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Firstly, what is Stress and what is Strain?

Stress – Force per unit area that results from an applied load, these applied loads

could be tension, compression, shear, or any combination.

Strain – Physical deformation of the material as a response to the stress.

Stress-Strain Diagram

A stress-strain curve is a graph derived from measuring load (stress - σ) versus

extension (strain - ε) for a sample of a material. The nature of the curve varies

from material to material. The following diagrams illustrate the stress-strain

behavior of typical materials in terms of the engineering stress and engineering

strain where the stress and strain are calculated based on the original dimensions

of the sample and not the instantaneous values. In each case the samples are

loaded in tension although in many cases similar behavior is observed in

compression.

usually where permanent deformation starts to show. Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) – the maximum ordinate in the stress-strain diagram is the ultimate strength or tensile strength. Steel generally exhibits a very linear stress-strain relationship up to a well-defined yield point (figure 1).Components of a Stress-Strain Diagram Elastic region – this is where the material can receive stress without deforming permanently. As deformation continues the stress increases due to strain hardening until it reaches the ultimate strength. Yield Stress – Pass the proportional limit. After the yield point the curve typically decreases slightly due to dislocations escaping from Cottrell atmospheres. The linear portion of the curve is the elastic region and the slope is the modulus of elasticity or Young's Modulus. Plastic region – where the material starts to noticeably deform Ductile materials Ductile materials. which includes structural steel and many alloys of other metals. Until this point the cross- . are characterized by their ability to yield at normal temperatures. Fracture or Rapture – where the material has completed failed.

yield is the permanent plastic deformation of a structural member under stress.). σ2. the rupture strength and the ultimate strength are the same . This is a soft failure mode which does not normally cause catastrophic failure unless it accelerates buckling. .2%). For these materials. by which a line is drawn parallel to the linear elastic portion of the curve and intersecting the abscissa at some arbitrary value (most commonly . Knowledge of the yield point is vital when designing a component since it generally represents an upper limit to the load that can be applied. Conversely. For these materials the yield strength is typically determined by the "offset yield method". is defined in engineering and materials science as the stress at which a material begins to plastically deform. Most ductile metals other than steel don’t have a well-defined yield point (fig 2. Brittle Materials Brittle materials such as concrete or ceramics do not have a yield point. σ3). Yield (engineering) Yield strength.sectional area decreases uniformly due to Poisson contractions. However. In 3D space of principal stresses (σ1. Prior to the yield point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. It is also important for the control of many materials production techniques such as forging. or pressing In structural engineering. Once the yield point is passed some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible. Eventually the neck becomes unstable and the specimen ruptures (fractures). The intersection of this line and the stress-strain curve is reported as the yield point. or the yield point. beyond this point a neck forms where the local cross-sectional area decreases more quickly than the rest of the sample resulting in an increase in the true stress. On an engineering stress-strain curve this is seen as a decrease in the stress. an infinite number of yield points form together a yield surface. if the curve is plotted in terms of true stress and true strain the stress will continue to rise until failure. rolling.

In addition there are several possible ways to define the yield point in a given material: The point at which dislocations first begin to move.Definition It is often difficult to precisely define yield due to the wide variety of stressstrain behaviors exhibited by real materials. this definition is rarely used.2% [1]). Elastic Limit . Proportional Limit . Given that dislocations begin to move at very low stresses. and the difficulty in detecting such movement. This requires a complex interactive load-unload procedure and is critically dependent on the accuracy of the equipment and the skill of the operator. In most metallic materials the elastic limit and proportional limit are essentially the same. the yield point is often defined as the stress at some arbitrary plastic strain (typically 0.The point at which the stress-strain curve becomes nonlinear. . In some materials there is essentially no linear region and so a certain value of plastic strain is defined instead.Due to the lack of a clear border between the elastic and plastic regions in many materials.The lowest stress at which permanent deformation can be measured. Offset Yield Point (proof stress) . This is determined by the intersection of a line offset from the linear region by the required strain. Although somewhat arbitrary this method does allow for a consistent comparison of materials and is the most common.

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