Math HL IB limits past paper

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Math HL IB limits past paper

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[387 marks]

x

Let f(x) = 1x

, 0 < x < 1.

1

[5 marks]

Markscheme

EITHER

derivative of

f (x) =

1

2

x

1x

is

(1x)x(1)

M1A1

(1x) 2

1

( x ) 2 1 2

2 1x

(1x)

3

M1A1

= 12 x (1 x) 2

AG

f (x) > 0 (for all 0 < x < 1) so the function is increasing

R1

OR

1

x2

f(x) =

(1x) 2

1

f (x)

1

2

(1x) 2 ( 1 x

2

1

1 2

x

2

) 1 x 2 (1x)

2

1x

1

1

2

(1)

3

= 12 x 2 (1 x) 2 + 12 x 2 (1 x) 2

= 12 x 2 (1 x) 2 [1 x + x]

M1A1

A1

M1

=

(1 x) 2

AG

f (x) > 0 (for all 0 < x < 1) so the function is increasing

[5 marks]

R1

Examiners report

Part (a) was generally well done, although few candidates made the final deduction asked for. Those that lost other marks in this part

were generally due to mistakes in algebraic manipulation. In part (b) whilst many students found the second derivative and set it equal

to zero, few then confirmed that it was a point of inflexion. There were several good attempts for part (c), even though there were

various points throughout the question that provided stopping points for other candidates.

1b. Show that the curve y = f(x) has one point of inflexion, and find its coordinates.

Markscheme

1

f (x) = 12 x 2 (1 x) 2

3

f (x) = 14 x 2 (1 x) 2 + 34 x 2 (1 x) 2

3

2

= 14 x

5

2

(1 x)

f (x) = 0 x =

[1 4x]

1

4

M1A1

x=

1

4

y=

1

3

1

4

A1

[6 marks]

M1A1

1

)

3

R1

[6 marks]

Examiners report

Part (a) was generally well done, although few candidates made the final deduction asked for. Those that lost other marks in this part

were generally due to mistakes in algebraic manipulation. In part (b) whilst many students found the second derivative and set it equal

to zero, few then confirmed that it was a point of inflexion. There were several good attempts for part (c), even though there were

various points throughout the question that provided stopping points for other candidates.

2

2

[11 marks]

Markscheme

x = sin2

dx

d

2

x

1x

dx = sin 2 2 sin cos d

1 sin

= 2sin2 d

A1

= 1 cos 2d

M1A1

= 12 sin 2 + c

A1

= arcsin x

M1A1

A1

= sin cos = x1 x = x x2

x

hence 1x

dx = arcsin x x x2 + c

1

sin 2

2

M1A1

AG

[11 marks]

Examiners report

Part (a) was generally well done, although few candidates made the final deduction asked for. Those that lost other marks in this part

were generally due to mistakes in algebraic manipulation. In part (b) whilst many students found the second derivative and set it equal

to zero, few then confirmed that it was a point of inflexion. There were several good attempts for part (c), even though there were

various points throughout the question that provided stopping points for other candidates.

2.

Given that the graph of y = x3 6x2 + kx 4 has exactly one point at which the gradient is zero, find the value of k .

[5 marks]

Markscheme

dy

dx

= 3x2 12x + k

M1A1

144 12k = 0

(M1)

(A1)

Note: Accept trial and error, sketches of parabolas with vertex (2,0) or use of second derivative.

k = 12

A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report

Generally candidates answer this question well using a diversity of methods. Surprisingly, a small number of candidates were

successful in answering this question using the discriminant of the quadratic and in many cases reverted to trial and error to obtain the

correct answer.

3a. Write down the coordinates of the minimum point on the graph of f .

[1 mark]

3a.

Markscheme

(3.79,5)

A1

[1 mark]

Examiners report

Candidates answered parts (a) and (b) of this question well and, although many were also successful in part (c), just a few candidates

gave answers to the required level of accuracy. Part d) was rather challenging for many candidates. The most common errors among

the candidates who attempted this question were the confusion between tangents and normals and incorrect final answers due to

premature rounding.

3b.

The points P(p, 3) and Q(q, 3), q > p, lie on the graph of y = f(x) .

[2 marks]

Find p and q .

Markscheme

p = 1.57 or 2 , q = 6.00

A1A1

[2 marks]

Examiners report

Candidates answered parts (a) and (b) of this question well and, although many were also successful in part (c), just a few candidates

gave answers to the required level of accuracy. Part d) was rather challenging for many candidates. The most common errors among

the candidates who attempted this question were the confusion between tangents and normals and incorrect final answers due to

premature rounding.

3c. Find the coordinates of the point, on y = f(x) , where the gradient of the graph is 3.

[4 marks]

Markscheme

f (x) = 3 cos x 4 sin x

(M1)(A1)

(y = 4)

(A1)

A1

[4 marks]

Examiners report

Candidates answered parts (a) and (b) of this question well and, although many were also successful in part (c), just a few candidates

gave answers to the required level of accuracy. Part d) was rather challenging for many candidates. The most common errors among

the candidates who attempted this question were the confusion between tangents and normals and incorrect final answers due to

premature rounding.

3d.

Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the normals to the graph at the points P and Q.

[7 marks]

3d.

Markscheme

1

m tangent

mnormal =

(M1)

gradient at Q is 4 so gradient of normal at Q is

1

4

14

(A1)

(A1)

(M1)

(M1)

Note: Award the previous two M1 even if the gradients are incorrect in y b = m(x a) where (a,b) are coordinates of P and Q (or

in y = mx + c with c determined using coordinates of P and Q.

