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Andr Bakker (2002-2006)

Lecture 3 - Conservation Equations


Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
Instructor: Andr Bakker

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Governing Equations
The governing equations include the following conservation laws of physics:
Conservation of mass.
Newtons second law: the change of momentum equals the sum of forces on a
fluid particle.
First law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy): rate of change of energy
equals the sum of rate of heat addition to and work done on fluid particle.

The fluid is treated as a continuum. For length scales of, say, 1m and larger,
the molecular structure and motions may be ignored.

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Lagrangian vs. Eulerian Description


A fluid flow field can be thought of as
being comprised of a large number of
finite sized fluid particles which have
mass, momentum, internal energy, and
other properties. Mathematical laws can
then be written for each fluid particle.
This is the Lagrangian description of
fluid motion.

Another view of fluid motion is the


Eulerian description. In the Eulerian
description of fluid motion, we
consider how flow properties change
at a fluid element that is fixed in space
and time (x,y,z,t), rather than
following individual fluid particles.

Governing equations can be derived using each


method and converted to the other form
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Fluid Element and Properties

The behavior of the fluid is described in terms of macroscopic


properties:
Velocity u.
Pressure p.
Density r.
Temperature T.
Energy E.
y
Typically ignore (x,y,z,t) in the notation.
Properties are averages of a sufficiently large number of
molecules.
A fluid element can be thought of as the smallest volume for
which the continuum assumption is valid.

Fluid Element for


Conservation Laws

(x,y,z)

y
z

x
Faces are labeled North, East,
West, South, Top and Bottom

Properties at faces are expressed as first


two terms of a Taylor series expansion,
p 1
p 1
e.g. for p : pW = p
x and p E = p +
x
x 2
x 2
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Mass Balance
Rate of increase of mass in fluid element equals the net rate of flow of mass into element.

x y z
Rate of increase is: ( x y z ) =
t

The inflows (positive) and outflows (negative) are shown here:

1
( v)
.
v +
y
2

y x z

( w) 1

. z x y
w +
z
2

(u) 1

. x y z
u +
x
2

( u ) 1

. x y z
u
x
2

( v) 1
. y x z
v
y
2

z
x

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( w) 1

. z x y
w
z
2

Continuity Equation
Summing all terms in the previous slide and dividing by the volume xyz results in:
+ ( u ) + ( v ) + ( w) = 0
t
x
y
z

In vector notation:

+ div ( u ) = 0
t

Change in density

Net flow of mass across boundaries


Convective term

For incompressible fluids r / t = 0, and the equation becomes: div u = 0.

Alternative ways to write this:

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u + v + w = 0 and ui = 0
xi
x y z

Different Forms of the Continuity Equation


Finite control volume
fixed in space

dV + U dS = 0
t V
S
Integral form
Conservati on form

Finite control volume fixed


mass moving with flow

D
dV = 0
Dt V
Integral form
Non conservati on form
U

Infinitesimally small
element fixed in space

+ ( U ) = 0
t
Differenti al form
Conservati on form
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Infinitesimally small fluid element of fixed


mass (fluid particle) moving with the flow

D
+ U = 0
Dt
Differenti al form
Non conservati on form
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Rate of Change for A Fluid Particle

Terminology: fluid element is a volume stationary in space, and a fluid particle is a volume of
fluid moving with the flow.
A moving fluid particle experiences two rates of changes:
Change due to changes in the fluid as a function of time.
Change due to the fact that it moves to a different location in the fluid with different
conditions.
The sum of these two rates of changes for a property per unit mass is called the total or
substantive derivative D /Dt:

D dx dy dz
=
+
+
+
Dt
t
x dt
y dt
z dt

With dx/dt=u, dy/dt=v, dz/dt=w, this results in:

+ u. grad
=
Dt
t

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Rate of Change for A Stationary Fluid Element

In most cases we are interested in the changes of a flow property for a fluid element, or fluid
volume, that is stationary in space.
However, some equations are easier derived for fluid particles. For a moving fluid particle, the
total derivative per unit volume of this property is given by:
(for moving fluid particle)

=
+ u. grad
Dt
t

(for given location in space)

For a fluid element, for an arbitrary conserved property :

( )
+ div ( u ) = 0
t

+ div ( u) = 0
t
Continuity equation

Arbitrary property

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Fluid Particle and Fluid Element

We can derive the relationship between the equations for a fluid particle (Lagrangian) and a
fluid element (Eulerian) as follows:
( )
D

+ div ( u ) =
+ u . grad +
+ div ( u ) =
Dt
t
t

zero because of continuity

( )
D
+ div ( u ) =
t
Dt
Rate of increase of
of fluid element

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Net rate of flow of


out of fluid element

Rate of increase of
for a fluid particle

10

To Remember So Far

We need to derive conservation equations that we can solve to calculate fluid velocities and
other properties.

These equations can be derived either for a fluid particle that is moving with the flow
(Lagrangian) or for a fluid element that is stationary in space (Eulerian).

For CFD purposes we need them in Eulerian form, but (according to the book) they are
somewhat easier to derive in Lagrangian form.

Luckily, when we derive equations for a property in one form, we can convert them to the
other form using the relationship shown on the bottom in the previous slide.

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Relevant Entries for


x-momentum

Du

Dt

( u )
+ div( uu)
t

y-momentum

Dv
Dt

( v)
+ div( vu)
t

z-momentum

Dw
Dt

( w)
+ div( wu)
t

Energy

DE
Dt

( E )
+ div( Eu)
t

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Momentum Equation in Three Dimensions


We will first derive conservation equations for momentum and energy for fluid particles.
Next we will use the above relationships to transform those to an Eulerian frame (for fluid
elements).
We start with deriving the momentum equations.
Newtons second law: rate of change of momentum equals sum of forces.
Rate of increase of x-, y-, and z-momentum:

Du
Dt

Dv
Dt

Dw
Dt

Forces on fluid particles are:


Surface forces such as pressure and viscous forces.
Body forces, which act on a volume, such as gravity, centrifugal, Coriolis, and
electromagnetic forces.

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Viscous stresses
Stresses are forces per area. Unit is N/m2
or Pa.
Viscous stresses denoted by t.
Suffix notation tij is used to indicate
direction.
Nine stress components.

txx, tyy, tzz are normal stresses. E.g. tzz is the


stress in the z-direction on a z-plane.
Other stresses are shear stresses. E.g. tzy is
the stress in the y-direction on a z-plane.

Forces aligned with the direction of a


coordinate axis are positive. Opposite
direction is negative.

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Forces in the X-Direction


( yx +

yx 1
. y ) x z
y 2

(p

( xx

( zx +

zx 1
. z ) y z
1
z 2
( yx yx . y ) x z
y 2

p 1
. x ) y z
x 2

xx 1
. x ) y z
x 2

(p+

p 1
. x ) y z
x 2

( xx +

xx 1
. x ) y z
x 2

z
y
x

( zx

zx 1
. z ) x y
z 2

Net force in the xx-direction is the sum of all the force components in that direction.
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Momentum Equation
Set the rate of change of x-momentum for a fluid particle Du/Dt equal to:
the sum of the forces due to surface stresses shown in the previous slide, plus
the body forces. These are usually lumped together into a source term SM:

zx
Du ( p + xx ) yx
=
+
+
+ S Mx
Dt
x
y
z

p is a compressive stress and xx is a tensile stress.

Similarly for y- and z-momentum:


Dv xy ( p + yy ) zy
+ S My

=
+
+
Dt
x
y
z

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Dw xz yz ( p + zz )
=
+
+
+ S Mz
Dt
x
y
z

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Energy Equation
First law of thermodynamics: rate of change of energy of a fluid particle is
equal to the rate of heat addition plus the rate of work done.
Rate of increase of energy is DE/Dt.
Energy E = i + (u2+v2+w2).
Here, i is the internal (thermal energy).
(u2+v2+w2) is the kinetic energy.
Potential energy (gravitation) is usually treated separately and included as a
source term.
We will derive the energy equation by setting the total derivative equal to
the change in energy as a result of work done by viscous stresses and the net
heat conduction.
Next we will subtract the kinetic energy equation to arrive at a conservation
equation for the internal energy.

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17

Work done by surface stresses in xx-direction


(u yx +
(up

(u xx

(u yx ) 1
. y ) x z
y
2

(u zx +

(u zx ) 1
. z ) y z
z
2
(u yx ) 1
(u yx
. y ) x z
y
2

(up ) 1
. x ) y z
x 2

(up +

(u xx ) 1
. x ) y z
x
2

(u xx +

(up ) 1
. x ) y z
x 2

(u xx ) 1
. x ) y z
x
2

z
y
x

(u zx

(u zx ) 1
. z ) x y
z
2

Work done is force times velocity.


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Work Done by Surface Stresses


The total rate of work done by surface stresses is calculated as follows:
For work done by x-components of stresses add all terms in the previous slide.
Do the same for the y- and z-components.

