemicals can use more than one route of entry. Skin or eye contact is when a hazardous material gets on your skin or in your eye. allowing a chemical or infectious agent to enter. if you handle a leaking container of solvent. Ingestion is when you accidentally swallow a material. 2. It can irritate your skin. into your blood. It can also evaporate and you will inhale it. 4. and it may be absorbed in the blood and carried to other parts of your body. Inhalation is breathing in a hazardous material. Skin absorption is when a hazardous material gets on your skin and soaks through. Injection is when a sharp object punctures the skin. 5. 3. The solvent affects you by skin contact.

For example. the skin burn is a local effect. In any case. throat and airways is a local effect. traveled in the bloodstream and caused an effect in your brain. Many chemicals produce both local and systemic effects. systemic effect and target organ have to do with where the chemical affects you. suppose you inhale solvent vapors and start to feel dizzy. Another example might be a chemical that soaks through your skin and then causes damage to your liver. For example.Page 85 - . But the solvent will also be absorbed in the lungs and carried by the blood to the liver. the organs that a chemical affects are called target organs. When you inhale ammonia. this is called a systemic effect. If a chemical is absorbed — by whatever route of entry — and travels through your system to damage another organ. The solvent has been absorbed through the lungs. if acid spills on your hand. Local and Systemic Effects Local effect: Occurs where the chemical contacts your body. This is a local effect: it happens where the chemical comes in contact with your body. Local effect. For example.If a chemical causes damage where it comes in contact with your body. the irritation in your nose. this is called a local effect. kidneys and brain. chronic effect and latency period have to do with when the chemical affects you. Acute effect. Systemic effect: Occurs in some other organ after the chemical has circulated through your system. . Damage to these other organs is a systemic effect. inhaling a solvent might irritate the nose and lungs.

.. There are no acute effects..... We usually notice acute effects. toluene will damage your liver and destroy brain cells... and in the cement for plastic models.. Latency Periods: Average Years After Exposure for Cancer to Appear Asbestos...... Then you will know that you must be careful........ toluene is a chemical used in paints and solvents. it causes a painful burn immediately.... This is a long-term effect or chronic effect... Unfortunately. However. These are chronic effects....... This is called a short-term effect or acute effect.. if you are exposed again and again... and feel respiratory irritation.. and what precautions to take.......... For some diseases.Short Term and Long Term Effects Acute = short term Chronic = long term Some chemicals cause effects that occur right away...25 yrs Napthylamine.... For example. These are acute effects. If you inhale ammonia vapor....... ...... the latency period can be twenty.22 yrs Benzene... like cancer.. thirty or more years..15 yrs Benzidine...... It may take many years between the time you were exposed and when symptoms begin to appear.. If acid gets in your eye.. you greatly increase your chances of getting lung cancer... year after year....... because they happen slowly and it takes a long time to develop symptoms.. even if the materials don’t cause any immediate effects.... you cough and feel irritation in your nose and airways right away.. These effects can warn us to take precautions.Page 86 - . Inhale toluene and you can get dizzy or “high”... Just one whiff of ammonia vapor can make you cough..16 yrs The same chemical can cause both kinds of effects. you usually won’t notice chronic effects until it’s too late..... Toluene can also dry and irritate the skin..... You have to learn the possible chronic effects of the chemicals you work with. This is called the latency period......10 yrs Vinyl chloride. acid burns and we feel it almost immediately.....21 yrs Arsenic. But if you inhale asbestos month after month.... If you breathe small amounts of asbestos fibers you won’t even notice them... For example.33 yrs Chromates.........

Page 87 - Before December 1. HAZCOM requires your employer to tell you the “what. • The operations or locations in the workplace where hazardous chemicals are present. and make these MSDS/SDSs available to workers. After 2015. • How to interpret chemical labels. ALL WORKERS must receive training from their employers on the changes to the HAZCOM Standard.1200 and 1926. • Safe work practices.until 2015. Training workers about: • The Hazard Communication Standard. where and how” of the hazardous chemicals in your work place.The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. and make this list available to workers. Labels on all containers of hazardous chemicals. • The health and safety hazards of the chemicals. 3. 2013. 2. . • How to use MSDS/SDSs. only Safety Data Sheets are. Written HAZCOM program to inform workers of chemical hazards. both Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) are acceptable. The OSHA HAZCOM Standard OSHA recently changed the rules.59] 1. or HAZCOM requires employers to have: [29 CFR 1910. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)/Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for each hazardous chemical in the workplace. 5. • The employer’s HAZCOM program. • What hazardous chemicals are present. • How to detect the presence of chemicals. . protective equipment and emergency procedures for the chemicals. 4. List of hazardous chemicals in the workplace.

2. If you look in another information source you can be sure that you are getting information about the right chemical if you verify the CAS number. See page 90 for a list of the pictograms. The name of the product. There is an exception: If the secondary container is only used by one worker for only one shift. The hazards of the product. including: • A precautionary word. • Precautions and protective equipment. CAUTION or WARNING. See page 90 for the approved pictograms.Page 88 - . which is a unique “social security” number for each chemical.Chemical Labels Labels on chemical containers must include: 1. . Name. Pictogram: Under the new HAZCOM Standard. all labels will be required to display a pictogram describing the nature of the hazard presented by the product. The label may include a CAS number. this secondary container also needs a label. all chemical labels must include a pictogram describing the hazards presented by the product. Under the new HAZCOM Standard. If you transfer a chemical to a secondary container. • The health hazards of the product. • The physical hazards of the product. which is the DOT number for the chemical. or for the group of chemicals it belongs to. 3. This is helpful because most chemicals have more than one name. • The target organs which the product may affect. 4. The label might also include a UN/NA identification number. • Emergency first aid information. HAZCOM requires the secondary container to be labeled also. then it doesn’t have to be labeled. if you fill a one-quart can and take it to the repair shop. such as DANGER. address and phone number of the manufacturer or importer. For example.

Toxicological Information 12.As of June 1. Hazard Identification 3. Sixteen types of information must be on the SDS: 1. Handling and Storage 8. Regulatory Information 16. Ecological Information 13. 2015. Stability and Reactivity 11. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection 9.Page 89 - Section 2: Hazard Identification is where you will find the pictogram(s) describing the hazards presented by this product. Transport Information 15. your employer is required to have a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for every hazardous chemical used in the workplace. First-Aid Measures 5. . Physical and Chemical Properties 10. Disposal Considerations 14. Composition/Information on Ingredients 4. Fire-Fighting Measures 6. Accidental Release Measures 7. Other Information (date of preparation or last revision) See the next page for all of the new pictograms. Identification Information 2. Safety Data Sheet (SDS) SDS’s must be available to all workers on all shifts. .

HAZCOM Pictograms Health Hazard • • • • • • Carcinogen Respiratory Sensitizer Reproductive Toxicity Target Organ Toxicity Mutagenicity Aspiration Toxicity Gas Cylinder • Gases Under Pressure Flame Over Circle • Oxidizers Flame • • • • • • Flammables Self-Reactives Pyrophorics Self-Heating Emits Flammable Gas Organic Peroxides Corrosion • Skin Corrosion/Burns • Eye Damage • Corrosive to Metals Environment (Non-Mandatory) • Aquatic Toxicity .Page 90 - Exclamation Mark • • • • • • Irritant Dermal Sensitizer Acute Toxicity (harmful) Narcotic Effects Respiratory Tract Irration Hazardous to Ozone Layer (Non-Mandatory) Exploding Bomb • Explosives • Self-Reactives • Organic Peroxides Skull and Crossbones • Acute Toxicity (Fatal or Toxic) .

Until June 1. Control measures (engineering controls.Your employer is required to replace all MSDSs with SDSs. explosion. Physical and chemical characteristics. The new HAZCOM Standard doesn’t take effect immediatelyuntil June 1. . as well as update their Hazard Communication Program. Name. 6. 7. 12. 9. reactivity). 2016. 10. 2. 3. Emergency and first aid procedures. 5. your employer MUST use provide you with a Safety Data Sheet. Precautions for safe handling. 8.Your employer is required to provide you training on the new HAZCOM Standard. 2015. 2015. • June 1. 4. • June 1. address and phone number of the manufacturer or importer.Your employer is required to update all chemical labels. Twelve types of information must be on the MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 1. Health hazards (signs and symptoms of exposure. both the MSDS and the SDS are acceptable. Date the MSDS was prepared. Physical hazards (fire.). Exposure limits (OSHA PEL. After June 1. 2015. work practices and personal protective equipment). ACGIH TLV. 2015. Identity of the chemical. Whether the chemical is a carcinogen. Routes of entry.Page 91 - HAZCOM Implementation Schedule . your employer is allowed to use a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) instead of the Safety Data Sheet (SDS). These are the important dates for the new HAZCOM Standard: • December 1. 2013. 11. medical conditions aggravated by exposure). etc.

“4” is the most extreme hazard. It does not give specific health effects. It also does not identify the manufacturer. such as “radioactive”. Blue diamond: health hazard rating 4 2 White diamond: special hazards or other information Red diamond: fire hazard rating 3 W Yellow diamond: reactivity hazard rating The NFPA label does not identify the chemical. “4” means the most severe hazard. doors and walls. The bottom diamond is for special information. or “water reactive”. These are all things which OSHA requires on product labels. The higher the number. The NFPA Hazard Identification System is intended to provide information to fire fighters during an emergency “0” means no hazard. . the greater the hazard. storage tanks.NFPA Hazard Identification System The NFPA Hazard Identification System provides information to fire fighters in an emergency.Page 92 - . You will find the diamond shaped NFPA labels on containers.

. See the next page for a list of these DOT hazard classes. labels and other markings on hazardous materials in transportation.The US Department of Transportation (DOT) has requirements for placards. Labels and Markings . DOT divides hazardous materials into nine classes indicated by the numbers on the placards below. These can help you identify the chemical hazards in your work place.Page 93 - DOT Placards.

blasting agents Extremely insensitive detonating substances Class 2 Division 2.5 Division 1.2 Division 4.1 Division 5.3 Flammable gas Nonflammable compressed gas and oxygen Poisonous gas Class 3 Flammable and combustible liquids Class 4 Division 4.1 Division 6.6 Explosives (with a mass explosion hazard) Explosives (with a projection hazard) Explosives (with predominately a fire hazard) Explosives (with no significant blast hazard) Very insensitive explosives.Page 94 - .1 Division 1.2 Oxidizer Organic peroxide Class 6 Division 6.2 Poisonous materials Infectious substances (etiologic agent) Class 7 Radioactive material Class 8 Corrosive material Class 9 Miscellaneous hazardous material ORM-D Other regulated material .3 Flammable solid Spontaneously combustible material Dangerous when wet Class 5 Division 5.3 Division 1.DOT Hazard Classes and Divisions Class 1 Division 1.1 Division 2.1 Division 4.2 Division 1.4 Division 1.2 Division 2.

notes - .Page 95 - ..

3. IDENTIFY when fall protection is required for a fixed ladder. 2. . IDENTIFY when a ladder with non-conductive side rails is required. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1.Module 7 Stairways and Ladders Learning objectives This module reviews the OSHA Standard for the safe use of stairways and ladders at construction sites. IDENTIFY the proper procedures for dealing with defective ladders. IDENTIFY the general requirements for safe use of stairs.Page 96 - . 5. 4. IDENTIFY the general requirements for safe use of ladders.

........................Page 97 - . Ladders ...... as shown in the box below.............................. OSHA estimates that there are 24....29 CFR 1926........... Working on and around ladders and stairways is hazardous.....1050 General Requirements .........29 CFR 1926.......... Application and Definitions ..........29 CFR 1926.............................Stairways and Ladders is Subpart X of the OSHA Construction Standard.......................29 CFR 1926.1053 Training Requirements ....................1060 Non-Mandatory Appendix A............ It has five sections and one non-mandatory appendix........... Subpart X Scope.................................................................. Overview of the OSHA Standard Stairways and ladders are a major source of injuries and fatalities among construction workers........ Stairways and Ladders 29 CFR 1926.....................29 CFR 1926...........1052 Ladders ........1051 Stairways ..882 injuries and as many as 36 fatalities per year due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction...... Nearly half of these injuries are serious enough to require time off the job....................

[29 CFR 1926.1051] Before any worker uses a stairway or ladder.Scope and Application This standard applies to all stairways and ladders used in construction. ladders and stairways that are specifically manufactured for scaffolds are covered by Subpart L. Each landing must be at least 30 inches deep and 22 inches wide. Scaffolds (29 CFR 1926. No more than ¼ inch of variation is allowed. Stairways [29 CFR 1926. and the treads should all be the same depth. This includes fall protection systems which are required for some ladders and stairways.Page 98 - . Treads and Risers: The risers should all be the same height. This includes ladders and stairways made on the job.451).1052] Landings: Stairways that will not be a permanent part of the structure must have landings at every 12 feet of vertical rise. . the employer must make sure that the stairway or ladder complies with this Subpart. unless there is a ramp. At least one point of access between levels must be kept clear at all times. General Requirements There must be a ladder any place where workers are expected to go up or down more than 19 inches.1050] [29 CFR 1926. However. Angle: Stairways must be installed at least 30 degrees­— and no more than 50 degrees — from the horizontal. slope or hoist.

Metal Pan Stairways: Landings and treads of metal pan stairways must be secured in place before they are filled.Page 99 - Stairways [29 CFR 1926. Each unprotected side or edge of a stairway must also have a stair rail. A stair rail must be at least 36 inches high. “Stair rail” means a barrier to keep you from falling off. Stairways with four or more risers. there must be a platform that extends at least 20 inches beyond the swing of the door.Doors and Gates: If a door or gate opens directly onto a stairway. snow. Slippery Conditions: Keep stairways free of ice. even if it hasn’t been filled. or balusters between the top rail and the steps. Handrails and Stair Rails: Note: “Handrail” means rail used to provide a hand hold for support. Exception: Workers involved in the actual assembly or construction of the stairway may use it while they are working on it. Before workers can use a metal pan stairway. Handrails must be strong enough to take a force of at least 200 pounds. . or they may be two separate parts of the same stairs. it must be permanently filled with concrete. A stair rail can serve as a handrail. then it must not be more than 37 inches high.1052] (Continued) . A stair rail must have screen. or temporarily filled with wood. mesh. Temporary handrails must have a minimum clearance of 3 inches between the handrail and wall. If it also serves as the handrail. The handrail must be between 30 and 37 inches above the steps. or rising more than 30 inches in height — whichever is less — must have at least one handrail. oil or other slippery conditions.

cleats. Two ladders. If the only way to enter or leave the work area is by ladder. Cleats and Steps. . Rungs. Wood ladders must not be painted with an opaque covering.Ladders [29 CFR 1926. level. Wood Ladders. except when portable ladders are used to gain access to fixed ladders. When splicing side rails. the resulting side rail must be equivalent in strength to a one-piece side rail made of the same material. except for identification or warning labels which may be placed only on one face of a side rail. Never tie or fasten ladders together to create a longer ladder unless they are specifically designed for this purpose. then there must be at least two ladders. Rungs. Connecting Ladders Together. and there are 25 or more workers in the area. This is so cracks or other defects can be seen. and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use. Portable ladders must be strong enough to support at least four times the maximum intended load. The side rails of portable ladders must be at least 11½ inches apart.1053] Ladder Traffic. and steps must be parallel. or a double-cleated ladder. cleats. Two or more separate ladders used to reach an elevated work area must be offset with a landing between the ladders. Rungs. Portable Ladders. or a double-cleated ladder are also required if there is up and down use at the same time.Page 100 - . and steps of portable and fixed ladders must be spaced between 10 inches and 14 inches apart.

