Reproduction in Plants

 The production of new individuals from their parents is known a
 Most plants have roots, stems and leaves. These are called the vegetative
parts of a plant.
 Flowers are the reproductive parts of a plant.
 There are several ways by which plants produce their offspring. These are
categorized into two types: (i) asexual and (ii) sexual reproduction.
 In asexual reproduction plants can give rise to new plants without seeds,
whereas in sexual reproduction, new plants are obtained from seeds.
 Vegetative propagation is the type of asexual reproduction in which new
plants are produced from roots, stems, leaves and buds. Since reproduction
is through the vegetative parts of the plant, it is known as vegetative
 Cut a branch of rose or champa with a node. This piece of branch is termed a
 A node is a part of the stem/branch at which a leaf arises. there are buds in
the axil (point of attachment of the leaf at the node) of leaves which develop
into shoots. These buds are called vegetative buds .
 The buds present in the scars of a fresh potato are called are also called
 Bryophyllum (sprout leaf plant) has buds in the margins of leaves .If a leaf
of this plant falls on a moist soil, each bud can give rise to a new plant.
 Plants produced by vegetative propagation take less time to grow and bear
flowers and fruits earlier than those produced from seeds.
 yeast is a single-celled organism.
 The small bulb-like projection coming out from the yeast cell is called a bud.
 The slimy green patches in ponds, or in other stagnant water bodies are the
 An alga breaks up into two or more fragments. These fragments or pieces
grow into new individuals. This process continues.
 The flowers are the reproductive parts of a plant. The stamens are the male
reproductive part and the pistil is the female reproductive part.

The female gamete or the egg is formed in an ovule .  Winged seeds such as those of drumstick and maple.  Seed dispersal helps the plants to (i) prevent overcrowding. A pistil consists of stigma. light seeds of grasses or hairy seeds of aak (Madar) and hairy fruit of sunflower get blown off with the wind to far.  In nature same kind of plants grow at different places.  The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower is called pollination. Corn.  Anther contains pollen grains which produce male gametes. The ovary contains one or more ovules. or that of a different plant of the same kind.  If the pollen lands on the stigma of the same flower it is called selfpollination..The zygote develops into an embryo. The flowers which contain either only the pistil or only the stamens are called unisexual flowers. whereas mustard.  The fruit is the ripened ovary.  In sexual reproduction a male and a female gamete fuse to form a zygote.  Spiny seeds with hooks which get attached to the bodies of animals and are carried to distant places. style and ovary. it is called crosspollination. This happens because seeds are dispersed to different places.  The cell which results after fusion of the gametes is called a zygote. papaya and cucumber produce unisexual flowers.  Some seeds are dispersed when the fruits burst with sudden jerks.  The process of fusion of male and female gametes (to form a zygote) is called fertilization . rose and petunia have bisexual flowers. water and minerals and (iii) invade new habitats. water and animals.away places. The seed contains an embryo enclosed in a protective seed coat. (ii) avoid competition for sunlight. Examples are Xanthium and Urena.  Seeds and fruits of plants are carried away by wind.  When the pollen of a flower lands on the stigma of another flower of the same plant.  The flowers which contain both stamens and pistil are called bisexual flowers. Nutrition in Plants: . This happens in the case of castor and balsam. The seeds develop from the ovules.

