# P−Continuidade das solu¸co˜es estacion´arias de

uma equa¸c˜ao parab´olica semilinear
Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez
Departamento de Matem´
atica
IBILCE/UNESP - S˜
ao Jos´
e do Rio Preto

Ciclo de Semin´arios do Programa de P´
Matem´atica
24 de Agosto de 2016

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez

oes estacion´
arias

The semilinear parabolic problem
We consider the problem

ut = Lu + f (u), t > 0, x ∈ Ω
u(t, x) = 0, t > 0, x ∈ ∂Ω

u(0, x) = u 0 (x),

(1)

where u 0 ∈ H01 (Ω), Ω ⊂ Rn is a bounded domain with smooth
boundary ∂Ω, n ≥ 2, L is second order elliptic operator given by
Lu =

n
n
X
∂u  X
∂u
∂ 
aij (x)
+
bj (x)
+ (c(x) + λ)u,
∂xi
∂xj
∂xj

i,j=1

j=1

with coefficients aij , bj , c : Ω → R smooth, λ ∈ R and

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez

oes estacion´
arias

(2)

f : R → R is a nonlinear function of class C 2 (R) satisfying
|f 0 (s)| ≤ C (1 + |s|γ−1 ), ∀s ∈ R,
where 1 ≤ γ <

n+2
n−2

(C)

if n ≥ 3, and γ ≥ 1 if n = 2, and
lim sup
|u|→∞

f (u)
≤ 0.
u

(D)

We assume that L is uniformly strongly elliptic operator, that is,
there is a constant ϑ > 0 such that
n
X

aij (x)ξi ξj ≥ ϑ

i,j=1

n 
X 

ξk2 ,

k=1

for all x ∈ Ω, ξ = (ξ1 , ..., ξn ) ∈ Rn with aij = aji , ∀i, j = 1, ..., n.

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez

oes estacion´
arias

for all u ∈ D(A) = H 2 (Ω) ∩ H01 (Ω). From condition (C). Re σ(A) > 0.t. X 0 = L2 (Ω) and X 1/2 = H01 (Ω). Then. t)). X 1 = D(A). the problem (1) can be written in the abstract form ( u˙ + Au = F (u) (AP) u(0) = u 0 ∈ X 1/2 . With this notation. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . where F : X 1/2 → X is given by F (u(t))x = f (u(x. we obtain that F is locally Lipschitz continuous in X 1/2 and continuously Fr´echet differentiable.Let X = L2 (Ω) be and define the linear operator A : D(A) → X by Au = −Lu. Assume that λ is chosen s.

π/2) and M1 > 0 such that S0. (5) where the constants c1 .θ1 . u ∈ D(A). v ∈ X 1/2 . v ∈ X 1/2 (3) (4) u ∈ X 1/2 . A−1 ∈ K0 (X ). c2 = ϑ/2 are positive. ∀z ∈ S0. v )| 6 c1 kukX 1/2 kv kX 1/2 . u. there are constants θ1 ∈ (0. |z| Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez and P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (6) (7) . We see that A(D(A)) = X and A−1 : X → X 1/2 is bounded. v iX . z 6= 0} ⊂ ρ(A) M1 k(z − A)−1 kL (X ) 6 . from the fact that A is sectorial. Hence 0 ∈ ρ(A) and A has compact resolvent in 0. |σ(u. Re σ(u. Hence. u) > c2 kuk2X 1/2 . ·) : X 1/2 × X 1/2 → C such that σ(u.As the operator A is sectorial can be associated with a sesquilinear form σ(·. Also.θ1 = {z ∈ C : θ1 6 | arg(z)| 6 π. v ) = hAu.