There can be horizontal grab bars. knurled. then the rungs must be shaped to prevent slipping off the ends. the clearance may be reduced to 24 inches if a deflection device is installed. or vertical grab bars with the same spacing as the ladder’s side-rails. winds. The step-across distance between rungs of fixed ladders and the nearest edge of a landing must be at least 7 inches and no more than 12 inches.1053] (Continued) . An exception is if obstructions are unavoidable. and impact loads resulting from using ladder safety devices. .Page 101 - Ladders [29 CFR 1926. Fixed ladders also must support added loads caused by ice buildup. A fixed ladder must be able to support at least two loads of 250 pounds each. This can be done in either of two ways. or coated with skid-resistant material to minimize slipping. Fixed Ladders.The rungs and steps of portable metal ladders must be corrugated. concentrated between any two consecutive attachments. Each step or rung of a fixed ladder must be able to support a load of at least 250 pounds applied in the middle of the step or rung. rigging. Fixed ladders must reach at least 42 inches above an access level or landing platform. There must be at least 7 inches of clearance between the rungs of a fixed ladder and the structure to which it is attached. Fixed ladder side rails must be at least 16 inches apart. If a fixed ladder is made up of separate rungs attached to the structure without side rails. There must be at least 30 inches of clearance on the climbing side of a fixed ladder.

with each section not to exceed 50 feet. • Self-retracting lifelines and rest platforms at least every 150 feet. leaving both hands free for climbing. or selfretracting lifeline. then a fixed ladder must have some kind of fall protection. All safety devices must permit the worker to ascend or descend without continually having to hold. If the length of climb is less than 24 feet. but the top of the ladder is more than 24 feet above a lower level.1053] All safety devices must be able to withstand a drop test consisting of a 500 pound weight dropping 18 inches. Each section must be offset from adjacent sections with a landing platforms. The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body harness must not be longer than 9 inches.Page 102 - . or pull any part of the device. . push. If the total length of climb is more than 50 feet. Ladder Safety Devices for Fixed Ladders [29 CFR 1926.1053] If the total length of climb is 24 feet or more. well.Fall Protection on Ladders [29 CFR 1926. All safety devices must be activated within 2 feet after a fall occurs. ladder safety device. the ladder must be in multiple sections. This can be any of the following: • Ladder safety devices. then there must also be a cage. • A cage or well.

then it must be secured to prevent accidental movement or protected by a barricade. the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the landing surface. Keep ladders free of slipping hazards like oil and grease.A competent person must inspect all ladders for visible defects on a regular basis and after any incident that could affect their safe use. ¼L Never use the top or top step of a stepladder as a step. it must have wood or fiberglass side rails. Don’t load a ladder beyond the manufacturer’s rated capacity. Never move a ladder while some one is on it. or is secured to prevent accidental movement. Keep the area at the top and bottom of the ladder clear.Page 103 - ¼L . If you use a portable ladder for access to an upper landing. A ladder leaning against a structure must be at an angle so that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately one-quarter of the working length of the ladder. L Make sure that the ladder is on a stable and level surface. then the ladder must be secured. L If you use a ladder where it might be displaced by activities or traffic. . If this is not possible. and a grab rail must be provided to assist workers in getting on and off the ladder at the landing. Don’t carry anything on a ladder that might cause you to lose your balance.1053] If a you use a ladder near energized electrical equipment. Using Ladders [29 CFR 1926. Face the ladder when ascending or descending.

and care of stairs and ladders.Page 104 - . corroded components. employers must ensure that each employee is trained by a competent person in the following areas. split rails. or (2) block the rungs with plywood so it cannot be used. employers must retrain each employee as necessary to maintain their understanding and knowledge. as applicable: • The nature of fall hazards in the work area. Training Requirements [29 CFR 1926. To withdraw a fixed ladder from use either: (1) tag it or mark it “Defective”. use. placement.1053] If a ladder has any structural defect (such as broken or missing rungs. • The proper use of any fall protection systems used with ladders. Ladder repairs must restore the ladder to a condition meeting its original design criteria before the ladder is returned to use. . • The proper construction. or other defects) immediately tag or mark it “Do Not Use” and withdraw it from use. • The maximum intended load-carrying capacities of ladders used.Ladder Defects [29 CFR 1926. For example.1060] Your employer must provide a training program for each employee using ladders and stairways. In addition.

.Page 105 - .notes - .

After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1.Page 106 - . If you operate a powered industrial truck. but is not a substitute for the equipmentspecific forklift training required by OSHA. 2. DESCRIBE how to determine the rated capacity of a sling. 3. you must have special training that includes hands-on practice with each type of truck that you will operate.Module 8 Materials Handling. 4. IDENTIFY five safe work practices for operating powered industrial trucks (forklifts). . 5. IDENTIFY four safe work practices for storing materials. IDENTIFY five safe work practices when lifting a load with slings. IDENTIFY six things to consider before rigging a load with slings. and Disposal Learning objectives This module reviews the proper methods to move materials at a construction site. This module also review the training requirements and safe work practices for operators of forklifts. Storage. This module provides a brief overview of forklift safety practices. including the safe use of slings.

lumber.602(d) . Use. Subpart H General Requirements for Storage 29 CFR 1926. Use. carrying bags of cement by hand. Back injury is the most common and most costly workplace injury. 29 CFR 1926. Handling and storing materials involves many different operations. Materials Handling.252 Powered Industrial Trucks 29 CFR 1910. Fractures. Often the weight and bulkiness of an object is a major factor in injuries. driving a truck loaded with concrete blocks.Page 107 - . Storage. Storage. and Disposal is Subpart H of the OSHA Construction Standard.251 Disposal of Waste Material 29 CFR 1926. For example: hoisting tons of steel with a crane. and stacking drums.250 Rigging Equipment for Material Handling 29 CFR 1926. lacerations and bruises result from being struck by moving or falling objects. by getting pinched between objects. or loose bricks. Almost one-half million workers injure their backs every year. It has three sections as shown in the box below. and Disposal 29 CFR 1926. or by incorrectly cutting strapping. Moving materials by hand can also cause sprains and strains to other muscles and joints.Overview of the OSHA Standard Materials Handling.178 This is an OSHA general industry standard that also applies to the construction industry. The improper handling and storing of materials can cause serious injuries.

When using forklifts or other equipment to move materials: • Know the rated capacity of the equipment. Placing Blocks. . Wear work gloves and steel-toed boots when handling heavy materials. or if it’s so big that you cannot see past it.250] Don’t Try to Do More Than You Can. Gloves and Boots. • Keep the load in the lowest possible position while traveling. get help. If a load is so bulky that you cannot properly grasp or lift it.General Requirements [29 CFR 1926. Moving Equipment. • Don’t overload the equipment. If you place blocks under a load. • Center the load.Page 108 - . make sure that your hands are completely removed before the load is lowered onto the blocks.

how accessible the stored materials are to the user. and the condition of the containers. Step the layers back and cross-key the bags at least every ten layers. they could fall. don’t stack materials so high that the heads are blocked. be aware of such factors as the materials’ height and weight. Drums and Barrels.Page 109 - Storage Areas [29 CFR 1926. start from the top row first. place planks or plywood between the tiers for added security. Sprinkler Heads. When stacking materials. Know the proper maximum height for different materials and containers. or that may contribute to the harboring of rats and other pests.Keep storage areas free from accumulated materials that may cause tripping. Don’t overload it. Don’t stack materials too high.250] . make sure that the bottom tier is securely blocked to prevent rolling. Stack bags in interlocking rows to remain secure. Know the load limits of the floor or rack. . If stacked on their sides. Load limits should be posted in all storage areas. To remove bags from the stack. fires. If drums and barrels are stacked on their ends. If there are fire sprinkler heads.

This module provides an overview of forklift safety practices. Each forklift or other industrial truck must be marked with it’s rated capacity. A very small amount can make you feel dizzy and tired. CO is an odorless. Do not use gasoline or diesel powered industrial trucks indoors unless there is good ventilation. In either case.178] [29 CFR 1926. There are specially designed industrial trucks for use in dangerous atmospheres. gases or particulates in the air. Internal combustion engines are very hot. but is not a substitute for the equipment-specific forklift training required by OSHA. In the module on electrical hazards we discuss safe battery charging. Don’t make any modifications without the manufacturer’s prior written approval. Battery electrolyte is extremely corrosive and can burn your skin or blind you. Gasoline and diesel engines emit toxic substances in the exhaust. If you operate a powered industrial truck. the engine or motor could start a fire or explosion if there are flammable vapors. Batteries can emit explosive hydrogen gas when they are charged. These have enclosed electrical systems. Only use attachments that are designed to work with the particular truck. Electric motors create sparks. Modifications. Don’t overload it. and temperature limitation features. . A little bit more can put you to sleep or kill you. Charging Batteries. Attachments. including carbon monoxide (CO). you must have special training that includes hands-on practice with each type of truck that you will operate.Page 110 - . and can affect your coordination.602(d)] Capacity. Toxic Exhaust. tasteless gas that is extremely deadly.Powered Industrial Trucks [29 CFR 1910. Fire and Explosion. It’s always better to use propane or electric powered trucks indoors. guarded exhausts.

Never try to lift more than the rated capacity. . Determine the type of hitch to use to secure the sling to the load and the sling to the hook. • No workers should ever be under the load. As the sling angle gets closer to horizontal. • Modifications. The more vertical the legs of the sling are. • Inspect the crane before each work shift. • Weight. Make sure that the load can be rigged with the hook directly above the center of gravity. • Center of Gravity. the less strain there is on them.Page 111 - Rigging the Load . Determine the number of legs the sling or slings will have when the load is rigged. • Sling Angle. • Rated Capacity. Inspect the sling prior to use. • Hitches. Strain is the same as more weight. Check all of these things before rigging the load: • Inspection. The closer they are to horizontal. Otherwise the load will tilt when it is raised. Determine the weight of the load and how it will be distributed if there is more than one sling. the more strain they experience. Here we will only review a few basic principles: • Only a qualified person can operate a crane or derrick. Determine the center of gravity of the load. the sling can support less weight. Never shorten a sling with knots. bolts or other makeshift devices. The manufacturer should supply a chart with the rated capacity of the sling at different angles and with different types of hitches.We discuss the safe use of cranes in another module. • Number of Legs. Use an extra margin of safety with older slings. • Follow maintenance and major inspection schedules. Cranes and Derricks • Know the load rating.

Never let anyone go under the load.Safe Lifting with Slings Follow these safe practices when lifting the load: • Make sure that you have selected the proper sling for the job. • Slowly take up the load a few inches at a time. . • Have only one person in charge and giving signals. or leave it up longer than necessary. • Make sure that you have rigged the load correctly. Check the balance and load tension. • After the maneuver. wire mesh. check the slings for damage. wire rope. synthetic fiber rope. natural fiber rope. These include chain.Page 112 - . • Keep other workers clear. • Don’t raise the load higher. and synthetic webbing. Slings can be made of different materials. Sling Materials Sling Materials.

Wire Rope Some wire rope has a fiber core. . Lay is a term used to describe both fiber rope and wire rope.Wire rope is composed of individual wires that have been twisted to form strands. A left lay rope is just the opposite. Wire rope is referred to as right lay or left lay. • The direction the strands are wound around the core.Page 113 - Rope Lay . but it is less flexible. Wire rope with a wire core is stronger and more resistant to heat damage. but also more easily damaged. This makes it more flexible. A right lay rope is one in which the strands are wound in a righthand direction like a screw thread. The word lay can have more than one meaning: • One complete wrap of strands around the core. The strands are then twisted to form a rope.

Bird caging is when the wire rope strands are forcibly untwisted and spread outward. Fatigue. Use rounded blocks or pads to increase the radius where the sling bends around a load. Sharp bends cause more fatigue. Abusing a wire rope sling can cause serious structural damage to the wire rope. Fatigue failure results from small cracks that develop after repeated bending. Abuse.Selecting the Proper Wire Rope Sling There are four characteristics to consider with wire rope: strength.000 pounds. Strength. Larger wires make the rope less flexible. For example: a new wire rope sling with a strength of 10. Smaller wires are more flexible but are less able to withstand abrasion. Abrasion. New wire rope has a safety factor of 5 to 1. such as kinking or bird caging.000 pounds. This reduces the rope’s strength.000 pounds would have a rated working load of 2. especially old ones. . This makes it important to rigorously inspect wire rope slings. The ability of a wire rope to withstand abrasion depends on the size. number of wires. its ultimate strength declines because of wear and stretching. A wire rope has to withstand repeated bending without the wires breaking from fatigue. to ensure that they are still safe to use. and construction of the rope. The maximum load limit is determined by dividing the ultimate strength of the rope by a safety factor. but the rated load is still considered to be 2.Page 114 - . ability to withstand abrasion. and ability to withstand abuse. but they are better able to withstand abrasion. As the sling gets used. ability to bend without distortion. If the strength decreases to 8.000 pounds over time. then there is only a 4 to 1 safety factor.

or five wires in one strand of a rope lay are damaged. If ten randomly distributed wires in one lay are broken. Lubrication makes a wire rope sling last longer. Records show that slings that are used frequently or continuously give useful service longer than those that are idle. All workers who use slings should know how to recognize damage to slings. even on a light load. Inspecting Wire Rope Slings Also inspect the end fittings and other components for any damage that could make the sling unsafe. This means that all the wires in the rope move a little bit. The operator should check the twists or lay of the sling. It depends on the conditions under which the sling is used. .Page 115 - Storing Wire Rope Slings . make sure that it is set off the ground and protected. The wire rope should also be lubricated from time to time as it is used. the sling must not be used. the more frequently lubrication will be required. Lubrication allows them to slip along each other without excessive wear.Wire rope slings must be visually inspected before each use. There is no set rule on how much or how often this should be done. Wire rope slings should be stored in a ventilated. Lubricating Wire Rope Slings The manufacturer provides the initial lubrication. the greater the number of bends. is a good practice. dry building. or the more adverse the conditions under which the sling operates. Never store them on the ground or allow them to be continuously exposed to the elements because this can cause corrosion and rust. If it is necessary to store a wire rope sling outside. Using the sling several times a week. The wire rope stretches as it takes up a load. not just the foreman or the crane operator. The heavier the loads.

It must be discarded. scorched. don’t use fiber rope slings if they will be exposed to high temperatures. Fiber Rope Slings Fiber rope slings are pliant. or other damage to the rope structure. However. they grip the load well and they don’t mar the surface of the load. brittle. the sling must not be used. • Localized wear (shiny worn spots) on the outside. Also. they are less strong than wire rope slings or synthetic web slings. Use fiber rope slings only for light loads. If they come apart easily. If any of these conditions are found. Scratch the fibers with your finger nail. It should be as clean as when the rope was new. or discolored fibers. Then carefully untwist a portion of the rope to look at the interior. You should carefully inspect the sling before each load. First look at the outside for dry. If ten randomly distributed wires in one lay are broken. • Distortion. A buildup of dust on the inside of the fiber rope indicates excessive internal wear. Don’t use them to lift objects with sharp edges unless you can carefully pad the edges to protect the rope. to corrosive materials or to abrasion. bird caging. . Fiber rope deteriorates much more quickly than other sling materials. the fiber sling has suffered some kind of chemical damage. • Excessive broken wires. kinking. • Damage to end fittings.Discarding Wire Rope Slings Discard a wire sling under the following conditions: • Severe corrosion.Page 116 - . or five wires in one strand of a rope lay are damaged. the sling is unsafe. • A one-third reduction in outer wire diameter.

Page 117 - Discarding Synthetic Web Slings . • Elongation.Synthetic slings are made of nylon. • Long life. tears. • Broken or worn stitches. Synthetic Web Slings • Flexible. • Load protection. they are less likely to slip. Synthetic web slings have these properties: • Strength. Because they fit the shape of the load. • Shock absorbance. or cuts. They can conform easily to the shape of the load. • Distortion of fittings. dacron or kevlar. • Safety. • Damage from excessive exposure to sunlight. punctures. (Check the manufacturer’s specifications. • Snags. They are less likely to scratch the surface of the load. including burns from acids and caustics. Some larger slings can handle loads of up to 300.000 pounds. They don’t rot or mildew. Discard synthetic web slings if any of the following defects exist: • Chemical burns. especially nylon stretch to absorb shocks. Synthetics. They have good abrasion resistance.) . • Melting or charring from excessive heat or friction.

