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Dr. Muhd Ridzuan Mansor
Dr. Shamsul Anuar Shamsudin
Dr. Roszaidi Ramlan
Mdm. Mastura Taha

Learning Objectives
Identify various kinds of loading commonly encountered by

machine parts, including, repeated and reversed, fluctuating

Define the concept of fatigue.
Define the material property of endurance strength and

determine estimates of its magnitude for different materials.

Define the Factor of Safety of element under fatigue loading.

Fatigue Loadings

Machine members are found to fail under the

action of fluctuating stresses. The actual maximum

stresses were well below the yield strength.
The most distinguishing characteristic of the
fatigue failure is that the stresses have been
repeated a very large number of times.
A fatigue failure begins with a small crack.
Once a crack has developed, the stressconcentration effect becomes greater and the
crack progresses more rapidly.

Fatigue Loadings

Difference between Static and

Fatigue Failures

Static failures are visible ones and give warning in

fatigue failure gives no warning; it is sudden and total,
and hence dangerous.
complicated phenomenon
Anyone who lacks knowledge of fatigue can double or triple factors
of safety and get a design that will not fail.

Chapter 3:Fatigue Loadings

Fatigue failure of a bolt due to repeated
unidirectional bending
A fatigue failure arises from three stages of


- Stage I : initiation of micro cracks due to

cyclic plastic deformation (these cracks are

not usually visible to the naked eyes).

- Stage II : propagation of micro cracks to

macro cracks forming parallel plateau look

like fracture surfaces separated by
longitudinal ridges (in the form of dark and
light bands referred to as beach marks).

- Stage III : fracture when the remaining

material cannot support the loads.

Fatigue Loadings
Fatigue Life Methods in Fatigue Failure Analysis

- For
- For

be the number of cycles to fatigue for a specified level of loading

, generally classified as low-cycle fatigue

, generally classified as high-cycle fatigue

Three major fatigue life methods used in design and analysis are

1. stress-life method : is based on stress only, least accurate especially for

low-cycle fatigue; however, it is the most traditional and easiest to
implement for a wide range of applications.
2. strain-life method : involves more detailed analysis, especially good for lowcycle fatigue; however, idealizations in the methods make it less practical
when uncertainties are present.

3. linear-elastic fracture mechanics method : assumes a crack is already

present. Practical with computer codes in predicting in crack growth with
respect to stress intensity factor

Fatigue Loadings

Stress-Life Method : R. R. Moore

The most widely used fatigue-testing

device is the R. R. Moore high-speed

rotating-beam machine.
Specimens in R.R. Moore machines
are subjected to pure bending by
means of added weights.
Other fatigue-testing machines are
available for applying fluctuating or
reversed axial stresses, torsional
stresses, or combined stresses to the
test specimens.

Fatigue Loadings

S-N Curve

In R. R. Moore machine tests, a

constant bending load is applied, and
the number of revolutions of the beam
required for failure is recorded.

Tests at various bending stress levels

are conducted.

These results are plotted as an S-N


Log plot is generally used to

emphasize the bend in the S-N curve.

Ordinate of S-N curve is fatigue

strength, , at a specific number
of cycles

Fatigue Loadings
Characteristics of S-N
Curves for Metals
In the case of steels, a knee occurs

in the graph, and beyond this knee

failure will not occur, no matter how
great the number of cycles - this
knee is called the endurance limit,
denoted as
Non-ferrous metals and alloys do
not have an endurance limit, since
their S-N curve never become
For materials with no endurance
limit, the fatigue strength is
normally reported at

is the simple tension test

Chapter 3:Endurance Stresses/Strength

Endurance Limit for Steels

For steels, the endurance limit

relates directly to the minimum

tensile strength as observed in
experimental measurements.
From the observations, the
endurance of steels can be
estimated as

with the prime mark on the

endurance limit referring to the

rotating-beam specimen.

Chapter 3:Modified Endurance

Strength and Modification Factors

Endurance Limit Modifying Factors

The endurance limit of the rotating-beam specimen
might differ from the actual application due to the
following differences from laboratory tests.
- material
- manufacturing
- environment
- design
Therefore, Joseph Marin identified factors that
quantified the effects of surface condition, size,
loading, temperature and miscellaneous items.

Modified Endurance Strength and Modification

The Marin equation is therefore written as:

= surface condition modification factor
= size modification factor
= load modification factor
= temperature modification factor
= reliability factor
= miscellaneous-effects modification factor
= rotary-beam test specimen endurance limit

Modified Endurance Strength and Modification


Surface factor, ka
Surface Factor : the surface modification factor depends

on the quality of the finish of the actual part surface and

on the tensile strength of the part material. It can be
calculated as

where a and b can be found in Table 6-2.

Modified Endurance Strength and Modification


Size factor, kb
For axial loading,

. For bending and torsion can be expressed as

For bending and torsion use:

Effective dimension is introduced for non-circular cross section by equating the

volume of the material stressed at and above 95 percent of the maximum stress to
the same volume in the rotating-beam.

Modified Endurance Strength and Modification


Loading factor, kc

Temperature factor, kd

Refer Table 6-4. If not given, = 1

Modified Endurance Strength and Modification


Reliability factor, ke
Most endurance strength data are reported as mean values.
To account for the scatter of measurement data, the reliability modification factor is
written as

where za can be found in the Table 6-5

Modified Endurance Strength and Modification


Miscellaneous-Effect factor, kf

Its due to all other effects, such as residual

stresses, different material treatments,
directional characteristics of operations, and

Actual values of are NOT ALWAYS


Fatigue Strength

Fatigue Strength
Fatigue strength is defined as the maximum

stress that can be endured for a specified number

of cycles without failure. Low cycle fatigue
strength approaches the static strength. When
the number of cycles exceeds one million to ten
million, the fatigue strength falls to a fraction of
the static strength.
For example: Copper beryllium alloys resist
fatigue failure with high static strength,
toughness, and an ability to diffuse strain by work

Fatigue Strength
For actual mechanical applications, the fatigue

strength calculated above is extended to a more

general form as:

: cycle to failure

Next figure is a plot of f for 490 < Sut < 1400 MPa
For Sut < 490 MPa let f = 0.9.

Fatigue Strength

Fatigue Strength fraction, f, of Sut at 103 cycles for

Se = Se = 0.5Sut

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

Fatigue Stress
Concentration Factor
Stress concentration factor is defined as the localisation
of high stresses due to regulates or abrupt changes of
the cross-section.

where o and o are stresses calculated by the

elementary equations for minimum cross section.

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity


Kt or Kts are stress concentration factors

(equation 3-48).
If q = 0, then Kf = 1 the material has no sensitivity
to notches at all.
If q = 1, then Kf = Kt the material has full notch

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

Notch Sensitivity chart subjected to reversed

bending or axial load

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

Notch Sensitivity chart subjected to reversed torsion

Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress

Please watch
Mohrs Circle Applet:
Moment of Inertia; Shear-Bending Moment Diagrams etc

[1] Keith Nisbett, Richard Budynas. 2014. Shigley's Mechanical
Engineering Design. 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, NY.
[2] Joseph Shigley, Charles Mischke. Eds. 1996. Standard Handbook of
Machine Design. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, NY.