A1A1

[7 marks]

Candidates answered parts (a) and (b) of this question well and, although many were also successful in part (c), just a few candidates

gave answers to the required level of accuracy. Part d) was rather challenging for many candidates. The most common errors among

the candidates who attempted this question were the confusion between tangents and normals and incorrect final answers due to

premature rounding.

h0

f(x+h)f(x)

h

f(x+h)f(x)

h

1

2x+1

is

2

.

(2x+1) 2

[4 marks]

Markscheme

let f(x) =

1

2x+1

f (x) = lim (

h0

1

1

2x+1

2(x+h)+1

h0

M1A1

[2x+1][2(x+h)+1]

h0

f (x) =

f (x) =

2

lim (

h0 [2(x+h)+1][2x+1]

2

AG

(2x+1) 2

A1

A1

[4 marks]

Examiners report

Even though the definition of the derivative was given in the question, solutions to (a) were often disappointing with algebraic errors

fairly common, usually due to brackets being omitted or manipulated incorrectly. Solutions to the proof by induction in (b) were often

poor. Many candidates fail to understand that they have to assume that the result is true for n = k and then show that this leads to it

being true for n = k + 1. Many candidates just write Let n = k which is of course meaningless. The conclusion is often of the form

True for n = 1, n = k and n = k + 1 therefore true by induction. Credit is only given for a conclusion which includes a statement

such as True for n = k true for n = k + 1.

2n n!

th

1

n

4b. Prove by induction that the n derivative of (2x + 1) is (1) (2x+1) n+1 .

[9 marks]

Markscheme

let y =

1

2x+1

let n = 1

dy

dx

dy

dx

2

(2x+1) 2

dn y

dxn

= (1)1

= (1)n

21 1!

(2x+1) 1+1

2n n!

(2x+1) n+1

M1

R1

dk y

k+1

dxk+1

dk+1 y

dxk+1

dk+1 y

dxk+1

dk+1 y

dxk+1

dk+1 y

dxk+1

k

d

[(1) k 2 k!k+1

dx

(2x+1)

dxk

= (1)k

2k k!

(2x+1) k+1

M1

M1

d

[ (1) k 2k k!(2x + 1) k1 ]

dx

2k+1 (k+1)!

(1)k+1

(2x+1) k+2

(A1)

2

A1

(A1)

A1

since the result is true for n = 1 , the result is proved by mathematical induction

Note: Only award final R1 if all the M marks have been gained.

R1

[9 marks]

Examiners report

Even though the definition of the derivative was given in the question, solutions to (a) were often disappointing with algebraic errors

fairly common, usually due to brackets being omitted or manipulated incorrectly. Solutions to the proof by induction in (b) were often

poor. Many candidates fail to understand that they have to assume that the result is true for n = k and then show that this leads to it

being true for n = k + 1. Many candidates just write Let n = k which is of course meaningless. The conclusion is often of the form

True for n = 1, n = k and n = k + 1 therefore true by induction. Credit is only given for a conclusion which includes a statement

such as True for n = k true for n = k + 1.

minimum points.

cos x

x2 +1

, 4 x 4 showing clearly the coordinates of the x-intercepts, any maximum points and any

[4 marks]

Markscheme

A1A1A1A1

Note: Award A1 for correct shape. Do not penalise if too large a domain is used,

A1 for correct x-intercepts,

A1 for correct coordinates of two minimum points,

A1 for correct coordinates of maximum point.

Accept answers which correctly indicate the position of the intercepts, maximum point and minimum points.

[4 marks]

Examiners report

Most candidates were able to make a meaningful start to this question, but many made errors along the way and hence only a

relatively small number of candidates gained full marks for the question. Common errors included trying to use degrees, rather than

radians, trying to use algebraic methods to find the gradient in part (b) and trying to find the equation of the tangent rather than the

equation of the normal in part (c).

5b.

[1 mark]

Markscheme

gradient at x = 1 is 0.786

[1 mark]

A1

Examiners report

Most candidates were able to make a meaningful start to this question, but many made errors along the way and hence only a

relatively small number of candidates gained full marks for the question. Common errors included trying to use degrees, rather than

radians, trying to use algebraic methods to find the gradient in part (b) and trying to find the equation of the tangent rather than the

equation of the normal in part (c).

5c.

[3 marks]

5c.

Markscheme

1

gradient of normal is 0.786

(= 1.272...) (A1)

when x = 1, y = 0.3820... (A1)

Equation of normal is y 0.382 = 1.27(x 1) A1

( y = 1.27x 0.890)

[3 marks]

Examiners report

Most candidates were able to make a meaningful start to this question, but many made errors along the way and hence only a

relatively small number of candidates gained full marks for the question. Common errors included trying to use degrees, rather than

radians, trying to use algebraic methods to find the gradient in part (b) and trying to find the equation of the tangent rather than the

equation of the normal in part (c).

6.

[6 marks]

Markscheme

d

(arctan(x 1))

dx

1

1+(x1) 2

mN = 2 and so mT =

1

2

1

1+(x1) 2

x = 2 (as x > 0)

A1

c = 4 + 4

A1

A1

(R1)

Attempting to solve

Substituting x = 2 and y =

(or equivalent)

1

2

to find c

M1

M1

N1

[6 marks]

Examiners report

There was a disappointing response to this question from a fair number of candidates. The differentiation was generally correctly

performed, but it was then often equated to 2x + c rather than the correct numerical value. A few candidates either didnt simplify

arctan(1) to 4 , or stated it to be 45 or 2 .

7.

Find the equation of the normal to the curve 5xy2 2x2 = 18 at the point (1, 2) .