All sling types must be visually inspected prior to use. Misuse of chain slings can damage the sling. pay special attention to any stretching. resulting in sling failure and possible injury to a worker. . nicks and gouges. excess wear.Chains Chains. However. When you inspect an alloy steel chain sling.Page 118 - . Chain slings are also the best choice for lifting materials that are very hot. Chains are used because of their great strength and their ability to adapt to the shape of the load. These are all indications that the sling may be unsafe and must be removed from service. They can be heated to temperatures of up to several hundred degrees. chain slings are subject to damage by sudden shocks.

notes - .Page 119 - ..


Tools - Hand and Power
Learning objectives
This module reviews tool hazards and the appropriate safe work practices and
protective equipment required by OSHA when using tools.
After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to:
1. IDENTIFY seven basic safe work practices for tools.
2. IDENTIFY the importance and proper use of guards.
3. IDENTIFY three types of switches used on power tools.
4. IDENTIFY the hazards of electric tools.
5. IDENTIFY the hazards of abrasive tools
6. IDENTIFY the hazards of pneumatic tools.
7. IDENTIFY the hazards of powder-actuated tools.

- Page 120 -

Tools cause many kinds of injuries, including eye injuries,
lacerations, punctures, amputations, electrocutions, and
burns. Using a tool the wrong way can also cause muscle and
joint problems that we call “ergonomic injuries.”
When we use tools we might make a hazardous situation
even more risky. For example, if a tool jams or kicks back, a
worker on a scaffold might lose his or her balance and fall. A
worker using an electric tool near flammable liquids might
ignite the vapors in the air and cause a fire or explosion.
Tools ­− Hand and Power is Subpart I of the OSHA
Construction Standard. It has eight sections, as shown below:

General Requirements

Hand Tools

29 CFR 1926.300

29 CFR 1926.301

Power-Operated Hand

Abrasive Wheels and

29 CFR 1926.302

29 CFR 1926.303

Woodworking Tools

Jacks - Lever & Ratchet,
Screw and Hydraulic

29 CFR 1926.304

Air Receivers
29 CFR 1926.306

29 CFR 1926.305

Mechanical PowerTransmission
29 CFR 1926.307

- Page 121 -

The Tools

Thousands of injuries
occur because of the
improper use of tools.

Basic Safety
Rules for Tools

• Use the right tool for the job.
• Examine the tool before use. Don’t use a damaged tool.
• Operate tools according to the manufacturers’
• If a guard is required, use it.
• Use a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) with
electric tools.
• Wear the right personal protective equipment.
• Keep tools in good condition with regular inspection and

Hand Tools
[29 CFR 1926.301]

Hand Tools are tools that don’t have motors: axes,
screwdrivers, hammers, chisels, scrapers, wrenches, etc.
Impact Tools: Wear safety glasses when using impact tools. A
piece of metal can break off and strike your eye.
Wrenches: Wear work gloves if it’s possible for the wrench to
slip and injure your hand. Usually it’s safer to pull a wrench
rather than push it.
Wooden Handles: If the handle is cracked or loose, the head
of the tool might fly off. Don’t use it.
Sharpening: Dull tools cause more injuries than sharp ones.
Sparks: Steel hand tools can make sparks. Use spark-resistant
tools around flammable liquids and gases.
Vises and clamps: Use a vise or clamp if necessary to hold
the work securely. An insecure piece can cause the tool to
slip, or cause you to loose your balance.

- Page 122 -

There are several types of power tools, based on the source
of power:
• Electric

• Powder-actuated

• Hydraulic

• Liquid Fuel (Gasoline)

Power Tools

[29 CFR 1926.302]

• Pneumatic (Air)
These safe work practices will reduce the dangers of using
power tools:
• Never carry a tool by the cord or hose.
• Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect the tool.
• Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp
• Wear safety glasses.
• Disconnect the tool when changing blades, bits, and
• Keep and use guards and safety switches that are part of
the tool.
• Hold work with clamps or a vise to free both hands to
operate the tool.
• Maintain good footing and good balance.
• Dress for safety. Loose clothing or jewelry can catch in
moving parts.
• Keep people not involved in the work at a safe distance.
• Disconnect tools when not using them.
• Keep tools in good condition.
• Remove damaged tools from use and tag them: “DO

- Page 123 -

The employer is
responsible for the safe
condition of tools and
equipment used by
employees. Employers
shall not issue or permit
the use of unsafe hand

Double Insulation: Double-insulated tools are available that provide protection against electrical shock without thirdwire grounding.302(a)] The most serious hazards of electric tools are shocks and electrical burns. even a small amount of electric current can result in fibrillation of the heart and death. • Be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer. An electric shock also can cause the user to fall off of a ladder or elevated work surface and be injured due to the fall. Under certain conditions. On double-insulated tools. Grounding: If you use an adapter in a two-hole receptacle. an internal layer of protective insulation completely isolates the external housing of the tool. Burns: If an electric current arcs to your body it can also cause a severe burn. .Page 124 - . Shocks: Shock can cause injury and even heart failure. Remember that an electric arc is hot enough to weld steel. Protection: To protect the user from shock and burns. • A double insulated case.Electric Tools [29 CFR 1926. electric tools must have one of the following arrangements: • A three-wire cord with ground plugged into a grounded receptacle. Never break off the third prong. you must attach the adapter wire to a known ground.

If the current is different. Electric Tools [29 CFR 1926.Page 125 - See Module 3. • Do not use electric tools in damp or wet locations unless they are approved for that purpose. A GFCI will turn off the circuit if it senses a difference between the current “going” to a tool through the black wire and the current “returning” through the white wire. At a construction site the employer must provide one or the other of these systems to further protect workers from shock: • Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) for every circuit that is not part of the permanent wiring of the building. “Electrical Safety. • Keep work areas well lighted when operating electric tools. it might mean that some electricity is going through your body.Follow these safe work practices when using electric tools: • Operate electric tools within their design limitations.302(a)] • Use gloves and appropriate safety footwear when using electric tools.” for more information of GFCI’s and assured equipment grounding conductor programs. • An assured equipment grounding conductor program that assures proper grounding of every circuit that is not part of the permanent wiring of the building. . . The GFCI will cut the circuit and protect you. • Store electric tools in a dry place when not in use. • Ensure that cords from electric tools do not present a tripping hazard.

and pulleys.Page 126 - . Don’t decide that you know better than the engineer who designed the tool. The tool is designed to be used with the guard in place. belts. These parts should be guarded to the extent possible without preventing the proper use of the tool. it may not be the right tool for the job. If the tool can’t do the job with the supplied guard in place. Never remove a guard. gears.300(b)] Hazardous moving parts of tools need guards in order to prevent accidental contact with blades. Most power tools come equipped with the proper guards. Never remove or disable the retractable guard on a handheld electric saw. shafts.Guards [29 CFR 1926. .

Saber or Scroll Saw (blade bigger than ¼”) Disk Sander (disk bigger than 2”) Grinder (wheel bigger than 2”) Router Planer Laminate Trimmer Nibbler Shears Jig.300(d)] . • Positive ON-OFF switch. (Stays “ON” until turned “OFF”.) • Momentary with a LOCK-ON that releases with a single touch. Saber or Scroll Saw (blade ¼” or less) Disk Sander (disk 2” or less) Grinder (wheel 2” or less) Momentary w/ LOCK-ON Positive ON-OFF Required No No OK OK No OK OK OK .Page 127 - Safe Switches [29 CFR 1926.) Safe Switches for Power Tools Momentary ON-OFF Circular Saw Chain Saw Percussion Tool Drill Fastener Driver Belt Sander Reciprocating Saw Jig.There are three types of switches that are used on power tools: • Momentary (Only “ON” while pressure is applied.

there must be a guard that covers the spindle nut and at least onehalf of the wheel. An undamaged wheel will give a clear metallic ring. Safe working procedures: • Always wear safety glasses or a face shield. discard it. • Turn off the power when not in use. . Allow the tool to reach operating speed before you start to grind or cut. then you might be using the wrong tool.303] Abrasive wheel tools — like grinders and cutting wheels — create two special safety hazards: • Pieces of the work being cut or ground can fly out. The fastenings must be strong enough that the guard will stay aligned with the wheel and will not come off during use. Do not remove the guard.Page 128 - . Wheels: Tighten the spindle nut enough to hold the wheel without distorting the flange. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. Don’t stand directly in front of the wheel as it comes up to speed. Tap it gently with a piece of hard wood. Sound Test: Before mounting an abrasive wheel. check it for cracks. Check to make sure that the operating speed of the tool is not faster than the maximum speed that the manufacturer specified for the wheel. Guards: To protect flying pieces or a shattered wheel. If the wheel sounds cracked or dead. • Never clamp a hand-held grinder in a vise. A defective wheel can shatter when it is first turned on.Abrasive Wheel Tools [29 CFR 1926. If you can’t do the work with the guard in place. • The abrasive wheel itself can shatter.

• Wear ear protection (ear plugs or ear muffs). Noise: Many pneumatic tools make a very loud noise. Hearing loss is irreversible. Heavy rubber grips reduce these effects and provide a secure hand hold.Page 129 - If the hose is more than ½ inch in diameter. like jackhammers. rivets or staples. • Getting injured by air pressure. Ergonomics: Vibrating tools. Safe working procedures: • Always wear safety glasses or a face shield. Nails and staples: A tool that drives nail. Repeated exposure to loud noise will cause hearing loss. Also make sure that it does not create a tripping hazard. Hose: Inspect the hose. can strain muscles and damage joints. . being burned or damaged by chemicals. Pneumatic Tools [29 CFR 1926. . Attachments: Use a safety clip to secure an attachment — such as a chisel or chipping hammer — so that it cannot be ejected from the tool. • Never point an air gun toward anyone. unless the muzzle is pressed against the work surface. • Muscle and joint injury (ergonomic injury). Make sure that the hose will not get damaged during use by rubbing against a sharp object.Pneumatic tools can create these special hazards: • Getting hit by an attachment or fastener. This is a good idea for smaller air hoses too.302(b)] • Loud noise. there must be a safety valve at the compressor. must have a special device to keep fasteners from being ejected. Check that the hose and tool are securely connected.

These tools give off carbon monoxide. • Toxic exhaust (carbon monoxide). A spark. . Safe working procedures: • Always wear safety glasses or a face shield. This means that it gives off a lot of vapor. that air-purifying respirators do not supply oxygen. Ventilation: If you have to use a gasoline powered tool inside. • Loud noise. flame or other heat source can ignite the vapor. make sure that there is sufficient ventilation to remove toxic exhaust.Liquid Fuel Tools [29 CFR 1926. • Wear ear protection (ear plug or ear muffs). • Have a fire extinguisher nearby. Gasoline: Gasoline is flammable. It has a very low flash point. Keep gasoline in an approved container. Confined Spaces: Do not use liquid fuel tools in a confined space.302(c)] Fuel-powered tools.Page 130 - . Shut off the engine before refilling. or in any area with poor ventilation. Remember. usually operate on gasoline. When you transfer fuel from a larger tank or drum to a smaller container. like chain saws. BC. an odorless colorless gas that is deadly. and do not protect against carbon monoxide. The special hazards with these tools are: • Fire caused by flammable gasoline vapor. or ABC — not Class A). bond the two containers together to prevent sparks that might ignite the vapor. (Class B.

Only specially trained employees should use them.302(e)] . Safe working procedures: • Always wear safety glasses or a face shield. Muzzle: The muzzle of the tool must have a protective shield to catch fragments that are projected when the tool is fired. This will make the faulty cartridge less likely to explode. • Never leave a loaded tool unattended.Page 131 - Powder-Actuated Tools [29 CFR 1926. If it still will not fire. take it out of service immediately and tag it. Put the bad cartridge in water immediately. • If the tool is damaged or defective. • Only load the tool immediately before using. this is no joke. hold the tool in the operating position for at least 30 seconds before trying to fire it again. • Inspect the tool before use. hold the tool in the operating position for another 30 seconds and then carefully remove the load in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. • Wear ear protection (ear plug or ear muffs). Safety: The tool must not be able to operate until it is pressed against the work surface with a force of at least 5 pounds greater than the total weight of the tool. • Never point the tool at anyone. Misfire: If a powder-actuated tool misfires.Powder-actuated tools operate like a loaded gun. Powder: Select a powder level — high or low velocity — that is appropriate for the tool and the job and does not create excessive force. .

2.Page 132 - . 3. IDENTIFY the general requirements for scaffold capacity. and descend scaffolds. climb. . We discuss how to safely set-up. access and use. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. platforms.Module 10 Scaffolds Learning objectives This module reviews hazards related to scaffold use at construction site. 4. IDENTIFY the requirements for fall protection from scaffolds. work on. IDENTIFY the work activities to which the OSHA Scaffolding Standard applies. IDENTIFY the requirements for protection from objects falling from scaffolds.

451 Additional Requirements for Specific Types of Scaffolds 29 CFR 1926. Scope. Application and Definitions 29 CFR 1926.” The appendix has methods that work. and trestle ladder scaffolds (o) Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. but the employer can use other methods as long as they comply with the standard.453 Training Requirements 29 CFR 1926. Each appendix contains information to assist employers and employees to comply with the Standard.450 General Requirements 29 CFR 1926.Scaffolding is Subpart L of the OSHA Construction Standards.Page 133 - . maintain or dismantle scaffolds (c) Retraining A Scaffold Specifications B Guardrail Systems C Determining the Feasibility of Providing Safe Access and Fall Protection for Scaffold Erectors and Dismantlers D Training Topics for Scaffold Erectors and Dismantlers E Drawings and Illustrations . The information in each appendix is “non-mandatory.452 Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926. It contains five sections and five appendices. platform. (p) Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds (q) Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds (r) Catenary scaffolds (s) Float (ship) scaffolds (t) Interior hung scaffolds (u) Needle beam scaffolds (v) Multi-level suspended (w) Mobile scaffolds (x) Repair bracket scaffolds (y) Stilts (a) General Requirements (b) Specific Requirements (a) Employees who work on scaffolds (b) Employees who assemble.454 Five Appendices Scaffolding Standard 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L (a) Scope and Application (b) Definitions (a) (b) (c) (d) Capacity Platform Construction Supported Scaffolds Suspended Scaffolds (a) Pole scaffolds (b) Tube and coupler scaffolds (c) Fabricated frame scaffolds (welded) (d) Plasterers’ scaffolds (e) Bricklayers’ scaffolds (f) Horse scaffolds (g) Form scaffolds and carpenters’ brackets (h) Roof bracket scaffolds (i) Outrigger scaffolds (j) Pump jack scaffolds (k) Ladder jack scaffolds (l) Window jack scaffolds (m) Crawling boards (chicken ladders) (e) (f) (g) (h) Access Use Fall Protection Falling Object Protection (n) Step.