Add all and divide by xyz to get the work done per unit volume by the
surface stresses:

(u xx ) (u yx ) (u zx ) ( v xy )
div ( p u ) +
+
+
+
x
y
z
x
( v yy ) ( v zy ) ( w xz ) ( w yz ) (u zz )
+
+
+
+
+
y
z
x
y
z

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Energy Flux due to Heat Conduction


(q y +

(q x

q y 1
. y ) x z
y 2

q x 1
. x ) y z
x 2

(q z +

q z 1
. z ) x y
z 2

(q x +

q x 1
. x ) y z
x 2

z
y
x

(q z

q z 1
. z ) x y
z 2

q y 1
(q y
. y ) x z
y 2

The heat flux vector q has three components, qx, qy, and qz.
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Energy Flux due to Heat Conduction


Summing all terms and dividing by xyz gives the net rate of heat transfer to the fluid
particle per unit volume:

q x q y q z

= div q
x
y
z

Fouriers law of heat conduction relates the heat flux to the local temperature gradient:

qx = k

T
x

qy = k

T
y

qz = k

T
z

In vector form: q = k grad T


Thus, energy flux due to conduction: div q = div ( k grad T )
This is the final form used in the energy equation.

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Energy Equation

Setting the total derivative for the energy in a fluid particle equal to the previously derived
work and energy flux terms, results in the following energy equation:

(u xx ) (u yx ) (u zx ) ( v xy )
DE
= div ( p u ) +
+
+
+

Dt

z
x

( v yy ) ( v zy ) ( w xz ) ( w yz ) (u zz )
+
+
+
+
+
y
z
x
y
z
+ div ( k grad T ) + S E

Note that we also added a source term SE that includes sources (potential energy, sources due
to heat production from chemical reactions, etc.).

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Kinetic Energy Equation


Separately, we can derive a conservation equation for the kinetic energy of the fluid.
In order to do this, we multiply the u-momentum equation by u, the v-momentum equation
by v, and the w-momentum equation by w. We then add the results together.
This results in the following equation for the kinetic energy:

D[ 12 (u 2 + v 2 + w 2 )]
xx yx zx

= u
u.. grad p + u
+
+

Dt
y
z
x
xy yy zy
xz yz zz
+ v
+
+
+
+
+w
+ u. S M
y
z
y
z
x
x

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Internal Energy Equation


Subtract the kinetic energy equation from the energy equation.
Define a new source term for the internal energy as
Si = SE - u.SM. This results in:

u
u
v
u

+
+
+
yx
zx
xy
xx x
y
z

v
v
w
w
u
+ zy
+ xz
+ yz
+ zz
y
z
x
y
z

Di
= p div u +
Dt
+ yy

+ div ( k grad T ) + S i

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Enthalpy Equation
An often used alternative form of the energy equation is the total enthalpy
equation.
Specific enthalpy h = i + p/.
Total enthalpy h0 = h + (u2+v2+w2) = E + p/.
( h0 )
+ div ( h0 u ) = div ( k grad T )
t
(u yx )
( v xy )
(u xx )
(u zx )
+
+
+
+

z
x

( v yy )
y

( v zy )
z

( w yz )
( w xz )
(u zz )
+
+
+
x
y
z

+ Sh

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25

Equations of State
Fluid motion is described by five partial differential equations for mass, momentum, and
energy.
Amongst the unknowns are four thermodynamic variables: , p, i, and T.
We will assume thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e. that the time it takes for a fluid particle to
adjust to new conditions is short relative to the timescale of the flow.
We add two equations of state using the two state variables and T: p=p(,T) and i=i(,T).
For a perfect gas, these become: p= RT and i=CvT.
At low speeds (e.g. Ma < 0.2), the fluids can be considered incompressible. There is no linkage
between the energy equation, and the mass and momentum equation. We then only need to
solve for energy if the problem involves heat transfer.

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Viscous Stresses
A model for the viscous stresses ij is required.
We will express the viscous stresses as functions of the local deformation rate (strain rate)
tensor.
There are two types of deformation:
Linear deformation rates due to velocity gradients.
Elongating stress components (stretching).
Shearing stress components.
Volumetric deformation rates due to expansion or compression.
All gases and most fluids are isotropic: viscosity is a scalar.
Some fluids have anisotropic viscous stress properties, such as certain polymers and dough.
We will not discuss those here.

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Viscous Stress Tensor


Using an isotropic (first) dynamic viscosity for the linear deformations and
a second viscosity =-2/3 for the volumetric deformations results in:
xx

= yx

zx

xy
yy
zy

xz

yz
zz

u 2
2
div u
x 3

u v
=
+

x
y

u w
+

z
x

u v
+
y x
v 2
2
div u
y 3
v w
+

z y

u w
+

z x
v w
+

z
y


w 2

2
div u
z 3

Note: div u = 0 for incompressible fluids.

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NavierNavier-Stokes Equations
Including the viscous stress terms in the momentum balance and
rearranging, results in the Navier-Stokes equations:
x momentum :

( u )
p
+ div ( u u ) =
+ div ( grad u ) + S Mx
t
x

y momentum :

( v )
p
+ div ( v u ) =
+ div ( grad v ) + S My
t
y

z momentum :

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( w)
p
+ div ( w u ) =
+ div ( grad w ) + S Mz
t
z

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Viscous Dissipation
Similarly, substituting the stresses in the internal energy equation and rearranging results in:

Internal energy :

( i )
+ div ( iu ) = p div u + div ( k grad T ) + + S i
t

Here is the viscous dissipation term. This term is always positive and describes the
conversion of mechanical energy to heat.

u 2 v 2 w 2
= 2 + +

z
x
y

u v 2
+

+
y x

2
2
2

w
v
w

+
+
+
( div u ) 2
+
z x
z y 3

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Summary of equations in conservation form

+ div ( u ) = 0
t
( u )
p
+ div ( u u ) =
+ div ( grad u ) + S Mx
t
x

Mass :

x momentum :
y momentum :
z momentum :
Internal energy :

( v )
p
+ div ( v u ) =
+ div ( grad v ) + S My
t
y
( w)
p
+ div ( w u ) =
+ div ( grad w ) + S Mz
t
z
( i )
+ div ( iu ) = p div u + div ( k grad T ) + + S i
t

Equations of state :

p = p ( , T ) and

i = i( ,T )

e. g . for perfect gas : p = RT and i = C v T


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31

General Transport Equations


The system of equations is now closed, with seven equations for seven variables: pressure,
three velocity components, enthalpy, temperature, and density.
There are significant commonalities between the various equations. Using a general variable
, the conservative form of all fluid flow equations can usefully be written in the following
form:

( )
+ div ( u ) = div ( grad ) + S
t
Or, in words:
Rate of increase
of of fluid
element

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Net rate of flow


of out of
fluid element
(convection)

Rate of increase
of due to
diffusion

Rate of increase
of due to
sources

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Integral Form

The key step of the finite volume method is to integrate the differential equation shown in the
previous slide, and then to apply Gauss divergence theorem, which for a vector a states:

div a dV = n a dA
CV

This then leads to the following general conservation equation in integral form:

dV + n ( u ) dA = n ( grad ) dA + S dV
t CV

A
A
CV
Rate of
increase
of

Net rate of
decrease of due
+ to convection
across boundaries

Net rate of
increase of due
to diffusion
across boundaries

Net rate of
creation
of

This is the actual form of the conservation equations solved by finite volume based CFD
programs to calculate the flow pattern and associated scalar fields.

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Turbulensi
Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

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34

Turbulensi
Apakah Turbulensi?
Teori Umum
Pengaruh turbulensi pada persamaan NavierStokes.

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Ketidakstabilan

Semua aliran tidak stabil di atas bilangan Reynolds tertentu.

Pada bilangan Reynolds rendah, aliran laminar.

Pada bilangan Reynolds tinggi, aliran turbulen.

Transisi terjadi diantara 2000 dan 1E6, tergantung aliran.

Untuk permasalahan pada aliran laminar, dapat dipecahkan dengan menggunakan


persamaan konservasi .

Untuk aliran turbulen, usaha perhitungan pada semua waktu dan panjang skala dihindari.

Pendekatan engineering untuk menghitung medan aliran rata-rata waktu aliran turbulen
dikembangkan.

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Apakah Turbulensi?
Turbulensi?
Keadaan tidak teratur, tidak dapat diduga, kekacauan
Mekanika Fluida: gangguan pada aliran. Lawannya adalah laminar.
Gangguan mempengaruhi aliran, elemen-elemen dalam fluida, proses-proses yang terjadi di
fluida.
Gerakan tidak mantap (Unsteady), tidak periodik dimana ketiga komponen kecepatan
berfluktuasi, percampuran bahan, momentum, dan energi

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Apakah Turbulensi?
Turbulensi?

