P−Continuidade das solu¸co˜es estacion´arias de

uma equa¸c˜ao parab´olica semilinear
Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez
Departamento de Matem´
atica
IBILCE/UNESP - S˜
ao Jos´
e do Rio Preto

Ciclo de Semin´arios do Programa de P´
os-Gradua¸c˜ao em
Matem´atica
24 de Agosto de 2016

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez

P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜
oes estacion´
arias

The semilinear parabolic problem
We consider the problem


ut = Lu + f (u), t > 0, x ∈ Ω
u(t, x) = 0, t > 0, x ∈ ∂Ω


u(0, x) = u 0 (x),

(1)

where u 0 ∈ H01 (Ω), Ω ⊂ Rn is a bounded domain with smooth
boundary ∂Ω, n ≥ 2, L is second order elliptic operator given by
Lu =

n
n
X
∂u  X
∂u
∂ 
aij (x)
+
bj (x)
+ (c(x) + λ)u,
∂xi
∂xj
∂xj

i,j=1

j=1

with coefficients aij , bj , c : Ω → R smooth, λ ∈ R and

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez

P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜
oes estacion´
arias

(2)

f : R → R is a nonlinear function of class C 2 (R) satisfying
|f 0 (s)| ≤ C (1 + |s|γ−1 ), ∀s ∈ R,
where 1 ≤ γ <

n+2
n−2

(C)

if n ≥ 3, and γ ≥ 1 if n = 2, and
lim sup
|u|→∞

f (u)
≤ 0.
u

(D)

We assume that L is uniformly strongly elliptic operator, that is,
there is a constant ϑ > 0 such that
n
X

aij (x)ξi ξj ≥ ϑ

i,j=1

n 
X 

ξk2 ,

k=1

for all x ∈ Ω, ξ = (ξ1 , ..., ξn ) ∈ Rn with aij = aji , ∀i, j = 1, ..., n.

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´
opez

P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜
oes estacion´
arias

for all u ∈ D(A) = H 2 (Ω) ∩ H01 (Ω). From condition (C). Re σ(A) > 0.t. X 0 = L2 (Ω) and X 1/2 = H01 (Ω). Then. t)). X 1 = D(A). the problem (1) can be written in the abstract form ( u˙ + Au = F (u) (AP) u(0) = u 0 ∈ X 1/2 . With this notation. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . where F : X 1/2 → X is given by F (u(t))x = f (u(x. we obtain that F is locally Lipschitz continuous in X 1/2 and continuously Fr´echet differentiable.Let X = L2 (Ω) be and define the linear operator A : D(A) → X by Au = −Lu. Assume that λ is chosen s.

π/2) and M1 > 0 such that S0. (5) where the constants c1 .θ1 . u ∈ D(A). v ∈ X 1/2 . v ∈ X 1/2 (3) (4) u ∈ X 1/2 . A−1 ∈ K0 (X ). c2 = ϑ/2 are positive. ∀z ∈ S0. v )| 6 c1 kukX 1/2 kv kX 1/2 . u. there are constants θ1 ∈ (0. |z| Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez and P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (6) (7) . We see that A(D(A)) = X and A−1 : X → X 1/2 is bounded. v iX . z 6= 0} ⊂ ρ(A) M1 k(z − A)−1 kL (X ) 6 . from the fact that A is sectorial. Hence 0 ∈ ρ(A) and A has compact resolvent in 0. |σ(u. Re σ(u. Hence. u) > c2 kuk2X 1/2 . ·) : X 1/2 × X 1/2 → C such that σ(u.As the operator A is sectorial can be associated with a sesquilinear form σ(·. Also.θ1 = {z ∈ C : θ1 6 | arg(z)| 6 π. v ) = hAu.