One out of four injured workers had no training about scaffold safety. • Form scaffolds. • Tube and coupler scaffolds.Scaffold Are Hazardous There are almost 10. • The employee getting hit by a falling object. • Pump jack scaffolds. Two out of three scaffolds where an accident occurred were missing a guard rail.) In this module we will discuss the following: • General requirements. • Manually propelled mobile scaffolds. • The planking or support giving way. Most of the rest only had informal on-the-job safety training. • Training requirements for workers who use scaffolds. . and approximately 80 worker deaths.000 accidents each year involving scaffolds. • Common types of supported scaffolds: • Wooden pole scaffolds. In This Module The OSHA Scaffolding Standard provides detailed requirements for 25 different types of scaffold. • Tubular welded frame scaffolds. (Look back at items (a) through (y) in the middle of the previous page.Page 134 - . Most scaffold injuries result from: • The employee slipping.

its own weight and at least 4 times the maximum intended load. .The OSHA Scaffolding Standard applies to all scaffolds used in • Construction • Demolition Scope. A scaffold must not be loaded in excess of its capacity. In this module we discuss some common types of supported scaffold. A scaffold must only be constructed and loaded the way that it was designed to be used. A qualified person must design every scaffold. Every scaffold and scaffold component must be able to support.450] • Alteration • Repair (Includes Painting and Decorating) Exception: Personnel platforms that hang from a crane or derrick are covered under the OSHA Crane and Derrick Standard.451] Scaffold Capacity [29 CFR 1926. Application and Definitions [29 CFR 1926. The definitions specify whether a particular scaffold is a “supported” or a “suspension scaffold. OSHA lists definitions for all important terms used in the Standard.” This distinction is important since there are special safety rules for each type. without failure. Especially important are the definitions of each type of scaffold.Page 135 - Scaffold Design [29 CFR 1926.451] .

then the scaffold uprights (which are bigger than 1 inch) are between the planks on the main part of the platform and the plank on the side brackets.) There can be no more than 9½ inches between the planks and the scaffold uprights. each plank must be at least a nominal 2 inches thick by 10 inches wide.Scaffold Platform Construction [29 CFR 1926. . if side brackets are used. Exception: A wider space is allowed between the planks if it’s necessary because of the design of the scaffold. Walkways only have to be two planks wide. If the platform consists of separate planks. 2.451(b)] All platforms must be fully decked or planked. The planks or units that make up the platform must be close together: no more than 1 inch between the planks. There can be no more than 14 inches between the platform edge and the face of the structure. (This is about 1½ by 9½ inches. Exceptions: 1. then put in another plank. The front edge of an outrigger scaffold must be no more than 3 inches from the structure. For example.Page 136 - . unless there is a guard rail system or personal fall arrest system. Platforms used only to erect or dismantle a scaffold only have to be as wide as the employer determines is necessary for safety. Platforms must be at least 12 inches wide on ladder scaffolds and pump jack scaffolds. If there is more than this space. The front edge of a scaffold used for plastering and lathing must be no more than 18 inches from the face of the structure.

but not more than 18 inches. Where a scaffold turns a corner. There must be at least 12 inches of overlap. Then lay the lengthwise planks on top. Planks overlap at least 12 inches and on top of a support. Planks stick out at least 6 inches and no more than 12 inches. The level where employees work is fully decked. but not more than 12 inches. lay the planks that are on an angle first. then it must stick out past its support at least 6 inches. If the plank is more than 10 feet long. The surface may be treated with a clear preservative and the ends may be painted. They can extend 18 inches if the plank is more than 10 feet long. Overlap platforms only on a support. Scaffold Platform Construction [29 CFR 1926.If a plank is 10 feet long or less.451(b)] (Continued) Planks do not have to overhang if they are securely fastened to their support. it must stick out past its support at least 6 inches. . Only modify parts to fit if a competent person determines that the change is structurally sound. Never paint the top and bottom surface of wood planking.Page 137 - . The idea is to be able to see cracks and defects in the wood. Planks are close together.

Make Sure It’s
[29 CFR 1926.451(c)]

Make sure that the scaffold can’t tip over: If its more than
4 times taller than it is wide (at the base), then the scaffold
must be tied to the structure, or braced, or have guide wires
so that it can’t tip.
If the work platform sticks out in a way that makes the
scaffold unbalanced, then there must also be ties, braces or
guide wires.
The poles or legs must be plumb, and must rest on base
plates or some other firm foundation that is level, rigid
and strong enough to support the scaffold, workers and


[29 CFR 1926.451(e)]

How do you get to the work platform? There must be a
ladder, stairs or ramp if the platform is more than 2 feet
above (or below) the access point. “Access point” means the
place where you are before you go to the work platform.
The access point might be the ground, or it could be another
work platform.
Cross braces don’t count as a ladder and must not be used
for access.
The ladder, stairs or ramp must be strong and secure. It may
be an integral part of the scaffold. It should not cause the
scaffold to tip.
If a ramp has a rise to run ratio greater than 1 to 8, then it
must have cleats to help prevent workers from slipping. No
ramp shall be steeper than 1 to 3.
How do you get up and down a scaffold while you are
erecting it or taking it down? OSHA says that a competent
person shall determine how workers who are erecting or
dismantling a scaffold will gain access.

- Page 138 -

A competent person must supervise the erection, moving,
dismantling or altering of any scaffold. The competent
person must select experienced and trained employees to do
this work.

A Competent
Person Must
[29 CFR 1926.451(f)]

A competent person must inspect each scaffold prior to each
work shift.
The competent person must also inspect the scaffold after
any occurrence that might have affected the scaffold’s
structural integrity.
Keep the scaffold clear of electric power lines:
• At least 3 feet away from an insulated line under 300

Keep Clear of
Electric Lines

[29 CFR 1926.451(f)]

• At least 10 feet away from an insulated line over 300
• At least 10 feet away from any non-insulated line.
No work is allowed on a scaffold covered with snow or ice
until it is removed.
No work is allowed on a scaffold during high winds unless a
competent person determines that it is safe to work.

- Page 139 -

Adverse Weather

[29 CFR 1926.451(f)]

Work Safely
[29 CFR 1926.451(f)]

Never stand on a box or other makeshift item to reach higher
from than the platform.
The planks must not deflect more than 1/60 of their length.
This means that the greatest deflection allowed in a 10 foot
long plank is 2 inches. If it bends more than this, replace it
with a stronger plank.
Never move a scaffold with workers on it, unless the scaffold
has been designed by a registered professional engineer
specifically to be moved while occupied.

Fall Protection
[29 CFR 1926.451(g)]

10 foot threshold: There must be fall protection for workers
on a scaffold where the work platform is more than 10 feet
This is different than the 6 foot requirement for other
walking and working surfaces in the OSHA Fall Protection
State Standards: Some states have lower thresholds. Make
sure that you know the requirement in your state.
Guardrails: Wood pole scaffolds, tube & connector scaffolds,
and welded frame scaffolds must all have guardrails on all
Guardrails must be made of 2x4’s or an equivalent material,
and must be approximately 42 inches above the work
platform (38 to 45 inches).
Guardrails must not have splinters, nails or other hazards.

- Page 140 -

Exception for bricklaying: For employees doing overhand
bricklaying, it is not required to have a guardrail on the side
facing the work.

Fall Protection

[29 CFR 1926.451(g)]

Walkways: A walkway that is used to get from one scaffold
platform to another (and is not used for working) only needs
a guardrail on one side.
Erecting and dismantling: It might be hard to figure out how
to have fall protection for workers who erect or dismantle
scaffolding. Often a personal fall arrest system (for example,
a life line and lanyard) will work.
OSHA says that the employer must figure out how to provide
fall protection for workers who erect or dismantle a scaffold,
if possible. There must be a valid reason if the employer
decides not to provide fall protection to these workers.
Hard hats: Employees who work on or around scaffolds shall
wear hard hats.
Toe boards: The scaffold must have toe boards or some
other means to prevent tools, materials and debris from
falling on workers below. Alternatives to toe boards include
screens, debris nets, catch platforms and canopies.
Toe boards shall be at least 3½ inches tall and allow no more
than a ¼ inch space between the toe board and the work
If an object on the scaffold is too big or heavy for the toe
board to keep it from falling off, then it must be kept away
from the edge and secured if possible.
Barricades: The employer can put up barricades to keep
workers from areas where falling objects might land.

- Page 141 -

Protection from
Falling Objects
[29 CFR 1926.451(h)]

There must be adequate diagonal and cross bracing. A wood pole scaffold taller than 60 feet must be designed by a registered professional engineer.Page 142 - .452(a)] The general requirements discussed earlier apply to wood pole scaffolds.Wood Pole Scaffolds [29 CFR 1926. Never splice ledgers (the long. The plates must extend at least 2 feet in either direction from the splice. they must be cut square and the upper section shall rest directly on the lower section. horizontal pieces) between poles. There must be splice plates on at least two adjacent sides. . If the poles are spliced. The poles which hold up the scaffold shall be plumb and shall rest on a firm foundation or base plate.

and rest on suitable bases. (The illustration only shows the longitudinal diagonal bracing in one direction. Bottom runners as close to the base as possible.) Runners: Runners must be coupled to each post. Cross Bracing: At least every third set of posts horizontally and every fourth runner vertically. and with the proper spacing and attachments.Page 143 - Tube and Coupler Scaffold .or larger. or to the runners close to the posts. Bearers must be between 4 to 12 inches longer than the post spacing or runner spacing.D. Maximum Post Spacing Light Duty Medium Duty Heavy Duty Front to Back: 6 feet 5 feet * 4 feet Along the Length: 10 feet 8 feet 6 feet 6 inches (*May be 6 feet front to back if bearers are 2½ O. using the proper couplers and braces.452(b)] Tubing: Posts. Longitudinal Diagonal Bracing: Approximately 45 degree angle. Repeat every fifth set of posts. Tube and Coupler Scaffolds [29 CFR 1926.) Attachment to the Building: Brace and tie the scaffold securely to the building at least every 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.It is very important that tube and coupler scaffolds be erected correctly. Posts: Posts must be accurately spaced. plumb. Brace inner and outer rows of posts in both directions. Bearers: Must be coupled to the posts. runners and bracing must be made of steel tubing 2 inch outside diameter . bearers. .

Uplift Protection: If part of the scaffold might be accidently lifted. Attachment to the Building: Brace and tie the scaffold securely to the building at least every 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically. then the vertical members must have pins to lock them together so they can’t separate.Page 144 - . square and rigid.452(c)] Bases: Scaffold legs must rest on adjustable or plain bases that are placed on a foundation that can support the maximum load on the scaffold. Cross and Diagonal Bracing: The bracing must be attached so that it squares and aligns the vertical members so that the scaffold is plumb.Tubular Welded Frame Scaffolds [29 CFR 1926. Tubular Welded Frame Scaffold .

The ladder or stair must be located so that when workers climb it they do not tip the scaffold. Each caster must have a positive locking device. Casters: These must be strong enough to support four times the load on them.Page 145 - Manually propelled mobile scaffolds . Moving: Move the scaffold only on level surfaces free of holes or obstructions. Riding: Workers may be on the scaffold when it is moved only if all of the following conditions exist: • The floor is within 3 degrees of level and free from pits. It must be plumb. . holes or obstructions. • The minimum dimension of the base is at least one half the height. Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffolds [29 CFR 1926. it must be on a suitable footing. and the casters must be locked. Apply force as low as possible so the scaffold won’t tip. Plumb and Secure: Before workers ascend the scaffold.452(w)] Ladder or Stair: A ladder or stair must be built into the scaffold or firmly attached.Height: A freestanding mobile scaffold must be no more than four times as high as it is long. • All tools and materials are removed or firmly secured.

Pump Jack Scaffolds [29 CFR 1926. Wooden Bracket Form Scaffolds: The brackets must be an integral part of the form panels. Scaffolds for Concrete Forms [29 CFR 1926. straight grained wood. and if the walers are securely anchored to the form or secured to the shear bolts. or they must overlap by at least six inches.452(j)] Maximum Load: 500 lbs. Poles: Poles must be two 2 inch by 4 inch pieces of clear. Only join or overlap planks at a bracket. . Planking: Planks must be secured. total weight of workers. There must be a 45 degree angle brace that intersects the ledger at least 3 feet from the form. Poles must not be more than 30 feet high and not more than 10 feet apart.452(g)] Planking: Planks must be secured to the brackets. The ledger can be no more than 42 inches long. or they must be securely bolted or pinned to the form. No more than two workers between any two poles. Form scaffold Metal Bracket Form Scaffolds: The brackets must be an integral part of the form. Prevent Slipping: Each jack bracket must have two positive gripping mechanisms to prevent slipping.Page 146 - . tools and materials between any two poles. It’s OK to use “hook-over” brackets if they hang from form walers. Figure-Four Form Scaffolds: The outrigger ledger must be made of two pieces of 1 inch by 6 inch (or heavier) wood nailed on both sides of the vertical form support. Connect or overlap planks only on a bracket. Span: No more than 8 feet between brackets.

Never sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks. Stand firmly on the floor of the basket. Body Harnesses. Outriggers. Brakes and Chocks. never operate the lower level controls without permission from the employee in the lift. Insulation. position them on pads or on a solid surface. A worker in an aerial lift must have a body harness with a lanyard attached to the boom or basket. Never move an aerial lift truck with the boom elevated and a worker in the basket. or other devices for a work position. Never exceed the boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer. Controls. There must be a lower set of controls (at the truck) and an upper set (at the platform or basket). Never tie off to an adjacent pole or structure.Lift controls. . Load Limits. Stance. except when the equipment is specifically designed for this type of operation.453] Authorized Operators. Lower controls must provide for overriding the upper controls. Test lift controls each day prior to use. The insulated portion of an aerial lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value. Aerial Lifts [29 CFR 1926. Only authorized persons can operate an aerial lift. Movement. Set the brakes and place wheel chocks. except in case of emergency. If outriggers are used.Page 147 - . ladders. However.

More Scaffold Types Float Scaffold Extension Trestle Scaffold Horse Scaffold Bricklayer’s Square Scaffold Carpenter’s Bracket Scaffold Chicken Board .Page 148 - .

More Scaffold Types

Plaster’s Scaffold

Ladder Jack Scaffold

Aerial Lifts

- Page 149 -

More Scaffold Types

- Page 150 -

- notes -

- Page 151 -


Cranes, Derricks, Hoists,
Elevators and Conveyors
Learning objectives
This Module reviews the hazards associated with the use of cranes, derricks and hoists
at construction sites, and reviews safe work practices.
After completing this Module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to:
1. IDENTIFY how to determine the safe capacity of a crane or derrick.
2. IDENTIFY when cranes and hoists must be inspected and tested.
3. IDENTIFY when wire rope must be taken out of service on a crane or hoist.
4. IDENTIFY the conditions in which a personnel platform suspended from a crane or
derrick may be used.
5. IDENTIFY when a pre-lift meeting is required

- Page 152 -

• Dropped loads.Cranes. 29 CFR 1926 Subpart N Approximately 80 workers die in crane accidents each year. • Crushed by counterweights.Page 153 - Many cranes are operated by workers who do not have the necessary qualifications. Derricks. The major causes of crane accidents are: • Contact with power lines. • Improper use of lifting devices. • Improper use of outriggers. Cranes and Derricks 29 CFR 1926.553 Conveyors 29 CFR 1926. • Boom collapse. Etc. Derricks.551 Hoists and Elevators Base Mounted Drum Hoists 29 CFR 1926. It has six sections shown in the boxes below. Elevators and Conveyors.550 29 CFR 1926. • Rigging failure. In this module we focus on cranes. . Cranes. Often cranes are not properly maintained and inspected.552 Overhead Hoists 29 CFR 1926.555 .554 Helicopters 29 CFR 1926. Hoists. derricks and hoists. • Overturning. is Subpart N of the OSHA Construction Standard.

.Page 154 - . Signals.Cranes and Derricks: General Requirements [29 CFR 1926. Any deficiencies must be repaired before continued use. Workers must use the appropriate ANSI hand signals. • Reduction in the nominal diameter. Annual Inspections. A competent person must inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Equipment must be operated according to the manufacturer’s specifications and limitations. At least once a year a competent person must conduct a thorough inspection. Defective Wire Standing Rope must be taken out of service if any of the following conditions exist: • More than two broken wires in one lay beyond the end connections. Defective Wire Running Rope must be taken out of service if any of the following conditions exist: • Six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay.550(a)] Specifications and Limitations. Pre-Shift Inspections. or distortion. Attachments must not exceed the rated load capacity. • Three broken wires in one strand in one lay. • More than one broken wire at an end connection. • Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. bird caging. A copy of the signals must be posted on the site. • Heat damage. • Kinking. crushing. The employer must keep a record of the dates and results of inspections.

fly wheels.Page 155 - Cranes and Derricks: General Requirements [29 CFR 1926. This must be a 5BC rating. Guarding. Employees must keep clear of loads about to be lifted and clear of suspended loads. Exhaust pipes must be guarded or insulated if workers might contact them. pulleys. or higher.Modifications. No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made without the manufacturer’s written approval. Platforms and walkways must have antiskid surfaces. Walking Surfaces. Cab windows must be made of safety glass. Safety Glass. shafts. Belts. Fire Extinguisher. Nearby Workers. . The swing radius of the rear of the rotating superstructure of the crane must be barricaded to prevent an employee from being struck or crushed by the crane.550(a)] (Continued) . drums. gears. that causes no visible distortion that would interfere with safe operation of the machine. chains. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced. or equivalent. or other moving parts or equipment must be guarded to protect employees from contact. There must be a fire extinguisher accessible to the cab or operating station.

