Key Issue 1: Where Do Folk and Popular Culture Originate and Diffuse?

A. Origin of Folk and Popular Cultures
a. Folk customs often have anonymous or multiple hearths
1. Origin of Folk Music
a. Tells a story about daily activities (farming), life-cycle events (birth,
death, marriage), or mysterious events (storms)
b. According to a Chinese legend, music was invented in 2697 BC when the
Emperor Huang Ti sent Ling Lun to cut bamboo poles that would produce
a sound matching the call of the phoenix bird
2. Origin of Popular Music
a. Written to be sold
b. Originated around 1900
c. Music Hall in UK and Vaudeville in US
d. Tin Pan Alley made the music and tried to sell printed song sheets
e. The diffusion of American music stared during WWII
f. Hip-Hop is a local form of music
B. Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures
a. The spread of popular culture typically follows the process of hierarchical
diffusion from hearths or nodes of innovation (i.e. Hollywood, California)
b. Folk culture is transferred slowly by migration instead of electronic
communication (relocation diffusion)
1. The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture
a. The Amish have distinctive clothing, farming, religious practices and
other customs
b. In the 1600s, a Swiss Mennonite bishop named Jakob Ammann gathered a
group of followers
c. The Amish originated in Bern, Switzerland; Alsace in northeastern
France; and the Palatinate region of southwestern Germany
d. Settled in Pennsylvania in the early 1700s
e. Sell farm land in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and buy in Kentucky
2. Sports: Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture
- Folk Culture Origin of Soccer
a. World’s most popular sport
b. First documented in England in the eleventh century. After the
Danish invasion, workers excavating a building found a Danish soldier’s
head and they began to kick it. It was then imitated by boys who
used an inflated cow bladder
c. Early football games involved two villages kicking the ball into the
center of the rival village. Because this disturbed village life, King

c. Key Issue 2: Why is Folk Culture Clustered? A.Henry II banned it from England and was later legalized in 1603 by - King James I. Northern Europe. Ice Hockey is popular in Canada. Because of the increase in leisure time. Oneidas. The common element in professional sports is the willingness of people throughout the world to pay for the privilege of viewing. Influence of the Physical Environment 1. and Tuscaroras) f. When British football clubs organized an association in 1863 to make rules. b. Lacrosse came from the Iroquois Confederation of Six Nations (Cayugas. events played by professional athletes. Quick-frying food in preferred in Italy because of fuel shortages . Food Preservatives and the Environment a. Onondagas. Turkey that supply the city with food. Cricket is popular in Britain b. Baseball is popular in Japan e. Bostans are small gardens in Istanbul. people came to see sports so clubs started hiring professional players. Globalization of Soccer a. d. Martial Arts is popular in China d. it marked the change from folk to popular culture. Senecas. Mohawks. Transformation to popular culture in the 1800s b. Rice and soybeans are grown in Asia because of the dry climate c. The game was diffused to other countries through contact with - English players Sports in Popular Culture a. in person or on TV. and Russia c.

Through their choices of subjects of paintings. Karan and Cotton Mather demonstrated that distinctive views of the physical environment emerge among neighboring cultural groups that are isolated b. that do not chew their cud or that have cloven feet and fish lacking fins or scales h. Region’s extreme climatic conditions  Muslims . McColl compared house types in four villages situated in the dry lands of northern and western China f. Inhospitable environment  Hindus a. Southern b. Paintings reflect bizarre and terrifying c. Hindus have taboos against cows because they are used as plows on farms j. can be smaller for not a much heat B. and the impact of environment c. current fashion. R. American geographer Fred Kniffen says a house is a reflection of cultural heritage. Taboo .The contribution of a location’s distinctive physical features to the way food tastes 2. geographers P. Hebrews were prohibited for eating animals g.d. Folk Housing and the Environment a. Himalayan Art a.A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom f. each group reveals how their folk culture mirrors their religions and individual views of their environment  Buddhists a. Isolation Promotes Cultural Diversity 1. b. People refuse to eat particular plants or animals that are thought to embody negative forces in the environment e. Everyday life c. Pitched roofs facilitate rain runoff. windows face South for heat. Muslims do not eat pork because pigs would then compete with humans for land and resources i. functional needs. The materials used in folk homes are based on the available resources d. Wood and brick are the most common e. Northern b. W. French geographer Jean Brunhes views the house as being an essential fact of human geography. Terroir .

