Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE

lnternstionsl Conference 00 Robotics & Avtomstion
Taipei, Taiwan. September 14-19, 2003

Experimental Identification and
Evaluation of Performance of a 2DOF Haptic Display
Antonio Frisoli
Massimo Bergamasco
PERCRO - Scuola Superiore S. Anna - Pisa, Italy
e-mail: antony@ sssupit, bergamasco@sssup.it

Abstract
This paper presents a methodology f o r the evaluation of
the performance of a given Haptic Display. The procedure
can be carried out through the own proper sensors/actuarors
which equip the haptic display and allows to characterize
the device from a siatic/dynamicpoint of view.

1 Introduction
Haptic Interfaces are robotic devices designed for conveying to the user a realistic sensation of touching an object
in the virtual world. The characterization of performance for
an Haptic Interface relies on the evaluation of several parameters which a e inherent to the mechanical properties of the
device, such as dynamic and force bandwidth, transparency
and perceived mass, maximum stiffness [6, 13, 121.
When dynamic properties of a given Haptic Display are
known, several analyses can be canied out, such as about
the absolute stability of the device, when displaying virtual
impedancesladmittance to a human operator [l]. This allows to improve the design of the controller, which can be
adapted to overcome the limitations of the mechanics. From
the points presented above, it can be argued how relevant it
is to experimentally characterize a given haptic display.
Most of techniques for measuring the performance of a
robotic system are based on identification schemes, which
usually require additional instrumentation, according to the
signals to be measured. In robotics literature, the identification of unknown parameters is often carried out by sensorizing the system either with accelerometers [3,8] or with force
sensors [ l I]. In fact, by measuring the input-output gain between forces and accelerations, a more accurate estimate of
the transfer function can be obtained.
When only co-located forcelposition measurements are
available, such as commonly it is the case of industrial manipulators -seldom equipped with velocity sensors-, available techniques are based on exact-linearization and bandpass filtering [14]. In fact in practice it is quite difficult to
measure indirectly velocity as well as higher order signals
from position measurements, as they are corrupted by the
noise. For instance the quantization error introduced by encoder measurements considerably worsens the quality of velocity signal [7] and renders unsuitable the derivation of the
acceleration signal from position measurements only.

0-7803-7736-2/03/$17.0002003 IEEE

Another possible approach is the formulation of the dynamic equations in terms of an integral model, alternatively
to the classical differential formulation, which does not require the measure of joint velocities [lo]. However when
the identification is restncted to a single joint, without nonlinearities due to gravity compensation and with consistent
decoupling of the dynamics of different DOFs, the identification analysis can be conducted on each isolated dof, also
in the case of parallel actuation, by assuming a LTI relation between force and positions, with good results in terms
of estimate of the system model. Under the assumption of
linearity, spectral analysis represents a powerful mean [16]
for determining unknown parameters of the transfer function, since it allows to exclude the influence of random noise
present on measured signals.
This paper presents a practical approach for measuring
some of the most relevant dynamic properties of Haptic Displays, particular suitable for the characterization of mechanisms actuated through tendon drives. The method does
not require a special sensorization of the device and can be
camed out by only position measurements. Tendon drives
are commonly adopted in haptics for their smooth behavior, since allow to ground the actuators with low friction
and attaining high back-drivability. As main disadvantage,
the dynamic response of the system is greatly influenced by
the elasticity of tendons. As a case study, an experimental identification scheme has been applied to the PERCRO
Isotropic Force Display, in order to assess its dynamic performance.

2

The Isotropic Force Display

The Isotropic Force Display is a 2-dof planar haptic
device, with high kinematic isotropy over the worskpace,
whichhasbeenrealizedat PERCRO [15]. Itiscomposedof
two rotary actuators, driving a closed 5-bar linkage by two
pairs of opposed tendons realized through steel cables. The
actuators are located apart from the linkages of the mechanism.
The staning terminal of a single tendon connects to the pulley mounted on the motor shaft, whilst its end terminal is
attached to the grounded base link (the reader is referred to
Figure 1). Guide pulleys of different radii route orderly the
tendons clockwise or counter-clockwise over circular prim-