[7 marks]

Markscheme

dy

5y2 + 10xy dx 4x = 0

A1A1A1

A1 for correct differentiation of 2x2 and 18.

dy

dy

dx

= 45

(A1)

Gradient of normal =

5

4

A1

Equation of normal y 2 = 54 (x 1)

y=

y=

5

x

4

5

x+

4

5

4

3

4

M1

8

4

(4y = 5x + 3)

A1

[7 marks]

Examiners report

It was pleasing to see that a significant number of candidates understood that implicit differentiation was required and that they were

able to make a reasonable attempt at this. A small number of candidates tried to make the equation explicit. This method will work,

but most candidates who attempted this made either arithmetic or algebraic errors, which stopped them from gaining the correct

answer.

8a. Find the coordinates of the points on C at which

dy

dx

=0.

[4 marks]

Markscheme

dy

dx

= 2x 12 x3

x (2

1 2

x )

2

A1

=0

x = 0, 2

dy

dx

A1A1A1

Note: Award A2 for all three x-values correct with errors/omissions in y-values.

[4 marks]

Examiners report

The whole of this question seemed to prove accessible to a high proportion of candidates.

(a) was well answered by most, although a number of candidates gave only the x-values of the points or omitted the value at 0.

(b) was successfully solved by the majority of candidates, who also found the correct equation of the normal in (c).

The last section proved more difficult for many candidates, the most common error being to use the wrong perpendicular sides. There

were a number of different approaches here all of which were potentially correct but errors abounded.

8b. The tangent to C at the point P(1, 2) cuts the x-axis at the point T. Determine the coordinates of T.

[4 marks]

Markscheme

at x =1, gradient of tangent =

3

2

(A1)

equation of tangent is y 2 = 32 (x 1) (y = 32 x + 12 )

meets x-axis when y = 0 , 2 =

x=

3

(x 1)

2

(A1)

(M1)

13

A1

[4 marks]

Examiners report

The whole of this question seemed to prove accessible to a high proportion of candidates.

(a) was well answered by most, although a number of candidates gave only the x-values of the points or omitted the value at 0.

(b) was successfully solved by the majority of candidates, who also found the correct equation of the normal in (c).

The last section proved more difficult for many candidates, the most common error being to use the wrong perpendicular sides. There

were a number of different approaches here all of which were potentially correct but errors abounded.

8c. The normal to C at the point P cuts the y-axis at the point N. Find the area of triangle PTN.

[7 marks]

Markscheme

gradient of normal = 23

(A1)

equation of normal is y 2 = 23 (x 1) (y = 23 x + 83 )

at x = 0 , y =

8

3

(M1)

A1

A1A1

M1

=

13

9

676

)

18

A1

[7 marks]

Examiners report

The whole of this question seemed to prove accessible to a high proportion of candidates.

(a) was well answered by most, although a number of candidates gave only the x-values of the points or omitted the value at 0.

(b) was successfully solved by the majority of candidates, who also found the correct equation of the normal in (c).

The last section proved more difficult for many candidates, the most common error being to use the wrong perpendicular sides. There

were a number of different approaches here all of which were potentially correct but errors abounded.

9.

(a)

(b)

[7 marks]

Markscheme

1

(a)

2x = 4 2x

x=1

A1

so P is (1, 2) , as f(1) = 2

(b)

M1

f (x) = 12 2 x ln 2

x

A1

N1

A1

M1

f (1) = 2 ln 2

y 2 = 2 ln 2(x 1) (or equivalent)

M1A1

N0

[7 marks]

Examiners report

Most candidates answered part (a) correctly although some candidates showed difficulty solving the equation using valid methods.

Part (b) was less successful with many candidates failing to apply chain rule to obtain the derivative of the exponential function.

(a)

Sketch the graphs of y = ln x and the tangent on the same set of axes, and hence find the equation of the tangent.

(b)

(c)

(d)

x

e

for x > 0 .

[17 marks]

Markscheme

(a)

A3

Note: Award A1 for each graph

A1 for the point of tangency.

(M1)

y = ln(x)

dy

dx

1

x

dy

dx

= a1 (when x = a)

(M1)A1

EITHER

gradient of line, m, through (0, 0) and (a, ln a) is

ln a

a

1

a

ln a = 1 a = e m =

1

e

ln a

a

(M1)A1

M1A1

OR

y ln a = a1 (x a)

(M1)A1

passes through 0 if

ln a 1 = 0

M1

a=em=

1

e

A1

THEN

y = 1e x

A1

[11 marks]

(b)

[1 mark]

(c)

ln x

x

e

e ln x x ln xe x

ln xe

[3 marks]

(d)

letting x = e < e

A1

R1

N0

xe

M1A1

ex

R1AG

x

e

R1

[2 marks]

Total [17 marks]

Examiners report

This was the least accessible question in the entire paper, with very few candidates achieving high marks. Sketches were generally

done poorly, and candidates failed to label the point of intersection. A dummy variable was seldom used in part (a), hence in most

cases it was not possible to get more than 3 marks. There was a lot of good guesswork as to the coordinates of the point of

intersection, but no reasoning showed. Many candidates started with the conclusion in part (c). In part (d) most candidates did not

distinguish between the inequality and strict inequality.

11. A curve is defined by the equation 8y ln x 2x2 + 4y2 = 7. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where x =

[7 marks]

1 and y > 0.