These pores are surrounded by ‘guard cells’.  The mode of nutrition in which organisms make food themselves from simple substances is called autotrophic (auto = self. plants are called autotrophs.  The leaves have a green pigment called chlorophyll. proteins. Carbohydrates. They are called heterotrophs (heteros = other). synthesis : to combine).  Proteins are nitrogenous substances which contain nitrogen. Therefore. They form a continuous path or passage for the nutrients to reach the leaf. The starch is also a carbohydrate. the branches and the leaves. These components of food are necessary for our body and are called nutrients. The synthesis of food in plants occurs in leaves.or spine-like leaves to reduce loss of water by transpiration.  Nutrition is the mode of taking food by an organism and its utilisation by the body.  The desert plants have scale. The presence of starch in leaves indicates the occurrence of photosynthesis. vitamins and minerals are components of food.  Besides leaves.  Plants are the only organisms that can prepare food for themselves by using water.  During this process oxygen is released. fats.  The solar energy is captured by the leaves and stored in the plant in the form of food. it is called photosynthesis (Photo: light. trophos = nourishment) nutrition. .  Leaves are the food factories of plants. The carbohydrates ultimately get converted into starch.  Humans and animals are directly or indirectly dependent on plants. Since the synthesis of food occurs in the presence of sunlight. It helps leaves to capture the energy of the sunlight. Thus. Such pores are called stomata  Water and minerals are transported to the leaves by the vessels which run like pipes throughout the root. carbon dioxide and minerals.  Animals and most other organisms take in ready made food prepared by the plants. photosynthesis also takes place in other green parts of the plant — in green stems and green branches. sun is the ultimate source of energy for all living organisms.  Carbon dioxide from air is taken in through the tiny pores present on the surface of the leaves. the stem. These plants have green stems which carry out photosynthesis.

called the cell membrane.  The bacterium called Rhizobium can take atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a soluble form.  There are a few plants which can trap insects and digest them. This is called symbiotic relationship. .  Most cells have a distinct. But Rhizobium cannot make its own food. So it lives in the roots of gram. moong beans and other legumes and provides them with nitrogen.  The bodies of living organisms are made of tiny units called cells.  In organisms called lichens. certain fungi live in the roots of trees. Soil has certain bacteria that convert gaseous nitrogen into a usable form and release it into the soil. Ex:fungi  Some organisms live together and share shelter and nutrients.  Usually crops require a lot of nitrogen to make proteins. Since it deprives the host of valuable nutrients. ex:cuscuta (Amarbel)  The plant on which it depends is called a host. For example. plants cannot use it in the manner they can use carbon dioxide. the alga provides food which it prepares by photosynthesis. receives help from it to take up water and nutrients from the soil. Such insect-eating plants are called insectivorous plants. and a fungus live together.  There are some plants which do not have chlorophyll. a chlorophyll-containing partner. They use the heterotrophic mode of nutrition.. it is called a parasite. in return.  The mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in solution form from dead and decaying matter is called saprotrophic nutrition. peas. in return. Like humans and animals such plants depend on the food produced by other plants. water and minerals to the alga and. which is an alga. Plants which use saprotrophic mode of nutrition are called saprotrophs. They need nitrogen in a soluble form. fungus provides shelter.  The nucleus is surrounded by a jelly-like substance called cytoplasm. centrally located spherical structure called the nucleus. The insect is digested by the digestive juices secreted in the pitcher. the soil becomes deficient in nitrogen. The cell is enclosed by a thin outer boundary.  Some organisms are made of only one cell. Though nitrogen gas is available in plenty in the air. After the harvest. The tree provides nutrients to the fungus and.

Some aquatic animals filter tiny food particles floating nearby and feed upon them. The stomach then goes back into the body and the food is slowly digested. (3) stomach.  The inner walls of the stomach and the small intestine. . Nutrition in Animals  Animals get their food from plants. (2) foodpipe or oesophagus. the starfish pops out its stomach through its mouth to eat the soft animal inside the shell. Most of the pulses (dals) are obtained from leguminous plants.  Bees and humming-birds suck the nectar of plants.  The second set that replaces them are the permanent teeth. After opening the shell. The permanent teeth may last throughout life or fall off during old age. (4) small intestine.  Starfish feeds on animals covered by hard shells of calcium carbonate. the liver and the pancreas secrete digestive juices.  The saliva breaks down the starch into sugars. Besides. In return. which begins at the buccal cavity and ends at the anus. Snakes like the python swallow the animals they prey upon. (5) large intestine ending in the rectum and (6) the anus. either directly by eating plants or indirectly by eating animals that eat plants.  The food passes through a continuous canal .  The tongue is used for talking. the plants provide food and shelter to the bacteria.  The process of taking food into the body is called ingestion.  The canal can be divided into various compartments: the buccal cavity. .  The digestive juices convert complex substances of food into simpler ones. infants of human and many other animals feed on mother’s milk. it mixes saliva with the food during chewing and helps in swallowing food.  These parts together form the alimentary canal (digestive tract). The digestive tract and the associated glands together constitute the digestive system.  The first set of teeth grows during infancy these are termed milk teeth. and the various glands such as salivary glands.  The breakdown of complex components of food into simpler substances is called digestion.