Terurainya kecepatan menjadi kec. rata-rata dan kec. fluktuasi:


Ui(t) Ui + ui(t).

Time

Hal yang sama terjadi pada tekanan, temperatur, dan nilai konsentrasi unsur

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Contoh Sederhana Aliran Turbulen

Jet memasuki fuida stagnan, lapisan campuran, gelombang dibelakang objek seperti silinder.

Aliran-aliran ini sering digunakan sebagai studi kasus untuk menguji kemampuan software
CFD dalam memprediksi aliran fluida.

jet

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mixing layer

wake

39

Transisi

Foto menunjukan aliran di lapisan batas.

Dibawah Recrit aliran laminar dan lapisan


fluida yang berdekatan meluncur melewati
satu sama lain dalam keadaan teratur.

Aliran stabil. Efek viscous menimbulkan


gangguan kecil yang didisipasikan.

Di atas titik transisi Recrit gangguan kecil


dalam aliran mulai membesar.

Serangkaian kejadian yang rumit terjadi


membuat aliran menjadi turbulen penuh.

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Transisi pada aliran lapisan batas pada pelat datar

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Transisi pada aliran lapisan batas pada pelat datar

T-S waves

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Turbulent spots

Fully turbulent flow

42

Lapisan Batas Turbulen


Top view

Side view

Merging of turbulent spots and transition to turbulence


in a natural flat plate boundary layer.
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Lapisan Batas Turbulen

CloseClose-up view of the turbulent boundary layer.


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Transisi pada aliran di dalam kanal

Ketidkstabilan dan turbulensi juga


terjadi pada aliran internal seperti
kanal atau pipa.

Bilangan Reynolds konstan di


sepanjang pipa dan merupakan
fungsi laju aliran, fluid properties
dan diameter.

Tiga daerah aliran seperti terlihat:


Re < 2200 laminar flow.
Re = 2200 aliran bolak balik
antara turbulen dan laminar.
Disebut aliran transisi.
Re > 2200 aliran turbulen.
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Transisi pada Aliran Jet

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Struktur SkalaSkala-Besar vs Skala Kecil

Small Structure

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Large Structure

47

Weddell Sea off Antarctica


Weddell Sea off Antarctica

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Kepulauan Aleutian Alaska

Ketika udara mengalir


melalui dan mengelilingi
objek di jalur alirannya, dapat
membentuk spiral Eddi yang
disebut dengan vorteks Von
Karman.

Vorteks pada gambar ini


timbul ketika angin menyapu
bagian timur Laut Pasifik
Utara bertemu dengan
kepulauan Aleutian Alaska.

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20 km

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Alexander Selkirk Island in the southern Pacific Ocean

50

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Cincin Asap

A smoke ring (green) impinges on a plate where it interacts with the slow moving
smoke in the boundary layer (pink). The vortex ring stretches and new rings form.
The size of the vortex structures decreases over time.
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Simulation Species Mixing

Arthur Shaw and Robert Haehnel,


Haehnel, 2004
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Homogeneous, Decaying, GridGrid-Generated Turbulence

Turbulensi timbul pada grid karena tegangan tinggi di sekitar grid. Turbulensi terlihat dengan
menginjeksikan asap ke aliran pada grid. Eddi terlihat sebab ia mengandung asap. Pada titik ini, tidak ada
sumber turbulen karena aliran seragam. Aliran didominasi oleh konveksi dan disipasi. Pada turbulensi
karena berkurangnya homogenitas, energi kinetik turbulen menurun pada jarak dari grid x-1 dan the
turbulen eddie tumbuh dengan ukuran x1/2.
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54

Transisi Aliran di Sekitar Silinder

Pada aliran di sekitar silinder, aliran mulai terpisah (separasi) pada Re = 5. Pada Re dibawah
30, aliran stabil. Osilasi muncul pada Re yang lebih tinggi.
Titik separasi bergerak ke atas, menaikkan drag up hingga Re = 2000.

Re = 9.6

Re = 30.2
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Re = 13.1

Re = 2000

Re = 26

Re = 10,000
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Turbulensi:
Turbulensi: Bilangan Reynolds tinggi
Aliran turbulen selalu terjadi pada bilangan Reynolds tinggi.
tinggi. Hal ini terjadi karena
interaksi kompleks antara bagian viskos dan bagian inersia pada persamaan
momentum.

Turbulent, high Reynolds


number jet

Laminar, low Reynolds number


free stream flow
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Aliran Turbulen adalah Kaotik (Kacau)


Kacau)

Salah satu karakteristik aliran turbulen adalah sifat ketidakteraturan or


randomness.
randomness. Pendekatan deterministik penuh sangat sulit.
sulit. Aliran turbulen
biasanya dijelaskan dengan statistik.
statistik. Aliran turbulen selalu kaotik.
kaotik. Tetapi tidak
semua aliran yang kaotik adalah turbulen.
turbulen.

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Turbulensi:
Turbulensi: Diffusivitas

Diffusivitas dari turbulensi akan menyebabkan pencampuran yang cepat


dan menaikkan laju momentum, kalor,
kalor, dan perpindahan massa.
massa. Aliran yang
terlihat acak tetapi tidak memperlihatkan penyebaran fluktuasi kecepatan
melalui fluida sekelilingnya bukanlah turbulen.
turbulen. Jika aliran kaotik,
kaotik, tetapi
tidak difusiv,
difusiv, bukanlah turbulen.
turbulen.
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58

Turbulensi:
Turbulensi: Dissipasi

Aliran turbulen adalah dissipasi.


dissipasi. Energi kinetik berubah menjadi energi
kalor karena tegangan geser viskos.
viskos. Aliran turbulen akan hilang secara
cepat jika tidak ada energi yang diberikan.
diberikan. Gerak acak yang
mempunyai kerugian viskos yang tidak signifikan,
signifikan, seperti pada
gelombang suara,
suara, bukanlah turbulen
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59

Turbulensi:
Turbulensi: Rotasi dan Vortisitas
Aliran turbulen adalah rotational; yaitu,
yaitu, vortisitasnya tidak nol. Mekanisme seperti
stretching vorteks 3 dimensi memainkan peran penting pada turbulensi.
turbulensi.

Vorteks

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60

Apakah Turbulensi?
Turbulensi?
Karakteristik aliran turbulen:
turbulen:
Irregularity (ketidakteraturan) atau randomness. Pendekatan deterministik penuh sangat
sulit. Aliran turbulen biasanya dijelaskan dengan statistik. Aliran turbulen selalu kaotik.
Tetapi tidak semua aliran yang kaotik adalah turbulen. Contoh: gelombang laut, bisa kaotik
tetapi belum tentu turbulen.
Diffusivitas dari turbulensi akan menyebabkan pencampuran yang cepat dan menaikkan
laju momentum, kalor, dan perpindahan massa. Aliran yang terlihat acak tetapi tidak
memperlihatkan penyebaran fluktuasi kecepatan melalui fluida sekelilingnya bukanlah
turbulen. Jika aliran kaotik, tetapi tidak difusiv, bukanlah turbulen. Jejak yang ditinggalkan
pesawat jet kelihatannya kaotik, namun tidak berdifusi sejauh berkilo-kilo meter bukanlah
turbulen.
Aliran turbulen selalu terjadi pada bilangan Reynolds tinggi.
tinggi Hal ini terjadi karena interaksi
kompleks antara bagian viskos dan bagian inersia pada persamaan momentum.
Aliran turbulen adalah rotational;
rotational yaitu, vortisitasnya tidak nol. Mekanisme seperti
stretching vorteks 3 dimensi memainkan peran penting pada turbulensi.

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61

Apakah Turbulensi?
Turbulensi? lanj.
lanj.
Aliran turbulen adalah dissipasi.
dissipasi Energi kinetik berubah menjadi energi kalor karena
tegangan geser viskos. Aliran turbulen akan hilang secara cepat jika tidak ada energi yang
diberikan. Gerak acak yang mempunyai kerugian viskos yang tidak signifikan, seperti pada
gelombang suara, bukanlah turbulen
Aliran turbulen adalah fenomena continuum (satu kesatuan). Bahkan eddi terkecil jauh
lebih besar dari skala molekul. Turbulensi diatur oleh persamaan mekanika fluida.
Aliran turbulen adalah aliran. Turbulensi adalah bentuk aliran fluida,
fluida bukan fluida. Jika
bilangan Reynolds cukup tinggi, sebagian besar dinamika turbulensi adalah sama, apakah
fluidanya cair atau gas. Sebagian besar dinamika tidak bergantung pada sifat-sifat fluida.

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62

Teori Fluida Turbulen Klasik

Mekanika Fluida. 2 Pendekatan:


Pendekatan Euler
Pendekatan Lagrange

Pendekatan Euler

-> pendekatan statis

Pendekatan Lagrange -> pendekatan dinamik

Metode Euler : metode numerik (elemen hingga, volume hingga, dsb.)

