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Student ID
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: Fatahalani Rizkika
: B1K014017
: Venthyana Lestary






Neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. There are neurons with

spinalis medulla and the brain that when gathered into one called the central nervous
system. The neurons based on the structure and function can be divided into three
groups namely the first neurons sensoric is responsive to stimuli that arise from
within and outside and sends these impulses to the central nervous system. The
second is the neurons association that functions as liaison between neurons sensoric
and motoric neurons. The last neuron is motoric efferen neurons that carry impulses
to the muscles or glands (Gordon, 1972). According to the Vilee et al. (1988),
neurons consists of three parts namely the axon, cell body and dendrites. Neurons of
the nervous system vertebrates can be a part of the central nervous system consists of
the brain and spinal cord or peripheral nervous system comprises which consists of
the central nervous system to the receptor and the effector. Peripheral nervous system
is the nerve pair cranial and spinal nerve connecting with each of the receptor and the
effector in the body.
Theedgel of the nervous system or peripheral nervous system is the knot of
nerve node an extension of the central nervous system that function to receive the
response directly and the distribution of the response to the central nervous system.
The nervous system consists of the nerves cranial edge, spinal nerve, and truncus
simpaticus. The edge of the nervous system is convenient waterways with
mechanical systems of the body especially the muscles so that the Securities that are
transmitted from the response given directly distimulus by the muscles so that there
arose a movement. Movement of the insults of the stimulus given by the nervous
system is divided into two parts namely movement that realize and movement of
reflex (Gordon, 1972).
The nervous system is very important on a high level of animal as complex
communication system and quickly. Recent intrasel communication by nerve
impulses, impulses can be bubbles were walking in the form of ion currents. The
signal transmission between neurons and between neurons muscles often in
mediation chemically by neurotransmitter (Gunawan, 2002)

The purpose of this practicum is to know the spinal reflexes on the frogs.


2.1 Materials
The tools used in this lab are an needle, scissors, tweezers, beaker glass, and
tray preparation.
The materials used in this lab are frog (Fejervaria cancrivora), H2SO4
solution 1%.
2.2 Methods
The method in this practical are :
1. The frog brain is broken with a needle preparations. At the limit of the head and
back, insert the tip of the needle to a depth of 1 cm.
2. Consider the frog attitude when it pun on the table.
3. Squeeze lower jawbone toad frog on hanger.
4. Put the frogs legs into H2SO4 solution.
5. see the reflex of the frog.


3.1 Result
Table 3.1.1 Spinal Reflex Response of Frog



of the front

Retraction of the In H2SO4

hind legs


of spinal

of spinal

spinal cord


+ = Give response
- = No response

3.2. Discussion
Based on the data in practical class satisfying results to the destruction of the
brain frogs give response on when the flick, withdrawal the front legs, withdrawal
the hind legs and the immersion H2SO4. The destruction of the medulla spinalis,

medulla spinalis, medulla spinalis and total spinalis medulla, frogs could not
While criticising their own body. The retraction of the front legs medulla spinalis,
medulla spinalis, medulla spinalis and total spinalis medulla, frogs gave no
response. The retraction of the hind legs to and frogs give response, while in
destroying medulla spinalis and total frogs give response. The immersion
using H2SO4 frogs give response except for the destruction of the total MS. this is in
accordance with the statement Frandson (1992), that the brain is the center of
awareness, memory willingness and physiological activities of neurons or nerve
cells. Therefore if the brain have been destroyed and there is no command to reverse
the body or to make movement of the reflex, but if there is still the relationship
between the tools vestibuler with the spinal cord so there is still the opportunity to
respond if given a stimulus. Destruction spinal cause the organism cannot move
the whole body, but still can move certain parts of the body when given the stimuli,
as the gift of H2SO4. Duellmann & Trueb (1986) stated that the solution H2SO4 is
used as a goad chemicals to stimulate the spinal nerve so that they can produce
movement reflex.
When spinalis medulla destroyed and , frogs does not provide a response
extrimities retraction, but when extrimities frogs is dipped into the solution H2SO4,
frogs give response. This is because the H2SO4 is a chemical stimuli against the
nerves that there. H2SO4 can cause spinal also merely reflect on the frogs because
the nature of H2SO4 i.e. when mixed with water and ethanol will generate heat and
no color, smells are very sharp and wear protection. Therefore, at the time of the
extremities frogs dipped in the solution H2SO4, frogs will give the response as
result of the chemical stimulus. Based on labs this time using H2SO4 as chemical
stimuli. The nature of the H2SO4 darkness cause nerves sensoric quickly react and
because the harm so that frogs do reflex movement to avoid H2SO4 and extremities
which one to flex the reflex to eliminate the H2SO4 adhered to the extremities only
(Duellmann & Trueb, 1986). Reflex movement is the movement of the shortcut to
the spinal cord. Reflex characteristics is a response that occurs in progress quickly
and not realized. Neurons of the connector is the link between neurons sensoric and
motoric neurons. If a neuron located in the connector of the brain, then refleksnya
called brain reflex. If located in the spinal cord, then their reflex called the spinal
reflex. Movement of the pupil - the eyes constrict and dilate because affected by the

