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Aspen Flare System Analyzer

Reference Manual

Version: V7.3
March 2011
Copyright (c) 1981-2011 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aspen Flare System Analyzer, Aspen Flarenet, Aspen Plus, Aspen HYSYS, Aspen Plus Dynamics, and
the aspen leaf logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Burlington,
MA. All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
companies.
This document is intended as a guide to using AspenTech's software. This documentation contains
AspenTech proprietary and confidential information and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without
the prior consent of AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license agreement. Users are solely
responsible for the proper use of the software and the application of the results obtained.
Although AspenTech has tested the software and reviewed the documentation, the sole warranty for
the software may be found in the applicable license agreement between AspenTech and the user.
ASPENTECH MAKES NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH
RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENTATION, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Aspen Technology, Inc.
200 Wheeler Road
Burlington, MA 01803-5501
USA
Phone: (781) 221-6400
Toll free: (888) 996-7001
Website http://www.aspentech.com

Contents
1 Introduction .........................................................................................................1
About this document.........................................................................................1
Audience .........................................................................................................1
Related Documentation .....................................................................................1
Technical Support ............................................................................................1
2 Components .........................................................................................................3
Overview.........................................................................................................3
Selecting Components ......................................................................................4
Component Types ..................................................................................4
Component List......................................................................................4
Matching the Name String .......................................................................5
Removing Selected Components ..............................................................5
Adding/Editing Components...............................................................................6
Add Hypothetical Component/Edit Component ...........................................6
Identification Tab ...................................................................................6
Critical Tab............................................................................................7
Other Tab..............................................................................................9
Editing Database Components .................................................................9
Estimating Unknown Properties .............................................................. 10
Organizing the Component List ........................................................................ 11
Changing the Components .................................................................... 11
Combining Components ........................................................................ 11
Binary Interaction Parameters ......................................................................... 11
3 Scenarios ...........................................................................................................15
Overview....................................................................................................... 15
Scenario Manager .......................................................................................... 16
Adding/Editing Scenarios................................................................................. 17
General Tab......................................................................................... 18
Constraints Tab.................................................................................... 19
Sources Tab ........................................................................................ 20
Estimates Tab ...................................................................................... 21
Scenario Tools ............................................................................................... 23
Adding Single Source Scenarios ............................................................. 23
4 Pipe Network......................................................................................................25
Overview....................................................................................................... 25
Pipe Manager................................................................................................. 25
Ignoring/Restoring Pipes ................................................................................. 26
Connections Tab .................................................................................. 27
Dimensions Tab ................................................................................... 29

Contents

Fittings Tab ......................................................................................... 30


Heat Transfer Tab ................................................................................ 32
Methods Tab........................................................................................ 33
Summary Tab ...................................................................................... 37
Multiple Editing .................................................................................... 38
Pipe Class Editor .................................................................................. 39
5 Nodes .................................................................................................................41
Overview....................................................................................................... 41
Node Manager ............................................................................................... 41
Ignoring/Restoring Nodes................................................................................ 42
Connection Nodes .......................................................................................... 43
Connector ........................................................................................... 43
Flow Bleed........................................................................................... 47
Horizontal Separator............................................................................. 50
Orifice Plate......................................................................................... 56
Tee .................................................................................................... 60
Vertical Separator ................................................................................ 65
Summary Tab ...................................................................................... 70
Boundary Nodes............................................................................................. 71
Control Valve ....................................................................................... 71
Relief Valve ......................................................................................... 81
Source Tools........................................................................................ 94
Flare Tip ............................................................................................. 95
6 Calculations......................................................................................................101
Starting the Calculations ............................................................................... 101
Efficient Modeling Techniques ........................................................................ 102
Data Entry......................................................................................... 102
Calculation Speed............................................................................... 103
Sizing Calculations ............................................................................. 104
7 Databases ........................................................................................................107
Overview..................................................................................................... 107
Database Features ....................................................................................... 108
Grid Controls ..................................................................................... 108
Maneuvering Through the Table ........................................................... 109
Printing............................................................................................. 109
Adding/Deleting Data.......................................................................... 109
Setting The Password ................................................................................... 110
Pipe Schedule Database Editor ....................................................................... 110
Fittings Database Editor ................................................................................ 112
Component Database Editor .......................................................................... 112
Importing Component Data ................................................................. 113
8 Automation ......................................................................................................115
Overview..................................................................................................... 115
Objects ....................................................................................................... 116
Object Hierarchy ................................................................................ 116
The Aspen Flare System Analyzer Type Library ...................................... 117
Object Browser .................................................................................. 117

ii

Contents

Automation Syntax............................................................................. 120


Examples: Accessing Aspen Flare System Analyzer Object Properties ....... 123
Aspen Flare System Analyzer Object Reference ................................................ 126
Application ........................................................................................ 127
Bleed ................................................................................................ 128
Bleeds .............................................................................................. 128
Component........................................................................................ 129
Components ...................................................................................... 130
Connector ......................................................................................... 130
Connectors ........................................................................................ 131
ControlValve...................................................................................... 132
ControlValves .................................................................................... 133
HorizontalSeparator............................................................................ 133
HorizontalSeparators .......................................................................... 134
Nodes ............................................................................................... 134
OrificePlate........................................................................................ 135
OrificePlates ...................................................................................... 135
Pipe.................................................................................................. 136
Pipes ................................................................................................ 138
ReliefValve ........................................................................................ 139
ReliefValves....................................................................................... 141
Scenario ........................................................................................... 141
Scenarios .......................................................................................... 142
Solver............................................................................................... 142
Tee .................................................................................................. 143
Tees ................................................................................................. 144
Tip ................................................................................................... 145
Tips .................................................................................................. 146
VerticalSeparator ............................................................................... 146
VerticalSeparators .............................................................................. 147
Example Automation In Visual Basic ............................................................ 147
Updating Automation Files From Previous Versions ........................................... 155
9 Theoretical Basis ..............................................................................................157
Pressure Drop .............................................................................................. 157
Pipe Pressure Drop Method.................................................................. 157
Fittings Pressure Change Methods ........................................................ 165
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium ............................................................................... 175
Compressible Gas............................................................................... 175
Vapor Pressure .................................................................................. 175
Soave Redlich Kwong.......................................................................... 176
Peng Robinson ................................................................................... 177
Physical Properties ....................................................................................... 178
Vapor Density .................................................................................... 178
Liquid Density.................................................................................... 178
Vapor Viscosity .................................................................................. 179
Liquid Viscosity .................................................................................. 179
Liquid Phase Mixing Rules for Viscosity.................................................. 181
Thermal Conductivity.......................................................................... 182
Enthalpy ........................................................................................... 182
Noise .......................................................................................................... 186

Contents

iii

A File Format.......................................................................................................189
Import/Export Details ................................................................................... 189
Process Descriptions ........................................................................... 189
Definition File Formats ........................................................................ 192
Recognized Objects and Items ............................................................. 197
Report Files Format ...................................................................................... 215
B References .......................................................................................................221
C Glossary of Terms ............................................................................................223
Adiabatic Flow ............................................................................................. 223
Choked Flow ................................................................................................ 223
Critical Pressure ........................................................................................... 223
Critical Temperature ..................................................................................... 223
Dongle........................................................................................................ 223
Equivalent Length ........................................................................................ 223
Isothermal Flow ........................................................................................... 224
MABP.......................................................................................................... 224
Mach Number .............................................................................................. 224
Node .......................................................................................................... 224
Reduced Pressure......................................................................................... 224
Reduced Temperature................................................................................... 224
Scenario ..................................................................................................... 224
Schedule ..................................................................................................... 225
Security Device ............................................................................................ 225
Source ........................................................................................................ 225
Static Pressure............................................................................................. 225
Tailpipe....................................................................................................... 225
Total Pressure.............................................................................................. 225
Velocity Pressure.......................................................................................... 225
Index ..................................................................................................................226

iv

Contents

1 Introduction

This section provides information on the following topics:

About this Document

Audience

Related Documentation

Technical Support

About this document


The guide provides a detailed description of all the features and functionality
within Aspen Flare System Analyzer (previously called Aspen FLARENET).

Audience
This guide is intended for process and process systems engineers.

Related Documentation
Title

Content

Aspen Flare System Analyzer


Getting Started Guide

Tutorials covering the basic use of Aspen


Flare System Analyzer

Technical Support
AspenTech customers with a valid license and software maintenance
agreement can register to access the online AspenTech Support Center at:
http://support.aspentech.com
This Web support site allows you to:

1 Introduction

Access current product documentation

Search for tech tips, solutions and frequently asked questions (FAQs)

Search for and download application examples

Search for and download service packs and product updates

Submit and track technical issues

Send suggestions

Report product defects

Review lists of known deficiencies and defects

Registered users can also subscribe to our Technical Support e-Bulletins.


These e-Bulletins are used to alert users to important technical support
information such as:

Technical advisories

Product updates and releases

Customer support is also available by phone, fax, and email. The most up-todate contact information is available at the AspenTech Support Center at
http://support.aspentech.com.

1 Introduction

2 Components

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Selecting Components

Adding/Editing Components

Organizing the Component List

Binary Interaction Parameters

Overview
Data for all components that will be used in the simulation must be selected
before the sources are defined. These components may be taken from the
standard component library, or you may define your own components, known
as hypothetical components.
You may select components from Component Manager, which can be
accessed by clicking Components in the Build group on the Home tab of the
Ribbon.
The Component Manager window will be displayed:

2 Components

Fig 2.1

This view displays all of the Available Components and Selected


Components,, and provides various tools which you can use to add and edit
database and hypothetical components.