Perlakuan Turbulensi:
Pendekatan deterministik: solusi pers. Navier-Stokes
Pendekatan statistik: Kolmogorov

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63

Persamaan NavierNavier-Stokes, Euler, dan Bernoulli

Persamaan Navier-Stokes:

@CCIT

u = Kecepatan komponen pada setiap titik


= viskositas
p = tekanan
f = gaya eksternal

64

Persamaan NavierNavier-Stokes, Euler, dan Bernoulli


Dengan menghilangkan viskositas dan pengaruhnya, diperoleh persamaan aliran fluida Euler:

Pada fluida stasioner, dimana

@CCIT

, diperoleh persamaan Bernoulli:

65

Persamaan NavierNavier-Stokes, Euler, dan Bernoulli


Kedua pers. di atas belum bisa menghitung aliran turbulen dengan tepat, kecuali dengan
software CFD yang akurat.
Osborne Reynold memformulakan sebuah parameteryang dapat memprediksi kondisi fluida
yang turbulen. Dikenal dengan Bilangan Reynold.

Re<2000 : aliran laminar; persamaan Euler dan Bernoulli akurat untuk konisi ini
2000<Re<4000 : aliran transisi; fungsi yang tepat digunakan adalah Euler dan Navier-Stokes

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66

Persamaan NavierNavier-Stokes, Euler, dan Bernoulli


Tiga fase turbulen:
Tumbuhnya vorteks 2 D
Bergabungnya vorteks
Separasi vorteks dan keadaan turbulen 3D
Re > 4000 : aliran turbulen; persamaan yang cocok hanya pers. Navier-Stokes

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67

Spektrum Energi Kolmogorov


Kaskada energi, dari scale besar ke scale
kecil.
E adalah energi yang terkandung dalam
eddy dengan panjang gelombang l.

Log E
Integra
l scale

Taylor scale

Panjang scale:
Eddie paling besar. Integral length
scale (k3/2/e).
Scale panjang dimana turbulensi
isotropik. Taylor microscale
(15nu2/e)1/2.
Eddie paling kecil. Panjang scale
Kolmogorov (n3/e)1/4. Eddie ini
mempunyai scale kecepatan (n.e)1/4
dan scale waktu (n/e)1/2.

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Kolmogoro
v scale

Wavenumber

is the energy dissipation rate (m 2 /s 3 )


k is the turbulent kinetic energy (m 2 /s 2 )

is the kinematic viscosity (m 2 /s)

68

Vorticity and Vortex Stretching


Existence of eddies implies rotation or vorticity.
Vorticity concentrated along contorted vortex lines or bundles.
As end points of a vortex line move randomly further apart the vortex line increases in length
but decreases in diameter. Vorticity increases because angular momentum is nearly conserved.
Kinetic energy increases at rate equivalent to the work done by large-scale motion that
stretches the bundle.
Viscous dissipation in the smallest eddies converts kinetic energy into thermal energy.
Vortex-stretching cascade process maintains the turbulence and dissipation is approximately
equal to the rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy.
Typically energy gets transferred from the large eddies to the smaller eddies. However,
sometimes smaller eddies can interact with each other and transfer energy to the (i.e. form)
larger eddies, a process known as backscatter.

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69

Vortex Stretching

t2

t1

(Baldyga and Bourne, 1984)

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t4

t5

t3

t6

70

Is the Flow Turbulent?


External flows:
where

Rex 510 5 along a surface

UL
Re L

L = x, D, Dh, etc.

ReD 20,000 around an obstacle


Internal flows:

Re Dh

2,200

Natural convection:

Other factors such as free-stream


turbulence, surface conditions, and
disturbances may cause earlier
transition to turbulent flow.
where

Ra

gTL3

Ra 10 8 1010

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71

Turbulence Modeling Objective


The objective of turbulence modeling is to develop equations that will predict the
time averaged velocity, pressure, and temperature fields without calculating the
complete turbulent flow pattern as a function of time.
This saves us a lot of work!
Most of the time it is all we need to know.
We may also calculate other statistical properties, such as RMS values.

Important to understand: the time averaged flow pattern is a statistical property of


the flow.
It is not an existing flow pattern!
It does not usually satisfy the steady Navier-Stokes equations!
The flow never actually looks that way!!

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72

Example: Flow Around A Cylinder at Re=1E4

The figures show:


An experimental snapshot.
Streamlines for time averaged flow
field. Note the difference between the
time averaged and the instantaneous
flow field.
Effective viscosity used to predict time
averaged flow field.
Streamlines

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Experimental Snapshot
Effective Viscosity

73

Decomposition
Flow property . The mean is defined as :
1 t
=
(t ) dt
t 0
t should be larger than the time scale of the slowest turbulent
fluctuatio ns.
Time dependence : (t ) = + ' (t )
Write shorthand as : = + '
1 t
'=
' (t ) dt = 0 by definition
t 0
Informatio n regarding the fluctuatin g part of the flow can be obtained
from the root mean - square (rms) of the fluctuatio ns :

rms =
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1 t

2
2
( ' ) =
(

'
)
dt

t
0

1/ 2

74

Velocity Decomposition
Velocity and pressure decomposition: Velocity : u = U + u '

Pressure : p = P + p '
Turbulent kinetic energy k (per unit mass) is defined as:
k=

1 2
u ' + v '2 + w'2
2

( 23 k )1 / 2
Turbulence intensity : Ti =
U ref

Continuity equation:

div u = 0; Time average : div u = div U = 0


continuity equation for the mean flow : div U = 0
Next step, time average the momentum equation. This results in the Reynolds equations.

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75

Turbulent Flow - Reynolds Equations


( U )
P
+ div ( U U ) =
+ div ( grad U ) + S Mx
t
x
( u ' 2 ) ( u ' v ') ( u ' w ')
+

x momentum :

y momentum :

( V )
P
+ div ( V U ) =
+ div ( grad V ) + S My
t
y

( u ' v ') ( v ' 2 ) ( v ' w ')


+

( W )
P
+ div ( grad W ) + S Mz
+ div ( W U ) =
z
t
( u ' w ') ( v ' w ') ( w ' 2 )
+

x
y
z

z momentum :

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76

Reynolds Stresses
These equations contain an additional stress tensor. These are called the Reynolds stresses.

xx

= yx
zx

xy
yy
zy

u '2
u 'v ' u ' w '
xz

yz = u ' v ' v '2 v ' w '

2
zz
u 'w ' v 'w ' w '

In turbulent flow, the Reynolds stresses are usually large compared to the viscous stresses.
The normal stresses are always non-zero because they contain squared velocity fluctuations.
The shear stresses would be zero if the fluctuations were statistically independent. However,
they are correlated (amongst other reasons because of continuity) and the shear stresses are
therefore usually also non-zero.

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77

Turbulent Flow - Continuity and Scalars


Continuity:

+ div ( U ) = 0
t

Scalar transport equation: ( ) + div ( U ) = div ( grad ) + S

t
( u ' ') ( v ' ') ( w ' ')
+

y
z

Notes on density:
Here r is the mean density.
This form of the equations is suitable for flows where changes in the mean density are
important, but the effect of density fluctuations on the mean flow is negligible.
For flows with Ti<5% this is up to Mach 5 and with Ti<20% this is valid up to around
Mach 1.

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78

Closure Modeling
The time averaged equations now contain six additional unknowns in the momentum
equations.
Additional unknowns have also been introduced in the scalar equation.
Turbulent flows are usually quite complex, and there are no simple formulae for these
additional terms.
The main task of turbulence modeling is to develop computational procedures of sufficient
accuracy and generality for engineers to be able to accurately predict the Reynolds stresses
and the scalar transport terms.
This will then allow for the computation of the time averaged flow and scalar fields without
having to calculate the actual flow fields over long time periods.

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79

Sumber
Carlos G. Moreno, Turbulence, Vibrations, Noise and Fluid Instabilities. Practical Approach.
Andre Bakker, Lecture 8 Turbulence, Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

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80

Andr Bakker (2002-2005)


Fluent Inc. (2002)

Lecture 10 - Turbulence Models


Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
Instructor: Andr Bakker

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81

Turbulence Models
A turbulence model is a computational procedure to close the system of mean flow equations.
For most engineering applications it is unnecessary to resolve the details of the turbulent
fluctuations.
Turbulence models allow the calculation of the mean flow without first calculating the full
time-dependent flow field.
We only need to know how turbulence affected the mean flow.
In particular we need expressions for the Reynolds stresses.
For a turbulence model to be useful it:
must have wide applicability,
be accurate,
simple,
and economical to run.

