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Integrate Electronics

Experiment 7

Audio Amplifier

1. The circuit of an audio amplifier using an opamp and a complementary-symmetry


power amplifier consisting of a pair of complementary transistors (one npn and one
pnp transistor having matched characteristics) is shown in Fig. 7.1. Such amplifiers
have high voltage, current and power gains, and their performance depends not only
on the circuit but also on how the circuit is physically laid out. Assemble the circuit
with all d-c power supply connections made through the buses on the breadboard
and with the dotted wire connection from the right end of the 10k resistor in
position A. Connect a 5W wire-wound resistor having resistance RL = 10 instead
of the loudspeaker as the load to the amplifier, with a 0.1F ceramic capacitor
connected across the load. Connect a 4.7F electrolytic capacitor between the
+12V and 12V d-c power supplies (make sure the electrolytic capacitor is
connected with the correct polarity). These two capacitors are included in the circuit
to suppress high-frequency oscillations, which occur very often in high-gain
amplifiers. Such oscillations can lead to overheating of the devices and even cause
them to burn. You must therefore be watchful about this possibility, both by seeing
whether such high frequencies show up in the waveforms displayed on the CRO and
by sensing whether any of the circuit elements is getting overheated. In such an
event, switch off the d-c power supply immediately and draw the attention of your
TA or the laboratory in-charge.
10 k
10

+12V
4.7 F
_

100 k
(Gain Control)
v

vC1
SL100
A

741
v1

iC1

B
vo

v2
0.1 F

v+ +
SK100
1k

1k

iC2 vC2
12V

10

Fig. 7.1 Audio Amplifier Circuit


2. With v1 = 0, switch on the d-c power supply and verify that the d-c values of v2, vo, v+
and v are all nearly zero, to ensure that the circuit is working properly under
quiescent condition, i.e. with no signal.
3. Set the FG frequency at 500 Hz and apply 40 dB attenuation to the FG output by
pushing both the attenuator switches. Turn the FG amplitude control to the
maximum; this should make the amplitude of v1 nearly 10 mV. Adjust the D-C
Offset control, if necessary, to ensure that the FG output voltage is a pure a-c
voltage.

4. Apply the FG output as v1 and display the opamp output vo and the amplifier output
v2 on channels I and II of the CRO respectively, selecting channel I for triggering
the CRO. Adjust the Gain Control potentiometer to obtain an amplitude of about 1 V
for vo. Adjust the D-C Offset control again, if necessary, to ensure that the opamp
output voltage vo is a pure a-c voltage with zero average value.
5. Sketch the observed waveforms, indicating the scales correctly. Note the major
differences between the two waveforms. Try to match the upper and lower halves of
the two waveforms by shifting one of them up/down by the CRO channel SHIFT
control, and note down the observed results. Calculate the positive and negative
peak currents IC1m and IC2m supplied to the load through the npn and pnp transistors
respectively, by using the equation:
v2 = RL iC1 when v2 > 0, and v2 = RL iC2 when v2 < 0.
6. Display the waveforms of the voltages vC1 and vC2 one by one on channel II, keeping
vo on channel I for reference, using a-c coupling of the CRO. Note that the flat
segments of the waveforms of vC1 and vC2 correspond to the d-c power supply levels
+12V and 12V respectively. Calculate the peak values IC1m and IC2m of the two
transistor currents iC1 and iC2 from the waveforms of vC1 and vC2 by using the
equations vC1 = 12 10iC1 and vC2 = 12 10iC2 (note that iC2 is negative). Compare
these values with those obtained in the previous step,
7. Change the dotted line connection from the right end of the 10k resistance
changed to position B, and repeat steps 5 and 6.
8. Keeping the FG output at the same level throughout, measure the amplifier output
voltage v2 at frequencies in the1-2-5 sequence from 50 Hz to 5 kHz, and plot the
frequency response of the audio amplifier on a semi-log graph paper.
9. Replace RL by the loudspeaker and increase the amplitude of v1, if necessary, to find
out how much input voltage is required for producing a clearly audible sound from
the loudspeaker.
10. Set up the condenser microphone circuit given in Fig. 7.2. Apply the microphone
output instead of the FG output as v1 to the amplifier. Speak into the microphone and
test whether normal voice input to the microphone can produce adequate sound from
the loudspeaker.
+5V
CRO
100 k

MIC

22 F
Output

Fig. 7.2 Condenser Microphone Circuit