.Discretization of parabolic problems via FEM In [2]: FUJITA. 1]. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . On the finite element method for parabolic equations I: approximation of holomorphic semigroups. Definition 1 Let Ω ⊂ Rn be a given domain and let {T h }h∈(0.1] is said to be quasi-uniform if there exists ρ > 0 such that min{diam(BT ) : T ∈ T h } ≥ ρh diam(Ω). 1976 (n = 2). MIZUTANI. ∀h ∈ (0. A. H. (8) The family {T h }h∈(0. (9) where BT is the largest ball contained in T such that T is starshaped with respect to BT .1] be a family of subdivisions such that max{diam(T ) : T ∈ T h } ≤ h diam(Ω).

the closed convex hull of {x} ∪ B is a subset of Ω. for all x ∈ Ω. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .Definition 2 Ω is star-shaped with respect to a ball B if. Figura : Example of a T ∈ T h star-shaped with respect to ball BT in R2 .

p (Ω). there exist a positive constant C depending of the reference element. h ∈ (0. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (10) .1] be a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions of a polyhedral domain Ω ⊂ Rn and (K . (ii) Pm−1 ⊆ P ⊆ W m. let (T .∞ (K ) and 0 (iii) N ⊆ C ` (K ) .Theorem 3 Let {T h }h∈(0. PT . Suposse 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞ and or m − ` − n/p > 0 when p > 1 or m − ` − n ≥ 0 when p = 1. n. N ) the reference element. m. 1]. p and ρ in (9) such that for 0 ≤ ` ≤ m. Then. For all T ∈ T h .p (Ω) ≤ Chm−` |υ|W m. kυ − I h υkW `.p (Ω) . ∀υ ∈ W m. NT ) be the afin-equivalence element. satisfying (i) K is star-shaped with respect a some ball. P.

Assumption 4 Let Ω ⊂ Rn be a polyhedral domain with n > 2 which has {T h }h∈(0. P.∞ 0 (K ) and ` (iii) N ⊆ C (K ) . With the Assumption 4 we can define the finite element space 1/2 Xh .1] a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions with positive constant ρ and let (K . (ii) P1 ⊆ P ⊆ W 2. for some ` ∈ Z+ 0. N ) be a reference element of class C 0 satisfying (i) K is star-shaped with respect to some ball.

:= {I h υ : υ ∈ C ` (Ω). υ .

1/2 where I h is the global interpolation operator. The space Xh finite dimensional.∂Ω = 0} ⊂ X 1/2 ∩ C (Ω). Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias is .

m = 2 = p and n > 2. ` = 0. ∀v ∈ X 1 .2 (Ω) 6 C Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez 1/2 Xh .We observe that in Assumption 4 the value of ` is not determined. In our case.20 in Brenner and Scott [3](also see Theorem 2 in [2]) we need the condition m − ` − n/p > 0 with p ∈ [1. ∀v ∈ kv kW 1. ˆ h−1 kv kL2 (Ω) . From Assumption 4.2 (Ω) . P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (11) (12) (13) . which implies ` < 1.2 (Ω) .4. kv − I h v kW 1. In order to use Theorem 4. Thus. we ˆ such that conclude that there exist positive constants C and C kv − I h v kL2 (Ω) 6 Ch2 |v |W 2.p (Ω).2 (Ω) 6 Ch|v |W 2. ∀v ∈ X 1 . Remark 2 and Theorems 2 and 3 in [2]. ∞] for v ∈ W m.

we can establish the discretization of the problem (AP) and write it in the form ( u˙ h + Ah uh = Fh (uh ) (APh ) 1/2 uh (0) = uh0 ∈ Xh . (14) Hence. 1/2 (15) The operator Ah is sectorial operator in Xh (see [3]). kPh g kX s 6 C kg kX s for all g ∈ X s with s = 0. 1/2 where Fh := Ph F : Xh 1/2 → Xh Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez for all h ∈ (0. ψh ∈ Xh . ψh ). defined by 1/2 ∀v ∈ Xh . 1/2 1/2 The operator of aproximation Ah : Xh → Xh of A is define by hAh φh . ψh i = σ(φh .1/2 We define the orthogonal projection Ph : X → Xh hPh g . v iX . 1/2 ∀φh . P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . v iX = hg . 1]. 1/2 (see [2]). With this in mind.