Selecting Components
Component Types
You may filter the list of available components to include only those belonging
to a specific family. All and None turn all of the filters on and off,
respectively, Invert toggles the status of each check box individually. As an
example, if only Hydrocarbons (HC) and Misc were selected, and you clicked
Invert,, then these two check boxes would be cleared, while the remaining
check boxes would be selected.

Component List
Components can be chosen from the Available Components list, and added
to the Selected C
Components list, using one of the following methods:

Arrow Keys Use the arrow keys to move the highlight up or down one
component.

PageUp/PageDown - Press these keyboard keys to advance an entire


page forward or backward.

2 Components

Home/End - Press Home to move to the start of the list and End to
move to the end of the list.

Scroll Bar - Use the scroll bar to move up and down through the list.

Note: You can select multiple components by using the SHIFT or CTRL keys as
you select components.
5

Enter the component name from keyboard - When you type a letter
or number, you will move to the next component in the list which starts
with that character. If you repeatedly enter the same character, you will
cycle through all of the components which start with that character.

To add a component, you must first highlight it (by moving through the list
until that component is highlighted) and click to select, then transfer it by
double-clicking it or clicking Add.

Matching the Name String


The interpretation of your input is limited to the Component Types which
are checked.
Another way to add components is through the Selection Filter feature. The
Selection Filter box accepts keyboard input, and is used to locate the
component(s) in the current list that best matches your input.
You may use wildcard characters as follows:
? - Represents a single character.
* - Represents a group of characters of undefined length.
Any filter string has an implied * character at the end.
Some examples are shown here:
Filter

Result

methan

methanol, methane, etc.

*anol

methanol, ethanol, propanol, etc.

?-propanol

1-propanol, 2-propanol

*ane

methane, ethane, propane, i-butane, etc.

As you are typing into the Selection Filter box, the component list is
updated, matching what you have presently typed. You may not have to enter
the complete name or formula before it appears in the component list.

Removing Selected Components


You can remove any component from the Selected Components list:1
Highlight the component(s) you want to delete.
2

Click Remove.

You can select multiple components using Shift-click and Ctrl-click to remove
them all. Once the components are removed from the list, any source
compositions that used this component will be normalized.

2 Components

Adding/Editing Components
To create a new component (hypothetical), click Hypothetical.
Hypothetical Hypothetical
components are set up in th
the
e same manner as database components.
Previously defined hypothetical components can be changed by selecting
them in the Selected Component
Components list and clicking Edit.

Add Hypothetical Component/Edit


Component
Upon clicking either Hypothetical or Edit, the Component
mponent Editor opens up.

Identification Tab
The minimum data requirements for creating a component are specified here:
here

Fig 2.2

Component Types

Hydrocarbon ((HC)

Miscellaneous ((Misc)

Amine
2 Components

Alcohol

Ketone

Aldehyde

Ester

Carboxylic Acid (Carbacid)

Halogen

Nitrile

Phenol

Ether

The following fields are available on this tab:


Input Field

Description

Name

An alphanumeric name for the component (e.g. - Hypo -1).

Type

The type of component (or family) can be selected from the list
provided. There is a wide selection of families to choose from, which
allows better estimation methods to be chosen for that component.

ID

The ID number is provided automatically for new components and


cannot be edited.

Mol. Wt.

The molecular weight of the component.

NBP

The normal boiling point of the component.

Std. Density

The density of the component as liquid at 1 atm and 60 F.

Watson K

The Watson characterization factor.

Critical Tab
Critical properties are specified here.

2 Components

Fig 2.3

The following field


fields are available on this tab:

Input Field

Description

Critical Pres.

The critical pressure of the component. If the component


represents more than a single real component, the pseudo
critical pressure should be used.

Critical Temp.

The critical temperature


e of the component. If the component
represents more than a single real component, the pseudo
critical temperature should be used.

Critical Volume

The critical volume of the component. If the component


represents more than a single real component, the pseudo
pse
critical volume should be used.

Char. Volume

The characteristic volume of the component. If the component


represents more than a single real component, the pseudo
characteristic volume should be used.

Acentric Factor

The acentric factor of the component.

Acent. Fact. (SRK)

The Soave-Redlich-Kwong
Kwong acentric factor of the component
(also called the COSTALD Acentricity).

2 Components

Other Tab
Coefficients for the polynomial equations for the prediction of Ideal Gas
thermodynamic properties and parameters for the vi
viscosity
scosity calculations are
specified here:

Fig 2.4

The following fields are available on this tab:


Input Field

Description

Hi A, Hi B, Hi C, Hi D, Hi E, and
Hi F

The coefficients for the ideal gas specific enthalpy


equation:

H = A + BT + CT2 + DT3 + ET4 + FT5


i
Entropy Coef.

The coefficient
nt for the entropy equation.

Viscosity A and Viscosity B

Viscosity coefficients used in the NBS Method (Ely


and Hanley, 1983).

Editing Database Components


If you want to change the data for one of the database components, e.g.
Methane, you will find that opening the Component Editor for this
component will display read-only values that cannot be changed.

2 Components

Fig 2.5

In order to update the data for a database component it must first be


changed to a hypothetical comp
component.
At the very minimum, you need to specify the Molecular Weight. However, it
is a good practice to specify at least two of the following properties:

Molecular Weight ((Mol. Wt.)

Normal Boiling Point ((NBP)

Standard Density ((Std. Density)

This is done by clicking Hypothetical in the Component Editor.


Editor

Estimating Unknown Properties


If any of the above data is unknown, click Estimate to fill-in
in the unknown
properties.
Supply as many properties as are known, so that the estimation can be as
accurate as possible.

10

2 Components

Organizing the Component List


The Selected Components list can be organized in the following different
ways.

Changing the Components


You can switch the components in the Selected Components list with the
ones in the Available Components list while maintaining the source mole
fractions.
In Component Manager, select the components in both the Selected
Components and the Available Components lists. Click Switch to switch
the two components.

Combining Components
Multiple components can be combined and represented by a single component
to reduce the number of components in the model.
To combine multiple components:
1

Select the components you want to combine by Ctrl-clicking them in the


Selected Components list.

Click Combine.
The Component Combination window will be displayed, and ask you to
select which basis should be used. The highlighted component in the box
at the upper part of the window is the target component to combine your
selected components into. Once the basis has been selected the combined
components will update each source in the model by summing the
composition of all of the combined components and assigning it to the
target component.

Reducing the number of components in this way is useful since it can greatly
speed the calculations. This is especially true where a model contains sources
defined with a long list of hypothetical components.
For example, consider a model containing the hypothetical components
BP200, BP225, BP250, BP275, BP300 boiling at 200C, 225C, 250C, 275C
and 300C respectively. Since these components are likely to stay in the
liquid phase throughout the flare system, they may be combined into a single
component, BP250 without significant loss of accuracy. As another example,
in a purely gas phase flare system it is possible to combine isomers such as iButane and n-Butane into a single component n-Butane without
compromising results.

Binary Interaction Parameters


Binary Interaction Coefficients, often known as KIJs, are factors that are used
in equations of state to better fit the interaction between pairs of components
and hence improve the accuracy of VLE calculations. You are allowed to
specify binary interaction parameters for the Peng Robinson and Soave

2 Components

11

Redlich Kwong VLE methods or to estimate them through the Binary Coeffs
tab of the Component Manager as shown here.

Fig 2.6

To define binary interaction coefficients


coefficients, first select either the Peng
Robinson or Soave Redlich Kwong VLE method from the VLE Method list
at the top of the window.
Note: Binary interac
interaction
tion coefficients are not used by either the
Compressible Gas or Vapor Pressure VLE methods at present.
present
Individual binary interaction parameters are set by selecting the required
entry in the matrix and typing in the new value.
Note: The matrix is symmetri
symmetrical i.e. KJI is the same value as KJI, and updating
an entry will also update the corresponding entry in the table. E.g. updating
the entry in the Methane column, Propane row will also update the entry in
the Propane column, Methane row.
Individual binary interaction parameters may be estimated by selecting the
required entry in the matrix and clicking Estimate HC.. The estimation
method is based on the components
components' boiling point, standard liquid density and
critical volume.
It is possible to set several bina
binary
ry interaction parameters at the same time
either by Ctrl-clicking
clicking the two corners of a rectangular area in the matrix. The
selected entries can then be estimated by clicking Estimate HC or set to 0.0
by clicking Zero HC
HC-HC.

12

2 Components

Clicking Reset All causes all interaction parameters to be set to their default
values. Generally this is 0.0 for hydrocarbon components with non zero
values being supplied only for common polar components.
If the Auto Estimate check box is selected, then the interaction parameters
for new components are automatically estimated as they are added to the
model.

2 Components

13

14

2 Components

3 Scenarios

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Scenario Manager

Adding/Editing Scenarios

Scenario Tools

Overview
A scenario defines a set of source conditions (flows, compositions, pressures
and temperatures) for the entire network. The design of a typical flare header
system will be comprised of many scenarios for each of which the header
system must have adequate hydraulic capacity. Typical scenarios might
correspond to:

Plant wide power failure

Plant wide cooling medium or instrument air failure

Localized control valve failure

Localized fire or Depressurization

The scenario management allows you to simultaneously design and rate the
header system for all of the possible relief scenarios.
Note: Although the major relief scenarios will normally constrain the size of
the main headers, care should be taken in the evaluation of velocities in the
individual relief valve tailpipes and sub headers. When looking at relief valves
which might operate alone, lower back pressures in the main headers may
lead to localized high velocities and consequently choked flow in the tail pipes.
As well as having different source conditions, each scenario can have unique
design limitations that will be used either to size the pipes or to highlight
problems when an existing flare system is being rated. For example, a Mach
number limit of 0.30 might be applied for normal flaring compared to a Mach
number limit of 0.50 or greater at the peak flows encountered during plant
blowdown.