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82

Common Turbulence Models


Classical models. Based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (time
averaged):
1. Zero equation model: mixing length model.
2. One equation model: Spalart-Almaras.
3. Two equation models: k- style models (standard, RNG, realizable), k- model, and
ASM.
4. Seven equation model: Reynolds stress model.
The number of equations denotes the number of additional PDEs that are being solved.
Large eddy simulation. Based on space-filtered equations. Time dependent calculations are
performed. Large eddies are explicitly calculated. For small eddies, their effect on the flow
pattern is taken into account with a subgrid model of which many styles are available.

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83

Prediction Methods

= l/ReL3/4

l
Direct numerical simulation (DNS)

Large eddy simulation (LES)

Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS)


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84

Boussinesq Hypothesis
Many turbulence models are based upon the Boussinesq hypothesis.
It was experimentally observed that turbulence decays unless there is shear in isothermal
incompressible flows.
Turbulence was found to increase as the mean rate of deformation increases.
Boussinesq proposed in 1877 that the Reynolds stresses could be linked to the mean rate
of deformation.
Using the suffix notation where i, j, and k denote the x-, y-, and z-directions respectively,
viscous stresses are given by:

ij = eij = i + j
x j xi
Similarly, link Reynolds stresses to the mean rate of deformation:

U i U j
+
ij = u i ' u j ' = t
xi
x j
@CCIT

85

Turbulent Viscosity

A new quantity appears: the turbulent viscosity t.

U i U j

ij = u i ' u j ' = t
+

x
xi
j

Its unit is the same as that of the molecular viscosity: Pa.s.

It is also called the eddy viscosity.

We can also define a kinematic turbulent viscosity: t = t/. Its unit is m2/s.

The turbulent viscosity is not homogeneous, i.e. it varies in space.

It is, however, assumed to be isotropic. It is the same in all directions. This assumption is valid
for many flows, but not for all (e.g. flows with strong separation or swirl).

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86

Turbulent Schmidt Number


The turbulent viscosity is used to close the momentum equations.
We can use a similar assumption for the turbulent fluctuation terms that appear in the scalar
transport equations.
For a scalar property (t) = + (t):

u i ' ' = t

xi

Here t is the turbulent diffusivity.


The turbulent diffusivity is calculated from the turbulent viscosity, using a model constant
called the turbulent Schmidt number (AKA Prandtl number) t:

t =

t
t

Experiments have shown that the turbulent Schmidt number is nearly constant with typical
values between 0.7 and 1.

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87

Flow around A Cylinder


The flow is stable for Reynolds numbers below ~40.
For higher Reynolds numbers the flow is unstable.
This animation shows the flow pattern for Re = 1000.

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88

Time average Streamlines (kg/s) - Re = 1000

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89

Effective viscosity (kg/m(kg/m-s) - Re =1000

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90

These animations show the flow pattern as a function of Reynolds number.

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91

These animations show the flow pattern as a function of Reynolds number.

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92

These animations show the flow pattern as a function of Reynolds number.

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93

These animations show the flow pattern as a function of Reynolds number.

@CCIT

94

These animations show the flow pattern as a function of Reynolds number.

@CCIT

95

These animations show the flow pattern as a function of Reynolds number.

@CCIT

96

Predicting the Turbulent Viscosity


The following models can be used to predict the turbulent viscosity:
Mixing length model.
Spalart-Allmaras model.
Standard k- model.
k- RNG model.
Realizable k- model.
k- model.
We will discuss these one by one.

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97

Mixing Length Model

On dimensional grounds one can express the kinematic turbulent viscosity as the product of a
velocity scale and a length scale:

t (m 2 / s) (m / s) l(m)

If we then assume that the velocity scale is proportional to the length scale and the gradients
in the velocity (shear rate, which has dimension 1/s):
l

U
y

t = l 2m

U
y

we can derive Prandtls (1925) mixing length model:

Algebraic expressions exist for the mixing length for simple 2-D flows, such as pipe and
channel flow.

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98

Mixing Length Model Discussion

Advantages:
Easy to implement.
Fast calculation times.
Good predictions for simple flows where experimental correlations for the mixing length
exist.

Disadvantages:
Completely incapable of describing flows where the turbulent length scale varies:
anything with separation or circulation.
Only calculates mean flow properties and turbulent shear stress.

Use:
Sometimes used for simple external aero flows.
Pretty much completely ignored in commercial CFD programs today.

Much better models are available.


@CCIT

99

SpalartSpalart-Allmaras OneOne-Equation Model


Solves a single conservation equation (PDE) for the turbulent viscosity:
This conservation equation contains convective and diffusive transport terms, as well as
expressions for the production and dissipation of t.
Developed for use in unstructured codes in the aerospace industry.
Economical and accurate for:
Attached wall-bounded flows.
Flows with mild separation and recirculation.
Weak for:
Massively separated flows.
Free shear flows.
Decaying turbulence.
Because of its relatively narrow use we will not discuss this model in detail.
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100

The k- model
The k- model focuses on the mechanisms that affect the turbulent kinetic energy (per unit
mass) k.
The instantaneous kinetic energy k(t) of a turbulent flow is the sum of mean kinetic energy K
and turbulent kinetic energy k:
K = 12 U 2 + V 2 + W 2
k=

u ' 2 + v ' 2 + w ' 2

k (t ) = K + k

is the dissipation rate of k.


If k and are known, we can model the turbulent viscosity as:

t l k

1/ 2

k 3/2

k2

We now need equations for k and .


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101

Mean Flow Kinetic Energy K


The equation for the mean kinetic energy is as follows:

(K )
+ div ( K U ) = div ( P U + 2 U E ij U u i ' u j ') 2 E ij .E ij ( u i ' u j '.E ij )
t
(II )
(I )
( III ) ( IV )
(V )
(VI )
(VII )
Here Eij is the mean rate of deformation tensor.
This equation can be read as:
(I) the rate of change of K, plus
(II) transport of K by convection, equals
(III) transport of K by pressure, plus
(IV) transport of K by viscous stresses, plus
(V) transport of K by Reynolds stresses, minus
(VI) rate of dissipation of K, minus
(VII) turbulence production.
@CCIT

102

Turbulent Kinetic Energy k


The equation for the turbulent kinetic energy k is as follows:

(k )
+ div ( kU ) = div ( p ' u ' + 2 u ' eij ' 12 u i '.u i ' u j ') 2 eij '.eij ' + ( u i ' u j '.E ij )
t
(II )
(I )
( III ) ( IV )
(V )
(VI )
(VII )
Here eij is fluctuating component of rate of deformation tensor.
This equation can be read as:
(I) the rate of change of k, plus
(II) transport of k by convection, equals
(III) transport of k by pressure, plus
(IV) transport of k by viscous stresses, plus
(V) transport of k by Reynolds stresses, minus
(VI) rate of dissipation of k, plus
(VII) turbulence production.
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103

Model Equation for k


The equation for k contains additional turbulent fluctuation terms, that are unknown. Again
using the Boussinesq assumption, these fluctuation terms can be linked to the mean flow.
The following (simplified) model equation for k is commonly used.

( k )
+ div ( kU ) = div t grad k + 2 t E ij .E ij
t
k

Rate of
increase

Convective
transport

Diffusive
transport

Rate of
production

Rate of
destruction

The Prandtl number k connects the diffusivity of k to the eddy viscosity. Typically a value of
1.0 is used.

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104

Turbulent Dissipation
The equations look quite similar.
However, the k equation mainly contains primed quantities, indicating that changes in k are
mainly governed by turbulent interactions.
Furthermore, term (VII) is equal in both equations. But it is actually negative in the K equation
(destruction) and positive in the k equation: energy transfers from the mean flow to the
turbulence.
The viscous dissipation term (VI) in the k equation 2 eij '.eij '
describes the dissipation of k because of the work done by the smallest eddies against the
viscous stresses.
We can now define the rate of dissipation per unit mass as: = 2 eij '.eij '

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105

Dissipation Rate - Analytical Equation


The analytical equation for is shown below. Because of the many unknown higher order
terms, this equation can not be solved, and simplified model equations need to be derived.

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106

Model Equation for

A model equation for is derived by multiplying the k equation by (/k) and introducing
model constants.

The following (simplified) model equation for is commonly used.

( )

2
+ div ( U ) = div grad + C1 2 t E ij .E ij C 2
t
k
k

Rate of
increase

Convective
transport

Diffusive
transport

Rate of
production

Rate of
destruction

The Prandtl number connects the diffusivity of to the eddy viscosity. Typically a value of
1.30 is used.

Typically values for the model constants C1 and C2 of 1.44 and 1.92 are used.
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107

Calculating the Reynolds Stresses from k and


The turbulent viscosity is calculated from:

t = C

k2

C = 0 .09

The Reynolds stresses are then calculated as follows:

U i U j 2
k ij = 2 t E ij 2 k ij
u i ' u j ' = t
+
3

x
3
j
i

ij = 1 if i = j and ij = 0 if i j
The (2/3)kij term ensures that the normal stresses sum to k.
Note that the k- model leads to all normal stresses being equal, which is usually inaccurate.