Lemma 5 If (4) and (5) hold. we have k(z −A)−1 a−(z −Ah )−1 Ph akX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kakX . then there is a positive constant C such that kPh v − v kX s ≤ Ch2(1−s) kAv kX . ∀v ∈ X . (17) Lemma 7 ([2]) If (4). ∀v ∈ X . s = 0. (16) Theorem 6 ([2]) If Assumption 4 holds. s = 0. 1/2. s = 0. (5) and Assumption 4 hold. then there is a constant C > 0 and an acute angle θ1 such that for any a ∈ X and z ∈ S0. 1/2. (18) h Ph v − Ph A v kX ≤ Ch Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . 1/2.θ1 . then there is a constant C > 0 such that −1 2(1−s) s kA−1 kv kX .

denote by Eh the set of solutions of (20) in Xh . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .1] of the discrete problem 1/2 (APh ) is defined by. u ∗ is a solution of Au ∗ = F (u ∗ ). (19) Denote by E the set of solutions of (19). 1].We assume that (AP) has a equilibrium point u ∗ ∈ D(A) ⊂ X 1/2 . that is. (20) 1/2 As before. for every uh ∈ Xh that satisfies Ah uh∗ = Ph F (uh∗ ). ∀h ∈ (0. The family of equilibrium points {uh∗ }h∈(0.

σ(Ah − Fh0 (uh∗ )) ∩ iR = ∅ for all h ∈ [0.e. i. 1]. Moreover.Definition 8 We say that uh∗ ∈ Eh is hyperbolic if the spectrum σ(Ah − Fh0 (uh∗ )) is disjoint from the imaginary axis. then E0 is a finite set. Proposition 9 ([2]) If 0 ∈ / σ(A0 − F00 (u0∗ )) for all u0∗ ∈ E0 .. if all point of E0 are hyperbolic then this have an odd number of elements. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .

and only if. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .The main goal of this paper is to compare the solutions of the discretized problem (20) and the solutions of the continuous problem (19) when h tends to 0. As the solutions belong to different spaces we need a tool that allows 1/2 us to compare the functions defined in the spaces Xh and X 1/2 . h→0 kuh − Rh ukX 1/2 −→ 0. Then we can give the following definition of R−convergence: R uh −→ u0 if. 1/2 This will be resolved using the elliptic projection Rh : X 1/2 → Xh defined by (27).

∀h ∈ (0. there are a subsequence. there exists a positive constant C which is independent of h such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 Ch. and a u ∗ ∈ E such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 → 0 as h → 0. (23) Furthermore. 1] and E is the set of solutions of (19).The main result Theorem 10 If Eh is the set of solutions of (20) for h ∈ (0. (21) and (22) is satisfied. (21) Moreover. which also denoted by uh∗ . there are η > 0 and h0 > 0 such that there exists an equilibrium uh∗ of (20) such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 η. For any hyperbolic equilibrium point u ∗ ∈ E. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . then for any sequence uh∗ ∈ Eh with h → 0. h0 ]. (22) Also.

for h ∈ (0. 1]. with the following property: h→0 (24) kPh u0 kXh −→ ku0 kX0 . Definition 11 A family {uh }h∈(0. Xh ). Similarly. ∀u0 ∈ X0 . the P−convergence of sequences is defined as: A n→∞ sequence {uhn }n∈N with uhn ∈ Xhn such that hn −→ 0 P−converges to u0 ∈ X0 if kuhn − Phn u0 kXhn → 0 Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez as n → ∞. P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .1] be a family with Ph ∈ L (X0 .1] with uh ∈ Xh P−converges to u0 ∈ X0 if kuh − Ph u0 kXh → 0 as h → 0.Convergence compact Let {Xh }h∈[0.1] be a family of Banach spaces and P = {Ph }h∈(0. P We write this as uh −→ u0 .