Markscheme

dy

dy

8y x1 + 8 dx ln x 4x + 8y dx = 0

M1A1A1

Note: M1 for attempt at implicit differentiation. A1 for differentiating 8y ln x, A1 for differentiating the rest.

when x = 1, 8y 0 2 1 + 4y2 = 7

y2 =

9

4

at (1,

3 dy

)

2 dx

y=

=

3

2

(as y > 0)

23

(M1)

A1

A1

y 32 = 23 (x 1) or y = 23 x + 136

A1

[7 marks]

Examiners report

The implicit differentiation was generally well done. Some candidates did not realise that they needed to substitute into the original

dy

equation to find y. Others wasted a lot of time rearranging the derivative to make dx the subject, rather than simply putting in the

particular values for x and y.

12. The normal to the curve xey + ey = 1 + x, at the point (c, ln c), has a y-intercept c2 + 1.

[7 marks]

Markscheme

EITHER

differentiating implicitly:

dy

dy

1 ey xey dx + ey dx = 1

M1A1

1

c

dy

dy

c 1c dx + c dx = 1

dy

dx

1

c

M1

(A1)

(c 1)

OR

reasonable attempt to make expression explicit

(M1)

xey + ey = 1 + x

x + e2y = ey (1 + x)

e2y ey (1 + x) + x = 0

(A1)

(ey 1)(ey x) = 0

ey = 1, ey = x

y = 0, y = ln x

A1

dy

dx

1

x

gradient of tangent =

1

c

A1

THEN

the equation of the normal is

y ln c = c(x c)

x = 0, y =

c2

M1

+1

c2 + 1 ln c = c2

(A1)

ln c = 1

c=e

A1

[7 marks]

Examiners report

This was the first question to cause the majority of candidates a problem and only the better candidates gained full marks. Weaker

candidates made errors in the implicit differentiation and those who were able to do this often were unable to simplify the expression

they gained for the gradient of the normal in terms of c; a significant number of candidates did not know how to simplify the

logarithms appropriately.

13a.

[10 marks]

s = 2 sin(t) + sin(2t), t 0,

where t is the time in seconds and the displacement is measured in centimetres.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Markscheme

(i)

the period is 2

(ii)

v=

a=

dv

dt

(iii)

ds

dt

A1

= 2 cos(t) + 2 cos(2t)

2 2

sin(t) 4 2

(M1)A1

(M1)A1

sin(2t)

v=0

2 (cos(t) + cos(2t)) = 0

EITHER

cos(t) + 2cos2 (t) 1 = 0

M1

(2 cos(t) 1) (cos(t) + 1) = 0

cos(t) =

1

2

or cos(t) = 1

t = 13 , t = 1

t=

5

,

3

t=

(A1)

A1

A1

7

,

3

t=

11

,

3

t=3

A1

OR

2 cos( t2 ) cos( 3t

)=0

2

cos( t2 )

= 0 or

t = 13 , 1

A1

t=

5 7

, ,

3 3

3,

11

3

cos( 3t

)

2

M1

=0

A1A1

A1

[10 marks]

Examiners report

In (a), only a few candidates gave the correct period but the expressions for velocity and acceleration were correctly obtained by most

candidates. In (a)(iii), many candidates manipulated the equation v = 0 correctly to give the two possible values for cos(t) but then

failed to find all the possible values of t.

[8 marks]

Use mathematical induction to prove that the(2n)th derivative of f is given by (f (2n) (x) = (1)n (Aa2n sin(ax) + Bb2n sin(bx)), for all

n Z+ .

Markscheme

P(n) : f (2n) (x) = (1)n (Aa2n sin(ax) + Bb2n sin(bx))

P(1) : f (x) = (Aa cos(ax) + Bb cos(bx))

M1

= 1 (Aa2 sin(ax) + Bb2 sin(bx))

A1

P(1) true

assume that

P(k) : f (2k) (x) = (1)k (Aa2k sin(ax) + Bb2k sin(bx)) is true

M1

consider P(k + 1)

f (2k+1) (x) = (1)k (Aa2k+1 cos(ax) + Bb2k+1 cos(bx))

f (2k+2) (x) = (1)k (Aa2k+2 sin(ax) Bb2k+2 sin(bx))

= (1)k+1 (Aa2k+2 sin(ax) + Bb2k+2 sin(bx))

M1A1

A1

A1

R1

Note: Award the final R1 only if the previous three M marks have been awarded.

[8 marks]

Examiners report

Solutions to (b) were disappointing in general with few candidates giving a correct solution.

(a)

Let k = 0.

(i)

(ii)

Find the angle between the tangent to the curve and the line at the point of intersection.

(b)

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Write down an integral representing the area of the region A enclosed by the curve and the line.

(iv)

Find the values of k for which the curve y = xex and the line y = kx meet in two distinct points.

[23 marks]

Markscheme

(a)

(i)

A1

xex = 0 x = 0

(ii)

M1A1

y = ex + xex = (1 + x)ex

y (0) = 1

A1

= arctan1 =

( = 45 )

A1

[5 marks]

(b)

when k = 1, y = x

M1

xex = x x(ex 1) = 0

A1

x=0

R1

AG

Note: Award full credit to candidates who note that the equation x(ex 1) = 0 has a double root x = 0 so y = x is a tangent.

[3 marks]

(c)

(i)

xex = kx x(ex k) = 0

x = 0 or x = ln k

k > 0 and k 1

M1

A1

A1

A1A1

(ii)

(iii)

A = 0ln k kx xex dx

M1A1

(iv)

xex dx = xex ex dx = ex (x 1)

as 0 < k < 1 ln k < 0

A1

R1

A = ln k kx xex dx = [ k2 x2 (x 1)ex ]

0

A1

= 1 k2 ( (ln k) 2 2 ln k + 2)

= 1 k2 ( (ln k 1) 2 + 1)

M1A1

A<1

AG

[15 marks]

Total [23 marks]

R1

0

ln k

A1

M1

Examiners report

Many candidates solved (a) and (b) correctly but in (c), many failed to realise that the equation xex = kx has two roots under certain

conditions and that the point of the question was to identify those conditions. Most candidates made a reasonable attempt to write

down the appropriate integral in (c)(iii) with the modulus signs and limits often omitted but no correct solution has yet been seen to

(c)(iv).

