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Glass ceiling

The United States Federal Glass Ceiling Commission[7] defines the glass ceiling as "the unseen,
yet unbreachable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the
corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements."[1]
David Cotter and colleagues defined four distinctive characteristics that must be met to conclude
that a glass ceiling exists. A glass ceiling inequality represents:
1. "A gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of
the employee."
2. "A gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower
levels of an outcome."
3. "A gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not
merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels."
4. "A gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career."
An invisible upper limit in corporations and other organizations, above which it is
difficult or impossible for women to rise in the ranks. "Glass ceiling" is a metaphor for
the hard-to-see informal barriers that keep women from getting promotions, pay raises
and further opportunities. The "glass ceiling" metaphor has also been used to describe
the limits and barriers experienced by minority racial groups.
It is glass because it's not usually a visible barrier, and a woman may not be aware of its
existence until she "hits" the barrier. In other words, it's not an explicit practice, though
specific policies, practices, and attitudes may exist that produce this barrier without
intention to discriminate.
Invisible but real barrier through which the next stage or level of advancement can be seen, but cannot
be reached by a section of qualified and deserving employees. Such barriers exist due to implicit
prejudice on the basis of age, ethnicity, political or religious affiliation, and/or sex. Although generally
illegal, such practices prevalent in most countries.

Glass Ceiling and Glass Wall Effect in the Workplace

The Gambles talk about the glass ceiling and glass wall effect in the workplace. According to them, the glass walls
segregate women into positions because of their sex (Gambles, pg. 275-276). For example, women are often placed in
secretarial or clerical positions. In a class discussion, we talked about how most nurses are women and they are

encouraged to go into this field because nurses are very nurturing, as women should be (personal communication, April
22, 2009). Another concept they talk about is the glass ceiling. The glass ceiling effect prevents women from moving up
into a higher position in a company or for example even if they have reached the top they do not receive the same things
that a man would. For example, in the class discussion we talked about the salary differences between women and men
executives. Men still made more money than the women did if though they were in the same position! In the episode of
Mad Men that we watched in class, we saw the glass wall effect in place. Peggy, Joan and all of the other women in the
company worked as secretaries or did other jobs that kept the place running but none of the women held higher positions.

The effect of glass walls on women achieving

top management roles
9 March 2015
Professor Sharon

Glass walls are proving an initial obstacle to women in the workplace, ahead of the glass ceiling, with them being boxed
into certain roles.
Professor Sharon Bolton, Head of the Management School at the University of Stirling, and its Dean of Equality &
Diversity, says this occupational segregation by gender prevents women from advancing to the top in management.
Writing in The Conversation, Professor Bolton said: To be selected for top management jobs, it is necessary to have
diverse experience across different company areas. As long as women are boxed into certain roles, this will not happen
hence the need to break down glass walls before women can break through the glass ceiling to top management.

What is the Glass Wall Effect?

By Brenton Shields

It's no secret that in business hierarchies, some people are more fortunate than others; some get
promoted while others stay at the middle or even the bottom of the positional ladder. This
inability to rise in rank may not be a result of inexperience or lack of capabilities, many activists
claim, but rather other factors like gender or race. This school of thought deals with what is
known as the Glass Wall effect.


The Glass Wall effect shares many similarities with the Glass Ceiling effect. The "Glass
Ceiling" is a metaphor for an invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving
up in rank within a business infrastructure despite their capabilities and credentials. Instead,
these jobs, as many argue, are given to men who may not be as qualified, as indicated by the vast
disparity between men and women in high-ranking jobs.

Glass Wall Vs. Glass Ceiling

The Glass Ceiling refers to a metaphorical barrier blocking a woman or minority who is
in a position within a company to move up. The Glass Wall is slightly different; it represents a
barrier preventing a woman or minority from moving to a position that has a promotional ladder.
In other words, instead of simply blocking a woman or minority's potential rise, the Glass Wall
effect works laterally, taking away the very opportunity for the said group to be promoted.

Difference between HRM and administration

HR management is responsible of re
cruitments, workforce, talent management, training and rewarding.
Administrative management is responsible of operations performance, support functions, quality
and cost control.
There is a big difference between the mentioned functions.
Business administration and human resources are two very important functions of a business,
even a small business. While they share some commonalities, there are some important
distinctions between these two functions. Understanding the differences between business
administration and human resource activities can help companies ensure that their greatest
resources, time and money, are being put to the most effective use.

Business Administration Definition

Business administration is a term used to cover all of the business functions of a business.
Business administration is the process of organizing the business's personnel and resources to
meet business goals and objectives. These processes include human resources, as well as
operations management, financial management and marketing management. Human resources is
a very important part of business administration because it is responsible for personnel
Human Resources Definition
Human resources is the business administration function responsible for finding, hiring,
managing and retaining employees, and for ensuring that the right employees, in the right
numbers, are deployed throughout the organization to achieve its goals. Human resources is a
function that exists in every business regardless of size, industry or geographic location. In fact,
even though small businesses may not have a formal human resource department or an employee
with a title that includes "human resources," the function is performed when employees are
hired, training, supervised and, hopefully, retained.
Clear alignment between business administration and human resources is critical even in the
smallest organizations. Human resources can be very costly. The right employees can help a
business achieve its goals cost-effectively. Aligning business needs with employee selection,
training and development is critical, as is the forecasting of future business needs based on
predicted changes in the industry, technology and consumer demand.
In the US, the title Administrator is very rarely used. The preferred titles are Manager or Human
Resources Director. (The term Administrative Assistant is commonly used. It implies a secretary
who also handles other varied administrative duties, like making business travel arrangments and
light bookkeeping.)
To me, the term Administrator suggest someone whose sole responsibility is filling out papers,
following rules created by a higher authority. While there is a lot of paperwork and
recordkeeping involved in HR, most human resource managers do many other things, as well.
They are in charge of recruting, interviewing and hiring. They create employee incentives and
programs to improve productivity and morale. They investigate charges of discrimination, sexual
harassment and criminal wrongdoing. The advise or train supervisors in HR issues. They set
competitive salaries and choose vendors and providers for benefits. They handle employee
discipline, or advise those who do. And they navigate a host of legal issues, including federal,
state and local laws and regulations.

Many managers also handle some HR duties. However, the managers primary responsibility is
making sound business decisions, leading people and motivating them, rather than enforcing
rules made by someone else.