000 volts (50kV) or less 4 feet More than 50kV.550(a)] Operate cranes near a power line only if: • The power line is de-energized and visibly grounded. Assume it’s alive.Clearance from Power Lines [29 CFR 1926.000 volts (50kV) 10 feet plus 0. The utility company or the person owning the line states that it is not energized.Page 156 - . or • Sufficient clearance is maintained as shown in the box below. Any overhead wire must be considered to be energized until: 1. If it is difficult for the operator to see the power line. then there must be a person designated to watch the clearance and to warn the operator. less than 345 kV10 feet More than 345 kV up to 750 kV16 feet Spotter. or • Insulated barriers are in place to prevent contact. -and2. Required clearance while working: 50. .000 volts (50kV) or less 10 feet More than 50. The line has been visibly grounded.4 inch for each 1 kV over 50 kV Required clearance while moving the crane without a load and with the boom lowered 50.

Page 157 - Personnel Platforms [29 CFR 1926. The wire rope used for personnel lifting must have a safety factor of at least seven. Cranes and derricks also must be equipped with an anti-twoblock device. On the Level. all brakes and locking devices on the crane or derrick must be set.550(g)] . ladders or personnel hoists) are not feasible or unless they present greater hazards. If rotation resistant rope is used. When the platform is in a stationary position. Any movement of the personnel platform must be performed slowly and cautiously without any sudden jerking.Using a crane to lift people is very dangerous. A crane or derrick used to lift people must rest on a horizontal surface that is within 1 percent of a level grade. Using a crane or derrick to hoist people is only allowed if conventional means of transporting employees (for example. The operator must always be at the controls when the crane engine is running and the personnel platform is occupied. This means that it can support seven times the maximum intended load. Wire Rope. The combined weight of the loaded personnel platform and its rigging must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity of the crane or derrick for the radius and configuration. Crane Capacity. No Safe Alternative. Operation. The OSHA standard prohibits hoisting personnel by crane or derrick except when no safe alternative is possible. . it must have a safety factor of at least ten.

All welding on the personnel platform and its components must be performed by a qualified welder who is familiar with weld grades. The platform must have a standard guardrail system that is enclosed from the toe board to the mid-rail to keep tools. The access gate must have a restraining device to prevent accidental opening. The suspension system must be designed to minimize tipping due to personnel movement on the platform. A platform used for lifting personnel must be designed by a qualified engineer or a qualified person competent in structural design. then there must be a boom angle indicator that is visible to the operator. and a plate or other permanent marking that clearly indicates the platform’s weight and rated load capacity. types.Page 158 - . The platform must have a safety factor of at least five. and equipment from falling on employees below.550(g)] (Continued) Instruments and Components.Personnel Platforms [29 CFR 1926. . overhead protection on the platform and the use of hard hats are required. adequate headroom for employees. or an accurate determination of the load radius to be used during the lift must be made prior to hoisting personnel. materials. If personnel might be exposed to falling objects. Personnel Platforms. Cranes with telescoping booms must have a device to clearly indicate the boom’s extended length. If there is a variable angle boom. The platform also must have an inside grab rail. and materials specified in the platform design.

and the workers to be lifted) to review the procedures. equipment. nut. Hooks must be closed and locked. This meeting must be held before the trial lift at each new work site and must be repeated for any new employees in the operation. Bridles and associated rigging for attaching the personnel platform to the hoist line must not be used for any other purpose. and materials needed for the job — are allowed on the platform. . . The employer must hold a pre-lift meeting with all workers involved (operator. foreman. Only personnel instructed in the requirements of this standard and the task to be performed — along with their tools. The personnel platform must not be loaded in excess of its rated load capacity or its maximum intended load. signal person(s).Loading. and retaining pin may be used. Materials and tools must be secured and evenly distributed to balance the load while the platform is in motion.550(g)] (Continued) “Mousing” (wrapping wire around a hook to cover the hook opening) is not permitted in place of a locking hook. Pre-Lift Meeting. or a shackle with bolt.Page 159 - Personnel Platforms [29 CFR 1926. Rigging.

• Keep all parts of the body inside the platform.Page 160 - . • Multiple part lines not twisted around each other. Follow these safe work practices: • Never leave the controls with the engine running or the platform occupied. • Wear a body harness with a lanyard. • Stay in view. . Check the following: • Hoist ropes are free of kinks. • Do not make any lifts on another load line of a crane or derrick that is being used to hoist personnel. or in direct communication with the operator or signal person. Safe Work Practices. Follow these safe work practices: • Use tag lines unless their use creates an unsafe condition. • All ropes properly seated on drums and sheaves. • Primary attachment centered over the platform. or to a structural part of the platform. Attach the lanyard to the lower load block or overhaul ball. • Make sure a platform is secured to the structure where work is to be performed before entering or exiting. • There is no slack in the wire rope. Crane and derrick operators.Personnel Platforms [29 CFR 1926.550(g)] (Continued) Before employees are hoisted. • Don’t operate if there are indications of dangerous weather conditions.

After the trial lift. The operator must check all systems. the personnel platform must be loaded at least to its anticipated lift weight. the personnel platform must be hoisted a few inches and inspected to ensure that it remains secured and is properly balanced. If a crane or derrick is moved to a new location. the personnel platform. and safety devices to ensure the following: • They are functioning properly.Page 161 - Personnel Platforms [29 CFR 1926. The lift must start at ground level or at the location where employees will enter the platform and proceed to each location where the personnel platform is to be hoisted and positioned. controls. During the trial lift. and the base support or ground must be conducted by a competent person to determine if the trial lift exposed any defects or produced any adverse effects. A trial lift of the unoccupied personnel platform must be made before any employees are hoisted. • All boom or hoisting configurations necessary to reach work locations will allow the operator to remain within the 50 percent load limit of the hoist's rated capacity. • There are no interferences. Dummy Weight. A thorough visual inspection of the crane. Any defects found during inspections must be corrected before hoisting personnel.Inspecting and Testing. . The trial lift must be performed immediately prior to placing personnel on the platform.550(g)] (Continued) . the trial lift must be repeated before hoisting personnel.

• The boom must be parallel to the direction of travel. Personnel hoisting is prohibited while the crane is traveling except when the employer demonstrates that this is the least hazardous way to accomplish the task. • There must be a complete trial run before workers occupy the platform. This equipment is described more fully in the Fall Protection Module. • If the crane has rubber tires. tower.Personnel Platforms [29 CFR 1926.550(c)] Clearance for Employees. If an employee must work on the horizontal boom of a tower crane.550(g)] (Continued) Moving the Crane. There must be clearance between the moving or rotating parts and fixed objects to allow the passage of employees without harm.Page 162 - . or locomotive cranes are used. . • Travel must be limited to the radius of the boom during the lift. then the boom must have a guardrail or a personal fall arrest system. Work on the Boom. Tower Cranes [29 CFR 1926. or when portal. • Travel must be restricted to a fixed track or runway. the condition and air pressure of the tires must be checked.

Operating rules. • Reduction in the nominal diameter. such as black and yellow stripes. crushing. • Three broken wires in one strand in one lay. Bars and gates must be painted with diagonal contrasting colors. Entrances. including signals and line speeds must be posted at the operator’s station. Hoists: General Requirements [29 CFR 1926. • Kinking.Hoist Limitations and Capacities: The employer must comply with the manufacturer’s specifications and limitations. The entrances to the hoist must have substantial gates or bars across the full width of the entrance. operating speeds and special hazard warnings must be posted on cars and platforms.552] The rated load capacities. then a professional engineer. Wire rope must be taken out of service if any of the following conditions exist in hoisting ropes: • Six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay. Wire Rope. Postings. No person shall be allowed to ride on material hoists except for the purposes of inspection and maintenance.Page 163 - Material Hoists [29 CFR 1926. • Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. or distortion of the rope structure. If these are not available. competent in the field. . • Heat damage (for example from contact with a cutting torch or arc). must determine the limitations and specifications in writing. Not for Personnel. bird caging.552] .

Booms. The operator’s station must have overhead protection equivalent to tight planking at least 2 inches thick. ¾ inch plywood. They must be located between 36 inches and 42 inches above the floor. Car Arresting Devices. The installation of live booms on hoists is prohibited. Gates or bars at entrances must have a latching device. There must be car arresting devices in case the rope fails. the hoist platform or car must be totally enclosed (caged) on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering with ½ inch mesh wire or 4-inch wooden bars or the equivalent. There must be 2-inch planking. . The tower may be enclosed.552] (Continued) Gates. except for landing access. When a hoist tower is not enclosed.Material Hoists [29 CFR 1926. Hoist Towers.Page 164 - . located 2 feet from the hoist way line. Overhead Protective Covering. or not enclosed. The entrance bars must be at least 2. as follows: An enclosed tower must be enclosed on all sides for its entire height with a screen enclosure of ½ inch mesh wire. Design. or other solid material on the top of a material hoist cage or platform. Material hoist towers must be designed by a licensed professional engineer.

Anchoring. Doors or gates must have electric contacts which prevent movement of the hoist when the door or gate is open.Page 165 - Personnel Hoists [29 CFR 1926. Towers must be anchored to the structure at least once every 25 feet. except for the entrance and exit which have gates or doors. Doors and Gates. Enclosure. In addition. The use of endless belt man lifts is prohibited. The sides not used for exit or entrance must also be enclosed to height of at least 10 feet. . Cars. there must be a system of guide wires of at least one-half inch in diameter wire rope. Doors and gates must be at least 6 feet 6 inches high and must have mechanical locks which cannot be operated from the landing side. At the Lowest Landing. The car must have a data plate in a conspicuous place showing its capacity. Cars must be permanently enclosed on all sides and the top. Hoist towers outside the structure must be enclosed for the full height on the side or sides used for entrance and exit.Endless Belt Hoists. Other sides of the tower adjacent to floors or scaffold platforms must be enclosed to a height of 10 feet above the level of such floors or scaffolds.552 . Towers inside of structures must be enclosed on all four sides throughout the full height.

The most recent certification record must be kept on file. There must be an emergency stop switch in the car. After assembly of the hoist.552] (Continued) Overhead Protective Covering. and before being put in service. The minimum diameter of hoisting and counterweight wire ropes is ½ inch wire rope. There must be 2 inch planking. . ¾ inch plywood or other solid material on the top of every personnel hoist.Page 166 - . The employer must prepare a written certificate showing who did the test. There must be at least three hoisting ropes for traction hoists and two for drum-type hoists. Inspections and Tests. and when. Emergency Stop Switch. A similar inspection and test is required following major alteration of an existing installation. Personnel hoists must be inspected and tested at least once every 3 months. Hoisting Ropes.Personnel Hoists [29 CFR 1926. Car Arresting Devices. There must be car arresting devices capable of stopping and holding the car at the rated load. there must be an inspection and test of all functions and safety devices under the supervision of a competent person.

.Page 167 - .notes - .

IDENTIFY the two main types of protective systems for excavations and trenches.Module 12 Excavations Learning objectives This Module discusses the hazards associated with excavations and trenches. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. 2.Page 168 - . 6. DEFINE excavation and trench. IDENTIFY the steps that must be taken before excavation work begins. 5. IDENTIFY the general safety requirements for excavation work. IDENTIFY the depth of an excavation that requires a protective system. 4. . 3. IDENTIFY the responsibilities of a competent person with regard to excavation and trenching work.

and is longer than it is wide.651 Selection of Protective Systems Appendix F This subpart applies to all open excavations made in the earth’s surface. It has three sections and six appendices.652 Excavations [29 CFR 1926 Subpart P] 29 CFR 1926.Excavations is Subpart P of the OSHA Construction Standards. Excavation means any man-made cut.Page 169 - Scope and Application [29 CFR 1926. formed by earth removal. Application and Definitions Specific Excavation Requirements Requirements for Protective Systems Soil Classification Appendix A Sloping and Benching Appendix B Timber Shoring For Trenches Appendix C Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring For Trenches Appendix D Alternatives to Timber Shoring Appendix E 29 CFR 1926. or depression in an earth surface. cavity. as shown in the boxes below. Scope.650 29 CFR 1926. including trenches. Trench means an excavation that is 15 feet or less wide. . trench.650] .

pipe lines or sewers that could leak toxic or flammable materials into the excavation. to: • Locate underground utilities. Will underground water cause flooding? • Consider the weather that might occur while the work takes place. telephone.651] Many excavation accidents result from a failure to plan the excavation work correctly. • Determine the depth of the water table. The contractor should build safety into the pre-bid plan. water. • Remove or support objects and structures near the excavation. It is important. electric. • Identify nearby underground storage tanks.Page 170 - . • Locate nearby sources of surface water that might run into the excavation. • Identify overhead structures and utilities that might be a hazard during excavation work. cable TV. or call the local locate service. etc. Proper investigation and preparation of the site takes time. fuel. Sewer. . Contact local utility companies so they can identify where their lines are.Plan Before You Dig [29 CFR 1926. • Determine the type of soil. before digging starts. • Determine whether traffic near the excavation will cause a hazard.

Page 171 - [29 CFR 1926. If the excavation is 4 feet or more deep. the grade should be away from the excavation.651] Warning System for Vehicles [29 CFR 1926. even if the excavation is less than 4 feet deep. ladders. A driver may remain in the cab. then OSHA requires the air in the excavation to be monitored. In other words. if the vehicle is equipped to provide protection during loading and unloading.651] . These must be located so that a worker never has to go more than 25 feet along the trench to get out. If possible. ladder or ramp for workers. hand or mechanical signals. or when such equipment needs to approach the edge of an excavation. determining the concentration of toxic gases and vapors. This can be barricades.651] Hazardous Atmospheres [29 CFR 1926.Any trench 4 feet or more deep must have a stairway. or stop logs. Falling Loads When mobile equipment is operated near an excavation. Employees must stand away from a vehicle being loaded or unloaded to avoid being struck by falling materials. . and measuring whether the level of flammable gases and vapors is well below the flammable range. This might include measuring the oxygen level. and the operator does not have a clear and direct view of the edge.651] [29 CFR 1926. then there must be a warning system. Getting In and Out No employee is permitted underneath loads handled by lifting or digging equipment. stairways and ramps can be no more than 50 feet apart. or the possibility of oxygen deficiency. This kind of monitoring is a good idea. and there is the possibility of hazardous gases or vapor entering.

or by supports added in preparing for the excavation. If there is a hazardous condition. . then the contractor must construct a ditch or a dike to prevent the excavation from flooding. If pumps are used. it must be corrected before workers are allowed in the excavation. and protective systems for any possibility of cave-ins. A registered professional engineer must determine that the structure is adequately supported either by existing rock or a foundation under the structure. or other hazardous conditions.651] Employees must not work where water is accumulating. Additional inspections must take place during the shift. unless precautions are taken.651] A competent person must inspect the excavation. hazardous atmospheres. Water Accumulation [29 CFR 1926.Page 172 - .651] Adjacent structures must be supported to prevent a cave in. Inspections must be made after any rainstorm or other event that might increase hazards at the excavation. Adjacent Structures [29 CFR 1926. failure of protective systems. the adjacent areas. but could include special shield systems to prevent cave-ins. or safety harnesses and lifelines. a competent person must monitor their operation. If there is a stream. water pumps. These precautions depend on the situation.Inspection by a Competent Person [29 CFR 1926.

or a basket stretcher.Page 173 - Emergency Rescue Equipment [29 CFR 1926. a safety harness and line. since these might interfere with the work. Emergency rescue equipment. must be available nearby if there is a possibility of toxic materials getting into the excavation. such as breathing apparatus.651] The standard does require guardrails on a walkway that workers use to cross over a trench or other excavation if the walkway is six or more feet above the bottom of the trench or excavation. If workers are on a scaffold in an excavation.The OSHA Standard does not specifically require guardrails around an excavation. then they need fall protection as required in the Fall Protection Standard and the Scaffolding Standard. it’s a good idea if they can be used.651] . Fall Protection [29 CFR 1926. However. .