.Discretization of parabolic problems via FEM In [2]: FUJITA. 1]. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . On the finite element method for parabolic equations I: approximation of holomorphic semigroups. Definition 1 Let Ω ⊂ Rn be a given domain and let {T h }h∈(0.1] is said to be quasi-uniform if there exists ρ > 0 such that min{diam(BT ) : T ∈ T h } ≥ ρh diam(Ω). 1976 (n = 2). MIZUTANI. ∀h ∈ (0. A. H. (8) The family {T h }h∈(0. (9) where BT is the largest ball contained in T such that T is starshaped with respect to BT .1] be a family of subdivisions such that max{diam(T ) : T ∈ T h } ≤ h diam(Ω).

the closed convex hull of {x} ∪ B is a subset of Ω. for all x ∈ Ω. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .Definition 2 Ω is star-shaped with respect to a ball B if. Figura : Example of a T ∈ T h star-shaped with respect to ball BT in R2 .

p (Ω). there exist a positive constant C depending of the reference element. h ∈ (0. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (10) .1] be a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions of a polyhedral domain Ω ⊂ Rn and (K . (ii) Pm−1 ⊆ P ⊆ W m. let (T .∞ (K ) and 0 (iii) N ⊆ C ` (K ) .Theorem 3 Let {T h }h∈(0. PT . Suposse 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞ and or m − ` − n/p > 0 when p > 1 or m − ` − n ≥ 0 when p = 1. n. N ) the reference element. m. 1]. p and ρ in (9) such that for 0 ≤ ` ≤ m. Then. For all T ∈ T h .p (Ω) ≤ Chm−` |υ|W m. kυ − I h υkW `.p (Ω) . ∀υ ∈ W m. NT ) be the afin-equivalence element. satisfying (i) K is star-shaped with respect a some ball. P.

Assumption 4 Let Ω ⊂ Rn be a polyhedral domain with n > 2 which has {T h }h∈(0. P.∞ 0 (K ) and ` (iii) N ⊆ C (K ) . With the Assumption 4 we can define the finite element space 1/2 Xh .1] a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions with positive constant ρ and let (K . (ii) P1 ⊆ P ⊆ W 2. for some ` ∈ Z+ 0. N ) be a reference element of class C 0 satisfying (i) K is star-shaped with respect to some ball.

:= {I h υ : υ ∈ C ` (Ω). υ .

1/2 where I h is the global interpolation operator. The space Xh finite dimensional.∂Ω = 0} ⊂ X 1/2 ∩ C (Ω). Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias is .

m = 2 = p and n > 2. ` = 0. ∀v ∈ X 1 .2 (Ω) 6 C Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez 1/2 Xh .We observe that in Assumption 4 the value of ` is not determined. In our case.20 in Brenner and Scott [3](also see Theorem 2 in [2]) we need the condition m − ` − n/p > 0 with p ∈ [1. ∀v ∈ kv kW 1. ˆ h−1 kv kL2 (Ω) . From Assumption 4.2 (Ω) . P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (11) (12) (13) . which implies ` < 1.2 (Ω) .4. kv − I h v kW 1. In order to use Theorem 4. Thus. we ˆ such that conclude that there exist positive constants C and C kv − I h v kL2 (Ω) 6 Ch2 |v |W 2.p (Ω).2 (Ω) 6 Ch|v |W 2. ∀v ∈ X 1 . Remark 2 and Theorems 2 and 3 in [2]. ∞] for v ∈ W m.

we can establish the discretization of the problem (AP) and write it in the form ( u˙ h + Ah uh = Fh (uh ) (APh ) 1/2 uh (0) = uh0 ∈ Xh . (14) Hence. 1/2 (15) The operator Ah is sectorial operator in Xh (see [3]). kPh g kX s 6 C kg kX s for all g ∈ X s with s = 0. 1/2 where Fh := Ph F : Xh 1/2 → Xh Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez for all h ∈ (0. ψh ∈ Xh . ψh ). defined by 1/2 ∀v ∈ Xh . 1/2 1/2 The operator of aproximation Ah : Xh → Xh of A is define by hAh φh . ψh i = σ(φh .1/2 We define the orthogonal projection Ph : X → Xh hPh g . v iX . 1/2 ∀φh . P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . v iX = hg . 1]. 1/2 (see [2]). With this in mind.