kuh kXh = 1. Y0 ) if for any {uh }h∈(0. for all h ∈ (0.1] is Q−relatively PQ CC compact and Ah −→ A0 . with un ∈ Xhn and hn −→ 0. Definition 13 n→∞ A sequence {un }n∈N .1] with uh ∈ Xh s. We PQ write Ah −→ A0 as h → 0. is P−relatively compact if for any subsequence {un0 } de {un }n∈N . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .t. We denote Ah −→ A0 as h → 0. Definition 14 An operator Ah ∈ K0 (Xh . Yh ) converges compactly to an operator A0 ∈ K0 (X0 .Definition 12 An operator Ah : Xh → Yh PQ−converges to an operator A0 : P Q X0 → Y0 as h → 0 if Ah uh −→ A0 u0 whenever uh −→ u0 . the family {Ah uh }h∈(0. 1]. there are a P subsequence {un00 } of {un0 } and an u0 ∈ X0 such that uhn00 −→ u0 .

kuh∗ − Ph u0∗ kXh → 0 as h → 0. (Hh ) (Jh ) Proposition 15 (P−continuity at h = 0) If the condition (Jh ) is satisfied and uh∗ ∈ Eh .compact resolvent. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . taking subsequences if necessary. Then. Then. CC −1 Ah satisfy (Hh ) and A−1 h Fh −→ A0 F0 . 1]. 0 ∈ ρ(Ah ). there are h0 and δ > 0 such that for h ∈ (0. Moreover. satisfying CC −1 Ah close. h0 ] exists at least one equilibrium uh∗ ∈ Eh ∩ {wh ∈ Xh : kwh − Ph u0∗ kXh 6 δ}. and A−1 h −→ A0 . If u0∗ ∈ E0 is an hyperbolic equilibrium point and the conditions (Jh ) holds. 1]. for h ∈ (0.Assume Ah : D(Ah ) ⊂ Xh → Xh and Fh : Xh → Xh for all h ∈ [0. there is a solution u0∗ ∈ E0 such that kuh∗ − Ph u0∗ kXh → 0 as h → 0.

ψh iX = σ(φh . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (26) . that is.Linearization of the resolvent operator Now we begin our discussion of problem (APh ) and its linearization around uh∗ . (25) hA h Let α := supx∈Ω f 0 (u ∗ (x)). ·) satisfies the condition (5). ψh ) − hPh dφh . v ) = σ(u. ˜ h : X 1/2 → X 1/2 We introduce the finite element approximation A h h ˜ := A − dI (where d(x) = f 0 (u ∗ (x)) with x ∈ Ω of the operator A and d ∈ L∞ (Ω)). ψh ∈ X . v iX is coercive in X 1/2 . defined by 1/2 ˜ h φh . σ ˜ (·. so that the bilinear form σ ˜ (u. v ) + h(α − d)u. ∀ φh . ψh iX .

given (27) Using the identity (27). (3) and (14). (15). the standard error analysis for elliptic problems yields kRh u − ukX + hkRh u − ukX 1/2 6 Ch2 kukX 1 . ∀u ∈ X 1 .1/2 We also define the Ritz projection operator Rh : X 1/2 → Xh by 1/2 σ ˜ (Rh u − u. φh ) = 0. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias (29) . A˜h Rh = Ph [A (28) Under the Assumption 4. ∀φh ∈ Xh . we obtain ˜ − α(Rh − I )]. see [2. Theorem 4].

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . kAh−1 Ph u −Rh A−1 ukX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX . A−1 h −→ A . Lemmas 2 and 5] and (29). from Lemma 7. ∀u ∈ X . Given u ∈ X . 1/2. compactly converges h : Xh to the operator A−1 : X → D(A) ⊂ X 1/2 .The following result gives rise to the PR−convergence of the −1 as h → 0. PR −1 Hence. the family {A−1 h }h∈(0. we get kAh−1 Ph u − Rh A−1 ukX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX + kPh (I − Rh )A−1 ukX s 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX + Ch2(1−s) kA−1 ukX 1 6 Ch2(1−s) kukX . [2. operators A−1 h and A Lemma 16 1/2 1/2 The operator A−1 → Xh . h ∈ (0. First. s = 0. (30) Proof. Furthermore. 1].1] consists of compact linear operators since all of them have finite rank.