It has taste buds that detect different tastes of food.  If we do not clean our teeth and mouth after eating. We also taste food with our tongue. The mucous protects the lining of the stomach.  The digested food can now pass into the blood vessels in the wall of the intestine.  The swallowed food passes into the food pipe or oesophagus. It receives secretions from the liver and the pancreas.  The stomach is a thick-walled bag. It secretes bile juice that is stored in a sac called the gall bladder.  The bile plays an important role in the digestion of fats. These bacteria break down the sugars present from the leftover food and release acids.  Hiccups or a choking sensation happens when food particles enter the windpipe.  The villi increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food. The absorbed substances are transported via the blood vessels to different organs of the body where they are used to build complex substances such as the proteins required by the body.  The pancreas is a large cream coloured gland located just below the stomach The pancreatic juice acts on carbohydrates and proteins and changes them into simpler forms. This process is called absorption.  In the cells.5 metres long. The digestive juices break down the proteins into simpler substances. hydrochloric acid and digestive juices. The windpipe carries air from the nostrils to the lungs. and energy is released. The acids gradually damage the teeth This is called tooth decay.  The inner walls of the small intestine have thousands of finger-like outgrowths. This is called assimilation.  The small intestine is highly coiled and is about 7.  The liver is a reddish brown gland situated in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side.  The surface of the villi absorbs the digested food materials. many harmful bacteria begin to live and grow in it. These are called villi (singular villus). glucose breaks down with the help of oxygen into carbon dioxide and water. Its shape is like a flattened U and it is the widest part of the alimentary canal. The acid kills many bacteria that enter along with the food and makes the medium in the stomach acidic. It is the largest gland in the body.  The inner lining of the stomach secretes mucous. .

 The faecal matter is removed through the anus from time-to-time. It may be caused by an infection.  The grass is rich in cellulose. This process is called rumination and these animals are called ruminants. It pushes out one. This is called egestion. When breakdown of glucose occurs with the use of oxygen it is called aerobic respiration. or more finger-like projections.  In the cell.  Amoeba is a microscopic single-celled organism found in pond water Amoeba has a cell membrane.  This condition is known as diarrhoea.  The air we breathe in is transported to all parts of the body and ultimately to each  cell.  cows. food poisoning or indigestion  Diarrhoea should not be neglected.  The remaining waste passes into the rectum and remains there as semi-solid faeces. buffaloes and other grass-eating animals quickly swallow the gras and store it in a separate part of the stomach called rumen . The large intestine is wider and shorter than small intestine. a rounded.  Amoeba constantly changes its shape and position. This is called Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). oxygen in the air helps in the breakdown of food.  later the cud returns to the mouth in small lumps and the animal chews it. Here the food gets partially digested and is called cud. .5 metre in length. called pseudopodia or false feet for movement and capture of food. the food (glucose) is broken down into carbon dioxide and wate using oxygen. The food becomes trapped in a food vacuole. dense nucleus and many small bubble-like vacuoles in its cytoplasm. Cellular respiration takes place in the cells of all organisms. a type of carbohydrate. It is about 1. Its function is to absorb water and some salts from the undigested food material. Even before a doctor is consulted the patient should be given plenty of boiled and cooled water with a pinch of salt and sugar dissolved in it. In the cells. The process  of breakdown of food in the cell with the release of energy is called cellular respiration. Respiration in Organisms  All living organisms respire to get energy from food.