Lemma 5 If (4) and (5) hold. we have k(z −A)−1 a−(z −Ah )−1 Ph akX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kakX . then there is a positive constant C such that kPh v − v kX s ≤ Ch2(1−s) kAv kX . ∀v ∈ X . (17) Lemma 7 ([2]) If (4). ∀v ∈ X . s = 0. (16) Theorem 6 ([2]) If Assumption 4 holds. s = 0. 1/2. s = 0. (5) and Assumption 4 hold. then there is a constant C > 0 and an acute angle θ1 such that for any a ∈ X and z ∈ S0. 1/2. (18) h Ph v − Ph A v kX ≤ Ch Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . 1/2.θ1 . then there is a constant C > 0 such that −1 2(1−s) s kA−1 kv kX .

denote by Eh the set of solutions of (20) in Xh . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .1] of the discrete problem 1/2 (APh ) is defined by. u ∗ is a solution of Au ∗ = F (u ∗ ). (19) Denote by E the set of solutions of (19). 1].We assume that (AP) has a equilibrium point u ∗ ∈ D(A) ⊂ X 1/2 . that is. (20) 1/2 As before. for every uh ∈ Xh that satisfies Ah uh∗ = Ph F (uh∗ ). ∀h ∈ (0. The family of equilibrium points {uh∗ }h∈(0.

σ(Ah − Fh0 (uh∗ )) ∩ iR = ∅ for all h ∈ [0.e. i. 1]. Moreover.Definition 8 We say that uh∗ ∈ Eh is hyperbolic if the spectrum σ(Ah − Fh0 (uh∗ )) is disjoint from the imaginary axis. then E0 is a finite set. Proposition 9 ([2]) If 0 ∈ / σ(A0 − F00 (u0∗ )) for all u0∗ ∈ E0 .. if all point of E0 are hyperbolic then this have an odd number of elements. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .

and only if. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .The main goal of this paper is to compare the solutions of the discretized problem (20) and the solutions of the continuous problem (19) when h tends to 0. As the solutions belong to different spaces we need a tool that allows 1/2 us to compare the functions defined in the spaces Xh and X 1/2 . h→0 kuh − Rh ukX 1/2 −→ 0. Then we can give the following definition of R−convergence: R uh −→ u0 if. 1/2 This will be resolved using the elliptic projection Rh : X 1/2 → Xh defined by (27).

∀h ∈ (0. there are a subsequence. there exists a positive constant C which is independent of h such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 Ch. and a u ∗ ∈ E such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 → 0 as h → 0. (23) Furthermore. 1] and E is the set of solutions of (19).The main result Theorem 10 If Eh is the set of solutions of (20) for h ∈ (0. (21) and (22) is satisfied. (21) Moreover. which also denoted by uh∗ . there are η > 0 and h0 > 0 such that there exists an equilibrium uh∗ of (20) such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 η. For any hyperbolic equilibrium point u ∗ ∈ E. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . then for any sequence uh∗ ∈ Eh with h → 0. h0 ]. (22) Also.

for h ∈ (0. 1]. with the following property: h→0 (24) kPh u0 kXh −→ ku0 kX0 . Definition 11 A family {uh }h∈(0. Xh ). Similarly. ∀u0 ∈ X0 . the P−convergence of sequences is defined as: A n→∞ sequence {uhn }n∈N with uhn ∈ Xhn such that hn −→ 0 P−converges to u0 ∈ X0 if kuhn − Phn u0 kXhn → 0 Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez as n → ∞. P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .1] be a family with Ph ∈ L (X0 .1] with uh ∈ Xh P−converges to u0 ∈ X0 if kuh − Ph u0 kXh → 0 as h → 0.Convergence compact Let {Xh }h∈[0.1] be a family of Banach spaces and P = {Ph }h∈(0. P We write this as uh −→ u0 .

kuh kXh = 1. Y0 ) if for any {uh }h∈(0. for all h ∈ (0.1] is Q−relatively PQ CC compact and Ah −→ A0 . with un ∈ Xhn and hn −→ 0. Definition 13 n→∞ A sequence {un }n∈N .1] with uh ∈ Xh s. We PQ write Ah −→ A0 as h → 0. is P−relatively compact if for any subsequence {un0 } de {un }n∈N . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .t. We denote Ah −→ A0 as h → 0. Definition 14 An operator Ah ∈ K0 (Xh . Yh ) converges compactly to an operator A0 ∈ K0 (X0 .Definition 12 An operator Ah : Xh → Yh PQ−converges to an operator A0 : P Q X0 → Y0 as h → 0 if Ah uh −→ A0 u0 whenever uh −→ u0 . the family {Ah uh }h∈(0. 1]. there are a P subsequence {un00 } of {un0 } and an u0 ∈ X0 such that uhn00 −→ u0 .

