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Ethics driven culture

a) Business Ethics is the study of what constitutes right and wrong, good and bad of human
conduct in a business context. Thus, it addresses organizational ethics as well as business
ethics. List and briefly explain FOUR (4) approaches how can employers and employees
work together to develop and create an ethics-driven culture in the organizations.
(12 Marks)

b) Write short notes on the following terms:


1) Ethical Relativism
The theory that what is right in one place may be wrong in another, because the only
criterion for distinguishing right from wrong is the moral system of the society in which
the act occurs.
Example: Abortion is condemned as immoral in Catholic Ireland but is practiced as
morally neutral form of birth control in Japan
Wrong in Ireland BUT morally permissible in Japan
Unpleasant Implications:
1) Undermines any moral criticism of the practices of other societies as long as their
actions conform to their own standards.
2) There is no such thing as ethical progress.
3) The moral code itself cannot be criticized because whatever a society takes to be right
really is right for it.
4) The minority can never be right in moral matters; to be right it must become the
majority.
2) Rights
injustice violation of the rights of some identifiable person
List the four consumer rights presented by JFK.
* right to safety,
* right to be informed,
* right to choose, and
* right to be heard.

3) Integrity
Uncompromising adherence to ethical values.
Refers to being whole, sound and in an unimpaired condition.
*one of the most important terms relating to virtue.
Integrity is the faithful devotion to moral and ethical principles that no power or influence
can impair. The direct connection between what one thinks, what one says, and what one
does.
Integrity means following your moral or ethical convictions and doing the right thing in all
circumstances, even if no one is watching you. Having integrity means you are true to
yourself and would do nothing that demeans or dishonors you.

4) Kants Ethic
Only when we act from duty that our actions have moral worth.
Good will will human capacity to act from principle.
When we act out of feeling, inclination, or self-interest, our actions do not have moral
worth.
Example: Act of shopkeeper returning the extra cash.
-Ethical Objectivism
-Moral Absolutism
-Rationalism
-Nonconsequentialism
-Deontology
-Creatures with reason are "ends in themselves" - not merely means to an end - and have
intrinsic value/dignity
-Rationality allows for autonomy (or self-government): the ability to choose/govern one's
actions in accordance with the moral law

5) Utilitaranium Theory

6) Responsibilities
A duty or obligation to satisfactorily perform or complete a task (assigned by someone, or
created by one's own promise or circumstances) that one must fulfill, and which has a
consequent penalty for failure.

7) Accountability
How closely workplace decisions align with a firm's strategic direction.
The obligation of
an individual or organization to account for
its activities,
accept responsibility for them, and to disclose the results in a transparent manner. It also
includes the responsibility for money or other entrusted property.

8) Codes of Ethics
businesses police themselves by following this set of company guidelines for upholding
ethical behavior

Respect
-admire (someone or something) deeply, as a result of their abilities, qualities, or
achievements.
- a particular aspect, point, or detail.

Honesty
-Truthfulness or trustworthiness.
-Telling the truth to the best of your knowledge.
*Issues related to honesty arise when people perceive business as something where normal
rules do not apply.
Fairness
The equality of being just, equitable, and impartial.

Justice
(a)

Fairness

- fair treatment of members of groups of people


(b)

Equality

- all persons are equal does not establish a direct relationship between justice and economic
distribution
(c)

Deserve

- people get what they deserve


(d)

Rights

Whistle blowing refers to an employee informing the public about the illegal or immoral
behavior of an employer or an organization.
a) What motivates whistle-blowers? (12 Marks)

Whistle blowing is reserved conceptually only for activities that are:


(a) harmful to third parties
(b) violations of human rights
(c) contrary to the public purpose and legitimate goals of the organization.

Altruistically Motivated
Utilitarian
Uninterested in Altering Their Behavior
Allows Own Attitudes and Beliefs to Guide Them
Often are Well Educated and Holds Professional Positions

Many people think that whistleblowing is for money but the author found that it is more
about honesty, integrity and conscience (Dan Reeves,2013). Most typically because a
whistleblower has faced retaliation internally and must seek help outside the organization.
What seems to predict whether someone will actually blow the whistle is: how serious the
wrongdoing is, if they are very sure it happened and so on ...Situational characteristics rather
than personal ones. C. Frederick
Alford, political psychology professor and author of Whistleblowers: Broken Lives and
Organizational Power told Mother Jones. I think whistleblowers somehow come late to this
realization. Theyre naive in a certain sense, and then when they come to realize that people
are lying, cheating, stealing, whatever, theyre shocked. Employment is an important
defining characteristic of whistleblowing simply because employee retaliation is formidable
particularly in the small, specialized industries, where everyone knows each other.