15. Find the equation of the normal to the curve x3 y3 xy = 0 at the point (1, 1).

[7 marks]

Markscheme

x3 y3 xy = 0

3x2 y3 + 3x3 y2 y y xy = 0

Note: Award A1 for correctly differentiating each term.

x = 1, y = 1

3 + 3y 1 y = 0

2y = 2

y = 1

(M1)A1

gradient of normal = 1

(A1)

A1

N2

y=x

Note: Award A2R5 for correct answer and correct justification.

[7 marks]

Examiners report

This implicit differentiation question was well answered by most candidates with many achieving full marks. Some candidates made

algebraic errors which prevented them from scoring well in this question.

Other candidates realised that the equation of the curve could be simplified although the simplification was seldom justified.

y = m(x m)

(1 x)y = 1

Markscheme

EITHER

y=

1

1x

y =

1

(1x) 2

M1A1

solve simultaneously

M1

1

1x

= m(x m) and

1

(1x) 2

1

1x

1

(x 1 2 )

(1x) 2

(1x)

=m

A1

x = 1.65729 y =

1

11.65729

= 1.521379

A1A1

(1.52137 )2

A1

m=

= 2.31

OR

(1 x)y = 1

m(1 x)(x m) = 1

M1

m(x x2 m + mx) = 1

mx2 x(m + m2 ) + (m2 + 1) = 0

(M1)

b2 4ac = 0

(m + m2 )2

A1

4m(m2 + 1) = 0

A1

m = 2.31

A1

x = 1.66

y=

(M1)

1

11.65729

= 1.52

A1

[7 marks]

Examiners report

Very few candidates answered this question well but among those a variety of nice approaches were seen. This question required

some organized thinking and good understanding of the concepts involved and therefore just strong candidates were able to go

beyond the first steps. Sadly a few good answers were spoiled due to early rounding.

17a.

Show that

dy

dx

cos 2 x x2 sin x

(x+cos x) 2

x cos x

,

x+cos x

, x 0.

for x 0.

[4 marks]

Markscheme

dy

dx

(x+cos x) 2

M1A1A1

Note: Award M1 for attempt at differentiation of a quotient and a product condoning sign errors in the quotient formula and the trig

differentiations, A1 for correct derivative of u, A1 for correct derivative of v.

cos 2 x x2 sin x

A1

(x+cos x) 2

(x+cos x) 2

AG

[4 marks]

Examiners report

The majority of candidates earned significant marks on this question. The product rule and the quotient rule were usually correctly

applied, but a few candidates made an error in differentiating the denominator, obtaining sin x rather than 1 sin x. A

disappointing number of candidates failed to calculate the correct gradient at the specified point.

[3 marks]

2

Markscheme

the derivative has value 1

(A1)

M1A1

x)

[3 marks]

Examiners report

The majority of candidates earned significant marks on this question. The product rule and the quotient rule were usually correctly

applied, but a few candidates made an error in differentiating the denominator, obtaining sin x rather than 1 sin x. A

disappointing number of candidates failed to calculate the correct gradient at the specified point.

18.

Given that y =

1

,

1x

dn y

dxn

n!

(1x)

n+1

, n Z+ .

[7 marks]

Markscheme

proposition is true for n = 1 since

1!

(1x) 2

dy

dx

1

(1x) 2

M1

A1

consider

dk+1 y

dxk+1

dk y

d(

dxk

(1x) k+2

dxk

k!

(1x) k+1

M1

(M1)

dx

= (k + 1)k!(1 x)(k+1)1

(k+1)!

dk y

A1

A1

hence, Pk+1 is true whenever Pk is true, and P1 is true, and therefore the proposition is true for all positive integers

R1

Note: The final R1 is only available if at least 4 of the previous marks have been awarded.

[7 marks]

Examiners report

Most candidates were awarded good marks for this question. A disappointing minority thought that the (k + 1)th derivative was the

(k)th derivative multiplied by the first derivative. Providing an acceptable final statement remains a perennial issue.

dy

y

=

(x + 2), y > 1,

dx ln y

and y = e when x = 2.

19a. Find the equation of the tangent to C at the point (2, e).

[3 marks]

Markscheme

dy

dx

e

(2 + 2)

ln e

= 4e

A1

hence y = 4ex 7e

M1

A1

[3 marks]

Examiners report

Nearly always correctly answered.

[11 marks]

Markscheme

dy

dx

y

(x + 2)

ln y

ln y

dy

y

ln y

dy

y

= (x + 2)dx

using substitution u = ln y; du = 1y dy

ln y

dy

y

(ln y) 2

2

at (2, e),

= udu = 12 u2

x2

2

(ln e)

2

c = 112

(ln y) 2

2

M1

= (x + 2)dx

+ 2x + c

= 6+c

(M1)(A1)

(A1)

A1A1

M1

A1

x2

2

ln y = x2 + 4x 11 y = e x2 +4x11

since y > 1, f(x) = ex2 +4x11

M1A1

R1

[11 marks]

Examiners report

Most candidates separated the variables and attempted the integrals. Very few candidates made use of the condition y > 1, so losing 2

marks.

19c.