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108

k- Model Discussion
Advantages:
Relatively simple to implement.
Leads to stable calculations that converge relatively easily.
Reasonable predictions for many flows.
Disadvantages:
Poor predictions for:
 swirling and rotating flows,
 flows with strong separation,
 axisymmetric jets,
 certain unconfined flows, and
 fully developed flows in non-circular ducts.
Valid only for fully turbulent flows.
Simplistic equation.
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109

More TwoTwo-Equation Models


The k- model was developed in the early 1970s. Its strengths as well as its shortcomings are
well documented.
Many attempts have been made to develop two-equation models that improve on the standard
k- model.
We will discuss some here:
k- RNG model.
k- realizable model.
k- model.
Algebraic stress model.
Non-linear models.

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110

Improvement: RNG k-
k- equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical technique
(Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations.
Similar in form to the standard k- equations but includes:
Additional term in equation for interaction between turbulence dissipation and mean
shear.
The effect of swirl on turbulence.
Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number.
Differential formula for effective viscosity.
Improved predictions for:
High streamline curvature and strain rate.
Transitional flows.
Wall heat and mass transfer.
But still does not predict the spreading of a round jet correctly.

@CCIT

111

RNG k- Equations
Turbulent kinetic energy:

k

k
2


U i
= t S +
k eff
where

{
xi
xi
xi {
1
424
3 Generation 1442443 Dissipation

1 U j Ui
S 2Sij Sij , Sij
+
2 xi x j

Diffusion

Convection

Dissipation rate:
2




2
eff
C 2 {
U i
= C1 t S +
R
xi 1 4
k

x
k

i
i
42 44
3 14
1
424
3
142 43
42 4 43
Additional term
Convection Generation
Diffusion
Destruction related to mean strain
& turbulence quantities

k, , C1 , C2

are derived using RNG theory

Equations written for steady, incompressible flow without body forces.

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112

Improvement: Realizable k-

Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as the standard k- model.
Improved equation for .
Variable C instead of constant.
Improved performance for flows involving:
Planar and round jets (predicts round jet spreading correctly).
Boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients or separation.
Rotation, recirculation.
Strong streamline curvature.

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113

Realizable k- Equations
Distinctions from standard k- model:
Alternative formulation for turbulent viscosity:
t C

k2

where

C =

1
Ao + A s

is now variable.

U *k

 (A0, As, and U* are functions of velocity gradients).


 Ensures positivity of normal stresses: u i2 0
 Ensures Schwarzs inequality: ( u u ) 2 u 2 u 2
i

New transport equation for dissipation rate, :


D

Dt
x j

t
2

+
+
c
S

c
+
c
c 3 G b

1
2
1
x
k

k +

j

Diffusion

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Generation

Destruction

Buoyancy

114

Realizable k- C Equations

Eddy viscosity computed from.

t = C

k2

C =

A0 + As

U *k

U*

S ij S ij + ij ij

A0 = 4 .04 , As =

6 cos , =

W =

@CCIT

S ij S ji S ki
~
,
S
=
~
S

1
cos 1
3

6W

S ij S ij

115

Realizable k- Positivity of Normal Stresses


Boussinesq viscosity relation:

u i u j
uiu j = t
+
x
xi
j

Normal component:

2
2
k
- k ij ; t = C
3

2
k 2 U
u = k 2C
3
x
2

Normal stress will be negative if:


k U
1
>
3.7
x 3C

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116

k- model
This is another two equation model. In this model is an inverse time scale that is associated
with the turbulence.
This model solves two additional PDEs:
A modified version of the k equation used in the k- model.
A transport equation for .
The turbulent viscosity is then calculated as follows:
t =

Its numerical behavior is similar to that of the k- models.


It suffers from some of the same drawbacks, such as the assumption that t is isotropic.

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117

Algebraic Stress Model


The same k and equations are solved as with the standard k- model.
However, the Boussinesq assumption is not used.
The full Reynolds stress equations are first derived, and then some simplifying assumptions are
made that allow the derivation of algebraic equations for the Reynolds stresses.
Thus fewer PDEs have to be solved than with the full RSM and it is much easier to implement.
The algebraic equations themselves are not very stable, however, and computer time is
significantly more than with the standard k- model.
This model was used in the 1980s and early 1990s. Research continues but this model is
rarely used in industry anymore now that most commercial CFD codes have full RSM
implementations available.

@CCIT

118

NonNon-Linear Models
The standard k- model is extended by including second and sometimes third order terms in
the equation for the Reynolds stresses.
One example is the Speziale model:
3
2
k2
2 k
ij = u i ' u j ' = k ij + C
2 E ij 4C D C 2 * f ( E , E / t , u , U / x )
3

Here f() is a complex function of the deformation tensor, velocity field and gradients, and
the rate of change of the deformation tensor.
The standard k- model reduces to a special case of this model for flows with low rates of
deformation.
These models are relatively new and not yet used very widely.

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119

Reynolds Stress Model


RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by solving additional transport
equations for the six independent Reynolds stresses.
Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the momentum
equations with a fluctuating property.
Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation.
Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided.
Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled.
RSM is good for accurately predicting complex flows.
Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain rates.
 Cyclone flows, swirling combustor flows.
 Rotating flow passages, secondary flows.
 Flows involving separation.

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120

Reynolds Stress Transport Equation


The exact equation for the transport of the Reynolds stress Rij:
DR ij
Dt

= Pij + D ij ij + ij + ij

This equation can be read as:


rate of change of Rij = u i ' u j ' plus
transport of Rij by convection, equals
rate of production Pij, plus
transport by diffusion Dij, minus
rate of dissipation ij, plus
transport due to turbulent pressure-strain interactions ij, plus
transport due to rotation ij.
This equation describes six partial differential equations, one for the transport of each of
the six independent Reynolds stresses.

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121

Reynolds Stress Transport Equation


The various terms are modeled as follows:
Production Pij is retained in its exact form.
Diffusive transport Dij is modeled using a gradient diffusion assumption.
The dissipation ij, is related to as calculated from the standard equation, although more
advanced models are available also.
Pressure strain interactions ij, are very important. These include pressure fluctuations due
to eddies interacting with each other, and due to interactions between eddies and regions of
the flow with a different mean velocity. The overall effect is to make the normal stresses
more isotropic and to decrease shear stresses. It does not change the total turbulent kinetic
energy. This is a difficult to model term, and various models are available. Common is the
Launder model. Improved, non-equilibrium models are available also.
Transport due to rotation ij is retained in its exact form.

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122

RSM Equations
U j

U i

Production exact : Pij = Rim


+ R jm
x m
x m

ijk
ij
x
k
J
= u ' u ' u ' + p ( u '+ u ' )
ijk
i j k
jk i
ik j

Diffusive transport exact : D

t Rij

= div t grad ( Rij )


Diffusive transport model : Dij
k x m
k

t is the turbulent kinematic viscosity calculated in the standard way

=
x m

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123

RSM Equations Continued


u i ' u j '
Dissipatio n exact : ij = 2
x k x k

Dissipatio n model : ij = 23 ij

u i ' u j '

Pressure strain exact : ij = p '


+
x i
x j

Pressure strain model : ij = C1 ( Rij 23 k ij ) C 2 ( Pij 23 P ij )


k
P is the pressure
Rotational term (exact) : ij = 2 k ( R jm eikm + Rim e jkm )
eijk is 1, 0, or 1 depending on the indices

k is the rotation vector

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124

Setting Boundary Conditions


Characterize turbulence at inlets and outlets (potential backflow).
k-e models require k and e.
Reynolds stress model requires Rij and e.
Other options:
Turbulence intensity and length scale.
 Length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most of energy.
 For boundary layer flows, 0.4 times boundary layer thickness: l 0.4d99.
 For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l opening size.

Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter.


 Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows.

Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio.


 For external flows:

@CCIT

1 <

< 10

125

Comparison of RANS Turbulence Models


Model
SpalartAllmaras
STD k-

RNG k-
Realizable
k-
Reynolds
Stress
Model

@CCIT

Strengths

Weaknesses

Economical (1-eq.); good track


record for mildly complex B.L.
type of flows.
Robust, economical,
reasonably accurate; long
accumulated performance
data.

Not very widely tested yet; lack of submodels


(e.g. combustion, buoyancy).

Good for moderately complex


behavior like jet impingement,
separating flows, swirling
flows, and secondary flows.
Offers largely the same
benefits as RNG but also
resolves the round-jet
anomaly.
Physically most complete
model (history, transport, and
anisotropy of turbulent
stresses are all accounted for).

Mediocre results for complex flows with


severe pressure gradients, strong streamline
curvature, swirl and rotation. Predicts that
round jets spread 15% faster than planar jets
whereas in actuality they spread 15% slower.
Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy
viscosity assumption. Same problem with
round jets as standard k-.
Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy
viscosity assumption.