3260

The tendon transmission is represented through a damping factor bt (usually negligible) and a stiffness constant ICt. and b . If we consider the scheme given in Figure 1. M .g.g. By actuating one motor. By reducing the number of degrees of freedom of the system.itives centered at the joint axes. when coupled to an operator. the mechanism motion is kinematically constrained by the tendon drive. The routing is then completed for each motor by a second tendon that is routed in a opposite way on the joint pulleys. when evaluated at the reference velocities.. As the two-port system is a linear 4-terminal network. it can he represented through Y-parameters (Short Circuit Admittance Parameters) or H-parameters (Hybrid Parameters) [Z].. measured at the motor location [I]. .1YIz Yzz .5 multiplying namics for the general 2 DOF case 3261 ) -Y. e. hut the last one is bolted to the base link. while the other one is locked. and Ml represents respectively the equivalent motor and link mass. Two high resolution encoders are placed on the motor joints for sensing the position of the end-effector in the workspace. by locking one actuator while the other is left free. r ~. The particular nature of the tendon drive allows to shape the force response of the system to achieve high value of kinematic isotropy over the workspace. . it is possible to analyze through standard tools for linear networks. Figure 3: The Z-pon linear model of the Haptic Interface system The haptic interface acts as a two-pons networks which exchanges energy with the operator through the applied force F and velocity Ti and with the actua!or through the tendon tension T and tendon displacement d. in order to realize a pre-tensioned hi-directional tendon drive.which are frequency dependent functions: ! i Figure 2 The Isotropic Force Display The two representations are related by the following expression: 2.1 2-port linear representation The dynamics of the system when it is constrained to move only along a given direction. = (?YZI IThe cwffiicient 3.YziYG1KZ sfems from the solution of the (3) dy- . properties such as transparency and unconditional stability of the system. are respectively the intrinsic structural and the motor damping factors I. e. as commonly done in other works. while b. In the developed design all guide-pulleys are mounted on ball bearings. A general two-port system captures the relationship between efforrs andflows at the two accessible terminal pairs. can be described in terms of a 2-port linear system. Such an hypothesis is acceptable when the dynamics of the idle pulleys is negligible with respect to the actuator dynamics and if the non-linear terms due to the Corioliscentrifugal effects are considerably lower than the main inertial terms. each actuated degree of freedom can he modeled as in Figure 3. [I]. as represented in Figure 4. The Isotropic Force Display is controlled through a DSpace 1103 real-time control hoard under the RTI Matlab environment. Figure 1: Kinematic representation of the system with relative notation The tendon drive couples linearly the angular displacements of all the joints to the motor displacements.

. .5btb. = 0. 2 . z ( w ) ==+ M ( w ) = J Q. The measures were made by using the available co-located actuators and position sensors. while YZ2represents the input admittance seen by the motor when F = 0.time was kept still in zero by a stiff proportional position control (simulating a virtual bi-directional slide). +%. = 0. 51 for details). + 2. and linearized it in a point of the workspace (see [4. + ktMi + b.%.M. corresponding to Y z z / s<see (ll)). as + btM.5b. . with a typical output response. The number of points composing a period of the excitation signal was at most of 1000 points.5bp)kt (I1) 3 The identification procedure The relations between the magnitude and ohase of transfer function G(jw). while the second one was excited with a given torque command (input signal).MI + btMt + b. The command torque was estimated through the current delivered by the driver to the motor. For the Y-parameters we have: Qz. are as follows: In order to test the linear model given by the above equations. the positive sign of corresponding flow variable leads to an increase of system internal energy (see figure 3 for the sign convention).) (8) + ktM.b. The amplitude of the excitation signal was set to 30 N m m . According to the scheme depicted in figure 4. A sampling frequency of fa = 500 H z was used for running the simulation. we found that the parameters for the hybrid formulation can he expressed for each actuator as: Figure 4 The identification procedure Then following a standard approach in spectral analysis [l6.(w).(w) andQ.(w) * $(U) = L (17) 3262 . The identification procedure was applied separately to the two actuated dof. one motor at a Q. Moreover once the effort variable has been chosen. H I Z is the transfer function between velocity at motor d. The excitation input signal for identification was a multisine composed with frequencies ranging from 1 . transfer function G ( j w ) has he drawn on the basis of the outputandinputspectraldensityQ. a2 = (btb. + (12) fT + 3..120 Hz. . . and velocity at the end-effector V when the motor is free T.andof autocorrelation functions (ACF) of input and outputs signals 4By(w)and h Z ( w ) defined . the dynamic response of the system was experimentally investigated.6 N m m ) . The resultant motor position (output signal) was read through the motor encoders and stored. Figure 5 shows a time domain representation of input data.&) ~ Qm(4 (16) Qys(w) = G(j~)*. in the center position of the workspace. which is quite above the threshold of static friction (4 .) (9) The constant r represents the forcelvelocity transmission ratio between end-effector and motor displacements.(w) = I ~ ( j w ) 1 2 Q .(w) = Lm 1 &e-jwrdr r&s(r)= lim T+OO -7 F=O + + + + z ( t ) r ( t+ r ) d t (13) + kt s2M1 (bt bp)s s3M111fm als2 a2s ( b . In particular Y11 represents the input admittance seen by the operator when T. Note that the sign of effort and flow variables has been chosen such that the effort is forcing the flow inside the system.. + 3. 91. the magnitude of the Bode plot associated to the with a1 = (Mlb.. After having solved the dynamic equations for the general case of the 2DOF mechanism.