[6 marks]

Markscheme

EITHER

x2 + 4x 11 > 0

A1

M1

(= 2 15 )

A1

M1

4 60

2

OR

x2 + 4x 11 > 0

A1

M1

A1

(x + 2)2 > 15

[6 marks]

Examiners report

Part (c) was often well answered, sometimes with follow through.

19d.

[4 marks]

Markscheme

f(x) = f (x) f(x) =

f(x)

ln f(x)

(x + 2)

M1

ln(f(x)) = x + 2 ( x + 2 = x2 + 4x 11 )

A1

(x + 2)2 = x2 + 4x 11 x2 + 4x + 4 = x2 + 4x 11

4 = 11, hence f(x) f (x)

A1

R1AG

[4 marks]

Examiners report

Only the best candidates were successful on part (d).

Let f be a function defined by f(x) = x + 2 cos x , x [0, 2] . The diagram below shows a region S bound by the graph of f and

the line y = x .

A and C are the points of intersection of the line y = x and the graph of f , and B is the minimum point of f .

20. (a)

(b)

(c)

Find the equation of the normal to the graph of f at the point C, giving your answer in the form y = px + q .

(d)

(i)

(ii)

Show that V = 6 2 .

[19 marks]

Markscheme

(a)

METHOD 1

using GDC

A1A2A1

a = 1, b = 5, c = 3

METHOD 2

x = x + 2 cos x cos x = 0

x = 2 ,

3

2

M1

...

A1

a = 1, c = 3

M1

1 2 sin x = 0

sin x =

1

2

x=

or

5

6

A1

b=5

[4 marks]

(b)

f ( 56 ) =

5

6

3 (or 0.886)

(M1)

(M1)

A1

[3 marks]

(c)

f (x) = 1 2 sin x

f ( 36 ) = 3

(M1)

A1

gradient of normal = 13

(M1)

(M1)

A1

N4

[5 marks]

(d)

(i)

A1A1

(ii)

V = 2 ( x2 (x + 2 cos x) 2 )dx

2

3

2

and the identity

4cos2 x

M1

= 2 cos 2x + 2 ,

M1

3

2

A1A1

= [(6 sin 32 + 4 cos 32 + sin 3 + 3) (2sin 2 + 4 cos 2 + sin + )]

= (6 + 3 )

= 6 2

AG

N0

[7 marks]

A1

Examiners report

Generally there were many good attempts to this, more difficult, question. A number of students found b to be equal to 1, rather than

5. In the final part few students could successfully work through the entire integral successfully.

Consider the functions f(x) = (ln x)2 , x > 1 and g(x) = ln(f(x)), x > 1.

(i) Find f (x).

(ii) Find g (x).

(iii) Hence, show that g(x) is increasing on ]1, [.

[5 marks]

21a.

Markscheme

(i)

2 ln x

x

(ii)

g (x) =

2

x ln x

(M1)

A1

f (x)

(M1)

A1

(iii)

A1

AG

[5 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[12 marks]

(ln x)

dy 2

2x 1

+ y=

, x > 1.

dx x

(ln x)

(i)

Find the general solution of the differential equation in the form y = h(x).

(ii)

Show that the particular solution passing through the point with coordinates (e, e2 ) is given by y =

(iii)

Sketch the graph of your solution for x > 1, clearly indicating any asymptotes and any maximum or minimum points.

x2 x+e

(ln x) 2

Markscheme

(i)

dy

dx

2x1

+ x ln2 x y =

(ln x) 2

(A1)

, x>1

integrating factor:

e

2

x ln x

dx

ln( (ln x) 2 )

(M1)

=e

(A1)

= (ln x)2

(M1)

dy

(ln x)2 dx + 2 lnx x

d

(y(ln x) 2 ) =

dx

y = 2x 1

2x 1 (or y(ln x) 2 = 2x 1dx)

attempt to integrate:

(ln x)2 y

y=

x2

x2 x+c

(ln x) 2

M1

x+c

A1

(ii)

(ln e)2 e2

eg,

c=e

y=

M1

e2

e + c or

e2

e2e+c

(ln e) 2

or

e2

e2

M1

e+c

A1

x2 x+e

(ln x) 2

AG

(iii)

A1

asymptote shown at x = 1

A1

A1

Equation of asymptote not required for A1 if VA appears on the sketch.

Award A0 for asymptotes if more than one asymptote are shown

[12 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

ln x

,

x

x > 0.

The sketch below shows the graph of y = f(x) and its tangent at a point A.

1ln x

x2

[2 marks]

Markscheme

f (x) =

=

x 1x ln x

x2

1ln x

x2

M1A1

AG

[2 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

22b. Find the coordinates of B, at which the curve reaches its maximum value.

[3 marks]

Markscheme

1ln x

x2

y = 1e

= 0 has solution x = e

M1A1

A1

[3 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[5 marks]

Markscheme

x2 ( 1x )2x(1ln x)

f (x) =

=

M1A1

x4

2 ln x3

x3

The M1A1 should be awarded if the correct working appears in part (b).

Note:

3

so x = e 2 , y = 32 e

3

2

M1

A1A1

C has coordinates ( e 2 , 32 e

3

3

2

[5 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[4 marks]

Markscheme

f(1) = 0

A1

=1

(A1)

y = x+c

(M1)

f (1)

through (1, 0)

equation is y = x 1

A1

[4 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

Find the area enclosed by the curve y = f(x), the tangent at A, and the line x = e.

[7 marks]

Markscheme

METHOD 1

e

area = 1 x 1 lnxx dx

Note:

M1A1A1

Award M1 for integration of difference between line and curve, A1 for correct limits, A1 for correct expressions in either

order.

