AP Physics - Internal Resist/Capacitance

A nine volt battery produces, well, 9 volts would be good, right? Actually it produces a bit more
voltage than advertised and uses some of it up before it even gets a chance to leave the battery. This
is because batteries have internal resistance.
The voltage drop across the battery is the potential difference that the battery produces. This is
called the terminal voltage. The voltage the battery actually produces is called the emf
(electromotive force) of the battery.
Voltage drop of battery

terminal voltage

Voltage produced

emf

The symbol for emf is

.

The terminal voltage of the battery is given by the following equation:

V    Ir
r  internal battery resistance

 source of emf

The terminal voltage is often called the open-circuit voltage
 = V when the current is zero
But the terminal voltage is equal to IR.

IR    Ir

  IR  Ir
I 
Rr

If the external load, R, is much greater than the internal resistance, r, then we can safely ignore r.
We can think of battery as a actually having inside of it a voltage source
r:

and an internal resistor

r
368

Capacitors in Series: C1 1 1  CS Ci C2  V i They add up like resistors in parallel. So: Capacitors in parallel: CP   Ci V C  C1  C2 C1 C2 i The capacitance of the capacitors add up like resistances that are in series.0V   0. 6. A battery has an emf of 12.0  F 24  F 12  F 3.0  load.0 V delivers 150.150 A 75.  Four capacitors in series as shown: Find equivalent capacitance & charge on the 12 F capacitor. What is the internal resistance of the battery?   IR  Ir r   IR I Ir    IR  12.00  Capacitor Combinations: We  don’t  have  to  do  much  with  capacitors.    Basically  it’s  just  the  opposite  of  the  way   resistors work. 1 1 1   C C1 C2 The charge on each capacitor will be the same and can be found by using the total capacitance.150 A 5.0 mA when connected to a 75.  but  we  do  have  to   know  how  capacitance  adds  up  in  parallel  or  in  series.0   r 0.0  F 18 V C1 C2 C3 C4 369 .

6 x 106 F 18 V   29 x 106 C  29 C  The voltage provided by the battery is 18.0  F C1 18 V 1.8  F 2.0 V in this circuit.2  F C 2 C5 C4 1.2  F 370 .5  F C3 C2 C4 1.1 1  CS Ci 1 1 1 1 1     C C1 C2 C3 C4 i 1 1 1 1 1     C 3.5  F 18 V 2.0  F C1 C3 1.0  F C5 2.0  F 6. Find equivalent capacitance & stored charge: 1.0  F The circuit really looks like this: 1.8  F 2.6  F Q  C V Now we can find the charge: Q  1.0  F 12  F 24  F C  1.

55 x 106 F 18 V  9.02  F 1. C234 and C5.1 1 1   C34 C3 C4  1 1  1. C1.9 C 371 .02  F This gives us an equivalent circuit that has three capacitors in series.818  F This gives us an equivalent circuit for the parallel part of two capacitors in parallel.9 x 106 C  9.8  F 1. So they add up to be: C234  C2  C34  2.55  F Q  C V Find Charge:    Q  0.0  F 3.2  F  0.5  F C34  0. 1 1 1 1    C C1 C234 C5 1 1 1   2.0  F C 0.818  F  3. We can add these up to get the equivalent capacitance of the circuit.