Requires more cpu effort (2-3x); tightly


coupled momentum and turbulence
equations.

126

Recommendation
Start calculations by performing 100 iterations or so with standard k- model and first order
upwind differencing. For very simple flows (no swirl or separation) converge with second
order upwind and k- model.
If the flow involves jets, separation, or moderate swirl, converge solution with the realizable k model and second order differencing.
If the flow is dominated by swirl (e.g. a cyclone or unbaffled stirred vessel) converge solution
deeply using RSM and a second order differencing scheme. If the solution will not converge,
use first order differencing instead.
Ignore the existence of mixing length models and the algebraic stress model.
Only use the other models if you know from other sources that somehow these are especially
suitable for your particular problem (e.g. Spalart-Allmaras for certain external flows, k- RNG
for certain transitional flows, or k-).

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127

SIMULASI PEMBAKARAN BBG


Tutorial ini menguji pencampuran spesies kimia dan pembakaran bahan bakar gas. Studi pembakaran gas metan (CH4) dengan udara di
dalam ruang bakar silindrikal ini memakai model kimia laju-hingga yang terdapat dalam CFDSOF.
Gambar di bawah memperlihatkan ruang pembakaran silindrikal yang dipelajari dalam tutorial ini. Nyala api adalah nyala difusi turbulen.
Nosel kecil di tengah ruang bakar menyemprotkan gas metan dengan kecepatan 80 m/s. Udara ambien memasuki ruang bakar pada arah
axial dengan kecepatan 0.5 m/s. Rasio ekivalen keseluruhan mendekati 0.76 (sekitar 28% udara berlebih). Jet metan dengan kecepatan
tinggi awalnya mengembang dengan sedikit interferensi dari dinding luar, kemudian masuk dan bercampur dengan udara berkecepatan
rendah. Angka Reynolds yang berdasarkan diameter jet metan adalah sekitar 28,000.

@CCIT

F-1

Langkah
1.

Membuka
Program
CFDSOF

Langkah
2.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Memberi Judul
Kasus

Uraian dan Catatan


- Klik ganda ikon CFDSOF pada layar
desktop

Visual Rincian
Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


-

Klik kursor pada layar menu teks


kemudian
tekan
ENTER
untuk
mengaktifkan menu teks (Menu
TUI/Text User Interface). Kursor akan
berkedip di bawah menu teks.
Jalankan perintah INPUT-1 pada menu
AWAL dengan ketik IN1 kemudian
ENTER.

(! Perintah menu teks dapat dijalankan


dengan mengetik dua atau lebih hurufhuruf-huruf
awal perintah teks diikuti hurufhuruf-huruf awal
setelah tanda strip ((-) pada perintah teks
tersebut kemudian tekan ENTER)

@CCIT

Sekarang anda berada dalam submenu INPUT1. Ketik JU untuk perintah


judul. Ketik judul model kemudian
tekan ENTER.
Tekan ESC untuk kembali ke menu
sebelumnya
F-2

Langkah
3.

Membaca file
grid : bbg

Langkah
4.

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Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


-

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Bentuk file dapat berupa : .cas, .dat,


.grd. bentuk .cas adalah file case
simulasi. .dat adalah file simulasi yang
telah diiterasi sehingga menyimpan
data hasil simulasi. Sedangkan .grd
adalah file dalam yang berisi grid.

Uraian dan Catatan

Mengatur
Domain

F-3

Langkah
5.

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Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Cek grid

F-4

Langkah
6.

Cek definisi grid

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


- Cell warna hijau adalah tipe
wall
- Cell warna biru adalah tipe
inlet
- Cell warna merah adalah tipe
outlet
- Cell warna kuning adalah tipe
symmetry

@CCIT

F-5

Langkah
7.

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Mengatur Model

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Model berfungsi untuk mengatur
kondisi aliran fluida contoh
apakah aliran laminer, turbulen,
perpindahan panas, reaksi kimia,
multifasa, dan lainnya.

F-6

Langkah
8.

@CCIT

Mengatur model
lanjutan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Proses pembakaran BBG terdiri
dari CH4, O2, CO2, H2O,dan N2

F-7

Langkah
9.

Mengatur
Kondisi-kondisi
Sempadan
(Boudary
Conditions)

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Kondisi sempadan adalah mengatur
kondisi simulasi sesuai dengan kondisi
yang sebenarnya.
Ada 4 langkah yaitu :
1. Mengatur kondisi w1,
temperatur konstan 300K
2. Mengatur kondisi w2, dianggap
permukaan adiabatik, tidak
melepas dan menyerap kalo ,
fluks panas=0
3. Mengatur kondisi I1, yaitu
keluaran gas CH4 memiliki
kecepatan 80m/s dan
temperatur 300K.
4. Mengatur kondisi I2, yaitu
keluran udara dengan kecepatan
0.5m/s dan temperatur 300K
Konsentrasi nitrogen 0.77 secara
explicit tidak kita tetapkan sebab N2
telah kita tetapkan sebagai spesies kimia
terakhir dalam daftar. CFDSOF
mengasumsikan fraksi masa spesies
terakhir adalah sama dengan 1 dikurang
jumlah fraksi massa spesies lain.

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F-8

@CCIT

F-9

@CCIT

F-10

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F-11

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F-12

Langkah
10.

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Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Cek daftar
sempadan

F-13

Langkah
11.

Pengaturan sifat
fluida

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Pada CFDSOF, ada dua menu yaitu
menu grafik yang ada dibagian atas dan
menu teks yang ada dibagian bawah.
Pada menu grafik mengaktifkannya
dengan menekan ikon sedangkan pada
menu teks mengaktifkannya dengan
mengetikkan dua huruf awal contoh :
input 1 maka ketik in1

@CCIT

F-14

@CCIT

F-15

@CCIT

F-16

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F-17

Langkah
12.

@CCIT

Daftar Konstanta
Fisikal

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Cek Konstanta fisikal yang
telah anda input

F-18

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F-19

Langkah
13.

Pengaturan solusi
aliran dingin

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Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Pengaturan permasalahan (input)
telah lengkap kecuali penetapan
reaksi
kimia.
Agar
dapat
memberikan gambaran mengenai
solusi
permasalahan
transport
spesies non-reaksi dan agar dapat
memberikan tebakan awal untuk
kalkulasi aliran reaksi, anda akan
mulai memecahkan permasalahan
tanpa reaksi kimia. Tidak ada input
kusus yang diberikan untuk proses
ini, meskipun demikian anda akan
me-non-aktifkan
persamaanpersamaan
spesies
produk
(persamaan-persamaan untuk CO2
dan H2O) supaya kalkulasi lebih
efisien.

F-20

Langkah
14.

Merubah nilai
faktor-faktor
pengendur
perhitungan

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Nilai-nilai bawaan faktor pengendur
perhitungan agak konservatif. dan untuk
aliran dingin nilai faktor pengendur ini
dapat dinaikkan tanpa mengakibatkan
permasalahan
stabilitas
perhitungan
iteratif. Meningkatkan faktor pengendur
menjadi 0.5 untuk viskositas akan
membuat perhitungan yang melibatkan
kopling antara persamaan turbulensi dan
persamaan aliran dapat menjadi stabil

F-21

Langkah
15.

Menyimpan file
case

Langkah
16.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Ketik: aliran_dingin

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Iterasi

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F-22

Langkah
17.

Menyimpan file
data aliran dingin

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Ketik nama file :
aliran_dingin

F-23

Langkah
18.

Solusi Aliran
Reaksi (CP
konstan)

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Solusi aliran dingin yang diperoleh
diatas akan membuat titik permulaan
yang bagus untuk kalkulasi aliran
reaksi. Anda akan mulai kembali
proses solusi setelah mengaktifkan
model reaksi kimia
Berikan "sumber penyalaan
(pengapian)" dengan menempelkan
nilai temperatur sebesar 2000K pada
region I=5-30 dan J=1-10
Jika ada note hapus data solusi (NO)

F-24

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F-25

Langkah
19.

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Pengaturan
Multigrid

Langkah
20.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Tulis file case &


data

@CCIT

Ketik : bakar_gas_cpkonstan0

F-26

Langkah
21.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Lakukan 2000 iterasi setelah itu
ubah pengenduran setelah itu iterasi
lagi sampai konvergen.

Berikan
temperatur

Langkah
22. Proses iterasi
aliran_reaksi

@CCIT

F-27

Langkah
23.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Setting
pengenduran

Langkah
24. Iterasi

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F-28

Langkah

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

25. Tulis file case &


data

Langkah

Uraian dan Catatan


Nama file :
Bakar_gas_cpKonstan
Nama folder dan nama file tidak
boleh mengandung spasi (jika ada
spasi maka file tidak akan bisa dibaca
oleh program)

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

26. Keluar dari


Program CFDSOF

atau

@CCIT

F-29

Langkah

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Saat akan membuka file cas


atau data yang telah anda
buat, pilih forlder dimana
anda menyimpan file
tersebut.