3 Scenarios

15

Scenario Manager
Scenarios can also be selected by selecting the scenario from the list in Run
group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.

Fig 3.1

Scenarios are managed via the Scenario Manager. This window allows you
to add, edit or delete scenarios as well as to select the current scenario for
which scenario specific data is displayed. All cases have at least one scenario.
To access the Scenario Manager
On the Home tab, in Build, click Scenarios.
Scenario Manager will be displayed:

16

3 Scenarios

Fig 3.2

The Scenario Manager displays all scenarios in the case, and indicates the
current scenario. Several buttons are available:
Button

Description

Clone

Clones
es the highlighted scenario and adds a new scenario to
the Scenarios list.

Edit

Edits the highlighted scenario.

Delete

Removes the currently highlighted scenario. There must


always be at least one scenario in the case.

Current

To make a scenario the current


rent one, highlight the appropriate
scenario, and then click Current.

Close

Closes the Scenario Manager.

Adding/Editing Scenarios
Aspen Flare System Analyzer has no pre
pre-programmed
programmed limits on the number of
scenarios which can be defined within a single case.
To add a scenario, highlight a existing scenario in the Scenarios list, and
then click Clone in the Scenario Manager.
To edit a scenario, highlight it, and then click Edit.
The Scenario Editor will be displayed.

3 Scenarios

17

General Tab
You may provide the following information on the General tab:

Fig 3.3

18

Data

Description

Name

An alphanumeric description of the scenario (e.g. Power


Failure).

System Back Pres


Pres.

The system back pressure at the Flare Tip


ip exit. This
Thi will
normally be atmospheric pressure, but can be set to represent
system design conditions at the exit point. If left empty, the
value on the Calculation Options Editor will be used. The
minimum value is 0.01 bar (absolute pressure).

3 Scenarios

Constraints Tab
This
is tab requires the following information for both headers and tailpipes.

Fig 3.4

Tailpipes are indicated by the Tailpipe field on the Connections box of the
Pipe Editor.. You may provide different design information ((Mach
Mach Number,
Number
Noise at 1 m, Vapor Vel
Velocity, Liquid Velocity) for the Headers and
Tailpipes.. Any boxes may be left empty, in which case they will be ignored.

3 Scenarios

Data

Description

Mach Number

The maximum allowable Mach number for all pipe segments.


Calculated values that exceed this number will be
e highlighted in the
results.

Vapor Velocity

The maximum allowable vapor velocity. Calculated velocities that


exceed this value will be indicated in the results.

Liquid Velocity

The maximum allowable liquid velocity. Calculated velocities that


exceed this value will be indicated in the results.

19

Rho V2

The density times the velocity square. This value is normally used
as a limiting factor to prevent erosion.

Noise

The maximum allowable sound pressure level at a distance of 1


meter for all pipe segments. This is an average value over the
length of the pipe. Calculated values that exceed this specification
will be highlighted in the results.

Check Vel.
Constraint

Specify either Mixture Velocity or Phase Superficial Velocity is


used while checking the velocity constraints for design in a
scenario.

Note: Whilst rating the network you may define a Mach number constraint of
1.00, in order to highlight only choked flow conditions. This is not
recommended for design calculations where a more reasonable value such as
0.5 or 0.7 will lead to a more rapid solution towards the maximum allowable
back pressure constraints.

Sources Tab
If a source is ignored, the MABP constraint is ignored by sizing calculations.
When you select the Sources tab, you will see that all sources are displayed
on this tab.
Note: If you are setting up a new case, the Sources tab will not show any
sources.

20

3 Scenarios

Fig 3.5

This tab is useful in that you can easily toggle whether or not individual
sources are to be included in the current scenario, without having to either
unnecessarily delete sources or set the flow of a source to zero.

Estimates Tab
The Estimates tab allows some control over the selection and initialization of
flowrates for pipes which are to be used as tears in the solution of looped
loo
systems. The use to which each field is put is dependent upon the Structure
Analyzer setting on the Solver tab of Calculation Options Editor.
Editor
The check boxes in the No Tear column of the table allow you to prevent
pipes from being used as tears - selectt the check box to prevent a pipe from
being used as a tear or clear it to allow it. This setting has no effect if the
Simultaneous structural analyzer is used.
When the Convergent structural analyzer is used, the Molar Flow column
recommends a tear locati
location
on and initial value for the flow at the tear location.
If the structural analyzer does find that the pipe may be a valid tear location,
location
then this value is ignored.
3 Scenarios

21

When the Simultaneous structural analyzer is used, the Molar Flow column
is used to seed th
the
e analyzer. This value will always impact the initialization as
long as the structural analysis succeeds but the pipe will not necessarily be
selected as a tear pipe. In the event that the structural analysis fails with any
Molar Flow estimates
estimates, the model will be initialized by the default values.

Fig 3.6

Since the Simultaneous structural analyzer generally offers better


performance than the Convergent analyzer it will rarely be necessary to
specify information on the Estimates tab other than for the purpose
pur
of
improving the speed of convergence of the model. In the event that a model
proves problematic to converge, a number of additional columns are available
to tune the convergence algorithms. These may be exposed by stretching the
view horizontally.
The Max. Step column defines the maximum change to the flow in a tear
pipe over a single iteration whilst the Max. Flow and Min. Flow columns
constrain the flow in a tear pipe. Not all these values are used by all the Loop
Solver algorithms.
22

3 Scenarios

Max. Step

Max. Flow

Min. Flow

Newton-Raphson

Broyden

Force Convergent
Conjugate Gradient Minimisation
Quasi-Newton Minimization

Scenario Tools
The complete analysis of a flare system should ideally include analysis of the
system for the scenarios in which each source relieves on its own. For a large
network with many sources, it can become tedious to define each of these
scenarios. These can automatically be added to your model as follows.

Adding Single Source Scenarios


Click Source Tools from the Tools group on the Home tab of the Ribbon,
then select Add Single Source Scenarios or use the hot key combination
Alt, H, U, A. Click OK for the message that pops up.
This will analyze your model and add a scenario for each source that has a
non-zero flow rate defined in at least one scenario. Source data will be copied
from the scenario in which it has the highest flow rate.

3 Scenarios

23

24

3 Scenarios

4 Pipe Network

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Pipe Manager

Ignoring/Restoring Pipes

Multiple Editing

Overview
The pipe network comprises a series of interconnected pipes. These pipes can
be added, edited and deleted from the Pipe Manager.

Pipe Manager
To access the Pipe Manager, click Pipes in the Build group on the Home
tab of the Ribbon.

4 Pipe Network

25

Fig 4.1

The following buttons are available:


Button

Description

Add

Adds a new pipe segment. This new pipe will be named with a number
depending upon the number of pipes already ad
added.

Edit

Edits the currently highlighted pipe segment.

Delete

Removes the currently highlighted pipe segment.

Close

Closes the Pipe Manager.

Ignoring/Restoring Pipes
When you ignore a single pipe, all upstream pipes are automatically ignored.
You can ignore single or multiple pipes within the model. When you ignore a
single pipe, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored. This enables you to
do what if type calculations, where part of the network can be excluded from
the calculation without the need for deletion and reinstallation of the
appropriate nodes.
To ignore a pipe:

26

Open the Pipe Editor window of the pipe that you want to ignore.

On the Connections tab, select the Ignore check box.

4 Pipe Network

Fig 4.2

To restore a pipe that has previously been ignored:


1

Open the Pipe Editor window of the pipe that you want to restore.

On the Connections tab, clear the Ignore check box.

Connections Tab
The name of the pipe segment and connectivity information is specified here.

4 Pipe Network

27

Fig 4.3

The following fields are available on this tab:

28

Input Data

Description

Name

An alphanumeric description of the pipe segment.

Location

An alphanu
alphanumeric
meric description of the location within the plant for the
segment.

Upstream
Node

This is the name of the node upstream of the pipe. The list allows
you to select from a list of existing unconnected nodes in the model.

Downstream
Node

This is the name of the node upstream of the pipe. The list allows
you to select from a list of existing unconnected nodes in the model.

Tailpipe

This list allows you to select whether the pipe should be treated as a
tailpipe. If set to Yes and the Rated Flow for Tailpipes
Tailpip
calculation
option is selected in the Calculation Options dialog box, the
pressure drop for this pipe will be calculated using the rated flow in
place of the relieving flow rate.

Ignore

This check box may be selected to remove the pipe from


calculation
calculations
s temporarily. When selected the pipe and all upstream
nodes and pipes will be ignored during calculations.

Fitting Loss

The fitting loss for the pipe segment. You cannot change the value
shown in this box. Instead, calculated value on the Fittings tab can
be updated by clicking Link or Paste.

4 Pipe Network

You have the option of modeling a pipe segment as a main header or a


tailpipe. The ability to classify a pipe as either a tailpipe or a header allows
you to perform calculations in which the pressure drop for tailpipes
tailpi
is
determined by the rated flow and that for headers is determined by the
nominal flow. This is in accordance with API
API-RP-521.
In the Scenario Editor
Editor, you can set design limits for the Mach Number,
Number
Vapor and Liquid Velocities
Velocities, Rho V2 and Noise separately
ly for the main
headers and the tailpipes.

Dimensions Tab
The physical dimensions and characteristics of the pipe segment are specified
here.

Fig 4.4

The following fields are available on this tab:

4 Pipe Network

Input Data

Description

Length

The physical length of the pipe segment. This length is used in


association with the fittings loss coefficients to calculate the
equivalent length of the pipe. If you have equivalent length data
for your network, enter this data here as the sum of the actual

29

Input Data

Description
length plus the equivalent length of the fittings and enter zero for
the fittings loss coefficients.

Elevation Change

A positive elevation indicates that the outlet is higher than the


inlet.

Material

The pipe material, either Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel.

