Chapter 1: Introduction to Differential Equations
1.1. Definitions
1.2. Classification of Solutions 1.3. Initial and Boundary Value Problems
1.2. Classification of Solutions
At the end of this section, you should be able to:
1) Identify the different types of solutions of an
ODE.
2) Verify the solutions to a given ODE.

1.2.
II. Classification
Classification of

of Solutions
Solutions


A solution of a DE is a function y (dependent variable) that satisfies the DE identically for all x in an interval I, where x is the independent variable.
The interval,
I
is
a
set which
contains
all
the
values of x for the solution to be defined.
It
can
be either
an open
interval (a,b), closed
interval [a,b] or an infinite interval (a, ∞) and etc.
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Two types of solutions:
1) Explicit solution
A solution in which the dependent variable is expressed solely in terms of the independent variable and constant.
is a solution of the DE:
1.2. Classification of Solutions
2) Implicit solution
A solution in which the dependent and the independent
variables are mixed in an equation.
2
2
is an implicit solution of the DE:
yy ' x 0
2
2
is an implicit solution of the DE: yy ' x 0
Indeed:
2
2
Implicit differentiation:
2 x 2 yy ' 0 x yy ' 0
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Particular solution  A solution of a DE that is free of arbitrary constants.
General solution  A solution of a DE representing all possible solutions.
The number of arbitrary constants depends on the order of the equation.
Basically, the general solution of a first order DE will have exactly one arbitrary constant (can be called as a oneparameter family of solution).
The general solution of the second order DE will have exactly two arbitrary constants (it is called a two parameter family of solutions)
If
initial
condition(s)
are
given,
then the arbitrary
constants can be compute and this solution is called the particular solution.
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Consider the DE:
y' y 0
is a solution (particular)
is also a solution (particular)
is a solution (general), (where c is a constant)
1.2. Classification of Solutions
y ce
y' y 0
y ce
x
de ^{}
x
is a 2parameter family of solutions of the DE
y" y 0
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Need to
work
with either
side
of
the
DE
and
substitute the suggested solution and prove that it agrees with the other side of the equation.
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Step 2:

Step 3:
Thus
is a solution of the DE
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Verify that
y cos x ln sec x tan x
y y tan x
is a solution of
Solution
Step 1:
y cos x ln sec x tan x y' sin xlnsec x tan x cos xsec x sin x lnsec x tan x1
1.2. Classification of Solutions
y" cos cos x x lnsec lnsec x x tan tan x x sin tan x x sec x

Step 2:
y y cos x lnsec x tan x tan x cos x lnsec x tan x
tan x

Step 3:
Thus
y cos x ln sec x tan x
y y tan x
.
is a solution of the DE
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Verify that the indicated function is solution of the given DE
y
6
y
13
y
0
; y
3
x
2
e cos x
y
'
3
e
3
x
cos
2
x
e
3
x
2 sin 2
x
3
2
y e
3
x
sin 2
x
y
"
3
y
'
6
e
3
x
sin 2
x
4
e
3
x
cos 2
x
3(3
y
2
e
3
x
sin 2
x
)
6
e
3
x
sin 2
x
4
y
5
y
12
e
3
x
sin 2
x
y 6 y 13y
5
y
12
e
3
x
sin 2
x
6(3
y
2
e
3
x
sin 2
x
)
13
y
5
y
12
e
3
x
sin 2
x
18
12
y e
3
x
sin 2
13
x y
0
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Verify that the indicated function is solution of the given DE
P
c e
1 c e
P '
c e
P P
1
P
;
P
1 c e
1
c e
c e
c e c e
c e
c e
1 c e
^{2}
1
c e
1 c e
^{2}
P
1
P
c e
1 c e
c e
1 c e
c
e
1 c e
1
c e
c e
c e
1
c e
P '
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Verify that the indicated function is solution of the given DE
d y
dx
dy
4
0
; y
c e
c xe
y
' 2
c e
1
2 x
c e
2
2
x
2
xe 2
2
x
c e
1
2 x
c e
2
2
c xe
2
2
c e
1
2 x
c xe
2
c e
2
y
" 2
y
'2
c e
2
2 x
DYS
2
x
2 y c e
2
x
2
y"4 y'4 y
2
'
2
2 x
y c e y y
2
4
'
4
2
2 x
2
y
'
4
y
2
c e
2
2 x
22
2
x
y c e y
2
4
0
1.2. Classification of Solutions
Verify that the indicated functions are explicit solutions of the given DE :
t
,
y
( )
t
e
2
1
2
t
,
y
( )
t
2
2
t
,
y
( )
t
2