The pressure pushes out with nothing to support it. . At a depth of two feet it’s 200 psi. If you go one foot down. The sideways pressure from each column is supported by the pressure from the columns around it. Think of the ground as made up of a lot of columns stacked next to each other.Soil Is Heavy Soil is heavy. we take away the support from one side. Unless the soil is very cohesive (sticks to itself). There is also pressure pushing outwards. it will give way. One cubic foot weighs more than 100 pounds. there is a downward pressure of 100 pounds per square foot (psi). Five feet down it’s 500 psi. This lateral pressure is about half of the downward pressure.Page 174 - . When we cut an excavation. They are all supporting each other.

. Sliding or sluffing may occur as a result of tension cracks.Page 175 - Tension Cracks Sliding or Sluffing Toppling . Tension cracks can also cause toppling.Tension cracks usually form at a distance of about ½ to ¾ the depth of the trench away from the opening.

The trench may collapse. This pressure causes a bulge in the bottom of the cut. and can occur even when shoring or trench boxes are used. A high water table is one of the causes of boiling. Heaving and squeezing can occur even when shoring or shielding has been properly installed. Boiling Boiling is an upward water flow into the bottom of the cut. . Heaving and Squeezing Bottom heaving or squeezing is caused by the downward pressure created by the weight of adjoining soil. Boiling produces a “quick” condition in the bottom of the cut.Page 176 - .Subsidence and Bulging An unsupported excavation can cause subsidence or bulging at the surface and bulging of the vertical face of the trench.

and submerged rock that is not stable.A competent person must determine what type of soil the excavation is in. Very cohesive soils. For example. At one extreme is rock. which might be so stable that it requires no shoring or other protective system. Soils which are fairly cohesive. Some soils are more stable than others. At the other extreme is sand. has been disturbed (dug or moved before). loamy sand. soil from which water is freely seeping. clay that has been disturbed is Type B. . silt. is in a slanting layer. which is very unstable. sand. Natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed. The least cohesive soils. silty clay. then it is considered to be in a less cohesive type. • Type C Soil. • Type A Soil. silty loam. or is subject to vibration. but less so than Type A. and clay loam. Examples of Type C soils include granular gravel. • Type B Soil. has seeping water. Examples of Type A soils include clay. not A. sandy clay. then use the soil classification of the weakest layer. It usually has a rock name such as granite or sandstone. If there are layers of different soil types.Page 177 - Types of Soil . “Cohesive” means that the soil particles stick to each other so that the soil is less likely to crumble apart. previously disturbed soils unless otherwise classified as Type C. OSHA divides soils into four types: • Stable Rock. submerged soil. Examples of Type B soils include angular gravel. But if a soil has cracks.

If it’s very difficult to make an indentation. it’s not very cohesive. Check for cracks and fissures developing near the excavation. This instrument has blades which you press into the soil. . it is cohesive. Dry Strength Test. it is probably Type B soil. it’s probably Type A or Type B. the soil is probably Type A. If it doesn’t break.Testing the Soil Pocket Penetrometer. Look for signs of bulging.Page 178 - . how big the pieces are and whether the pieces break into smaller pieces. Look at the soil being excavated. With experience one might be able to recognize different soil types by how easily the soil crumbles in your hand. Thumb Penetration Test. or sliding. This test also is not very accurate. Hold by one end. Break off 2 inches. Visual Inspection. If your thumb penetrates no further than the length of the thumb nail. Shearvane or Torvane. If it remains in clumps. Moisten some soil and mold it into a ball. it is Type C soil. if it looks like sand or gravel. If it penetrates the full length of the thumb. This instrument measures how cohesive the soil is. Press your thumb firmly into the soil. Look for water running in from the surface or seeping in underground. Then you turn the knob slowly and read the indicator when the soil breaks apart. Look at the open sides of the excavation to see if there are layers of different types of soil. This is the least accurate test method. Push it into the soil and the indicator displays the reading. Plasticity or Wet Thread Test. Roll it into a 1/8 inch thread.

Otherwise. Your state might require protective systems if the trench is four feet deep. Every trench that is 5 feet or more deep must have shoring or shields ­— or have benching or sloping. Some states have stricter standards. Exceptions. no one may enter. • Support systems (shoring and shielding).652] • Benching and sloping systems. An excavation must have one or the other (or a combination) of these protective systems. Many workers have died in trenching accidents because adequate shoring was not in place.Page 179 - .The OSHA Excavation Standard describes two types of protective systems to prevent cave ins: [29 CFR 1926. or • The excavation is less than five feet deep and a competent person has examined the ground and determined that there is no indication of a potential cave-in. Protective Systems . A protective system is not required if: • The entire excavation is in stable rock. State standards.

The angle has to be more gradual if the soil is less cohesive.Page 180 - . for Type B it’s less steep than for Type A. In other words. This is called benching. .Sloping Sloping protects workers in a trench or other excavation. The sides are cut at an angle so that they won’t collapse. Benching In Type A or Type B soil it is possible to cut steps to prevent collapse. For Type C it’s even more gradual.

during this time they are not completely protected.Page 181 - Timber Shoring . struts.There are two types of shoring: timber shoring and mechanical jack shoring. wales. and inspect the shoring before each work shift. . Timber shoring is a system of wooden posts. Workers have to enter the trench in order to install or remove it . Install all shoring from the top down. and sheeting. Shoring A competent person must supervise the installation and removal. Remove shoring from the bottom up.

pneumatic or screw jacks as cross braces or struts. pneumatic/hydraulic jacks screw jacks . Some aluminum systems are so light that a single person can install it.Mechanical Jack Shoring Mechanical jack shoring uses hydraulic. There are systems where the wales and sheeting are made of aluminum or steel and are designed to fit the jacks. broken connections. and any other damaged or defective parts.Page 182 - . Some types of hydraulic and pneumatic shoring can be installed and removed without a worker having to enter the trench. cracked nipples. Hydraulic and pneumatic shoring should be checked at least once per shift by a competent person for leaking hoses or cylinders. bent bases.

Earth excavation to a depth of 2 feet below the shield is permitted. heaving. . Trench boxes may be used in combination with sloping and benching. A competent person must regularly inspect the trench box for signs of bulging. Again. Shields are designed to safely handle certain loads.Shields or trench boxes are different from shoring. boiling and vibration. The box should extend at least 18 inches above the surrounding area if there is a sloping toward excavation. Do not use a shield or trench box in a situation that it was not designed for. They are not designed to support the sides of the excavation. but only if the shield is designed to resist the forces calculated for the full depth of the trench and there are no indications that soil is slipping from behind or below the box’s supports. The excavated area between the outside of the trench box and the face of the trench should be as small as possible. a competent person must assure that the shield or trench box is used properly. This can be accomplished by providing a benched area adjacent to the box.Page 183 - Shielding and Trench Boxes . This space is usually backfilled to prevent the box from moving. Rather they are intended to protect workers inside of the shield if the excavation caves in.

IDENTIFY ways to prevent heat stress. Noise & Ergonomic Hazards Learning objectives This module reviews the hazards of heat stress. 3. DESCRIBE the correct technique for lifting. noise exposure and heavy lifting at construction sites. IDENTIFY the hazard caused by exposure to loud noise. IDENTIFY the four types of heat stress. 4. IDENTIFY the symptom caused by improper lifting. and describes safe work practices and control measures to reduce injury and illness caused by these hazards. 6.Module 13 Heat. 2.Page 184 - . . IDENTIFY the conditions that cause heat stress. 5. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1.

and/or • Something is keeping your body’s cooling system from working effectively. especially for workers wearing impermeable protective clothing. As the body gets hotter. • Heat from the environment around you. .Page 185 - Heat Stress . If your body gets too hot it means that: • You are working too hard. it sends more blood to the skin where heat in the blood dissipates into the air. Your body has a cooling system. Heat in your body comes from two sources: • Heat muscles make as they work. As the sweat evaporates.Heat stress can be a serious. Your body also sweats. It means that your body is overheating. Heat stress means that your body is having trouble keeping its temperature at the normal level – about 99°F. it takes even more heat with it. life-threatening hazard. This is like the way hot water from an engine goes to the radiator where it gives off heat. and/or • The environment is too hot.

you may create a new hazard: heat stress. .Heat Stress Heat stress is possible if you are working in a hot environment. it can’t cool. Sweating only cools if the sweat evaporates. Heat stress is also possible if you are wearing protective clothing – even when it isn’t very hot. If sweat can’t evaporate. and not working harder than your fitness allows. and keep it from evaporating. Preventive action means adequate rest breaks. drinking plenty of water. If you wear heavier or more protective clothing than you need. Even in moderate weather.Page 186 - . It’s important to recognize the signs and symptoms of heat stress so you can take preventive action before heat stress causes serious problems. But these garments also trap sweat inside. Protective clothing can cause heat stress even if it’s not very hot out. it’s possible to suffer heat stress if you’re in protective clothing that interferes with your body’s cooling. Protective clothing can keep chemicals out.

but indicates that heat stress conditions may be present. These are painful cramps caused when sweating diminishes water and electrolytes so that not enough are available for your working muscles. This is not life threatening. You may have rapid. Call emergency medical help now! Symptoms include: • Hot. Heat Cramps. shallow breathing. Itchy rash that occurs when the skin becomes swollen and plugs the sweat glands. Get help immediately! . • Very rapid pulse. Heat Stroke. Heat Exhaustion. nauseous. Stop work: rest in a cool place. Get medical assistance: heat exhaustion can develop into deadly heat stroke. There are many possible effects of heat stress. but it indicates you are working under heat stress conditions. . One half of all heat stroke victims die. shaded area. and drink fluids. nausea. dizzy or faint.There are four types of adverse health effects caused by heat stress: Reactions to Heat Stress Heat Rash. dry skin with little or no sweating.Page 187 - Heat Stress Can Kill Heat stress is one of the most serious hazards you might encounter on a construction site. The most dangerous effect is called heat stroke. delirium or possible coma. This is not a lifethreatening condition. • Temperature above 105°F. You feel warn-out. This is a serious medical emergency. Drink fluids. • Dizziness. Heavy sweating. Stop work. Almost one half of all people who experience heat stroke die as a result. rest in a cool. red. Heat stroke is a serious medical condition.

Count the beats for 15 seconds. Multiply by 4 to get beats per minute. • Weigh Yourself. even if it’s not hot out. no matter how “used to it” you are. this is probably water loss. Becoming Acclimated If you are healthy and are not wearing protective clothing that interferes with sweat evaporation. Touch your arm lightly just above the wrist. • Take Your Temperature. . before drinking. your sweat may not be able to evaporate. Normal body temperature is about 99 °F. or work less vigorously. Take your pulse when you begin a break. so take it easy at first. Here’s how: • Check your pulse. If you’ve lost more than a pound in one day. Weigh yourself at the beginning and end of the day. If your heart rate is more than 110 beats per minute. shorten your next work period. If your temperature is above 100 °F. This takes several days. If you are wearing protective clothing. You need to drink more. or work less vigorously. It’s possible to suffer heat stress no matter how fit you are. then you may become used to the heat. You should also monitor yourself whenever you wear impermeable protective clothing. Take your temperature at the beginning of a break. Keep the thermometer under your tongue for at least two minutes.Page 188 - . then you should shorten your next work period.Monitoring for Heat Stress You should monitor yourself for heat stress whenever you work in a hot environment.

or acting dizzy and uncoordinated. Air conditioning is even better. or sanitary. sweating too much. . before you get thirsty. The healthier you are. Don’t wait until you’re thirsty. don’t be afraid to say something. Your muscles work more efficiently and your body is better able to transfer heat to your skin surface where sweating can dissipate this heat. Preventing Heat Stress • Adjust Schedules. If your buddy looks like they’re having a hard time. Schedule heavy work in the coolest part of the day. getting too red. Drink water or other fluids regularly throughout the day. • Drink fluids. Have shaded rest shelters with chairs or benches. . the more resistant your body is to conditions that cause heat stress. Your employer is required to provide clean running water. or at night.There are several ways to help prevent heat stress: • Recognize the signs of heat stress in yourself and in your fellow workers. You may not feel thirsty until you’ve become dehydrated. Sweating cools the body.Page 189 - You don’t feel thirsty until you’ve started to dehydrate. • Provide Rest Shelters. insulated water jugs. Drink enough to replace what you lose. Drink regularly throughout the day. You might be saving their life. Heavy work in protective clothing or in a hot environment may require more time resting than working. Take breaks. but it also robs the body of fluid. Often we don’t notice what’s happening to ourselves. • Keep Fit.

your average daily exposure is 90 dBA or above. despite using engineering and administrative controls. over several years of noise exposure. If. This is a permanent condition. you won’t notice it until it’s too late. . [29 CFR 1926. Because it develops slowly. One is for workers in general industry [29 CFR 1910. Industrial hearing loss is a permanent condition. The other standard is for workers in the construction industry.52] Both standards require the employer to control noise exposure with engineering controls (which includes good maintenance) and administrative controls (like limiting the amount of time a worker is exposed).Page 190 - . You need to protect yourself now in order to prevent hearing loss later. until one day when you realize that you can’t understand your grandchildren.95]. There is no cure. That’s why prevention is so important. Controlling Noise Exposure OSHA has two different standards for noise exposures. This kind of hearing damage is called industrial hearing loss. OSHA requires hearing protection (plugs or muffs) to be worn. or that music just doesn’t sound right anymore.Noise Exposure Long term (chronic) exposure to loud noise levels at work can harm your hearing by damaging or destroying nerve cells in your inner ear.

The “A” means that OSHA requires a certain type of sound level meter. Hearing Conservation Programs • Measuring noise levels at work. Noise is measured with a sound level meter which reads in decibels. The program must include: • Training and information about risks and how to control them.52(b)] . [29 CFR 1910. A jet engine can create 150 dBA. Even if your work site is “construction industry. According to OSHA. If your average daily exposure is 90 dBA or above. • Annual hearing exams. where feasible.The General Industry Standard also requires a hearing conservation program if average sound levels are 85 dBA or above. A conversation in a quiet room makes about 60 dBA. every time the sound level goes up 5 dBA. • Protective equipment. OSHA requires hearing protection (plugs or muffs). and • Keeping records.” it’s still a good idea to have a hearing conservation program. including training and annual exams.Page 191 - Measuring Noise . it’s twice as loud! So. We use the abbreviation “dBA” for decibels. an “A scale” meter. • Engineering and administrative controls.95(b)(1) and 29 CFR 1926. Decibels are different than ordinary numbers. 100 dBA is four times as loud as 90 dBA. 95 dBA is twice as loud as 90 dBA.

Whether it can harm your hearing depends on how loud it is and how long you are exposed. 1 hour at 105 dBA. Noise is sound that’s not wanted. and whether you wear hearing protection.Noise Limits The sound level you experience from a piece of equipment depends on what it is. Whether you call it sound or noise depends on your point of view.Page 192 - Space shuttle takeoff Jet engine Threshold of pain Pneumatic chipper Bulldozer Diesel truck passing by Plugs or muffs required Noisy office Vacuum cleaner Conversation Quiet office Quiet home Recording studio Whisper Quietest sound a healthy ear can hear . whether it has sound insulation. OSHA says that an average of 90 dBA for eight hours is the most you are supposed to receive. how well it is maintained. 170 dBA 160 dBA 150 dBA 140 dBA 130 dBA 120 dBA 110 dBA 100 dBA 90 dBA 80 dBA 70 dBA 60 dBA 50 dBA 40 dBA 30 dBA 20 dBA 10 dBA . How the sound level affects you depends on how loud it is and on how long you are exposed. Many an aging rock star knows the hearing damage caused by exposure to loud sound. This is the same as just four hours at 95 dBA. ½ hour at 110 dBA or ¼ hour at 115 dBA. how close you are. 2 hours at 100 dBA. OSHA PEL for NOISE 90 dBA 8 hours 95 dBA 4 hours 100 dBA 2 hours 105 dBA 1 hour 110 dBA 30 minutes 115 dBA 15 minutes Above 115 dBA Not allowed Typical Sound Levels What’s the difference between noise and sound? It’s like the difference between a weed and a flower.