Roughness

The surface roughness of the pipe segment. Whenever a material


is selected, the absolute roughness is initialized to the default
value for the material as defined on the Preferences view.

Thermal
Conductivity

The thermal conductivity of the pipe wall. This is used by the


heat transfer calculations when these are enabled.

Nominal
Diameter

The nominal pipe diameter used to describe the pipe size. For
pipes with a nominal diameter of 14 inches or more, this will be
the same as the outside diameter of the pipe.

Schedule

Select a schedule number from the list, you will be able to select
a nominal pipe diameter from the pipe databases. It will not be
necessary to specify the Internal Diameter or the Wall
Thickness for the pipe.

Internal
Diameter

The pipe diameter used for the pressure drop calculations.

Wall Thickness

The thickness of the pipe wall. Valid values are any positive
number or zero.

Use Class

Select Yes to restrict the pipe sizes to those defined by the Pipe
Class.

Sizeable

If you wish the pipe segment to be resized by sizing calculations,


Yes should be selected. For example, a model of a network
containing a representation of the knockout drum, as a pipe
segment would normally leave this unchecked such that sizing
calculations for the pipes would not change the knockout drum
size.

Schedule Numbers
Carbon Steel:
10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS, XXS, User
Stainless Steel:
5S, 10S, 40S, 80S

Fittings Tab
A list of pipe fittings may be added to the pipe segment. These fittings will be
modeled as an additional equivalent length applied linearly over the physical
length of the pipe segment.

30

4 Pipe Network

Fig 4.5

The following fields are available on this tab:


Input Data

Description

Length
Multiplier

The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value


ue to determine the
equivalent length used for the pressure drop calculation. If left
blank then the value on the Calculation Options Editor is used.
This option is useful for making an allowance for bends and other
fittings if these are not known.

Fittings Loss

The fittings "K" factor is calculated from the following equation in


which Ft is the friction factor for fully developed turbulent flow:
K = A + BFt

From the Database Fitting


Fittings list, select the appropriate type of fitting, and
then click Add to m
move the selection to the Selected Fittings
s list. You can
select as many fittings as required. The final fitting loss equation, which will
be a sum of all the selected fittings, will appear in a display field underneath
the Selected Fitting
Fittings list.
Click Link to transfer the coefficients for this equation into the Fittings Loss
field on the Connections tab,, while maintaining the list of fittings.
Click Paste to transfer the coefficients for the fitting equation into the
Fittings Loss field
field. The selected list of fittings will not be retained.
To remove the selected fitting individually, select the fitting and click Delete.
4 Pipe Network

31

Note: The network cannot be sized correctly if you specify equivalent length
data to model fittings losses, since the equivalent length of a
any
ny pipe fitting is
a function of the pipe diameter and will therefore be incorrect when the
diameters change.

Heat Transfer Tab


The pipe segment may perform calculations taking into account heat transfer
with the external air.

Fig 4.6

The following field


fields are available on this tab:
Input Data

Description

External Conditions Group

32

External Medium

Select the external medium. Two options are


currently available: Air or Sea Water.
Water

Temperature

Enter the temperature of the external air. If this field


is left blank, the global value set via the Calculation
Options Editor is used.

4 Pipe Network

Input Data

Description

External Medium Velocity

Enter the velocity of the external medium. If this field


is left blank, the global value set via the Calculation
Options Editor is used.

Heat Transfer Enabled

This list selects whether heat transfer calculations are


to be performed for the pipe. Furthermore, setting
only enables heat transfer calculations if the Enable
Heat Transfer option is also selected in the
Calculation Options Editor.

External Radiative HTC

This list selects whether or not the external radiative


heat transfer coefficient is included within the heat
transfer calculations.

Emissivity

Enter the fractional Emissivity to be used for


radiative heat transfer calculations.

Multiple Element Calculation

This list selects whether the heat transfer calculation


is done using a single element or the same number of
elements as the pressure drop calculation. If Yes is
selected, the heat transfer calculation sues the same
number of elements as the pressure drop calculation

Insulation Group
Description

A brief description to identify the type of pipe


insulation.

Thickness

Supply the insulation thickness.

Thermal Conductivity

Enter the insulation thermal conductivity.

Heating Group
Outlet Temp

You can explicitly set an outlet temperature for this


segment, or leave it blank. A heater in a flare
knockout drum is an example of process equipment
that may require a fixed outlet temperature.

Duty

Enter the heating duty and the outlet temperature


will be calculated based on the inlet temperature and
the defined duty.

Methods Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

4 Pipe Network

33

Fig 4.7

The following fields are available on this tab:


Input Field

Description

VLE Method Group


VLE Method

34

The options for the Va


Vapor-Liquid
Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as
follows (see Chapter 9 Theoretical Basis for more details):

Compressible Gas - Real Gas relationship. This is only


available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation
Options Editor is Ideal Gas.

Peng Robinson - Peng Robinson Equation of State.


State This is
available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation
Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Soave Redlich Kwong - Soave Redlich Kwong Equation of


State. This is available when the Enthalpy Method on the
Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.
Gas

Vapor Pressure - Vapor Pressure method as described in API


Technical Data Book Volume 113. This is available when the
Enthalpy Method on the Calculation Options Editor is
NOT Ideal Gas.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the


VLE method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor)
Editor
will be used.

4 Pipe Network

Input Field

Description

Pressure Drop Group


Horizontal
and Inclined
Pipes

4 Pipe Network

The Horizontal/Inclined methods apply only when you have


selected Two-Phase pressure drop. The options are:

Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas method that


assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along
the pipe. Aspen Flare System Analyzer uses averaged
properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe. The outlet
temperature from the pipe is calculated by adiabatic heat
balance either with or without heat transfer. Pressure losses
due to change in elevation are ignored.

Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas method that


assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the
pipe. As with the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses due
to changes in elevation are ignored.

Beggs & Brill - The Beggs and Brill method is based on work
done with an air-water mixture at many different conditions,
and is applicable for inclined flow.

Dukler - Dukler breaks the pressure drop in two-phase


systems into three components - friction, elevation and
acceleration. Each component is evaluated independently and
added algebraically to determine the overall pressure drop.

Lockhart Martinelli Lockhart Martinelli correlations models


the two phase pressure drop in terms of a single phase
pressure drop multiplied by a correction factor. Acceleration
changes are not included.

Beggs and Brill (No Acc.) The Beggs and Brill methods
without the acceleration term.

Beggs and Brill (Homog.) The Beggs and Brill methods with
a homogeneous acceleration term.

Dukler (AGA Head) - Uses the AGA equation for the


calculation of the static head term rather than the Eaton
equation which can be poor when you have small quantities of
liquid in the system.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the


Horizontal/Inclined method (as defined on the Calculation
Options Editor) will be used.

35

Input Field

Description

Vertical
Pipes

The Vertical method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase
pressure drop. The options are:

Elements

36

Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas method that


assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along
the pipe. Aspen Flare System Analyzer uses averaged
properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe. The outlet
temperature from the pipe is calculated by adiabatic heat
balance either with or without heat transfer. Pressure losses
due to change in elevation are ignored.

Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas method that


assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the
pipe. As with the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses due
to changes in elevation are ignored.

Beggs & Brill - Although the Beggs and Brill method was not
originally intended for use with vertical pipes, it is
nevertheless commonly used for this purpose, and is
therefore included as an option for vertical pressure drop
methods. For more details, see Chapter 9 Theoretical Basis.

Dukler - Although the Dukler method is not generally


applicable to vertical pipes, it is included here to allow
comparison with the other methods.

Orkiszewski - This is a pressure drop correlation for vertical,


two-phase flow for four different flow regimes - bubble, slug,
annular-slug transition and annular mist. For more details,
see Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.

Lockhart Martinelli Lockhart Martinelli correlations models


the two phase pressure drop in terms of a single phase
pressure drop multiplied by a correction factor. Acceleration
changes are not included.

Beggs and Brill (No Acc.) The Beggs and Brill methods
without the acceleration term.

Beggs and Brill (Homog.) The Beggs and Brill methods with
a homogeneous acceleration term.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the


Vertical method (as defined on the Calculation Options
Editor) will be used.

For two-phase calculations, the pipe segment is divided into a


specified number of elements. On each element, energy and material
balances are solved along with the pressure drop correlation. In
simulations involving high heat transfer rates, many increments may
be necessary, due to the non-linearity of the temperature profile.
Obviously, as the number of increments increases, so does the
calculation time; therefore, you should try to select a number of
increments that reflects the required accuracy.

4 Pipe Network

Input Field

Description

Friction
Factor
Method

The Friction Factor Method applies only when you have entered a
value for friction factor. The options are:

Static Head
Contribution

Round - This method has been maintained primarily for


historical purposes in order for older Aspen Flare System
Analyzer calculations to be matched. It tends to over predict
the friction factor by up to 10% in the fully turbulent region.

Chen - It should always be the method of preference since it


gives better predictions at the fully turbulent flow conditions
normally found within flare systems.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the


Friction Factor Method (as defined on the Calculation
Options Editor) will be used.

The following options are available:

Include - The static head contribution to total pressure drop in


the pipe segments is included.

Ignore Downhill Recovery - The static head recovery term is


ignored for downhill sections of pipe.

Ignore - The static head contribution to the pressure drop


calculation for all pipe segments is ignored.

Include is applied by default.


Solver Group
Damping
Factor

The damping factor used in the iterative solution procedure. If this is


left blank, the value in the Calculation Options Editor is used.

Note: When you are sizing a flare system, the initial pipe diameters may
affect the solution when there is a liquid phase and the liquid knockout drum
is modeled. You should initially size a network using vapor phase methods.

Summary Tab
The results of the calculation are displayed.