(ln x) 2

(+c) (M1)A1

2

x2

(x 1)dx = 2 x(+c) A1

e

= [ 12 x2 x 12 (ln x) 2 ]

1

ln x

dx

x

= ( 12 e2 e 12 ) ( 12 1)

= 12 e2 e

A1

METHOD 2

area = area of triangle 1e

Note:

ln x

dx

x

(ln x) 2

(+c) (M1)A1

2

area of triangle = 12 (e 1)(e 1)

1

(e 1)(e 1) ( 12 ) = 12 e2 e

2

ln x

dx

x

M1A1

M1A1

A1

[7 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

Let f(x) =

e2x +1

.

ex 2

23a. Find the equations of the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the curve y = f(x).

[4 marks]

Markscheme

x y 12 so y = 12 is an asymptote

(M1)A1

ex 2 = 0 x = ln 2 so x = ln 2 (= 0.693) is an asymptote

(M1)A1

[4 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

23b. (i)

(ii)

(iii)

Find f (x).

Show that the curve has exactly one point where its tangent is horizontal.

Find the coordinates of this point.

[8 marks]

Markscheme

2(ex 2)e2x (e2x +1)ex

f (x) =

(i)

(ex 2) 2

ex (e2x

ex

M1A1

e3x 4e2x ex

f (x)

(ii)

(ex 2) 2

4ex

= 0,

ex

M1

1) = 0

A1A1

Note:

as ex > 0 exactly one solution

Note:

(iii)

R1

(1.44, 8.47)

A1A1

[8 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

23c. Find the equation of L1 , the normal to the curve at the point where it crosses the y-axis.

[4 marks]

Markscheme

f (0) = 4

(A1)

so gradient of normal is

f(0) = 2

1

4

(M1)

(A1)

so equation of L1 is y = 14 x 2

A1

[4 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[5 marks]

Markscheme

f (x) =

1

4

so x = 1.46

M1

(M1)A1

f(1.46) = 8.47

(A1)

(or y =

1

x + 8.11)

4

[5 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

A1

f(x) = {

1 2x, x 2

3, x > 2

3

(x 2)2

4

[2 marks]

Markscheme

1 2(2) = 3 and 34 (2 2)2 3 = 3

A1

Note:

R1

R1 may be awarded for justification using a graph or referring to limits. Do not award A0R1.

[2 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

24b. The graph of the function g is obtained by applying the following transformations to the graph of f:

2

a reflection in the yaxis followed by a translation by the vector ( ).

0

Find g(x).

Markscheme

reflection in the y-axis

1 + 2x, x 2

f(x) = { 3

(x + 2)2 3, x < 2

4

Note:

2

translation ( )

0

2x 3, x 0

g(x) = { 3 2

x 3, x < 0

4

Note:

(M1)

(M1)A1A1

Award (M1) for attempting to substitute (x 2) for x, or translating a graph along positive x-axis.

Award A1 for the correct domains (this mark can be awarded independent of the M1).

Award A1 for the correct expressions.

[4 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

(x2 + y2 ) = 4xy2

25a.

dy

dx

[4 marks]

dx

Markscheme

METHOD 1

expanding the brackets first:

x4 + 2x2 y2 + y4 = 4xy2

dy

M1

dy

dy

M1A1A1

Note:

dy

dx

x3 xy 2 + y 2

xy 2 2xy+ y 3

or equivalent

A1

METHOD 2

dy

dy

M1A1A1

Note:

(x2 + y2 ) (x + y dx ) = y2 + 2xy dx

dy

dy

dy

dy

dy

x3 + x2 y dx + y2 x + y3 dx = y2 + 2xy dx

dy

dx

x3 xy 2 + y 2

yx2 2xy+ y 3

or equivalent

M1

A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[3 marks]

25b. Find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point (1, 1).

Markscheme

METHOD 1

at (1, 1),

dy

dx

y=1

A1

is undefined

M1A1

METHOD 2

gradient of normal = dy1 =

dx

at (1, 1) gradient = 0

y=1

(yx2 2xy+ y 3 )

( x3 xy 2 + y 2 )

M1

A1

A1

[3 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

26a. (i) Explain why the inverse function f 1 does not exist.

(ii)

(iii)

[14 marks]

Show that the equation of the normal to the curve at the point P where x = ln 3 is given by 9x + 12y 9 ln 3 20 = 0.

Find the x-coordinates of the points Q and R on the curve such that the tangents at Q and R pass through (0, 0).

Markscheme

(i)

function is not 1 1 (does not obey horizontal line test)

AG

f (ln 3) =

m=

4

3

34

M1

R1

(A1)

(A1)

(= 1.33)

M1

f(ln 3) =

5

3

(= 1.67)

A1

EITHER

y 5

3

xln 3

4y

= 34

20

3

M1

A1

= 3x + 3 ln 3

OR

5

3

= 34 ln 3 + c

M1

5

3

c=

y=

+ 34 ln 3

34 x + 53 + 34 ln 3

A1

12y = 9x + 20 + 9 ln 3

THEN

AG

9x + 12y 9 ln 3 20 = 0

(iii)

f (a) =

f(a)

a

ea ea =

(or equivalent)

ea + ea

a

(or equivalent)

a = 1.20

(M1)

(A1)

A1

(M1)

A1A1

[14 marks]

Examiners report

In part (a) (i), successful candidates typically sketched the graph of y = f(x), applied the horizontal line test to the graph and

concluded that the function was not 1 1 (it did not obey the horizontal line test).