Corollary 17 1/2 The operator Ah : Xh 1/2 → Xh Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez satisfy the condition (Hh ). From inequality (17). for all v ∈ X and where µ(·) is the measure of noncompactness. it follows µ((z − Ah )−1 uh ) 6 µ((z − A)−1 uh ) + µ((z − A)−1 uh − (z − Ah )−1 uh ) 6 lim sup k(z − A)−1 uh − (z − Ah )−1 Ph uh kX 1/2 h→0 = 0. CC −1 Therefore. A−1 h −→ A . With this. Since (z − A)−1 is compact for all z ∈ ρ(A) then µ((z − A)−1 v )=0.1/2 Let {uh }h∈(0.1] is R−relatively compact.1] be a sequence with uh ∈ Xh and kuh kX 1/2 = 1. P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . where (z − Ah )−1 uh is bounded. we have shown that {A−1 h uh }h∈(0.

(32) if h is sufficiently small. In fact. h0 ]. χ)| = |hA X This proved the desired bounds where C := c2−1 . χiX | = |hPh v . (31) Proof. (25) and (14) 1/2 −1 ˜ with χ = Ah Ph v ∈ Xh to find ˜ h χ. χiX | 6 kv kX kχk 1/2 . satisfying that uh∗ −→ u ∗ in X 1/2 . ·). for all h ∈ (0. Then there exist positive constants C and h0 such that kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 Ch. we use (5) for σ ˜ (·.1] be a R sequence of hyperbolic equilibria (20). Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . c2 kχk2X 1/2 6 |˜ σ (χ. We first note that there is a constant C > 0 such that ˜ −1 Ph v k 1/2 6 C kv kX . kA X h ∀v ∈ X .Rates of convergence of hyperbolic equilibria Proposition 18 Let u ∗ be a hyperbolic equilibrium of (19) and {uh∗ }h∈(0.

kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 + 2 2 We have. from (33). we obtain kuh∗−Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 C kF (uh∗ )−F (u ∗ )−F 0 (u ∗ )(uh∗ −u ∗ )kX +C αkRh u ∗−u ∗ kX 1/2 . If we choose R so that C0 (R)C 6 1/2. using the identity (28) and F˜ (v ) := F (v ) − dv . Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . we obtain 1  1 + C α kRh u ∗ − u ∗ kX 1/2 . so that ˜ −1 Ph [F˜ (u ∗ ) − F˜ (u ∗ ) + α(Rh u ∗ − u ∗ )]. uh∗ − Rh u ∗ = A h h (33) For other side.Thus. by inequalities (29). we get ˜ h (u ∗ − Rh u ∗ ) = Ph F˜ (u ∗ ) − A ˜ h Rh u ∗ A h h ˜ ∗ + α(Rh u ∗ − u ∗ )] = Ph [F˜ (u ∗ ) − Au h = Ph [F˜ (uh∗ ) − F˜ (u ∗ ) + α(Rh u ∗ − u ∗ )]. kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 6 Ch.

X 1/2 F Rh A−1 /X / D(A) ⊂ X 1/2  Ph 1/2 Xh Fh  / X 1/2 h Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez Rh A−1 h  / X 1/2 h P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .The following diagram shows the relationship between P−convergence and R−convergence.

the condition (Jh ) is satisfied. (34) Furthermore. Finally. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . Proof.P R The following results tell us that Fh (uh∗ ) −→ F (u ∗ ) as uh∗ −→ u ∗ . we have kFh (uh∗ ) − Ph F (u ∗ )kX 6 C (R)h. Corollary 19 Under the conditions of Proposition 18. the condition (Jh ) holds by Lemma 16 and (34). we obtain kFh (uh∗ ) − Ph F (u ∗ )kX 6 kF (uh∗ ) − F (Rh u ∗ )kX + kF (Rh u ∗ ) − F (u ∗ )kX 6 C (R)(kuh∗ − Rh u ∗ kX 1/2 + kRh u ∗ − u ∗ kX 1/2 ) 6 C (R)(Ch + ChkAu ∗ kX ) 6 C (R)h. From Proposition 18 and inequalities (29).