4 Pipe Network

37

Fig 4.8

Multiple Editing
You can edit multiple pipe segments simultaneousl
simultaneously
y by highlighting them in
the Pipe Manager with the mouse cursor while keeping the Shift
S
key
pressed. After you have finished selecting pipe segments, click Edit to open
the common Pipe Editor
Editor.
The common pipe editor view differs from that of the single p
pipe
ipe editor view
in the following respects:

38

Only fields that can be edited in multiple mode are displayed.

The input fields have an additional entry, *. This entry indicates


that the value should remain at the pre edit value.

In the following figure of the Dimensions tab; we enter * for the


Length and Elevation Change fields to indicate that these must
not be changed. We specify new values for the Roughness and
the Thermal Conductivity
Conductivity. We select * for the Use Class and
Sizeable boxes to indicate that these must be changed.

4 Pipe Network

Fig 4.9

Pipe Class Editor


The Pipe Class Editor allows you to edit the allowable schedules for each
nominal diameter, for both Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel,
Steel during sizing
calculations.
s. It also allows you to restrict the range of pipe sizes that may be
selected during design calculations.
To access the Pipe Class Editor
Editor, click Pipe Class in Tools,, on the Home
tab.

4 Pipe Network

39

Fig 4.10

Note: If you have selected Use Pipe Class in the Preference Editor, these
are the schedules which will be used.

40

4 Pipe Network

5 Nodes

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Node Manager

Ignoring/Restoring Nodes

Connection Nodes

Boundary Nodes

Overview
Pipes are connected via nodes, which can be added, edited and deleted from
the Node Manager. Sources are also added through the Node Manager.

Node Manager
To access the Node Manager:
Click Nodes in Build, on the Home tab.

5 Nodes

41

Fig 5.1

The following buttons are available:


Button

Description

Add

You will be prompted to select the type of node. This new node will be
named with a number depending upon the number of nodes of that
type already added.

Edit

Allows you to edit the currently highlighted node. The form varies,
depending on the type of node, as discussed below.

Delete

Allows you to remove the currently highlighted node.

Close

Closes the Node Manager.

Ignoring/Restoring Nodes
When you ignore a single node, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored.
You can ignore sin
single
gle or multiple nodes within the model. When you ignore a
single node, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored. This enables you
to do what if type calculations, where part of the network can be excluded
from the calculation without the need for delet
deletion
ion and reinstallation of the
appropriate nodes.
To ignore a node
node:

42

Open the node editor of the node that you want to ignore.

On the Connections tab, select the Ignore check box. The following
fo
figure shows this for a connector node
node.
5 Nodes

Fig 5.2

To restore a node that has previously been ignored:


1

Open the node editor of the node that you want to restore.

On the Connections tab, clear the Ignore check box.

Connection Nodes
The following types of connection nodes are available in Aspen Flare System
Analyzer. A connection node is one that links two or more pipe segments.

Connector

Flow Bleed

Horizontal Separator

Orifice Plate

Tee

Vertical Separator

Connector
The Connector is used to model the connection of two pipes. The diameters
of the pipes may be different.

5 Nodes

43

Connections Tab
The name of the connector and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.3

The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large
flowsheets, because you can provide a different location name to different
sections to make it more comprehensible.
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Connector (e.g. - HP Connect


1).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Upstream/
Downstream

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the
connector.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this connector in the


calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab
Calculation methods are spec
specified here.

44

5 Nodes

Fig 5.4

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

Description

Angle

Specify the connector expansion angle. If not defined, it will be


calculated from Length.

Length

Enter the connector length. If not defined, it will be calculated


calcula
from
Angle
Angle.

Fitting Loss
Method

The available options are:

Isothermal
Pressure Drop

Equal Static Pressure Pressure drop calculation is ignored


and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with


the Swage method.

If this option is set to Yes,, the inlet temperatures used for the size
change calculations in the connector will not update during iterative
calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to update
the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH
flash will be used to update the inlet properties.
The connector will do one size change calculation between the inlet
and outlet diameters selecting expansion or contraction as
appropriate.
Setting this option to Yes can speed
ed up calculations in some cases
at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Two Phase
Correction

5 Nodes

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase
flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set
to No, the homogenous
enous properties of the fluid will be used in
calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

45

Field

Description

Swage
Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - pressure losses will be calculated assuming


compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane
coefficients.

Transition - pressure losses will be calculated initially using


the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss
expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater
than the defined compressible transition value then the
pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible
flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS
correlations

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be


less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method
can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure
drop is close to the transition value.

Compressible
Transition

Balance Total Pressure Frictional pressure drop is ignored


and total pressure is balanced between upstream &
downstream.

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet


pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations
should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is
selected.

Summary Tab
The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

46

5 Nodes

Fig 5.5

Flow Bleed
The Flow Bleed is a simple calculation block that allows you to;

Specify a fixed pressure drop


drop.

Specify a constrained flow offtake wh


where
ere the flow offtake is calculated
from the following equation
equation:

Offtake = Multiplier x Inlet Flow + Offset


The calculated Offtake is constrained to maximum and minimum values.

Connections Tab
The name of the flow bleed and connectivity information is specified
speci
here.

5 Nodes

47

Fig 5.6

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Flow Bleed (e.g. - HP Connect


XX).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Upstream/
Downstream

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the flow
b
bleed.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this flow bleed in the
calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

48

5 Nodes

Fig 5.7

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

Description

Offtake Multiplier

Specify the Offtake multiplier. The default value is 0.

Offtake Offset

Specify the Offset


et for the Offtake to compensate for the changes
in the inlet flow.

Offtake Minimum

Specify the minimum value for the Offtake.

Offtake
Maximum

Specify the maximum value for the Offtake.

Pressure Drop

Enter the pressure drop across the Flow Bleed.

Summary
ry Tab
The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

5 Nodes

49

Fig 5.8

Horizontal Separator
Horizontal separators
eparators are used to allow liquid to separate from the feed
stream
m so that it can be removed from the flare system. The liquid phase in
the horizontal separator
eparator feed is removed from the network. In Aspen Flare
System Analyzer, the Horizontal Separator has one primary inlet, one
secondary inlet/outlet, and one vapor outl
outlet stream.

Connections Tab
The name of the horizontal separator and connectivity information is specified
here.

50

5 Nodes

Fig 5.9

You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to solve the separator.


This allows for solution(s) to partially built network
networks.
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Horizontal Separator


(e.g. - HP KO Drum).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.
The location can have an alphanumeric
hanumeric name. This feature is
useful for large flowsheets, because you can provide a different
location name to different sections to make it more
comprehensible.

(Primary
/Secondary)
Inlet/Outlet

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the
list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the
horizontal separator.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this horizontal separator


in the calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable
enable it.

Calculations Tab
Calculation
tion methods are specified here.

5 Nodes

51

Fig 5.10

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

Description

Dimensions Group
Diameter

The internal diameter of the vessel.

Liquid Level

The liquid level in the vessel. Pressure drop is calculated based


upon the vapor space above the liquid.

Methods Group
Fitting Loss
Method

52

The available options are;

Equal Static Pressure Pressure drop calculation is ignored


and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated_Ignore Vena Contracta Pressure drop is


calculated in accordance with the Swage method but
ignores the loss due vena contracta.

Calculated Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with


the Swage method including the loss due vena contracta.

5 Nodes

Field

Description

Isothermal
Pressure Drop

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size
change calculations in the separator will not update during
iterative calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to
update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more
rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.
The horizontal separator does three size change calculations, one
between each stream connection and the vessel body. Normally
these will be expansion calculations for the primary and secondary
inlets and a contraction calculation for the vapor outlet but they
will automatically change if flows are reversed.
Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases
at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Size Change Group


Two Phase
Correction

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two


phase flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid
slip. If set to No, the homogenous properties of the fluid will be
used in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming


compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane
coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using


the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss
expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater
than the defined compressible transition value then the
pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible
flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS
correlations

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be


less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method
can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure
drop is close to the transition value.

Compressible
Transition

5 Nodes

Balance Total Pressure Frictional pressure drop is ignored


and total pressure is balanced between upstream &
downstream.

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet


pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations
should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is
selected.

53

Field

Description

Body
Dimension

If this option is set to Full Body Area, the calculation for the
primary inlet/vessel and secondary inlet/vessel size change will
wi
use the whole vessel area. If Partial Body Area on Flow is
selected, the vessel area is reduced in proportion to the
appropriate flow, i.e. if the secondary inlet volumetric flow is 20%
of the total volumetric flow in the tee then 20% of the body area
will
ill be used in the size change calculation. The use of the Partial
Body Area on Flow option has the effect of increasing the
pressure loss calculated by simple fixed K factors.

Composition Tab
If the inlet feed flashes in the separator and as a result of the flash, the
mixture is converted into liquid fully and the vapor outlet will have no flow.
This can cause instability in the pressure solution of the whole network. To
avoid this, Aspen Flare System Analyzer creates an arbitrary vapor phase with
very small
all vapor fraction for the vapor outlet (<0.001%). You can specify the
composition of the vapor phase here.

Fig 5.11

54

5 Nodes

Design Tab
Fig 5.12

Field

Description

Min Drop Diameter

Enter the diameter of the minimum drop size to be


removed.

Drain Volume

Enter the drain volume.

Maximum Holdup time

Enter maximum holdup time before the horizontal


separator will be drained.

Design Length

Minimum length
ength of the horizontal separator required to
satisfy design conditions.

Settling Velocity

Settling velocity of the minimum drop size to be removed.