 The muscle cramps occur when muscle cells respire anaerobically.  When we inhale air.  Organisms such as yeast that can survive in the absence of air. ribs move up and outwards and diaphragm moves down.  Whenever a person needs extra energy.  Breathing involves the movement of the diaphragm and the rib cage. while diaphragm moves up to its former position. This cavity is surrounded by ribs on the sides.  Hot water bath or massage improves circulation of blood. an adult human being at rest breathes in and out 15–18 times in a minute. This movement increases space in our chest cavity and air rushes into the lungs.  The number of times a person breathes in a minute is termed as the breathing rate. This is called anaerobic respiration. ribs move down and inwards. he/she breathes faster. During heavy exercise. They ar called anaerobes. Lungs are present in the chest cavity . Food can also be broken down. As a result more oxygen is supplied to our cells. the air reaches our lungs through the windpipe. therefore. muscular sheet called diaphragm forms the floor of the chest cavity . This reduces the size of the chest cavity and air is pushed out of the lungs . . The increase in the supply of oxygen results in the complete breakdown of lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water.  Yeasts are single-celled organisms. The lungs get filled with air. when there is a temporary deficiency of oxygen. As a result. The accumulation of lactic acid causes muscle cramps.  During exhalation.  On an average. the supply of oxygen to the muscle cells increases. without using oxygen. They respire anaerobically and during this process yield alcohol.  In the absence of oxygen. but only for a short time. From the nasal cavity. it passes through our nostrils into the nasal cavity. A breath means one inhalation plus one exhalation.  Our muscle cells can also respire anaerobically. They are.  During inhalation. glucose breaks down into alcohol and carbon dioxide. It speeds up the breakdown of food and more energy is released. A large. the breathing rate can increase upto 25 times per minute. used to make wine and beer.  The taking in of air rich in oxygen into the body is called inhalation and giving out of air rich in carbon dioxide is known as exhalation. The partial breakdown of glucose produces lactic acid.

arteries and veins. which is moist and slippery. Other insects also have similar openings.  Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to all parts of the body. These openings are called spiracles  Insects have a network of air tubes called tracheae for gas exchange.  It carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body.  The number of beats per minute is called the pulse rate. Haemoglobin bind with oxygen and transports it to all the parts of the body and ultimately to all the cells.4% oxygen 4.  Since the blood flow is rapid and at a high pressure.  The blood also has white blood cells (WBC) which fight against germs that may enter our body. Gills are projections of the skin. Transportation in Animals and Plants:  Blood is the fluid which flows in blood vessels. The percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air. It transports substances like digested food from the small intestine to the other parts of the body.4% carbon dioxide 0. they can also breathe through their skin.  Blood is a liquid. usually has a pulse rate between 72 and 80 beats per minute.04% carbon dioxide  Cockroach: A cockroach has small openings on the sides of its body.  One type of cells are the red blood cells (RBC) which contain a red pigment called haemoglobin. It also transports waste for removal from the body.  The blood clot is formed because of the presence of another type of cells in the blood.  Inhaled air Exhaled air 21% oxygen 16. called platelets. the arteries have thick elastic walls. A resting person.  There are two types of blood vessels are present in the body . The fluid part of the blood is called plasma.  Frogs have pair of lungs like human beings. Earthworms breathe through their skins. which has cells of various kinds suspended in it. Gills are well supplied with blood vessels for exchange of gases.  Gills in fish help them to use oxygen dissolved in water. .