Symbols and designs c. Not harsh conditions  Animists a. One story. Virginia. far west as Wisconsin .a. In Java.    and Lower Chesapeake The Lower Chesapeake (Tidewater) a. The North wall in for honoring ancestors. The NE corner is most important. Burma b. Two stories high. However. and Southeast coast The Middle Atlantic (I-House) a. People sleep with their heads and feet opposite of one another. a child sleeps with his head towards the parents’ feet. important guests enter from the North and are seated against the North wall. Beautiful plants and flowers c. Ohio Valley and Appalachian trails. Geographer Fred Kniffen identified three major hearths or nodes of folk house forms in the United States: New England.S. Eastern half of US New England a. one room deep b. b. two rooms wide. Tidewater. The Lao’s arrange their beds perpendicular to the center ridgepole. Upper New England and Southern Great Lakes region. e. Middle Atlantic.Sacred Spaces a. which is the most auspicious direction. In Fiji and China. - the least auspicious direction and the direction of the devil. Islamic b. Some compass directions may be more important than other directions. steep roof. Staircases do not face West. The bed is placed against the East wall facing North. The Yuan and Shan (Thailand) sleep with heads towards the East. The distinctive form of folk houses may derive primarily from religious values and other customary beliefs rather than from environmental factors. . one room deep b. d. two chimneys. the East wall is sacred c. the most important direction. U. In Madagascar. Beliefs and Folk House Forms a. From religion instead of environment 2. gables to the sides. Folk Housing a. the front door is facing West. the front door faces South (direction of the Sea goddess) b.

People in MDCs are likely to have the income. and Food 1. Regional Variations a. The Southeast has a low rate of alcohol consumption because of - Baptists. e. Diffusion of Popular Housing. Popular Food Customs a. Southerners may prefer pork rinds because more hogs are raised there. Various forms over time Key Issue 3: Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed? a. and inclination to - facilitate greater adoption of popular culture. Tequila consumption is high on the border with Mexico c. time. Bourbon consumption is higher in the Upper South. Nevada has a high rate because of gambling f. Canadian Whiskey is preferred in states contiguous to Canada d. where it is produced b.b. and northerners may prefer popcorn and potato chips because more corn and potatoes are grown there. Popular culture varies more in time than in place A. Texans prefer tortilla chips while Westerners prefer grain chips Wine . Clothing.

in the rock or soil. For returning veterans from WWII  Ranch House a. region. c. 1950s-1960s b. manganese. Modern Housing Styles (1945-1960)  Minimal Traditional a. clothing reflects occupation and wealth . Similar to minimal traditional houses c. year.S. Similar to the Tudor-style house c. The distinctive character of a wine derives from a unique combination of soil. hot summers. not clothing 3. and zinc. Rapid Diffusion of Clothing Styles a. rainy winters and long. climate. bedrooms on second floor  Contemporary . One story.a. which ended in 1945.Jeans a. d. Wines are identified by their place of growth. Jeans became popular in the 1960s to show youthful independence b. small and modest d. styles - that architects call neo-eclectic have predominated. long side parallel to street d. On a hillside near a lake. Two stories d. 1950s-1970s b. houses were built in a modern style. and many vineyards were destroyed. Wine consumption declined after the fall of Rome. Changed in the 1940s b. Communist governments could not make them because the factories make tanks. Similar to the ranch house c. 2. and other physical characteristics at the place where the grapes are grown. Late 1940s-1950s b. most U. New “family room” on first floor. Took more room  Split-Level a. and type of grapes e. In MDCs. such as boron. Vineyards are best cultivated in temperate climates of moderately cold. The distinctive character of each region’s wine is especially influenced by the unique combination of trace elements. One story. Since the 1960s. In the years immediately after World War II. Popular Housing Styles a. b.