Summary Tab
The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

5 Nodes

55

Fig 5.13

Orifice Plate
An Orifice Plate is a thin plate, which has a clean-cut hole
ole with straight walls
perpendicular to the flat upstream face of the plate placed crossways in the
pipe. Orifice plates are generally used to restrict the flow downstream of a
blow down valve or restrict the flow from a high pressure section of a flare
system
ystem to a low pressure section. They may also be used to allow flow
measurement.

Connections Tab
The name of the orifice plate and connectivity information is specified here.

56

5 Nodes

Fig 5.14

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Orifice Plate (e.g. HP OP).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the


plant.

Upstream/Downstream

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from


the list.

At

You can specify the


e end of the pipe segment attached to
the orifice plate.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this orifice plate in


the calculations. Clear the check box to re--enable it.

Calculations Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

5 Nodes

57

Fig 5.15

Note: You
ou only need to provide 1 of 3 sizing parameters. For Example, if you
entered the Diameter
Diameter, Aspen Flare System Analyzer will then calculate the
Upstream Diameter Ratio and the Downstream Diameter Ratio.
Ratio
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Dimensions Group
Diameter

The diameter of the orifice hole.

Upstream
Diameter Ratio

The ratio of the throat diameter to the upstream pipe diameter.

Downstream
Diameter Ratio

The
he ratio of the throat diameter to the downstream pipe diameter.
diameter

Methods Group
Fitting Loss
Method

58

The following options are available:

Ignored - If this option is selected, the fitting losses for the


orifice plate would not be calculated. Static pressure is
balanced.

Thin Orifice - The fitting losses for the orifice


ice plate will be
calculated using the equations for the thin orifice plate.

Contraction/Expansion - For this method, orifice plates will be


modeled as a sudden contraction from the inlet line size to
the diameter of the hole followed by a sudden expansion from
the diameter of the hole to the outlet line size.

5 Nodes

Field

Description

Isothermal
Pressure
Drop

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size
change calculations in the orifice plate will not update during iterative
calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to update the
inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH flash
will be used to update the inlet properties.
The orifice plate will do one contraction calculation and one expansion
calculation if the Fitting Loss Method is set to
Contraction/Expansion. Setting this option to Yes can speed up
calculations in some cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Size Change Group


Two Phase
Correction

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase
flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set
to No, the homogeneous properties of the fluid will be used in
calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming


compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane
coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using


the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss
expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater
than the defined compressible transition value then the
pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible flow
method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS
correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less


accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can cause
instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is close to
the transition value.

Compressible
Transition

5 Nodes

Balance Total Pressure Frictional pressure drop is ignored


and total pressure is balanced between upstream &
downstream.

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet


pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations
should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is
selected.

59

Summary Tab
Fig 5.16

The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

Tee
The Tee is used to model the connection of three pipes
pipes.. The diameters of the
pipes may be different.

Connections Tab
The name of the tee and connectivity information is specified here.

60

5 Nodes

Fig 5.17

You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to solve the tee. This
allows for solution(s) to partially built networks.
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Tee (e.g. - HP


Tee 1).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in


the plant. The location can have an alphanumeric
alphanumer
name. This feature is useful for large flowsheets,
because you can provide a different location name
to different sections to make it more comprehensible.

Upstream/Downstream/Branch

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select


from the list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached


with the tee.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this tee in the


calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable
re
it.

Calculations Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

5 Nodes

61

Fig 5.18

The
e following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Dimensions Group
Theta

Specify the angle of the branch to the upstream connection of the


tee.

Body

Specify the diameter of the body of the tee. Allowable choices are:

Run - The diameter will


ill be that of the inlet pipe.

Tail - The
he diameter will be that of the outlet pipe.

Branch - The
he diameter will be that of the branch pipe.

Auto - Set the body diameter to be larger of the inlet and


branch pipe diameters.

Methods Group

62

5 Nodes

Field

Description

Fitting Loss
Method

The available options are:

Miller Chart
Extrapolation

Connector If
Incomplete

Equal Static Pressure Pressure drop calculation is ignored


and static pressure is balanced.

Simple - This method uses a constant, flow ration


independent K factor for the loss through the branch and
run.

Miller - This method uses a K factor which is interpolated


using Miller Curves, which are functions of the flow and area
ratios of the branch to the total flow as well as the branch
angle. Loss coefficients at low values of the branch are to
body area are extrapolated from the data presented on the
charts.

Miller (Area Ratio Limited) This method uses a K factor


which is interpolated using Miller Curves, which are
functions of the flow and area ratios of the branch to the
total flow as well as the branch angle. The ratio of the
branch area to body area is constrained by the lower limit
presented on the charts.

Equal Static Pressure Pressure drop calculation is ignored


and static pressure is balanced.

Gardel This method calculates the K factor using the


analytical equations of Gardel.

The available options are:

None No extrapolation is used. If the data falls outside the


Miller chart, a fixed value of K (K=8.0) is used.

Miller Area Ratio Squared Uses a K factor which is


extrapolated using Miller Curves, assuming that the K
factors are functions of the flow and area ratio squared, of
the branch to the total flow as well as the branch angle.

Gardel Uses the Gardel method to calculate K factor if the


K factor is out of bounds in miller chart.

If this option is set to Yes, Aspen Flare System Analyzer will treat
the Tee as a straight connector, ignoring the effect of the branch on
pressure drop.
The Tee will do three size change calculations between inlet/body,
branch/body and body/outlet selecting expansion or contraction
calculations as appropriate.
Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases
at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Isothermal
Pressure Drop

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size
change calculations in the tee will not update during iterative
calculations for pressure loss, i.e. a PT flash will be used to update
the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH
flash will be used to update the inlet properties.

Swage Method Group


Two Phase
Correction

5 Nodes

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase
flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set
to No, the homogenous properties of the fluid will be used in
calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

63

Field

Description

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming


compressible flow through the tee at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the tee at all times.
Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using


the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss
expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater
than the defined compressible transition value then the
pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible
flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the tee at all times.
Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less


accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can
cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is
close to the transition value.

Balance Total Pressure Frictional pressure drop is ignored


and total pressure is balanced between upstream &
downstream.

Compressible
Transition

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet


pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations
should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is
selected.

Body
Dimension

If this option is set to Full Body Area, the calculation for the
inlet/body and branch/body size change will use the whole body
area. If Partial Body Area on Flow is selected, the body area is
reduced in proportion to the appropriate flow, i.e. if the branch
volumetric flow is 20% of the total volumetric flow in the tee then
20% of the body area will be used in the size change calculation.
This option is ignored if the fittings loss method is set to Miller. The
use of the Partial Body Area on Flow option has the effect of
increasing the pressure loss calculated by simple fixed K factors
bringing the results closer to those calculated by the ore accurate
Miller K factors.

Summary Tab
The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

64

5 Nodes

Fig 5.19

Vertical Separator
Vertical separators
eparators are used to allow liquid to separate from the feed stream
so that it can be removed from the flare system. The liquid phase in the
vertical separator
eparator feed is removed from the network. In Aspen Flare System
Analyzer, the Vertical Separator has only one inlet and one vapor outlet
stream.

Connections Tab
The name of the vertical separator and connectivity information is specified
here.

5 Nodes

65

Fig 5.20

The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large
flowsheets, because you can provide a different location name to different
sections to make it more comprehensible.
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Vertical Separator (e.g. - HP KO


Drum).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Inlet/Outlet

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the vertical
separato
eparator.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this vertical separator in the
calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

66

5 Nodes

Fig 5.21

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

D
Description

Diameter

The internal diameter of the vessel.

Methods Group
Fitting Loss
Method

Isothermal
Pressure Drop

The available options are:

Equal Static Pressure Pressure drop calculation is ignored


and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated Ignore Vena Contracta Pressure


sure drop is
calculated in accordance with the Swage method but
ignores the loss due vena contracta.

Calculated Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with


the Swage method including the loss due vena contracta.

If this optio
option is set to Yes,, the inlet temperatures used for the size
change calculations in the separator will not update during iterative
calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to update
the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous
r
PH
flash will be used to update the inlet properties.
The vertical separator will do one expansion calculation for the inlet
stream entering the vessel and one contraction calculation for the
flow from the vessel to the outlet. These will automatically
automatic
change if
flows through the vessel are reversed.
Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases
at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Size Change Group

5 Nodes

67

Field

Description

Two Phase
Correction

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase
flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set
to No, the homogenous properties of the fluid will be used in
calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming


compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane
coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using


the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss
expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater
than the defined compressible transition value then the
pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible
flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS
correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less


accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can
cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is
close to the transition value.

Compressible
Transition

Balance Total Pressure Frictional pressure drop is ignored


and total pressure is balanced between upstream &
downstream.

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet


pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations
should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is
selected.

Composition Tab
If the inlet feed flashes in the separator, as a result of the flash, the mixture
is converted into liquid fully and the vapor outlet will have no flow. This can
cause instability in the pressure solution of the whole network. To avoid this,
Aspen Flare System Analyzer creates an arbitrary vapor phase with very small
vapor fraction for the vapor outlet (<0.001%). You can specify the
composition of the vapor phase here.

68

5 Nodes

Fig 5.22

5 Nodes

69

Design Tab
Fig 5.23

Field

Description

Min Drop Diameter

Enter the diameter of the minimum drop size to be


removed.

Design Diameter

Minimum diameter of the vertical separator required to


satisfy design conditions.

Settling Velocity

Settling velocity
elocity of the minimum drop size to be removed.

Summary Tab
The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

70

5 Nodes

Fig 5.24

Boundary Nodes
The following types of boundary nodes are available in Aspen Flare System
Analyzer. A bounda
boundary
ry node is one that is connected to only one pipe segment.

Control Valve

Relief Valve

Flare Tip

The relief valve and control valve node types represent sources or inflows into
the system. The Control Valve,, in particular, may also be used to model
alternative
ive types of sources
sources, such as blow down valves, rupture disks, and
purge valves.