stimuli of light is an example of the brain reflex, while the movement of the knees
that unintentional is a reflex spinal (Hadikastowo, 1982).
Movement of spinal reflex is regulated by nerves that are located in
the medulla spinalis in kanalis vertebratalis and related to the brain through the
fragments magnum. So,






centerd in spinalis

medulla located in canalis vertebralis (Djuhanda, 1988). According to Kimball

(1983), the mechanism of spinal also merely reflect the stimulus package first
received by the receptors which then changed into electrical impulses in neurons
afferent, and then to the spinal cord and forwarded by the neurons offers charged to
realized in the form of flex or reflex movement is not aware. Reflex movement itself
has a mechanism that simply written as follows :

Sensory nerve


Connetor Nerves

Motoric Nerves

The process of the nervous system are aware through the long road, namely
from the receptor, to nerves melting texture, brought to the brain to be further
processed by the brain, then the results of the processed by the brain in the form of
the response, brought by the motor nervous system as command that must be
implemented by the effector. Differences in the process of the nervous system are
aware and not aware is when the nervous system aware conducted by cranial nerves,
edge and spinal, while unconscious nervous system implemented by the sympathetic
nervous system and parasimpatic (Djuhanda, 1988). According to Colgan (2012), the
autonomic nervous systems (ANS) consists of the nervous sympatic system and
parasympathetic autonomic autonomic nervous system main function is to maintain
homeostasis. The various organs have parasimpatic supply and sympathetic double.
In such situation, both systems often have the opposite effect. For example, in the
heart of the parasympathetic autonomic stimulation causes the deceleration of the
heart, while simpatis stimulation increase heart rate. In the intestines,
parasympathetic autonomic stimulation increase plain muscle contractility whereas
sympathetic stimulation decreases it.
The nervous system on the animal itself consists of two parts, namely central
nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Central nervous system includes the
brain and spinal cord. Working sets and control all the activities of frogs (conscious

movement). Peripheral nervous system includes the spinal, cranial and truncus
simpaticus. Peripheral nerve system is basically the extension of the neurons that
duty carry nerve impulses to and from the central nervous system spinal cord
(medulla spinalis). The spinal cord has two important functions that regulate
impulses from and to the brain and as the center of the reflex. The receptor and the
effector in the body connected by the existence of the spinal cord, spinal nerve pair,
and cranial to occur the response. Peripheral nervous system is divided into two that
is aferen nervous system and nervous system that controls the movement eferen
reflex (Campbell et al., 1999).
The function of the solution H2SO4 provides chemical stimuli to cause
movement also merely reflect. According to Ville et al., (1988), this happens because
when the frogs legs touch the solution H2SO4, the receptors in the skin are
stimulated and cause electrical impulses in neurons eferen. This neuron is part of a
spinal nerve and protrudes into the spinal cord, where neoron sinaps with
interneuron, electrical impulses eferen neurons that protrudes from the spinal cord
and bring back the impulses through the spinal nerve to a group of muscles ekstensor
in feet. The contraction of these muscles draw the feet of frogs from the solution
H2SO4. H2SO4 including strong electrolyte solutions that can deliver electricity,
thus nature of the electricity is due to the positive and negative charged particles. The
solution H2SO4 acidic hue used at the hands-on labs function to provide chemical
stimuli to cause movement also merely reflect and make the feet of frogs can
respond (Frandson, 1992).

IV. Conclusion
Based on the results and the discussion before it could be concluded that :

Spinal reflex on the frogs can be known with the damage to the brain and the
spinal frogs then dipped the extremities back of frogs in the solution H2SO4.

Reflex system requires the spinal cord as the center of the coordination and
movement of reflex.


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