Applying now Proposition 15. the condition (Jh ) holds by using Corollary 19. we show (21) and (23). we see that the set of equilibrium points Eh is bounded in L∞ (Ω) for all h ∈ [0. Moreover.Proof of Theorem 10. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . The result (22) follows directly from Proposition 18. 1] with a constant independent of h. By using the Moser-Alikakos method.

Gracias !!!!!!!!!!!!! Danke !!!!!!!!!!!!! Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .

..References Arrieta.. A general approximations scheme for attractors of abstract parabolic problems. PDE 25 (2000). S. S. 1–37. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . I. Leipzig: Teubner-Texte zur Mathematik. A. n. p. A. 2. L. Anal.. Attractors of parabolic problems with nonlinear boundary conditions.M. The mathematical theory of finite element methods. n. Arrieta. 1998. I. 7-8. Uniform bounds. p. V. Carvalho. Funct.. Numer.N. Dynamics in dumbbell domains. volume 137. Lozada-Cruz. 1996. Burenkov. 785–829. Optim. A. G. C. Journal Differential Equations 231 (2006). BRENNER. 27 (2006). N. Rodr´ıguez-Bernal. J. New York: Springer-Verlag. SCOTT.. A. Comm. Sobolev Spaces on Domains.. R. Piskarev. 551–597. Carvalho. n. J.. Continuity of the set of equilibria. Carvalho. 1-2.

FUJITA. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.. p. 1988. J. 28.Cholewa. v. D. J. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.. 2000. Journal of the Mathematical Society of Japan. Dlotko. 4.. Geometric theory of semilinear parabolic equations. Kato. Hale. 1981. Henry. H. Tokyo. 749–771. T. Global Attractors in Abstract Parabolic Problems. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . W. Asymptotic behavior of dissipative systems. A. Providence: American Mathematical Society. 1980. n. MIZUTANI. 1976. On the finite element method for parabolic equations I: approximation of holomorphic semigroups. Perturbation theory for linear operators. T. Cambridge: University Press. K.

. 2. J. G.. G. J. 2014. Appl. Lozada-Cruz. G. Figueroa-L´opez. v... Math.Figueroa-L´opez. Lozada-Cruz. Figueroa-L´opez. G. N.. 8. Dynamics of parabolic equations via the finite element method I. On global attractors for a class of parabolic problems. Some estimates for resolvent operators under the discretization by finite element method. p.. N.. Lozada-Cruz. accepted 2016. R. Journal of Differential Equations. Lozada-Cruz. Figueroa-L´opez. Continuity of the set of equilibria. N. (2014). J. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias .. Dynamics of parabolic equations via the finite element method II. (published online July 31). R. Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences. 493-500. n. R. Comput. R.. The discretized problem. In preparation.

Leipzig. Syst. Shadowing for discrete approximations of abstract parabolic equations. Vainikko G. G. B 10 (2008). 1. Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´ opez P−Continuidade das solu¸c˜ oes estacion´ arias . Seriya Matematicheskii Analiz. Vainikko G. Teubner-Texte zur Mathematik.. 647–687. Dyn. Regular convergence of operators and approximate solution of equations. pp. 16. Nonlinear Analysis.. Ser. Wolf-J¨ urgen.Vainikko. 1976. Translated from Itogi Nauki i Tekhniki. Discrete Contin. 2. 1993. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Melhods and Applications. G. Funktionalanalysis der Diskretisierungsmethoden. p.. S. pp. n. 6. 19-42. v. 5-53. n. 1979. Theory. Piskarev. Multidimensional weakly singular integral equations. B. Verlagsgesellschaft.. Vainikko. Vol. Approximative methods for nonlinear equations (Two approaches to the convergence problem)..