The major excretory product in humans is urea. snakes excrete a semi-solid. waste products start accumulating in the blood. Each heart beat generates one pulse in the arteries and the pulse rate per minute indicates the rate of heartbeat.5% other waste products.  Aquatic animals like fishes.8 L of urine in 24 hours. they divide further into extremely thin tubes called capillaries. the urine goes into the urinary bladder through tube-like ureters. lizards. 2. discovered the circulation of blood. These muscles contract and relax rhythmically.  The wastes dissolved in water are removed as urine.  It is stored in the bladder and is passed out through the urinary opening at the end of a muscular tube called urethra .  The heart has four chambers. The two upper chambers are called the atria (singular: atrium) and the two lower chambers are called the ventricles. From the kidneys. William Harvey (A. The veins have thin walls. On reaching the tissues.  Filtration of blood is done by the blood capillaries in the kidneys.  The process of removal of wastes produced in the cells of the livin organisms is called excretion. The parts involved in excretion forms the excretory system.  This rhythmic contraction followed by its relaxation constitute a heartbeat.1578–1657).  An adult human being normally passes about 1–1. ureters. .  The walls of the chambers of the heart are made up of muscles. bladder and urethra form the excretory system. Some land animals like birds.  The heart is located in the chest cavity with its lower tip slightly tilted towards the left.  Arteries are divided into smaller vessels. The capillaries join up to form veins which empty into the heart.  Sometimes a person’s kidneys may stop working due to infection or injury.  The English physician. white coloured compound (uric acid). and the urine consists of 95% water.5 % urea and 2. Veins are the vessels which carry carbon dioxide-rich blood from all parts of the body back to the heart. There are valves present in veins which allow blood to flow only towards the heart. excrete cell waste in gaseous form (ammonia) which directly dissolves in water.D.  The kindeys. As a result of kidney failure.

found in South America. such as soft under hair in sheep. and (ii) the fine soft under-hair close to the skin. A tissue is a group of cells that perform specialized function in an organism.  Wool is derived from these hairy fibres. Llama and Alpaca.The under fur of Kashmiri goat is soft.  Wool is also obtained from goat hair. Plants absorb water and minerals by the roots. The fine hair provide the fibres for making wool.      Their blood is filtered periodically through an artificial kidney.Air is a poor conductor of heat and the hair helps the animals to keep warm. Fibre to Fabric  Wool is obtained from the fleece (hair) of sheep or yak. It is woven into fine shawls called Pashmina shawls. .  The hairy skin of the sheep has two types of fibres that form its fleece: (i) the coarse beard hair.  These wool yielding animals bear hair on their body since hair traps a lot of air . Silk fibres come from cocoons of the silk moth. Angora wool is obtained from angora goats found in hilly regions such as Jammu and Kashmir. also yield wool . This process is called dialysis. The root hair increase the surface area of the root for the absorption of water and mineral nutrients dissolved in water. The root hair is in contact with the water present between the soil particles.  The fur (hair) on the body of camels is also used as wool.  Yak wool is common in Tibet and Ladakh. Plants have pipe-like vessels to transport water and nutrients from the soil. is termed ‘selective breeding’. The roots have root hair. The vascular tissue for the transport of water and nutrients in the plant is called the xylem The xylem forms a continuous network of channels that connects roots to the leaves through the stem and branches and thus transports water to the entire plant The food synthesized by the leaves is transported to all parts of the plant by the vascular tissue called the phloem.  The process of selecting parents for obtaining special characters in their offspring. forming the vascular tissue. The vessels are made of special cells.

Uttaranchal. which causes a fatal blood disease called sorter’s disease. Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim. This is called scouring.  Soon the caterpillar completely covers itself by silk fibres and turns into pupa. dust and dirt. Punjab.  The hairy skin is sent to a factory where hair of different textures are separated or sorted. sorting is done. or the plains of Haryana. it first weaves a net to hold itself.  The fleece of the sheep along with a thin layer of skin is removed from its body . These are the same burrs which sometimes appear on your sweaters.  After scouring. Rajasthan and Gujarat. If you travel to the hills in Jammu & Kashmir.  Sorter’s job is risky as sometimes they get infected by a bacterium. This process is called shearing. They grow in size and when the caterpillar i ready to enter the next stage of its life history called pupa. India also ranks among the leading silk producing countries. This covering is known as cocoon.  Silkworms spin the ‘silk fibres’. you can see shepherds taking their herds of sheep for grazing.  Sheep are herbivores and prefer grass and leaves. The rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk is called sericulture.  The female silk moth lays eggs. anthrax.  The process of taking out threads from the cocoon for use as silk is called reeling the silk. from which hatch larvae which are called caterpillars or silkworms.  The small fluffy fibres. Himachal Pradesh. . called burrs.  China leads the world in silk production. are picked out from the hair.  The sheared skin with hair is thoroughly washed in tanks to remove grease.  The most common silk moth is the mulberry silk moth.