voltage source

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voltage source

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Objective of Lecture

Explain how voltage sources in series may be

combined.

Explain how current sources in parallel may be

combined.

Explain under what conditions voltage sources in

parallel and current sources in series are allowed.

DC voltage sources in series can be combined and replaced

AC voltage sources in series can be combined and replaced

with a single source only if the angular frequency of

operation w are identical.

DC and AC voltage sources can be added together when

calculating a total voltage.

AC voltage sources operating at different frequencies can

be added together.

The current flowing through one voltage source must be

Example 1

Example 2

Or

Example 3

Or

Or

Example 4

Or

Or

DC and AC sources

A 5V dc voltage source in series a 2V sin(10t) ac voltage

However, we do not have a symbol for a single voltage

sources.

A 2V ac voltage source operating at 10 rad/s in series

total voltage of 2Vsin(10t)+2Vsin(10.5t).

Again, there is not a symbol for a single ac voltage source

operating at different frequencies.

Since the voltage sources share common nodes, the

parallel is when they have exactly the same voltage,

polarity, and frequency of operation (if ac sources).

The multiple voltage sources can be replaced by a single

operation (if ac sources).

Example 5

Allowed

Not Allowed

Example 6

Allowed

Not Allowed

DC current sources in parallel can be combined and

AC current sources in parallel can be combined and

replaced with a single source only if the angular frequency

of operation w are identical.

DC and AC current sources in parallel can be added

together when calculating a total current.

AC current sources operating at different frequencies can

be added together.

The voltage drop across one current source must be equal to

parallel.

Example 7

Example 8

Example 9

Or

A 5A dc current source in parallel a 2A sin(10t) ac

current of 5A+2Asin(10t) at that node.

However, we do not have a symbol for a single current

sources.

A 2A ac current source operating at 10 rad/s in parallel

they are contributing a total current of

2Asin(10t)+2Asin(10t) at that node.

Again, there is not a symbol for a single ac current

sources operating at different frequencies.

Since components in series must have the same

time two or more currents sources are allowed in series

is when they have exactly the same magnitude current,

the current is flowing in the same direction, and

frequency of operation (if ac sources).

The multiple current sources in series can be replaced

current flow, and frequency of operation (if ac sources).

Example 10

Allowed

Not Allowed

Summary

Voltage sources in series can be added.

Current sources in parallel can be added.

Only in the case where the magnitude, polarity, and

sources be in parallel.

They can be replaced with a single voltage source of the same

currents sources be in series.

They can be replaced with a single current source of the same

operation.

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