27. Membuka
kembali file
model CFD atau
file case (*.cas)
dan file data hasil
perhitungan
(*.dat)

Langkah

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

28. Melihat Grid

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F-30

Langkah

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

29. Menampilkan
Kontur

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F-31

Langkah

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

30. Menampilkan
kontur spesies

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F-32

Langkah

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

31. Menampilkan
kontur

Kontur temperatur

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F-33

Langkah

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

32. Mencerminkan
kontur

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F-34

Langkah
33.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Menampilan data
pada kontur
-

@CCIT

F-35

@CCIT

F-36

SIMULASI PEMBAKARAN BBG CP KONSTAN DENGAN RADIASI


Tutorial ini menguji pencampuran spesies kimia dan pembakaran bahan bakar gas. Studi pembakaran gas metan (CH4) dengan udara di
dalam ruang bakar silindrikal ini memakai model kimia laju-hingga yang terdapat dalam CFDSOF.
Gambar di bawah memperlihatkan ruang pembakaran silindrikal yang dipelajari dalam tutorial ini. Nyala api adalah nyala difusi turbulen.
Nosel kecil di tengah ruang bakar menyemprotkan gas metan dengan kecepatan 80 m/s. Udara mbient memasuki ruang bakar pada arah
axial dengan kecepatan 0.5 m/s. Rasio ekivalen keseluruhan mendekati 0.76 (sekitar 28% udara berlebih). Jet metan dengan kecepatan
tinggi awalnya mengembang dengan sedikit interferensi dari dinding luar, kemudian masuk dan bercampur dengan udara berkecepatan
rendah. Angka Reynolds yang berdasarkan diameter jet metan adalah sekitar 28,000.

@CCIT

G-37

Langkah
1.

Membuka
Program CFDSOF

Langkah
2.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


- Klik ganda ikon CFDSOF pada
layar desktop

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Baca File
case&data
Bakar_gas_cpkon
stan0

G-38

Langkah
3.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Aktifkan radiasi

G-39

Langkah
4.

@CCIT

Mengatur
model
lanjutan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan
Catatan
Proses
pembakaran
BBG terdiri
dari setting
parameter
radiasi

G-40

@CCIT

G-41

Langkah
5.

@CCIT

Tulis file
case &
data

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan
Catatan
Ketik :
bakar_gas_c
pkonstan_ra
d0

G-42

Langkah

6.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Ketik :
bakar_gas_c
pkonstan_ra
d

Tulis file
case
radiasi

Langkah

7.

@CCIT

Uraian dan
Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan
Catatan
Catatan

Baca File
Radiasi

G-43

Langkah
8.

@CCIT

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Berikan
temperatur

Langkah
9.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Iterasi

Lakukan 100 iterasi

G-44

Langkah
10.

@CCIT

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Setting
pengenduran

Langkah
11.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Iterasi

Lakukan iterasi sampai konvergen

G-45

Langkah
12.

Tulis file case &


data

Langkah
13.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Nama file :
Bakar_gas_cpkonstan_rad
Nama folder dan nama
file tidak boleh
mengandung spasi (jika
ada spasi maka file tidak
akan bisa dibaca oleh
program)

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Menampilkan
Kontur

G-46

Langkah
14.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan


Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Menampilkan
kontur spesies

G-47

Langkah
15.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Mencerminkan
kontur

G-48

Langkah
16.

Visual Rincian Langkah


Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Menampilan
data pada kontur
-

@CCIT

G-49

SIMULASI PEMBAKARAN BBG CP BERUBAH


Tutorial ini menguji pencampuran spesies kimia dan pembakaran bahan bakar gas. Studi pembakaran gas metan (CH4) dengan udara di
dalam ruang bakar silindrikal ini memakai model kimia laju-hingga yang terdapat dalam CFDSOF.
Gambar di bawah memperlihatkan ruang pembakaran silindrikal yang dipelajari dalam tutorial ini. Nyala api adalah nyala difusi turbulen.
Nosel kecil di tengah ruang bakar menyemprotkan gas metan dengan kecepatan 80 m/s. Udara mbient memasuki ruang bakar pada arah
axial dengan kecepatan 0.5 m/s. Rasio ekivalen keseluruhan mendekati 0.76 (sekitar 28% udara berlebih). Jet metan dengan kecepatan
tinggi awalnya mengembang dengan sedikit interferensi dari dinding luar, kemudian masuk dan bercampur dengan udara berkecepatan
rendah. Angka Reynolds yang berdasarkan diameter jet metan adalah sekitar 28,000.

@CCIT

H-50

Langkah
1.

Membuka
Program
CFDSOF

Langkah
2.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


- Klik ganda ikon CFDSOF
pada layar desktop

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Baca File
case&data
Bakar_gas_cpk
onstan0

Langkah
3.

@CCIT

H-51

Langkah
4.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Aktifkan cp
berubah

H-52

@CCIT

H-53

@CCIT

H-54

@CCIT

H-55

@CCIT

H-56

Langkah
5.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Cek daftar
konstanta
fisikal

H-57

@CCIT

H-58

Langkah
6.

@CCIT

Tulis file case


& data

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Ketik :
bakar_gas_cpberubah_rad0

H-59

Langkah
7.

@CCIT

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Berikan
temperatur

Langkah
8.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Iterasi

Lakukan 100 iterasi

H-60

Langkah
9.

@CCIT

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Setting
pengenduran

Langkah
10.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Iterasi

Lakukan iterasi sampai


konvergen

H-61

Langkah
11.

@CCIT

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Tulis file case


& data

Langkah
12.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Menampilkan
Kontur

H-62

Langkah
13.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Menampilkan
kontur spesies

H-63

Langkah
14.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Mencerminkan
kontur

H-64

Langkah
15.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Menampilan
data pada
kontur
-

@CCIT

H-65

SIMULASI PEMBAKARAN BBG CP BERUBAH DENGAN RADIASI


Tutorial ini menguji pencampuran spesies kimia dan pembakaran bahan bakar gas. Studi pembakaran gas metan (CH4) dengan udara di
dalam ruang bakar silindrikal ini memakai model kimia laju-hingga yang terdapat dalam CFDSOF.
Gambar di bawah memperlihatkan ruang pembakaran silindrikal yang dipelajari dalam tutorial ini. Nyala api adalah nyala difusi turbulen.
Nosel kecil di tengah ruang bakar menyemprotkan gas metan dengan kecepatan 80 m/s. Udara mbient memasuki ruang bakar pada arah
axial dengan kecepatan 0.5 m/s. Rasio ekivalen keseluruhan mendekati 0.76 (sekitar 28% udara berlebih). Jet metan dengan kecepatan
tinggi awalnya mengembang dengan sedikit interferensi dari dinding luar, kemudian masuk dan bercampur dengan udara berkecepatan
rendah. Angka Reynolds yang berdasarkan diameter jet metan adalah sekitar 28,000.

@CCIT

I-66

Langkah
1.

Membuka Program
CFDSOF

Langkah
2.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


- Klik ganda ikon CFDSOF pada
layar desktop

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Baca File case&data


Bakar_gas_cpberuba
h0

I-67

Langkah
3.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Aktifkan radiasi

I-68

Langkah
4.

@CCIT

Mengatur
model
lanjutan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan
Catatan
Proses
pembakaran BBG
terdiri dari setting
parameter radiasi

I-69

@CCIT

I-70

@CCIT

I-71

Langkah
5.

Tulis file case & data

Langkah
6.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Tulis file case radiasi

Uraian dan Catatan


Ketik : bakar_gas_cpberubah_rad0

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Ketik : bakar_gas_cpberubah_rad

I-72

Langkah
7.

@CCIT

Uraian dan Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Baca File Radiasi

Langkah
8.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Berikan temperatur

I-73

Langkah
9.

Iterasi

Langkah
10.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Lakukan 100 iterasi

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Setting pengenduran

I-74

Langkah
11.

@CCIT

Iterasi

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Lakukan iterasi sampai
konvergen

I-75

Langkah
12.

@CCIT

Tulis file case & data

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan


Nama file :
Bakar_gas_cpberubah_rad
Nama folder dan nama file
tidak boleh mengandung
spasi (jika ada spasi maka file
tidak akan bisa dibaca oleh
program)

I-76

Langkah
13.

@CCIT

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan
Catatan

Menampil
kan
Kontur

I-77

Langkah
14.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan
Catatan

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan
Catatan

Menampil
kan
kontur
spesies

Langkah
15.

@CCIT

Mencermi
nkan
kontur

I-78

@CCIT

I-79

Langkah
16.

Visual Rincian Langkah dan Tampilan

Uraian dan Catatan

Menampilan
data pada
kontur
-

@CCIT

I-80