It can he seen from the Bode plot. The results of scanning the system response over a wider range of frequencies (see figure X). The value of b. has heen obtained by using a value of b. As the plot of figure 7 reveals. From the analysis of Bode plots of Figure 6. according to the expression given in (1 1). called the coherence function is commonly evaluated to estimate the degree of distortion of the clean output caused by the presence of noise. . .. are respectively 62 H z and 20 H z . . with the change in the slope of the magnitude plot.. . It is evident the presence of a resonant mode at about 62 Hz. . which corresponds to a location of a pole at 1. and the effect of the double zero of the transfer function. On the hasis of the above experimental results. .2 . . Figure 7: Coherence function for diagram of figure 6 3263 . . An expression. then experimental data are considered reliable. . the frequency response based on the model of the Haptic Interface system has heen assessed and tuned up. the experimental diagram are reliable in the range of frequencies which have k e n used for exciting the system. up to the limit value of the Nyquist frequency of 250 H z has confirmed that the system does not present unmodeled dynamic modes at frequency above the resonance frequency and within the range of 250 H z . (11)) Figure 5: Input and output signals in time domain The resultant experimental bode plot is shown in figure 6 for the case of one actuator. = 0. . in the sense that they have overcome the noise disturbance [SI.. If we calculate the resonance - If the coherence function value is approximately equal to 1. The superimposed modeled response. Small values of coherence function imply lack of reliability of measured data. Figure 6: Experimental Bode plot of Klz/s(see eq.. . . . and the anti-resonant frequency w . .0 (generally 2 0. it can be argued the presence of a pole around 1Hz.8). b. .9651 Hz. . . has been assumed known from motor datasheet. plotted in the same figure with continuous line. . that the mechanical resonant frequency W . . The coherence functionis defined as [16]: .

and applying a linearly increasing torque to the motor. . it holds: The stiffness constant kt can be estimated from the value of the anti-resonant frequency WI [I71 as: If T . . On the basis of the above conclusions.586% agrees with previous results. eq. the hybrid parameters Htj have been numerically estimated. From plots of figure 6 it is possible to observe that the theoretical model fits with the experimental with a good correlation. = I . For the Isotropic Force Display spectral components of the input force with frequencies greater than 70 Hz are damped by the system. . . an experimental static measure was done. . . we can verify that the experimental results agree with CAD estimates.~+8. . Figure 10(b) shows the estimated structural dynamics which is the ratio between the acceleration reached at the end-effector under a given exciting sinusoidal command torque T. . . while F = 0. \. As expected. can be estimated. The constant term 8.5864Nm/rad. The displacement measured at motor was due to both the elasticity of tendon and structural compliance of the system. . determine a greater estimate with respect to the real value. the effect of viscous and Coulomb friction is that the impedance tipically takes on a minimum value [13]. applied at the motor side and the transmitted force F at the end-effector. Above this characteristic frequency. . Figure 10(a) shows the frequency gain between the input torque T . . / T ~ = 0.7371. . . . V = 0.~ d _I*# Figure 8: Bode plot of Figure 6 obtained for a scan up to the Nyquist frequency of 250 Hz 4 Transparency and Structural response ratio R of the two frequencies [17]. present at low frequencies.. Below 10 Hz forces and velocities are transmitted according to the law of statics/differential kinematics.7371 Nmm is an estimate of the breakaway force at motor joint. (10). (6). . the force and the structural dynamic response of the system. . i. where a good decoupling of dynamic effects of the two actuators is achieved. .. 9). Figure lO(c) represents the impedance response of the system to a position disturbance at the end-point. and is coherent with similar profiles obtained through real acceleration measures [3]. . . (4).w. . . The structural response presents a resonant peak at . Next step will be the study and design of a novel kind of discrete time-implemented 3264 . can be reduced to the equivalent angular value I .. . corresponding to H11. since non-linearities due to friction forces. In order to verify the previous estimate of mechanical stiffness. However it must be pointed out that the estimation of the damping factor is not precise. this value measured for linear motion of the tendon terminal.aregivenbyy = 0. I . The empiric value k = 0. is the radius of the motor pulley. In fact from the value of motor and link equivalent inertias M . ...a . in a least squares sense. . From this plot it is possible to have an estimate of the dynamic force bandwidth of the system [13].e. eq. the jacobian transformation computed in static conditions approximates with some error the real mapping of forceslvelocities between the two spaces. . a .. The arise of instability was notices at frequencies close to the resonant values. . .1O-~(seeFigure The model which has been tuned up revealed to be quite accurate and able to predict instability conditions. 5 Conclusions and future work Figure 9 Mechanical stiffness at the motor side straight line which fits the dataz(i) to y(i). The coefficients of a On the basis of the identification results. a . under the hypothesis that the end-point is held stationary in a given position. Together with Figure lO(a) it provides a measure of the transparency of the device. corresponding to H l z . . The impedance response of the system based on measurements on only one dof provides a correct estimation in the center of the workspace. . two common measures of performance for an haptic interface [3]. . 1 1- .. . so corresponding to sYlz. by blocking the link against a rigid mechanical stop.. due to the discrete time implementation of constraint in Virtual Environments. An ideal system would produce a frequency response that mimics a point mass.586 . due to static friction. and M I . .:Fd '.

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