Whistle-Blower
employee who detects and tries to put an end to company's unethical, illegal, or socially
irresponsible actions by publicizing them

b) When is whistle-blowing morally justified? Discuss. (13 Marks)


Whistle blowing is morally justified only if the following conditions are satisfied.
(1) It is done for appropriate moral motive.
(2) All internal channels have been used up before going public.
(3) Compelling evidence to prove inappropriate actions.
(4) Acted only after careful analysis of the danger.
(5) Some chances of success.
.
Stage 1: Assess Potential for Whistle-Blowing Scenario
Scenario must meet three conditions
_ You learn that your organization is acting in a way you consider ethically wrong
_ You believe you know relevant information not generally known
_ You believe exposure of this information would cause a change in the questionable actions
Stage 2: Assess Seriousness
Subjective
Does the issue impact only the organization or the public as well?
Stage 3: Reality Check
You think something should be done
Are you sure you are right?
Discuss with colleagues
Try to be a team player
Consensus will be rare
Stage 4: Get the Big Picture
Gather information outside your immediate domain
Perhaps issue is being addressed elsewhere
Stage 5: Force Management to
Recognize the Problem
Goal: Remedy the problem with minimal conflict
Get management to go on record that they are aware of the problem
_ Written letter asking for response
Your responsibility does not end here

Begin gathering evidence and help


Be prepared for a job change
Stage 6: Take the Problem to
Upper Management
_ Immediate management ignoring problem
_ Going over the bosss head is not an acceptable business practice
_ Who in upper management?
_ Interested and responsible in the problem area
_ Likely to sympathize with the engineers approach
_ Has enough clout to effect change
_ Anonymous?
Stage 7: Take the Problem
Outside the Organization
Organization ignoring the problem
Get help: professional and legal
Seek regulatory agencies or legal authorities
News media should be last resort
Act as an individual, not an employee
Stage 8: Be Prepared to Live with the Results
Expect a job change
Expect little support from professional organizations and society in general

Question 4
a) Sexual harassment is widespread and a kind of discrimination. It is unwelcome sexual
advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual
nature. In fact, there are TWO (2) types of sexual harassment.
i) Quid pro quo harassment.
ii) Hostile - work environmental harassment.
Explain the above terms and illustrate with relevant examples.
(10 Marks)

Sexual Harrassment
i) Quid Pro Quo- Latin for this for that

When trade or exchange involves sex.


When a supervisor states or implies that an employees employment, performance review,
assignment or promotion is linked to the employees willingness to grant sexual favors.

Example of Quid Pro Quo:


A suggestion by a supervisor or professor that sexual involvement with him/her would
improve the employees chance for promotion for a higher position.
Going out with me could be important in the kind of recommendation I write for you for
record in organization.

ii) Hostile Work Environment


Conduct of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment.
Or Unreasonably interferes with an individuals job performance
Hostile Environment Harassment

Employer (or a supervisor or co-worker) does or says things that make the victim feel
uncomfortable because of his or her sex.
Creation of an uncomfortable environment.
First, the conduct must be offensive.

Examples of Hostile Work Environment:

Repeated and gratuitous derogatory remarks about any protected class in the classroom
Repeated unwelcome sexual attention (comments, questions about an individuals
sexuality or sex life)
Repeated and gratuitous comments by a manager, or colleague about the persons own
sex life and desires
Repeated undesired physical contact, such as brushing up against someone

b) Professional Codes of Ethics are the rules that are supposed to govern the conduct of
members of a given profession. How far do you agree with the above statement? Discuss.
(15 Marks)

The Housing Allowance1.Did Wilson Mutambara act wrongly? Explain why or why not.
Assess each of thearguments he gives in his own defense. What other courses of action were
open to him?What would you have done in his place?I feel like it is wrong that the money
being give to him is not the write amount and therefore doesnot belong to him. I feel like his
argument about his culture and need to support his familyshould not be taken into
consideration because mixing work and personal life should not mix inthis case. If I was him
I would have moved into a nicer home or not lie about the real price of therent.2.Was Dale
Garman right to confirm the information he had received and to report thematter? Was it
morally required of him to do so?I feel like it was right of Garman to confirm the information
he reported and that he was legallyobligated to do so.3.What should Barbara Weston and
NewCom do? Should Wilson be ordered to move out ofOld Town and into more appropriate
housing? Should he be terminated for havingfalsified his housing receipts? If not, should he
be punished in some other way?I feel like Weston should order Wilson to live in more
appropriate housing but I do not feel likehe should be terminated since this was his first
offence. I feel like he should be put on probationat the company.4.Is NewCom unfairly
imposing its own ethnocentric values on Wilson Mutambara? Is thecompany's housing policy
fair and reasonable? Is it culturally biased?
I do not feel like Newom is unfairly imposing ethnocentric values on Mutambara because
heknew about this condition when applying for the job. I do feel like the company is
slightlyculturally biased and can do something to fix this.