Control Valve
The Control Valve is used to model a constant flow source, such as purge
valves, bursting
ting disks and blow down valves. The most significant difference
to the Relief Valve is that the rated flow equals the nominal flow.

Connections Tab
The name of the control valve and connectivity information is specified here.

5 Nodes

71

Fig 5.25

The location can h


have
ave an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large
flowsheets, because you can provide a different location name to different
sections to make it more comprehensible.
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Name

The al
alphanumeric description of the Control Valve (e.g. - FCV 1).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Outlet

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify where the pipe segment is to be attached to the control
valve.
alve.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this control valve in the
calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Conditions Tab
Fluid conditions are specified here.

72

5 Nodes

Fig 5.26

It is recommended that a value for Outlet Temperature which corresponds


to an isenthalpic flash from the upstream conditions down to the Allowable
Back Pressure.. This will give the highest probable entry temperature into
the system which will in turn give the highest velocities.
The following
lowing fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Conditions Group

5 Nodes

Inlet Pressure

The pressure of the source on the upstream side of the valve.

Inlet Temp.
Spec.

The temperature specification of the source on the upstream


ups
side
of the control valve. You can select the fluid condition from the list
on the left side. The available options are:

Actual - The given inlet temperature is the actual fluid


temperature.

Superheat - If this option is selected, enter the amount of


superheat.

Subcool - If this
s option is selected, enter the amount of
subcooling.

73

Field

Description

Allowable Back
Pressure

The Allowed Back Pressure is the pressure that is allowed to


exist at the outlet of a pressure relief device as a result of the
pressure in the discharge system. It is the sum of the
superimposed and built-up back pressure. Clicking Set calculates
the Allowable Back Pressure as a function of the Inlet
Pressure. Selecting the Auto check box will automatically
calculate the Allowable Back Pressure whenever the Inlet
Pressure changes.

Outlet
Temperature

This is the temperature of the source at the flange on the


downstream side of the valve.
If the enthalpy method chosen is the Ideal Gas model, this
temperature is used to determine the enthalpy of the source at the
entrance to the pipe network; otherwise, this enthalpy is calculated
from the upstream pressure and temperature. If Set was clicked,
and the enthalpy model is Peng Robinson, Soave Redlich
Kwong or Lee Kesler, the outlet temperature will be calculated
from the upstream temperature and pressure after isenthalpic
expansion to the defined Allowable Back Pressure.

Mass Flow

This is the mass flow of the source. This is generally the flow rate
generated by the upset condition.

Dimensions Group
Flange
Diameter

This is the diameter of the flange at the valve discharge. The flange
diameter may be left unknown in which case it will be assumed to be
the same as the outlet pipe.

Composition Tab
The fluid composition is specified here.

74

5 Nodes

Fig 5.27

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

Description

Basis

T
The composition basis, which may be either Molecular
ecular Weight,
Mole Fraction or Mass Fraction.

Mol. Wt.

The molecular weight of the fluid. You can only enter data here if
the composition basis selected is molecular weight..
If the composition basis selected is Mole Fraction or Mass
Fraction
Fraction,, the molecular weight is updated when you enter or
change the component fractions.

Fluid Type

If molecular weight is selected , you need to select the Fluid Type


to calculate a binary composition in order to match the molecular
weight. If the two components of the specified fluid type are not
found
found, the other components are used.

Component
Fractions

The fluid composition in either mole or mass fractions. You can only
enter data here if the composition basis selected is mole or mass
fractions. You can normalize the composition either manually editing
the component fractions or by clicking Normalise.
If the composition Basis selected is molecular weight, the
component fractions are estima
estimated
ted when you change the molecular
weight.

5 Nodes

75

Field

Description

Clone
Composition
From

This button allows the copying of compositional data from another


control valve in the same scenario.

Normalise

Normalises the composition such that the sum of the component


fractions is 1.

Methods Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 5.28

The following fields are available on this tab:


Fields

76

Description

5 Nodes

Fields

Description

VLE Method

The options for the Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as


follows (see Chapter 9 Theoretical Basis):

Compressible Gas Real Gas relationship. This is only


available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation
Options Editor is Ideal Gas.

Peng Robinson Peng Robinson Equation of State. This is


only available when the Enthalpy Method on the
Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Soave Redlich Kwong Soave Redlich Kwong Equation of


State. This is only available when the Enthalpy Method on
the Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Vapour Pressure Vapour Pressure method as described in


API Technical Data Book Volume 113. This is only available
when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation Options
Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for


the VLE method (as defined on the Calculation Options
Editor) will be used.

Swage Group
Fitting Loss
Method

Isothermal
Pressure Drop

The available options are;

Equal Static Pressure Pressure drop calculation is ignored


and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with


the Swage method.

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size
change calculations in the control valve will not update during
iterative calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to
update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more
rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.
The control valve will do one size change calculation from the
defined flange diameter to the outlet pipe diameter. This will
normally be an expansion.
Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases
at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Two Phase
Correction

5 Nodes

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase
flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set
to No, the homogeneous properties of the fluid will be used in
calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

77

Fields

Description

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming


compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane
coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using


the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss
expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater
than the defined compressible transition value then the
pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible
flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS
correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less


accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can
cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is
close to the transition value.

Compressible
Transition

Balance Total Pressure Frictional pressure drop is ignored


and total pressure is balanced between upstream &
downstream.

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet


pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations
should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is
selected.

Estimated Properties at Header Conditions Group


Vapour
Fraction

The initial estimates for the flow profile in looped systems are
generated based on the assumption of vapor phase flow without any
liquid knockout in the system. It is not uncommon for sources to
pass through a knockout drum before connection to the main
header. Specification of an estimate of vapor fraction of the fluid at
the knockout drum can considerably enhance the automatically
generated flow profile. If not specified, for the initial estimates, the
fluid is assumed to be vapor only at the header condition.

Vapour Mol.
Wt.

Specify the estimated vapor molecular weight for the vapor fraction
given above. If provided, this value is used to assist the automatic
generation of the flow profile for looped systems. If not specified, for
the initial estimates, the vapour molecular weight is assumed to be
the same as the overall fluid molecular weight at the header
condition.

Inlet Piping Tab


Details of the piping between the protected equipment and the inlet to the
control valve are specified here. This data is used to calculate the pressure
drop in the inlet piping. The diameter of the inlet piping is also used to
calculate the inlet velocity of the source fluid when the Include Kinetic
Energy option is selected in the Calculation Options Editor.

78

5 Nodes

Fig 5.29

The available fields are:


Fields

Description

Routing Group
Length

The length of the inlet piping.

Elevation
Change

The change in elevation of the inlet piping. Th


This
is cannot be greater
than the length of the piping.

Properties Group
Material

The material of the inlet pipe


pipe, either Carbon Steel or Stainless
Steel
Steel.

Roughness

The surface roughness of the inlet pipe. Whenever a material is


selected, the absolute roughn
roughness
ess is initialized to the default value for
the material as defined on the Preferences Editor.

Diameter Group

5 Nodes

Nominal
Diameter

The nominal pipe diameter used to describe the inlet pipe size. For
pipes with a nominal diameter of 14 inches or more, this will
wi be the
same as the outside diameter of the pipe.

Schedule

If a pipe schedule is selected, you will be able to select a nominal pipe


diameter from the pipe databases. It will not be necessary to specify
the internal diameter.

79

Fields

Description

Internal
Diameter

The pipe diameter used for the pressure drop calculations.

Use Pipe
Class

Select Yes to restrict the sizes of the inlet piping selected to those
defined by the Pipe Class tool.

Fittings Groups
Loss
Coefficient

Enter the A and B parameters for the following fitt


fittings
ings K factor
equation in which Ft is the friction factor for fully developed turbulent
flow:
K = A + BFt

Summary Tab
The result of the calculations is displayed.

Fig 5.30

80

5 Nodes

Relief
ief Valve
The Relief Valve source can be used to model types of spring loaded relief
valves. Relief valves are used frequently in many industries in order to
prevent dangerous situations occurring from pressure build
build-ups
ups in a system.

Connections Tab
The name
ame of the relief valve and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.31

The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large
flowsheets, because you can provide a different location name to different
sections to make it more comprehensible.

5 Nodes

81

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Relief Valve (e.g. - FCV 1).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Outlet

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify where the pipe segment is to be attached to the relief
valve.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this relief valve in the
calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Conditions Tab
Fluid conditions are specified here.

82

5 Nodes

Fig 5.32

It is recommended that a value for Outlet Temperature which corresponds


to an isenthalpic flash from the upstream conditions down to the Allowable
Back Pressure.. This will give the highest probable entry temperature into
the system which will in turn give the highest velocities.
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Conditions Group
MAWP

5 Nodes

The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP


MAWP) is the
maximum gauge pressure
e permissible in a vessel at its operating
temperature. It is normally equal to the relief valve set pressure
unless you have a low pressure vessel.

83

Field

Description

Contingency

In general there are two types of process upset conditions:

Relieving
Pressure

Operating - The relieving pressure is 110% of MAWP


unless you have a multiple valve assembly in which case it
is 116% of MAWP. Some of the operating upset examples
are cooling failure, power failure and instrument air failure.

Fire - The relieving pressure is 121% of MAWP.

The Relieving Pressure is equal to the valve set pressure plus the
overpressure. You can either enter the value or have it calculated
using the MAWP and the Contingency by clicking Set. If you
entered a value less than the MAWP, a warning message will be
generated.
Selection of the Auto check box will automatically calculated the
relieving pressure from the MAWP and Contingency whenever
these values change.

Inlet Temp.
Spec.