kuh∗ − Ph u0∗ kXh → 0 as h → 0. (Hh ) (Jh ) Proposition 15 (P−continuity at h = 0) If the condition (Jh ) is satisfied and uh∗ ∈ Eh .compact resolvent. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . taking subsequences if necessary. Then. Then. CC −1 Ah satisfy (Hh ) and A−1 h Fh −→ A0 F0 . 1]. 0 ∈ ρ(Ah ). there are h0 and δ > 0 such that for h ∈ (0. Moreover. satisfying CC −1 Ah close. h0 ] exists at least one equilibrium uh∗ ∈ Eh ∩ {wh ∈ Xh : kwh − Ph u0∗ kXh 6 δ}. and A−1 h −→ A0 . If u0∗ ∈ E0 is an hyperbolic equilibrium point and the conditions (Jh ) holds. 1]. for h ∈ (0.Assume Ah : D(Ah ) ⊂ Xh → Xh and Fh : Xh → Xh for all h ∈ [0. there is a solution u0∗ ∈ E0 such that kuh∗ − Ph u0∗ kXh → 0 as h → 0.

ψh iX = σ(φh . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (26) . that is.Linearization of the resolvent operator Now we begin our discussion of problem (APh ) and its linearization around uh∗ . (25) hA h Let α := supx∈Ω f 0 (u ∗ (x)). ·) satisfies the condition (5). ψh ) − hPh dφh . v ) = σ(u. ˜ h : X 1/2 → X 1/2 We introduce the finite element approximation A h h ˜ := A − dI (where d(x) = f 0 (u ∗ (x)) with x ∈ Ω of the operator A and d ∈ L∞ (Ω)). ψh ∈ X . v iX is coercive in X 1/2 . defined by 1/2 ˜ h φh . σ ˜ (·. so that the bilinear form σ ˜ (u. v ) + h(α − d)u. ∀ φh . ψh iX .

given (27) Using the identity (27). (3) and (14). (15). the standard error analysis for elliptic problems yields kRh u − ukX + hkRh u − ukX 1/2 6 Ch2 kukX 1 . ∀u ∈ X 1 .1/2 We also define the Ritz projection operator Rh : X 1/2 → Xh by 1/2 σ ˜ (Rh u − u. φh ) = 0. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (29) . A˜h Rh = Ph [A (28) Under the Assumption 4. ∀φh ∈ Xh . we obtain ˜ − α(Rh − I )]. see [2. Theorem 4].

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . kAh−1 Ph u −Rh A−1 ukX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX . A−1 h −→ A . Lemmas 2 and 5] and (29). from Lemma 7. ∀u ∈ X . Given u ∈ X . 1/2. compactly converges h : Xh to the operator A−1 : X → D(A) ⊂ X 1/2 .The following result gives rise to the PR−convergence of the −1 as h → 0. PR −1 Hence. the family {A−1 h }h∈(0. we get kAh−1 Ph u − Rh A−1 ukX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX + kPh (I − Rh )A−1 ukX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX + Ch2(1−s) kA−1 ukX 1 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX . [2. operators A−1 h and A Lemma 16 1/2 1/2 The operator A−1 → Xh . h ∈ (0. First. s = 0. (30) Proof. Furthermore. 1].1] consists of compact linear operators since all of them have finite rank.