You might have a musculoskeletal disorder if you have any of these symptoms: • Numbness in your fingers. There are many different names used for ergonomic injuries: • Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). • Numbness in your thighs. • Lower back pain. tingling. tendons. and nerves. ligaments. These are painful and often disabling conditions that often develop over a long period of time. cartilage. . neck. • Back pain. stiff joints. muscle loss.Page 193 - Ergonomic Hazards . joints. and paralysis. • Carpal tunnel syndrome.Ergonomic hazards can cause injuries to muscles. • Stiff joints. They are very difficult to cure. so prevention is always important. • Tendonitis. legs. wrists and hands. • Disk injury. difficulty moving. This can result in lost time or even the inability to work at all. shoulders. • Sciatica. numbness. MSDs can cause pain. • Cumulative trauma disorders. arms. These injuries most often involve the back. • Repetitive stress injury.

• Keep the back straight and lift with the legs. These activities often require lifting heavy objects by hand. There should be enough workers to lift safely. The job should be planned to minimize the amount of manual lifting. even if the weight of the object is not very great.Ergonomic Hazards Lifting is one of the most common ergonomic hazards. Correct • Don’t overestimate your strength: if it’s too bulky or too heavy. Construction workers and hazardous waste workers move materials. get assistance. use the proper technique. Even a worker using proper technique has a force of several hundred pounds on the lower back. • Keep the load as close to your body as possible. • Lift slowly and carefully. Improper lifting can cause serious back injury. Wrong! • Be just as careful putting the load down. • Don’t turn or twist while you are lifting. or if the worker reaches out too far. Lifting puts a tremendous strain on the muscles and discs in the lower back. To prevent painful. the force can be many times greater. Use drum grapplers. fork trucks and boom trucks whenever possible. Proper Lifting Technique. move materials and equipment. lifting can injure your back. . load and unload trucks.Page 194 - . possibly permanent injury. They put drums in overpacks. If not done correctly. or twists while lifting. If the load is too heavy.

. Back belts. and good job planning to minimize manual lifting. and also some scientists and workers. Examples of ergonomic solutions include fully adjustable driver’s seats. Many people believe supports help because they remind you to use proper technique. They found that workers wearing supports are just as likely to be injured as those who don’t use them. vehicles and equipment to fit the worker in order to reduce physical stress on the worker’s body and to eliminate potentially serious. tools.Ergonomics means designing jobs to fit the worker. Ergonomics means adapting job tasks.Page 195 - Ergonomic Hazards . Makers of back supports. disagree with NIOSH. disabling injuries like musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). One thing is certain: a back support won’t make you stronger. work stations. rather than forcing the worker’s body to fit the job. Do back supports work? NIOSH studied workers who do lifting. preventive maintenance to reduce vibration. Don’t assume that you can lift more just because you have one.

After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. IDENTIFY the purpose of bonding and grounding containers of flammable materials. 3. IDENTIFY five general fire safety requirements for construction sites. 2. . DEFINE Flammable and Combustible. Fire Protection and Prevention is Subpart F of the OSHA Construction Standards. 4.Page 196 - . IDENTIFY the four classes of fire extinguishers and the class of fire each is used for. This standard has ten sections as shown in the box on the following page.Module 14 Fire Prevention Plans and Fire Protection Learning objectives This module reviews the fire prevention plans and fire protection equipment required at construction sites.

Gaseous Agent 29 CFR 1910. cleaning solvents. Kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas are often used for temporary heating. Employers must have a practical.160 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 29 CFR 1926. that can ignite flammable and combustible materials.153 Temporary Heating Devices 29 CFR 1926. such as wood.165 . are combustible. comprehensive fire protection and prevention plan that include the necessary equipment and safe work practices to prevent. as far as possible. Electrical equipment.154 Fixed Extinguishing Systems.164 Employer Alarm Systems 29 CFR 1910. General 29 CFR 1910. power tools. Subpart F Fire Protection 29 CFR 1926. Many building materials. and paints. Also. the risk of fire.152 Liquefied Petroleum Gas 29 CFR 1926. there are many flammable and combustible materials in use.Page 197 - . Fire Protection and Prevention 29 CFR 1926.155 Fire Prevention 29 CFR 1926.151 Fixed Extinguishing Systems.Fire is a danger at construction sites. diesel fuel. such as welding and cutting. The plan must also include how workers and management will respond in the event a fire does break out. Waste materials can also accumulate on the site and create a fire hazard. and vehicle exhaust can also be sources of ignition.150 Definitions 29 CFR 1926. including gasoline.162 Fire Detection Systems 29 CFR 1910. Fire Hazards at Construction Sites Construction work often includes activities.

then the installation of the sprinkler system shall closely follow the building construction.Fire Protection [29 CFR 1926. Fixed Fire Fighting Systems: If the facility that is being constructed includes an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be placed in service as each floor is completed (subject to applicable local inspection and permitting). these shall be installed as soon as practicable. Fire Cutoffs: If the project includes fire doors with automatic closing devices. must be provided to allow employees to alert the local fire department in case of emergency.Page 198 - .150] Fire Protection Program: The employer shall have a comprehensive Fire Protection Program in place throughout all phases of the construction project. Fire Extinguishers: There must be adequate fire extinguishers of the right kind for the classes of fire that might occur. emergency stairs or fire walls. Fire Alarms: An alarm system. which may be a telephone. .

. Storage: Storage shall not obstruct the path of travel to emergency exits. Housekeeping: The entire site shall be kept free from the accumulation of unnecessary combustible materials. No Smoking: Smoking shall be prohibited around any operation.151] .Page 199 - Fire Prevention [29 CFR 1926. equipment or material that poses a fire hazard. Internal Combustion Engines: Locate equipment powered by internal combustion engines so that the exhaust is not directed toward combustible materials.Ignition Hazards: All wiring and electrical equipment shall be installed in accordance with the Electrical Standard (Subpart K). Post “NO SMOKING” or “NO OPEN FLAME” signs.

Fuel. Chain reaction to keep the fire going.Fire and Explosion A material that can act as a fuel (that can burn) is called a combustible or a flammable material. A material that doesn’t burn is called non-combustible. 4. We call this the fire pyramid. 3. 2. the fire can’t happen. Oxygen. . we have to remove at least one component in order to put it out. Later we will explain the difference between these two terms. Four things are necessary for fire: 1. Combustion: the chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen which gives off heat and light. Ignition source (heat) to start the process. To put out a fire.Page 200 - . If any component is missing. If a fire starts. remove at least one component of the fire pyramid.

.To have an explosion of flammable vapors in the air. or the concentration could be greater as we move deeper into a confined space or closer to the source of the fuel. the instrument we use to measure the concentration might not be accurate. More fuel could evaporate. The LEL is different for different chemicals. If there’s a release of flammable vapor into the air.Page 201 - OSHA requires the concentration to be less than 10% of the LEL in order for workers to remain in the area. . it won’t burn either. creating a vapor explosion. We can use ventilation to lower the concentration below the action level. At least 1. there has to be the right mixture of vapor (fuel) and oxygen.4%. Also. we want to be certain that the concentration is far below the LEL. [29 CFR 1910. If there is too little vapor.4% of the molecules in the air have to be gasoline in order to start a fire or explosion. This is because conditions could change. it won’t burn.146(b)] A prudent safety and health program might establish an even lower action level (the point at which you have to leave the area). For gasoline it’s 1. Flammable Vapor Explosions The Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) is the smallest concentration of vapor in the air that will sustain a chain reaction and burn in the air. If there is too much vapor. OSHA requires the concentration to be less than 10% of the LEL.

It’s flash point is minus 45°F. Low flash point means high hazard. This means that in any situation (except maybe at the South Pole) liquid gasoline creates enough vapor to burn. The flash point is the lowest temperature of a liquid at which it gives off enough vapor so that a spark will set off a fire or explosion. there will be enough vapor to have a fire or explosion. A low flash point tells you a material is dangerous. Consider diesel fuel. This means that under normal conditions there won’t be enough vapor for a spark to set off a fire or explosion. Liquids evaporate more easily as they get warmer. A combustible liquid is one that has a flash point higher than the temperatures we consider normal.Page 202 - . Diesel fuel is not as easy to start burning as gasoline. It’s flash point is around 130°. . and they evaporate less if they are colder. Consider gasoline.Flash Point The Flash Point is the lowest temperature of a liquid at which it gives off enough vapor so that a spark will set off a fire or explosion. Anytime gasoline is warmer than minus 45°. A flammable liquid is one that has a low flash point so that under normal conditions there’s enough vapor that a spark will set off a fire or explosion.

.Page 203 - Flash Point A DOT Flammable Liquid has a flash point of 140° or less. If the flash point is 100° or above. .  The Department of Transportation (DOT) calls a liquid flammable if the flash point is 140° or less. The idea behind both the NFPA and DOT systems is that we need to be more careful with flammable liquids because even a little spark could cause a fire.120(a)] DOT calls a liquid combustible if it has a flash point above 140°. or on a warm day in Tucson. The idea is that most of the time the temperature doesn’t get above 100°. [49 CFR 173. the material is considered flammable.120(b)] DOT recognizes that sometimes liquids do get hotter than 100°. This could happen in a tanker on a sunny day. it’s combustible. in drums in a sealed trailer in the sun. A DOT Combustible Liquid has a flash point of 141° or more.[49 CFR 173. so it isn’t hot enough for the liquid to give off enough vapor to burn or explode.What’s normal temperature? The NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) says that if the flash point is below 100° F.

piercing through the rust or paint. electrons transfer from the carpet to your body. When you walk across a nylon carpet wearing rubber soles. If the extra electrons have no way to leave. Use heavy gauge copper wire with special connectors that are designed for this purpose. . Grounding is connecting a good conductor (such as a copper wire) between a container and the earth. there could be a spark which ignites the vapors coming from the liquid. These connectors are either clamps with sharp pointed screws. A spark occurs when the object with the extra electrons gets close to another object that can conduct electricity. Friction transfers electrons from one object to the other. or pours out of a container. Static electricity is produced when dissimilar materials rub together. That’s what “static” means. Not just any old wire will do. This prevents a spark from jumping between the container and a metal object that is in contact with the earth. or special heavy duty clips. When the spout touches another container. Bonding: connecting a good conductor between two containers to prevent a spark.Bonding and Grounding Because a tiny spark can ignite the vapors. The electrons jump through the air to the conductor. The connector has to make a good contact with the container. Bonding is connecting a good conductor (such as a copper wire) between two containers so that any extra electrons on one container can flow easily to the other container without causing a spark.Page 204 - . they just sit there. Grounding: connecting a good conductor between a container and the earth to prevent a spark. it is essential to prevent all sparks when handling flammable liquids. the electrons jump to the knob. friction causes electrons to transfer from the liquid to the container. When liquid flows through a hose. When your are about to touch a door knob.

There are also combustible solids such as wood and paper. or even dangerous. dry chemicals or halon). . These extinguishers may contain dry chemical. The heat could also cause the water to boil with explosive force.Page 205 - . using water on a fire around electrical equipment may cause electrical short circuits that damage equipment or cause an electrocution hazard. paints. For example. The NFPA Classification of Fires and Fire Extinguishers For cellulose fuels like wood and paper. For flammable or combustible liquids. or all three (ABC). carbon dioxide or halon. These agents are effective against other types of fire. blowing burning oil in all directions. solvents. Also. Fire Extinguishers If you might be expected to use a fire extinguisher. so a type C extinguisher also has an A or a B rating. For fires around electrical equipment. multipurpose dry chemical or halon. lubricants. There are different types of extinguishers for different types of fires. etc. Water and some common extinguishing agents react with these metals making the fire worse. Using the wrong type of extinguisher could be ineffective. the first line of defense is often the portable fire extinguisher. Fires of combustible metals such as magnesium or sodium. These extinguishers may contain water.There are many different flammable and combustible liquids on construction sites: fuels. The agent used depends on the metal for which the extinguisher was designed. These use an agent that does not conduct electricity (carbon dioxide. using water on an oil fire will spread the fire because the burning oil can float on top of the water. If a fire starts. then you should have hands-on training on how to use it properly.

Effective on class B and C fires.more than 4% in air is toxic.) Conducts electricity. Non-toxic. Makes the fire too cold to burn. Nozzle pressure may cause burning liquids to splash. Generally considered to be non-toxic. Inexpensive.can collect in low areas. 1½ times a heavy as air . Absorbs moisture and may harden in the container. Chilling effect may damage equipment Very effective on class A fires. Freezes in cold climates. Effective on class B and C fires. Removes OXYGEN from the fire pyramid. Does not react with most other chemicals. Need more than 35% by volume in air in a total flooding system . Irritating to some people. Does not conduct electricity.Page 206 - B-C B-C Dry Chemical (Sodium Bicarbonate) A Water H2O Carbon Dioxide CO2 Use On Agent Breaks the CHAIN REACTION in the fire pyramid. Disadvantages Dissipates rapidly smoldering materials may ignite again. Does not conduct electricity. How it Works Often not very effective on class A fires. May spread class B fires. (Sodium bicarbonate is the same thing as baking soda. Advantages Extinguishing Agents . Readily available. Removes HEAT from the fire pyramid. .

How it Works Acutely toxic .Page 207 - A-B-C A-B-C Halon 1301 (Bromo trifluoromethane) A-B-C Multi-purpose Dry Chemical (Aluminum phosphate) Halon 1211 (Bromochlorodifluoromethane) Use On Agent Breaks the CHAIN REACTION in the fire pyramid. Toxic decomposition products. Chilling may damage equipment. Does not conduct electricity. B and C fires. Disadvantages Acutely toxic . More irritating than regular dry chemical agent. Does not conduct electricity. Effective on class A. Depletes the ozone layer. Toxic decomposition products. Obscures vision. Depletes the ozone layer. Heavier than air. Effective on class A. . Breaks the CHAIN REACTION in the fire pyramid. Breaks the CHAIN REACTION in the fire pyramid. B and C fires. Heavier than air. Nozzle pressure can cause burning liquids to splash.10% in air causes dizziness and heart arrhythmia.4% in air can cause heart arrhythmia and dizziness. B and C fires. Advantages Extinguishing Agents (Continued) . Effective on class A. Does not conduct electricity. Does not cause chilling.

• Storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids have adequate assure support and stability. • Fuel gas cylinders and oxygen cylinders separated by distance. while in storage. • All flammable liquids stored in closed containers. . • All combustible waste such as oily rags must be stored in covered metal receptacles.Page 208 - . • Storage tanks adequately vented to prevent the development of excessive vacuum or pressure. • Bulk drums of flammable liquids grounded and bonded to containers during dispensing. • All spills of flammable or combustible liquids cleaned up promptly. • Safety cans used for dispensing flammable or combustible liquids at a point of use. • Rigid separators between stacked containers of combustibles or flammables .Construction Site Fire Safety Checklist • Approved containers used for storing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. • Storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids have explosion-proof lights. and fire-resistant barriers.

• All extinguishers serviced and tagged at intervals not to exceed 1 year. • All extinguishers fully charged and in their designated places. and used in accordance with safe practices and standards. • Proper fire extinguishers mounted within 75 feet of outside areas containing flammable liquids.Page 209 - Construction Site Fire Safety Checklist (Continued) . handled. • LPG tanks guarded to prevent damage from vehicles.• Proper fire extinguishers provided for the types of materials in areas where they are to be used. • Extinguishers free from obstructions or blockage. • “NO SMOKING” rules enforced. and within 10 feet of inside storage areas. the nozzle heads are directed so that water will not spray into operating electrical equipment. • “NO SMOKING” signs posted where flammable or combustible materials are used or stored. • If sprinkler systems are permanently installed. . • LPG (propane) stored. • “NO SMOKING” signs posted on LPG tanks.

. then you must first receive more detailed training including site specific information about your employer’s confined space entry and rescue procedures. IDENTIFY three hazardous atmospheres found in confined spaces. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. IDENTIFY five characteristics that make a confined space hazardous. IDENTIFY two reasons why a confined space permit is important.Module 15 Confined Spaces Learning objectives This module reviews awareness training about the hazards of confined spaces so that you will be able to recognize and avoid them. 2.Page 210 - . 3. If your job requires that you enter a confined space.