In part (a) (ii), a large number of candidates were able to show that the equation of the normal at point P was

9x + 12y 9 ln 3 20 = 0. A few candidates used the gradient of the tangent rather than using it to find the gradient of the normal.

Part (a) (iii) challenged most candidates. Most successful candidates graphed y = f(x) and y = xf (x) on the same set of axes and

found the x-coordinates of the intersection points.

(i)

(ii)

[8 marks]

f 1 (x).

Find the volume generated when the region bounded by the curve y = f(x) and the lines x = 0 and y = 5 is rotated through an

Markscheme

2y = ex + ex

(i)

e2x 2yex + 1 = 0

Note:

M1A1

2y 4y 2 4

A1

= y y 2 1

x = ln(y y2 1 ) A1

f 1 (x) = ln(x + x2 1 )

ex =

ex

Note:

A1

Award A1 for correct notation and for stating the positive branch.

2

5

V = 1 (ln(y + y2 1 )) dy

(ii)

Note:

(M1)(A1)

= 37.1 (units3 )

A1

[8 marks]

Examiners report

Part (b) (i) challenged most candidates. While a large number of candidates seemed to understand how to find an inverse function,

poor algebra skills (e.g. erroneously taking the natural logarithm of both sides) meant that very few candidates were able to form a

quadratic in either ex or ey .

+

27. A family of cubic functions is defined as fk (x) = k2 x3 kx2 + x, k Z .

(a)

Express in terms of k

(i)

(ii)

[13 marks]

(b)

Show that all Pk lie on a straight line and state its equation.

(c)

Show that for all values of k, the tangents to the graphs of fk at Pk are parallel, and find the equation of the tangent lines.

Markscheme

(a)

(i)

A1

f k (x) = 6k2 x 2k

M1

Setting f (x) = 0

(ii)

A1

6k2 x 2k = 0 x =

3

1

3k

A1

2

7

27k

M1

A1

7

Hence, Pk is ( 3k1 , 27k

)

[6 marks]

Equation of the straight line is y = 79 x

(b)

A1

R1

[2 marks]

(c)

Gradient of tangent at Pk :

2

2

3

M1A1

7

27k

= 23 3k1 + c c =

The equation is y =

1

27k

2

1

x + 27k

3

R1

(A1)

A1

[5 marks]

Total [13 marks]

Examiners report

Many candidates scored the full 6 marks for part (a). The main mistake evidenced was to treat k as a variable, and hence use the

product rule to differentiate. Of the many candidates who attempted parts (b) and (c), few scored the R1 marks in either part, but did

manage to get the equations of the straight lines.

[3 marks]

Markscheme

f(x) = 2 cos(x) + (x) sin(x)

= 2 cos x + x sin x (= f(x))

therefore f is even

M1

A1

A1

[3 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[2 marks]

Markscheme

f (x) = 2 sin x + sin x + x cos x (= sin x + x cos x)

f (x) = cos x + cos x x sin x (= x sin x)

so f (0) = 0

A1

A1

AG

[2 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

28c. John states that, because f (0) = 0 , the graph of f has a point of inflexion at the point (0, 2) . Explain briefly whether Johns

[2 marks]

Markscheme

Johns statement is incorrect because

either; there is a stationary point at (0, 2) and since f is an even function and therefore symmetrical about the y-axis it must be a

maximum or a minimum

or; f (x) is even and therefore has the same sign either side of (0, 2)

R2

[2 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

f(x) = {

2x 1,

ax2 + bx 5,

x2

2<x<3

where a , b R .

29a. Given that f and its derivative, f , are continuous for all values in the domain of f , find the values of a and b .

[6 marks]

Markscheme

f continuous lim f(x) = lim f(x)

x2

x2

M1

A1

4a + 2b = 8

2,

f (x) = {

2ax + b,

x<2

2<x<3

A1

x2

x2

4a + b = 2

A1

M1

solve simultaneously

A1

to obtain a = 1 and b = 6

[6 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[3 marks]

Markscheme

for x 2, f (x) = 2 > 0

for 2 < x < 3,

f (x)

A1

= 2x + 6 > 0

A1

R1

AG

therefore one-to-one

[3 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

29c. Obtain expressions for the inverse function f 1 and state their domains.

Markscheme

x = 2y 1 y =

x=

M1

x+1

2

y2

+ 6y 5

y = 3 4 x

y2

6y + x + 5 = 0

M1

therefore

f 1 (x) = {

x+1

,

2

3 4 x ,

x3

3<x<4

A1A1A1

Note: Award A1 for the first line and A1A1 for the second line.

[5 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[5 marks]

[3 marks]

Markscheme

f (x) =

1

sin(x) + ln(x + 1) cos(x)

x+1

M1A1A1

[3 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

[4 marks]

30b. Sketch the graphs of f and f on the same axes, showing clearly all x-intercepts.

Markscheme

A4

[4 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

30c. Find the x-coordinates of the two points of inflexion on the graph of f .

[2 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

30d. Find the equation of the normal to the graph of f where x = 0.75 , giving your answer in the form y = mx + c .

[3 marks]

Markscheme

f (0.75) = 0.839092

A1

y = 1.19x 0.498

1

0.839092

(x 0.75)

M1

A1

[3 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

30e. Consider the points A (a , f(a)) , B (b , f(b)) and C (c , f(c)) where a , b and c (a < b < c) are the solutions of the equation [6 marks]

Markscheme

A(0, 0)

B( 0.548 , 0.432 )

c

C(1.44 , 0.881 )

A1

A1

=

1

(de cf)

2

= 0.554

M1A1

A1

A1

[6 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

International Baccalaureate - Baccalaurat International - Bachillerato Internacional

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