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Gio Trnh Sa Loa Vi Tnh

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Bin son : Trn Khnh D

I , Li ni u :
Gio trnh ny bin son nhm mc ch trang b cho cc bn hc vin nhng
kin thc c bn nht v c cu mch cng nh linh kin trn mch cng sut
loa vi tnh
Trong gio trnh ny ti xin a ra nhng model loa mi c hin nay cc mch
cng sut km theo v cc linh kin km theo cho anh em nghin cu v t lp
rp
a ra cc bnh hng hc thng gp cng nh cch kim tra cc linh kin thay
th tng ng hoc cy ghp cc tn cng sut khi khng c linh kin thay
th ..
Tuy nhin do trnh cng nh kin thc c hn ti liu cn nhiu thiu xt
mong anh em nghin cu ri b xung thm .

Mc 1
Xt v bn cht loa 2.1 cng nh loa 4.1 hoc cao hn l loa c 2 hoc nhiu
tng cng sut 1 tng cung cp cho loa bass v 1 tng cung cp cho loa v
tinh bao gm c 2 hoc nhiu hn ic cng sut hoc 1 ic cng sut kp cho 2
v R . L
ngun in cung cp c th t : 3,3v _6v _ 12v _ 15v _ 24v _ 30v .
1. hnh dng cu trc loa :

loa vi tnh c nhng kiu ging khc nhau v cu trc v cc linh


kin rp mch nhng tu chung cu trc ca loa vi tnh bao gm
nhng thnh phn nh sau :
Loa

Phn ngun

Loa bass Bin p


Cc loa iode
v tinh
T lc

Mch trn tn hiu

Mch khuych i

Chit p
in tr
T in
Ic iu phi tn hiu

Ic cng sut
Ic iu phi
Cc jac tn hiu

Phn 1 :
loa bao gm c loa bass v cc loa v tinh nhn vo cc loa v tinh m
ta coi n l loa my tng cng sut
bass :

V loa v tinh :

Cu to ca loa : in ng
Loa in ng hot ng da trn nguyn tc mt cun dy t trong
mt t trng mnh ca nam chm. Khi c dng in m tn chy
qua, cun dy s dao ng. Do cun dy c ni vi mng loa nn
cc dao ng ny c truyn ra khng kh, tc ng vo ngi nghe.

C nhiu cc loi loa khc nhau cng nh hnh dng khc nhau nhng
chng u c 1 mng gi l mng rung (hoc mng loa). Mng rung
l ni m thanh c pht ra n vi tai ngi nghe. Tu tng loi
loa khc nhau m nguyn l lm rung mng rung l khc nhau.
a s cc loa mng rung c gn vi mt cun dy, cun dy ny
c nh v trong khe hp c t trng mnh c sinh ra gia hai
cc ca mt nam chm vnh cu. Khi cho dng in tn hiu i qua
cun dy th cun dy xut hin lc t lm rung n, s rung ng ca
cun dy s lm chuyn ng mng loa
Trankhanhdut@yahoo.com.vn
g

1 l dy dn tn hiu ( + v - )
2 nam chm in (vnh cu )
3 mng loa
4 dy t trng

Chng ta cng i vo nghin cu tc dng tnh nng ca tng b phn ca loa


nguyn nhn v u nh hng ti cht lng ca loa
1 dy dn tn hiu : l on dy nh lm bng ng c mu vng hoc en t
nh thit k
Hai dy ny c gn trn 1 gi v c hn trc tip vo dy t trng trn
mng loa . dy ny lm nhim v a tn hiu in vo dy t trng
c tnh : bt thic hn cao t b t
Kim tra bng o m
2 . nam chm vnh cu to ra t trng i xng y t trng ca cun dy
di ng theo phng thng hng .
Nam chm ny s gim t tnh khi t gn cc thit b ta nhit cao
3 . mng loa :
y l b phn quan trng trong vic phn nh li cht lng tn hiu
C 2 loi mng c bn l mng loa cao su hoc mng loa giy
Cc bnh thng gp mng loa l rch b mng do con trng hoc thi tit lm
cho loa b r v ting khng m .
Khi trn mua loa lp rp ch nhng yu cu k thut sau :

Loa mng giy

Loa mng cao su

Mng loa chc khng bc thng

Mng loa cng mn

Bng ngn tay vo thy ting pht ra


chc m

Khi bng ngn tay vo c ting pht


ra m cng

Loa cho to khng r chc ting

n nh ngn tay vo n hi tt

Hng hc nguyn nhn v bin php s l :

stt

Bnh
Ting r

Nguyn nhn
Mng loa b rch

Khc phc
Rn cht ch rch

Khng ting

Cht cun dy t trng

Thay mi hoc cun li

Phn 2 : ngun nui


Ngun nui mch cng sut loa ch yu dng ngun bin th l
chnh .
u tin chng ta xt v cu to ca bin th :
Gng li FE

Cun
S
cp
AC

Cun th
cp cp
p cho
mch
DC

Bin th gm c 2 cun dy cun th cp ly in p AC Cun s cp


ly in p DC
Trong trng hp s vng dy s cp ln hn th cp l bin p gim
p , nu s cp nh hn th cp l my tng th .

Mch ngun c s dng trong loa : bao gm c 2 loi mch l


mch n : DC 12V mc hnh cu .

S khi nh sau :

Loi 2 : ngun i xng nh sau

Hoc c th mc mch ngun i xng nh sau :

Cc bnh nguyn nhn v khc phc


Stt

Bnh

Nguyn nhn

Khc phc

Mt p

Chy cun s cp th cp

Thay mi . cun li

Khng p

Ph t hoc chp ti

Thay mi . kim tra chp ti

Chp n

Chy D . C . BA

Thay mi

Phn 3 : mch trn tn hiu chit p

Mch ny s dng ch yu cc linh kin nh R _ C _ T _ IC


Cc linh kin ny c b tr trn mch lm thay i tr s in p
trong mch .
R

22k _ 100k

1uf _ 0,1uf

5,6k _ 47k

1nf _ 10nf

T
C 1815
C 945
C 828

volum

bass

Trest

S khi ca mch chit p thng dng nh sau :

Thay i m lng bng in tr bin i chit p

1 chn mt ( GND)

2 chn tn hiu ra (OUT)


3 chn tn hiu cp vo (IN)
4 nm xoay thay i v tr in tr .
Trn y l 1 mch trn tn hiu chit p loi n gin hay gp v r
lp t .
Ngoi ra cn c nhng mch phc tp hn c s tch hp ca IC lm
nhim v khuych i tn hiu v iu phi m lng cho IC cng
sut
Nhng mch ny c tch hp gia micro v mch nhi
IC ch yu dng l IC 4558 :

S khi nh sau :

Cc bnh nguyn nhn v khc phc :


Stt

Bnh

Nguyn nhn

Ting ku xt xt pht ra H mch tip


khi chnh chit p
xc chit p

Ting khng c ting

Ting to r v nhiu

Khc phc
Thay mi

Cht R _ C, t Thay . hn mch


mch , cng tip v sinh chn jic
xc
cm
Chp mch ,
mt mt

Kim tra thay th


linh kin chp
thng thng l
R v C hoc D

Cch o in tr bin i nh sau : dng ng h o m chp vo


Chn (1) v chn (2) sau xoay chit p nu kim ng h ln u l
cn sng nu khng ln hoc ln km th in tr cht .
Cng lm tng t vi (2) v chn (3) .
Cn i vi tranzito ta o nh sau :