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Exam

Biology (Total 26 marks)


Topic 1: The cell

IB GRADE -------, GRADE BY %--------------, SHIRAKATSY L YCEUM GRADE-----------------, S IGN: ------------D ATE:

1. Which hypothesis can be tested using the t-test?

Paper 1

A.

The difference in variation between two samples is not significant.

C.

The change in one variable is not correlated with a change in another variable.

B.

D.

The difference between observed values and expected values is not significant.
The difference between the means in two samples is not significant.

(Total 1 mark)

2. What does a small standard deviation signify?


A.

The data is not correlated.

C.

The data shows a close relationship between two variables.

B.

D.

The data is widely spread around the mean.

The data is clustered closely to the mean value.

(Total 1 mark)

3. The levels of iron in liver tissue from 12 rats fed on beef and 11 rats fed on plant oils were compared using the ttest to see if there was a significant difference at the 5% level.
Part of the table showing the critical values for the t-test is shown below.
Degrees of freedom

p = 0.1

p = 0.05

p = 0.01

p = 0.001

20

1.725

2.086

2.845

3.850

19
21
22
23

1.729
1.721
1.717
1.714

2.093
2.080
2.074
2.069

2.861
2.831
2.819
2.807

3.883
3.819
3.792
3.767

What is the critical value above which the two samples can be considered significantly different?

A.

2.086

C.

2.074

B.

2.080

D.

2.069

(Total 1 mark)

4. What do error bars on graphs show?


A.

If the data is correct or not.

C.

Which result is closest to the true result.

B.

D.

How variable the data is.

What statistical technique was used to eliminate incorrect results.

5. A red blood cell is 8 m in diameter. If drawn 100 times larger than its actual size, what diameter will the
drawing be in mm?
A.

0.08 mm

C.

8 mm

B.

D.

0.8 mm
80 mm

(Total 1 mark)

6. What do diffusion and osmosis have in common?


A.

They only happen in living cells.

C.

They are passive transport mechanisms.

B.

D.

They require transport proteins in the membrane.


Net movement of substances is against the concentration gradient.

7. The diagram below shows a cell during mitosis.

What are the structures and stage of mitosis?


A.
B.

(Total 1 mark)

Stage of mitosis

Structure I

anaphase

centromere

metaphase

chromatid

Structure II

nuclear membrane
plasma membrane

(Total 1 mark)

C.

D.

anaphase

metaphase

chromatid

centromere

nuclear membrane
plasma membrane

8. Which of the following are features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?


70S ribosomes

80S ribosomes

Naked DNA

A.

prokaryote

eukaryote

prokaryote

C.

eukaryote

prokaryote

prokaryote

B.

D.

eukaryote

prokaryote

prokaryote

eukaryote

(Total 1 mark)

DNA associated
with proteins
eukaryote

eukaryote

prokaryote

eukaryote

prokaryote

eukaryote

Paper 2

(Total 1 mark)

1. The electron micrograph below shows the ultrastructure of part of an animal cell.

[Source: Reproduced with the kind permission of the Electron Microscopy Facility, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA, and
Professor Daniel G. Blackburn.]

(a)

(b)

Identify the structure labelled I.

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Explain briefly how materials produced in the structure labelled I are transported to the plasma
membrane.
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(1)

(c)

Outline the function of the mitochondria in the cell.

(2)

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(d)

Suggest why the two labelled mitochondria are different shapes in the micrograph.

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2. (a) Define osmosis.

(2)

(1)
(Total 6 marks)

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(b)

Outline how transport occurs across membranes by facilitated diffusion.

(1)

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(c)

Explain how the properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes.

(2)

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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

Paper 3

Rice (Oryza sativa) is usually intolerant to sustained submergence under water, although it grows rapidly in height
for a few days before dying. This is true for one variety, Oryza sativa japonica. The variety Oryza sativa
indica is much more tolerant to submergence.
Three genetically modified forms of O. sativa japonica, GMFA, GMFB and GMFC, were made using
different fragments of DNA taken from O. sativa indica.

The plants were then submerged for a period of 11 days. The heights of all the plants were measured at the
beginning and at the end of the submergence period.

[Adapted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Xu et al. 2006. Sub1A is an ethylene-response-factor-like gene that confers
submergence tolerance to rice. Nature. Vol 442. Pp 705708. Copyright 2006. http://www.nature.com/]

(a)

(i)

(ii)

State which group of rice plants were the shortest at the beginning of the experiment.

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Calculate the percentage change in height for the O. sativa japonica unmodified variety during
the submergence period. Show your working.
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(1)

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(b)

(2)

Explain how the error bars can be used to compare the results for O. sativa indica.

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(c)

Deduce the general relationship between the growth of all the japonica varieties and their stated
tolerance level.

(2)

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Total 6 marks

(1)