Late 1960s b. Founded in 2004 by Harvard University students b. high-hipped roofs  Neo-Colonial a. In 1970. High-pitched roofs c. Popular since 1950s b. Steep-pitched front-facing gables  Neo-French a. internet usage in the US increased from 9% to 44%. Large central “great room” B. Diffusion of Television a. flat or low roofs  Shed a. Similar to English colonial houses c. the US was a monopoly b. the US % of world’s internet declined to 14% 3. round tops. In 2008. Two stories  Neo-Tudor a. First popular in 1960s to early 1970s b. In 1995. Diffusion of Facebook a. the US had more televisions per capita except for Canada d. Dormer windows. 1970s b. The US % share of the world’s internet declined from 62% to 31% d. 1950s-1970s b. 74% or the US population had internet. By 2005. In the early years of broadcasting. Architect-designed. Most fashionable c. international differences in television ownership diminished 2. neo-eclectic styles became popular. In the late 1960s. the US has 25 million users c. But. In 1954. Popular in early 1980s b. Diffused like the television but more rapid b. it had over 200 million users . Diffusion of the Internet a. Geometric forms Neo-Eclectic (Since 1960) a. such as sports 1. Television is important because it provides leisure time and spreads the knowledge of popular culture. Electronic Diffusion of Popular Culture a. In 2000. the US had 86% of televisions c. In 2009. and by the 1970s had surpassed modern styles in vogue:  Mansard a.- a.

c. Satellites a. they may wear Western business suits. d. Leaders of African and Asian countries traveled to MDCs and experienced the social status attached to cloths. the United Kingdom. and Japan— dominate the television industry in LDCs. Back home. In many regions of the world. Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism . Threatens survival of folk culture and may generate environmental impacts A. Three MDCs—the United States. Japanese operate in South and East Asia. Northern Europe) 2. published in 1949 said that TVs would play a major role in people’s everyday lives. . Wearing cloths typical of MDCs is controversial in some Middle Eastern countries. the only reliable and unbiased news accounts come from the BBC World Service shortwave and satellite radio newscasts. British companies invest in African countries. US corporations provide for Latin America. George Orwell’s novel 1984. Muslims oppose them.” (Japan. Threatens the subservience of women to men that is embedded in some folk customs d. They are teaching the wrong message. c. Threat to Folk Culture 1. b. b. Loss of Traditional Values a.Key Issue 4: Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems? a.Western Control of Media a. The Associated Press (AP) and Reuters dominate the diffusion of - information to newspapers around the world. Prostitution has increased in some LDCs to serve men from MDCs traveling on “sex tours. Leaders of LCDs view the spread of television as MDCs controlling the world.

nearly 10 kilograms of grain are consumed by the animal. Modifying Nature . Environmental Impacts of Popular Culture 1. For every kilogram of chicken. Saudi Arabia) B. bypassing the - inefficient meat step Pollution a. bottles. nearly 3 kilograms of grain are consumed by the fowl. Very high rates of soil erosion have been documented in Central America from the practice of folk culture. 3. and plastics b. To produce 1 kilogram of beef sold in the supermarket.Distribution of Golf a. Satellite dishes enable people to choose from a wide variety of programs produced in other countries. old cars. b. People who travel or moves to another city immediately recognize a familiar place.b. Some countries banned the use of satellite dishes (Chinese. Negative Environmental Impact . c. Geographer John Rooney attributes the increase of golf courses to increased income and leisure time. Singapore. b. This grain could be fed to people directly. Animal consumption is an inefficient way for people to acquire calories—90 percent less efficient than if people simply ate grain directly. Golf courses. because of their size. not just the local governmentcontrolled station. The diffusion of fast-food restaurants is a good example of such uniformity (McDonalds). provide a prominent example of imposing popular culture on the environment. paper. Popular culture may demand a large supply of certain animals. Cans. The number of golf courses are higher in northern states d. . resulting in depletion or even extinction of some species. Uniform Landscapes a.Increased Demand For Natural Resources a. c. More limited in the south because of lack of land 2.