Corollary 17 1/2 The operator Ah : Xh 1/2 → Xh Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez satisfy the condition (Hh ). From inequality (17). for all v ∈ X and where µ(·) is the measure of noncompactness. it follows µ((z − Ah )−1 uh ) 6 µ((z − A)−1 uh ) + µ((z − A)−1 uh − (z − Ah )−1 uh ) 6 lim sup k(z − A)−1 uh − (z − Ah )−1 Ph uh kX 1/2 h→0 = 0. CC −1 Therefore. A−1 h −→ A . With this. Since (z − A)−1 is compact for all z ∈ ρ(A) then µ((z − A)−1 v )=0.1/2 Let {uh }h∈(0.1] is R−relatively compact.1] be a sequence with uh ∈ Xh and kuh kX 1/2 = 1. P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . where (z − Ah )−1 uh is bounded. we have shown that {A−1 h uh }h∈(0.

(32) if h is sufficiently small. In fact. h0 ]. χ)| = |hA X This proved the desired bounds where C := c2−1 . χiX | = |hPh v . (31) Proof. (25) and (14) 1/2 −1 ˜ with χ = Ah Ph v ∈ Xh to find ˜ h χ. χiX | 6 kv kX kχk 1/2 . satisfying that uh∗ −→ u ∗ in X 1/2 . ·). for all h ∈ (0. Then there exist positive constants C and h0 such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 Ch. we use (5) for σ ˜ (·.1] be a R sequence of hyperbolic equilibria (20). Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . c2 kχk2X 1/2 6 |˜ σ (χ. We first note that there is a constant C > 0 such that ˜ −1 Ph v k 1/2 6 C kv kX . kA X h ∀v ∈ X .Rates of convergence of hyperbolic equilibria Proposition 18 Let u ∗ be a hyperbolic equilibrium of (19) and {uh∗ }h∈(0.

kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 + 2 2 We have. from (33). we obtain kuh∗−Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 C kF (uh∗ )−F (u ∗ )−F 0 (u ∗ )(uh∗ −u ∗ )kX +C αkRh u ∗−u ∗ kX 1/2 . If we choose R so that C0 (R)C 6 1/2. using the identity (28) and F˜ (v ) := F (v ) − dv . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . we obtain 1  1 + C α kRh u ∗ − u ∗ kX 1/2 . so that ˜ −1 Ph [F˜ (u ∗ ) − F˜ (u ∗ ) + α(Rh u ∗ − u ∗ )]. uh∗ − Rh u ∗ = A h h (33) For other side.Thus. by inequalities (29). we get ˜ h (u ∗ − Rh u ∗ ) = Ph F˜ (u ∗ ) − A ˜ h Rh u ∗ A h h ˜ ∗ + α(Rh u ∗ − u ∗ )] = Ph [F˜ (u ∗ ) − Au h = Ph [F˜ (uh∗ ) − F˜ (u ∗ ) + α(Rh u ∗ − u ∗ )]. kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 Ch.

X 1/2 F Rh A−1 /X / D(A) ⊂ X 1/2  Ph 1/2 Xh Fh  / X 1/2 h Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez Rh A−1 h  / X 1/2 h P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .The following diagram shows the relationship between P−convergence and R−convergence.

the condition (Jh ) is satisfied. (34) Furthermore. Finally. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . Proof.P R The following results tell us that Fh (uh∗ ) −→ F (u ∗ ) as uh∗ −→ u ∗ . we have kFh (uh∗ ) − Ph F (u ∗ )kX 6 C (R)h. Corollary 19 Under the conditions of Proposition 18. the condition (Jh ) holds by Lemma 16 and (34). we obtain kFh (uh∗ ) − Ph F (u ∗ )kX 6 kF (uh∗ ) − F (Rh u ∗ )kX + kF (Rh u ∗ ) − F (u ∗ )kX 6 C (R)(kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 + kRh u ∗ − u ∗ kX 1/2 ) 6 C (R)(Ch + ChkAu ∗ kX ) 6 C (R)h. From Proposition 18 and inequalities (29).

Applying now Proposition 15. the condition (Jh ) holds by using Corollary 19. we show (21) and (23). we see that the set of equilibrium points Eh is bounded in L∞ (Ω) for all h ∈ [0. Moreover.Proof of Theorem 10. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . The result (22) follows directly from Proposition 18. 1] with a constant independent of h. By using the Moser-Alikakos method.

Gracias !!!!!!!!!!!!! Danke !!!!!!!!!!!!! Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .

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