However. For example. because it’s in a confined space. pipelines. if an accident or hazardous exposure occurs. manholes. tank trucks. sewers and ventilation ducts. if an accident occurs. For example. Any type of health or safety hazard might be present in a confined space. tank cars. . . it will be worse. utility vaults. What Is A Confined Space? Any health or safety hazard might exist in a confined space. boilers. using a chipping hammer to remove slag or corrosion is a noisy operation. it is more difficult to escape or to be rescued from a confined space. When using a solvent to remove grease.Many confined spaces are easy to recognize: tanks.Page 211 - If anything bad occurs. it might be less obvious that a work area is a confined space. Also. toxic vapors may be released. sumps and pits can be confined spaces even though they are open to the air. In some cases. septic tanks. the consequences are often worse because they occur in a confined space. Inside a steel tank the noise is even louder. In a sump pit the concentration of vapors will be greater because there is less air to dilute them.

Confined Space Program OSHA requires a Confined Space Program that includes: • Identifying and labelling confined spaces. • A rescue plan. • Procedures for sharing information about confined spaces if there are multiple contractors. • Evaluation of the hazards before anyone enters. • Specific safe work practices. .Page 212 - .146] • Training for all workers and supervisors involved. • A Confined Space Permit System. The OSHA Standard for confined spaces in general industry is: [29 CFR 1910. • Close-out procedures to make sure that all workers have left safely and it is OK to return the space to its intended purpose. • All necessary safety equipment. • Standby personnel to monitor workers inside and summon the rescue team if an accident occurs. • Air monitoring before and during the entry.

including. If you stick your head through the opening to get a quick look or to sniff the air inside. The sign might also include an emergency phone number. . wearing the proper respirator. Entry means putting any part of your body into the confined space. One breath could be fatal. if necessary. a confined space sign might also include specific work practices such as what type of respirator to wear. Each confined space must be posted with a sign.OSHA requires your employer to determine if there are any confined spaces in the workplace. DO NOT ENTER WITHOUT PERMIT THIS SPACE CONTAINS MOVING PARTS AND POTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY Although not specifically required by OSHA. This is an example: DANGER PERMIT-REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE Labelling and Posting In many cases it is appropriate to lock the confined space to prevent unauthorized entry. . you have just entered the confined space.Page 213 - What Does “Entry” Mean? Never stick you head inside to get a quick look or sniff the air. These are unsafe work practices unless all safe entry procedures have been followed.

and difficult for rescue personnel to respond quickly.It’s hard for fresh air to get in or for contaminants to get out. Flammables 3. • Poor ventilation . not for people to work there. • May contain a hazardous atmosphere Three types of air hazard: 1.Page 214 - .The space was made for some other purpose. Oxygen deficiency 2. • Not designed for continuous work .What Makes Confined Spaces Dangerous ? Several characteristics make confined spaces dangerous: • Restricted entry and exit .It’s hard to get in or out. Toxic contaminants • Oxygen deficiency • Toxic air contaminants • Flammable • May contain other hazards • Electrical hazards • Sparks • Moving machinery • Process liquids • Engulfment hazards • Extreme Temperatures • Noise • Falling objects .

Conditions may change! All monitoring must be done by a properly trained person using the appropriate. or get out.Never enter a confined space unless proper monitoring is being done. Stay out.Page 215 - To know it’s safe. air monitoring must be done: 1. Safety With Hazardous Atmospheres • More than 10% of the LEL of a flammable material. Unless you are wearing the proper respirator. . Continue monitoring while workers are inside.Unless you are wearing an SCBA or an airline respirator with escape bottle. Do not enter to do the initial testing. if there is: • Less than 19½% oxygen . Before anyone enters. 2. • More than 50% of the PEL of an air contaminant. Use equipment with a hose or remote capability. • More than the IDLH of a toxic air contaminant . . During the time that workers are inside.Unless you are wearing an SCBA or an airline respirator with escape bottle. calibrated equipment.

• List of all required PPE. ventilation and purging. If the work will be continued by a different crew. The permit must include: • The location of the confined space. Don’t cut corners. • Names of all workers who will enter. • Names of standby personnel. • If “hot work” such as welding is to be done. • The date and duration of the entry. • Air testing to be done before and during entry. • Supervisor’s name and signature. or by the same crew on a different shift. • Specific procedures such as lock-out.Page 216 - . • Communication procedures. A Confined Space Permit takes time to fill out properly. including respirators. Failure to carefully complete the permit could cost lives. • How to summon the Rescue Team. then a new permit should be issued. . • The purpose of the entry.Confined Space Permits The Confined Space Permit authorizes the work to be done and certifies that all necessary safety procedures are in place. • Identification of all present or potential hazards. an additional Hot Work Permit must be issued.

. Why Is The Permit So Important? • Requires the supervisor to take responsibility. If monitoring reveals oxygen deficiency. for assuring that safe work practices are followed. Use clean air. If the space has only one opening. toxic contaminants. Ventilation works best if clean air flows into the space at one end and exits at the other end. Make certain the blower’s intake is not near a source of contaminants such as vehicle exhaust.Page 217 - Ventilation and Purging .The permit is not just a piece of paper. It’s like the checklist that a pilot goes through before taking off. Fresh air will travel through the space on its way out. in writing. It holds the supervisor accountable. blow or suck air through a hose located as far into the space as possible. or flammables then the space must be ventilated and tested again before workers enter. It serves two very important purposes: • Assures that time is taken to identify all hazards and to take all necessary precautions to protect the lives of workers.

. The attendant is responsible for starting the rescue procedure as described in the employer’s Safety and Health Plan. Usually this means calling the rescue team. The best method is lock-out: • Lock-out electrical circuits by removing circuit breakers and putting locks on the switches.Lock-Out Tag-Out It is essential to isolate a confined space from sources of hazardous energy.” • Lock-out mechanical equipment by removing gears. Also tag-out the equipment with a sign to alert others that the equipment must remain out of service. A trained attendant (standby person) must be assigned to remain outside the confined space while workers are inside. drive shafts or chain drives. • Lock-out pipes by removing a section of pipe and sealing both exposed ends with solid plates.Page 218 - . The attendant should not have any other duties that prevent giving his or her full attention to the workers inside the confined space. The attendant should only enter the confined space if he or she is part of the rescue team and is properly trained and equipped. Standby Attendant More than 50% of all the workers who die in confined space accidents are would-be rescuers who enter without the proper equipment and training. This is called “double blank and block. Equipment can only be turned on after each worker has remove their own lock. Remember that tag-out by itself – without lock-out – does not prevent an accidental start-up. Each worker should have their own lock.

these rescuers might arrive too late.Page 219 - Rescue Many confined space accidents result in multiple deaths when would-be rescuers enter without the right training and equipment. In many cases it is best to provide for non-entry rescue. However. you are not helping if you only add to the list of fatalities. The only effective way to protect confined space workers is to have a Rescue Plan and specially trained and equipped rescue personnel. .More than one half of all the workers who die in confined space accidents are would-be rescuers. . However. They die because they do not have the training or equipment to perform a safe rescue. It is normal to want to help your fellow worker. This means that the workers entering the confined space are equipped with harnesses which will allow them to be extracted without anyone else actually entering. OSHA allows the employer to rely on an off-site rescue team such as a fire department. You have the best protection if your employer maintains a properly trained and equipped on-site rescue team.

IDENTIFY three types of braking systems required on construction vehicles. 3. . IDENTIFY when a back-up alarm is required. IDENTIFY the safety requirements for working under raised equipment. IDENTIFY the safety precautions required when working on split rim tires. 5. IDENTIFY when Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) are required. After completing this module you will be able to demonstrate your ability to: 1. 2.Module 16 Motor Vehicles Learning objectives This module reviews the safety precautions that you need to follow when working with or around vehicles and heavy equipment. 4.Page 220 - .

29 CFR 1926..... 601......600 Motor Vehicles .. Mechanized Equipment and Marine Operations 29 CFR 1926...Motor Vehicles.............Page 221 - Overview of the OSHA Standard ........... 29 CFR 1926............. operators must have hands-on training on the specific types of industrial trucks they will operate..29 CFR 1926.......29 CFR 1926....601 Material Handling Equipment .................. In order to meet the new requirements....604 Marine Operations and Equipment.................. This module by itself does not fulfill the new OSHA training requirements..178(l)........... Subpart O Equipment .......29 CFR 1926....606 ..... In this module we will discuss the requirements of sections 600........... 602 and 604 with respect to motor vehicles and mechanized equipment that are used at construction sites on land.... Motor Vehicles. 29 CFR 1926....603 Site Clearing....................29 CFR 1926.......602 Pile Driving Equipment.... etc............. It has seven sections as shown in the box below...........................)... The new standard is 29 CFR 1910....................605 Definitions........ Powered Industrial Trucks: This module includes a brief discussion of the safe operation of powered industrial trucks (forklifts. Mechanized Equipment and Marine Operations is Subpart O of the OSHA Construction Standard.. OSHA recently adopted a new standard which requires special training for workers who operate powered industrial trucks........

Equipment: General Requirements [29 CFR 1926. mounting. If a piece of heavy machinery is jacked up. Raised Equipment. or similar equipment. If it’s on a hill. Also. Charging Batteries. you must also use chock blocks. Set all controls in neutral. Whenever equipment is parked.441. If you work on tires that mount on split rims. [See 29 CFR 1926.550(a)(15). This includes inflating. The OSHA Crane Standard lists the required safe distances. you must use a safety cage. use derailers or bumper blocks to assure that railroad cars cannot accidently roll. fully lower the equipment. the electrolyte can burn you or cause blindness. dump bodies. it must also have blocks or cribbing before anyone works underneath. Be careful when charging batteries. Power Lines. which depend on the voltage of the power line. If repair work is done on bulldozer or scraper blades. or suspended by slings. or support it with blocks. If there is a railroad track on the site.Page 222 - . The hydrogen gas which they make when charging can explode. or dismounting tires installed on split rims. endloader buckets.600] Parking. . Split Rims. Follow the safe work practices specified in the OSHA Electrical Standard.] Windows. [See 29 CFR 1926. If there are power lines near where you are using mechanized equipment. then there must be lights or reflectors on the equipment or on a barricade. If heavy equipment is left at night adjacent to a highway that is in normal use. All glass used in the windows of cabs must be safety glass. set the parking brake. you must maintain a safe clearance distance.] Railroad Cars.

Horn. not open to public traffic. Except in dry areas where condensation does not occur. • Emergency brake system. must have at least two headlights and two taillights in good working order. . Cracked or broken glass must be replaced promptly. then there must be a canopy or shield strong enough to protect the operator from falling materials.Brakes. Vehicles that operate at night. Falling Materials. or where there is diminished light. They must also have seat belts. • Parking brake system. Lights. If a vehicle is loaded by crane. Windshields. Backing. No employer shall use any motor vehicle having an obstructed view to the rear unless the vehicle: • Has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise. powered shovel or loader.601] • Service brake system. Vehicles used to transport employees must have a firmly secured seat for each passenger. All vehicles must have an audible warning device. All vehicles must have brake lights in operable condition regardless of light conditions. .Page 223 - This section applies to motor vehicles that operate on an off-highway job site. All vehicles must have three properly working brake systems: Motor Vehicles [29 CFR 1926. Carrying Passengers. or • Is backed up only when a spotter or flagger signals that it is safe to do so. Vehicle cabs must have windshields and powered wipers. windshields must also have defrosters.

. This section applies to motor vehicles that operate on an off-highway job site. Trucks with dump bodies must have a positive means of support. not open to public traffic.Page 224 - . permanently attached. Vehicles with rubber tires must have fenders.601] Pre-Shift Safety Checks. The trip handle must be placed so that the operator is in the clear. [29 CFR 1926. and capable of being locked in position to prevent accidental lowering of the body while maintenance or inspection work is being done. The levers controlling the dump body must have a latch to prevent accidental starting or tripping. Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders if the vehicle is not designed for fenders.Motor Vehicles Continued Dump Bodies. All vehicles in use must be checked at the beginning of each shift to assure that the following parts are in safe operating condition and free of apparent damage that could cause failure while in use: • Service brakes and connections • Steering • Parking brakes • Coupling devices • Emergency brakes • Seat belts • Tires • Operating controls • Horn • Safety devices All defects must be corrected before the vehicle is placed in service. Fenders.

This section applies to earth moving equipment. Scissor points on front-end loaders that create a hazard to the operator during normal operation must have a guard.602] . such as rollers. and similar equipment. Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS). Bidirectional machines. Many types of earth moving equipment must have rollover protection. bulldozers. Brakes. compactors. must have fenders. Seat belts. No employer shall permit equipment to be backed unless it: • Has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise. offhighway trucks. seat belts are not required. Scissor points. louder than the surrounding noise. All earth moving equipment must have a service braking system capable of stopping and holding the equipment fully loaded. . This is covered specifically in Subpart W of the OSHA Construction Standard. Fenders. agricultural and industrial tractors. including scrapers. Earth moving equipment that can go 15 mph and that has pneumatic tires. Exception: If the equipment is designed only for stand-up operation. or • Is backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so. All equipment covered by this section must have seat belts. front-end loaders. graders. loaders. and bulldozers must have a horn. crawler or wheel tractors. Backing.Page 225 - Material Handling Equipment [29 CFR 1926. Audible alarms.

OSHA adopted a standard which requires special training for workers who operate powered industrial trucks.Powered Industrial Trucks [29 CFR 1926. the proportion of the total load carried by any one truck shall not exceed its capacity. Lift trucks. If a load is lifted by two or more trucks working together. stackers. Training. In order to meet those requirements. This module by itself does not fulfill the OSHA training requirements.Page 226 - . • Protection from falling objects. . These ratings shall not be exceeded. must have the rated capacity clearly posted on the vehicle. No unauthorized personnel may ride on powered industrial trucks. Passengers. No modifications or additions that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made without the manufacturer’s written approval. Steering or spinner knobs must not be used unless the steering mechanism is designed to safely use a knob. A safe place to ride shall be provided where riding of trucks is authorized. by itself. Spinner Knobs. Lifting Personnel.602(c)] Rated Capacity.178(l). etc. Check with the manufacturer to make sure. If a truck is equipped with a platform for lifting personnel then the platform must have: • Controls that allow the workers on the platform to shut off the truck. operators must have hands-on training on the specific types of industrial trucks they will operate. This module. does not satisfy the training requirements. The standard is 29 CFR 1910.. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.

• Use decon solutions that are compatible with the chemicals involved. Here are some basic principles of vehicle decontamination: • Keep vehicles and heavy equipment from getting contaminated in the first place. • Pay special attention to the undercarriage and other parts that are hard to see. • Provide a means to collect runoff water. • If vehicles must be used near contaminated areas. • Properly treat and dispose of all waste water. • Use long handled brushes to get at all parts. trucks used at hazardous waste cleanup sites) must be decontaminated before leaving the site. . • Decon workers must have the right protective clothing. and with the vehicle’s paint. • Be careful when using pressurized sprayers. and other exposed parts with tape and plastic sheeting. respirators and eye protection. • Have sturdy platforms or other means to safely get at all parts without having to climb on the vehicle. Don’t drive through spills or contaminated areas. • Usually start at the top and work down.Vehicles that are contaminated with hazardous chemicals (for example.Page 227 - Vehicle Decontamination . consider covering the wheels.

• Do regular inspection and maintenance as scheduled. • Stay on equipment until it stops. • Use a safety tire rack to work on tires with split or locking-ring rims. • Beware of rotating equipment — watch for loose clothing. power shovel or loader. • Use roll over protection (roll bars.Review of Vehicle Safety Below is a list of important safety procedures that you must always follow when you work around. • Use extreme caution on slopes or near excavations. etc. . vehicles and heavy equipment at construction sites: • Inspect all equipment before use. • Listen for backup alarms. • Use cab shields or protective canopies on equipment loaded by crane. • Block wheels and set brakes on parked vehicles.). • Be seen — wear a high visibility vest. • Follow the site’s traffic management plan.Page 228 - . or operate.