Allowable Back
Pressure

The temperature specification of the source on the upstream side of


the relief valve. You can select the fluid condition from the drop
down box on the right hand side of this field. The available options
are:

Actual - It uses the given inlet temperature as the actual


fluid temperature.

Superheat - If this option is selected, enter the amount of


superheat.

Subcool - If this option is selected, enter the amount of


subcooling.

The Allowable Back Pressure is the pressure that is allowed to


exist at the outlet of a pressure relief device as a result of the
pressure in the discharge system. It is the sum of the
superimposed and built-up back pressure. Clicking Set calculates
the Allowable Back Pressure as a function of the valve type and
MAWP.
If the Auto check box is selected then the allowed back pressure is
automatically updated whenever the valve type or MAWP is
changed.

Outlet
Temperature

This is the temperature of the source on the downstream side of


the valve.
If the enthalpy method chosen is the Ideal Gas model, then this
temperature is used to determine the enthalpy of the source at the
entrance to the pipe network, otherwise this enthalpy is calculated
by isenthalpic flash from the upstream pressure and temperature.
If Set is pressed and the enthalpy model is Peng Robinson,
Soave Redlich Kwong or Lee Kesler, the outlet temperature will
be calculated from the upstream temperature and pressure after
expansion to the defined Allowable Back Pressure.

Mass Flow

The nominal mass flow of the source. This is generally the flowrate
generated by the upset condition.

Rated Flow

It is the rated mass flow of the source. This is generally the


flowrate that the relief valve is capable of passing.
Clicking Set calculates the rated flow from the MAWP, valve type,
orifice area, valve count, upstream pressure, upstream temperature
and sizing method. If the Auto check box is selected, the rated
flow will be automatically updated after any change in these values.

Rated Flow Parameters

84

5 Nodes

Field

Description

K(Cp/Cp-R)

K is the Ideal Gas ratio of specific heats.

Compressibility

Compressibility Factor for the deviation of the actual gas from a


perfect gas evaluated at inlet conditions. (Z= PV/MRT)

Valve Design Group


Flange
Diameter

The diameter of the valve discharge flange. The flange diameter


may be left unknown in which case it will be assumed to be the
same as the outlet pipe.

Number of
Valves

Specify the number of valves for the source.

Orifice Area
Per Valve

The orifice area per valve may be set by selecting the orifice size
code from the list. The corresponding orifice area will then be
displayed. If the size code is set to the blank entry, the orifice area
per valve may be entered manually.

Valve Type

The choices are:

Mech. BP Limit

Balanced - A spring loaded pressure relief valve that


incorporates a means for minimizing the effect of back
pressure on the performance characteristics.

Conventional - A spring loaded pressure relief valve whose


performance characteristics are directly affected by changes
in the back pressure on the valve.

Pilot - A pilot-operated pressure relief valve in which the


pilot is a self-actuated device. The major relieving device is
combined with and is controlled by the pilot.

The maximum mechanical back pressure that can be applied to the


valve.

Composition Tab
The fluid composition is specified here.

5 Nodes

85

Fig 5.33

The
e following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Basis

The composition basis, which may be either Molecular


ecular Weight, Mole
Fraction or Mass Fraction.

Mol. Wt.

The
he molecular weight of the fluid. You can only enter data here if the
compositi
composition basis selected is Molecular Weight.
If the composition basis selected is Mole Fraction or Mass Fraction,
the molecular weight is updated when you enter or change the
component fractions.

Fluid Type

86

If Molecular Weight is selected in the composition basis


bas list, you need to
select the Fluid Type to calculate a binary composition in order to
match the molecular weight. If the two components of the specified fluid
type are not found
found, the other components are used.

5 Nodes

Field

Description

Component
Fractions

The fluid composition in either mole or mass fractions. You can only
enter data here if the composition basis selected is mole or mass
Fraction. You can normalize the composition by either manually editing
the component fractions or by clicking Normalise.
If the composition basis selected is Molecular Weight, the component
fractions are estimated when you change the molecular weight.

Clone
Composition
From

This button allows the copying of compositional data from another relief
valve in the same scenario.

Normalise

Normalises the composition such that the sum of the component


fractions is 1.

Methods Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

5 Nodes

87

Fig 5.34

The following fields are available on this tab:


Field

88

Description

5 Nodes

Field

Description

VLE Method

The options for the Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as


follows (see Chapter 9 Theoretical Basis):

Compressible Gas Real Gas relationship. This is only


available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation
Options Editor is Ideal Gas.

Peng Robinson Peng Robinson Equation of State. This is


only available when the Enthalpy Method on the
Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Soave Redlich Kwong Soave Redlich Kwong Equation of


State. This is only available when the Enthalpy Method
on the Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Vapour Pressure Vapour Pressure method as described in


API Technical Data Book Volume 113. This is only
available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation
Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for


the VLE method (as defined on the Calculation Options
Editor) will be used.

Swage Group
Fitting Loss
Method

Isothermal
Pressure Drop

The available options are;

Equal Static Pressure Pressure drop calculation is ignored


and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with


the Swage method.

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size
change calculations in the relief valve will not update during
iterative calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to
update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more
rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.
The relief valve will do one size change calculation from the
defined flange diameter to the outlet pipe diameter. This will
normally be an expansion. Setting this option to Yes can speed up
calculations in some cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Two Phase
Correction

5 Nodes

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two


phase flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid
slip. If set to No, the homogeneous properties of the fluid will be
used in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

89

Field

Description

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming


compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane
coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using


the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss
expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater
than the defined compressible transition value then the
pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible
flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated


assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all
times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS
correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be


less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method
can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure
drop is close to the transition value.

Compressible
Transition

Balance Total Pressure Frictional pressure drop is ignored


and total pressure is balanced between upstream &
downstream.

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet


pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations
should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is
selected.

Sizing Method Group


Sizing Method

90

The four sizing method options available are:

API (1976) American Petroleum Institute method in the


1976 edition of RP 520 pt 1. No account is made of liquid
flashing as it passes through the relief valve, thus this
method is not recommended for either two phase or
flashing fluids.

API (1993) American Petroleum Institute method in the


1993 edition of RP 520 pt 1. Liquid flashing is handled by a
simplified approach in which the fluid is flashed to the
outlet pressure. The relative quantities of each phase at
the outlet condition are then used at the inlet of the valve
to determine the two phase capacity

API(2000) American Petroleum Institute method in the


2000 edition of RP 520 pt 1. This method is often referred
to as the Diers or Leung method. This is the
recommended method for all two phase fluids.

HEM Homogeneous Equilibrium method.

Back Pressure

Back pressure to be used for rating the relief valve. If this value is
not specified, the Allowable Back Pressure is used.

MultiPhase Cd

Discharge coefficient to be used of relief valve in multiphase


service.

Liquid Cd

Discharge coefficient to be used for relief valves in liquid service.

5 Nodes

Field

Description

Kb

User defined back pressure correction factor. If this field is left


blank, the back pressure correction factor is calculated. This value
should only be specified in exceptional cases.

Energy Balance Group


Isentropic Flash

Select Yes to use an isentropic flash between the inlet and outlet
otherwise an isenthalpic flash will be done.

Isentropic
Efficiency

Fractional isentropic efficiency for the isentropic flash.

Estimated Properties at Header Conditions Group


Vapour Fraction

The initial estimates for the flow profile in looped systems are
generated based on the assumption of vapor phase flow without
any liquid knockout in the system. It is not uncommon for sources
to pass through a knockout drum before connection to the main
header. Specification of an estimate of vapor fraction of the fluid at
the knockout drum can considerably enhance the automatically
generated flow profile. If provided, this value is used to assist the
automatic generation of the flow profile for looped systems. If not
specified, for the initial estimates, the fluid is assumed to be
vapour only at the header condition.

Vapour Mol.
Wt.

Specify the estimated vapor molecular weight for the vapor


fraction given above. If provided, this value is used to assist the
automatic generation of the flow profile for looped systems. If not
specified, for the initial estimates, the vapour molecular weight is
assumed to be the same as the overall fluid molecular weight at
the header condition.

Inlet Piping Tab


Details of the piping between the protected equipment and the inlet to the
relief valve are specified here. This data is used to calculate the pressure drop
in the inlet piping to ensure that it does not exceed the recommended limit of
3% of the inlet pressure. The diameter of the inlet piping is also used to
calculate the inlet velocity of the source fluid when the Include Kinetic
Energy option is selected in the Calculation Options Editor.

5 Nodes

91

Fig 5.35

The available fields are:


Field

Description

Routing Group
Length

The length of the inlet piping.

Elevation
Change

The change in elevation of the inlet piping. T


This
his cannot be greater
than the Length of the piping.

Properties Group
Material

The material of the inlet pipe


pipe, either Carbon Steel or Stainless
Steel
Steel.

Roughness

The surface roughness of the inlet pipe. Whenever a material is


selected, the absolute roughness is initialized to the default value for
the material as defined on the Preferences Editor.

Diameter Group

92

5 Nodes

Field

Description

Nominal
Diameter

The nominal pipe diameter used to describe the inlet pipe size. For
pipes with a nominal diameter of 14 inches or more, this will be the
same as the outside diameter of the pipe.

Schedule

If a pipe schedule is selected, you will be able to select a nominal pipe


diameter from the pipe databases. It will not be necessary to specify
the internal diameter.

Internal
Diameter

The pipe diameter used for the pressure drop calculations.

Use Pipe
Class

Select Yes to restrict the sizes of the inlet piping selected to those
defined by the Pipe Class tool.

Fittings Groups
Loss
Coefficient

Enter the A and B parameters for the following fittings K factor


equation in which Ft is the friction factor for fully developed turbulent
flow:
K = A + BFt

Summary Tab
The result of the calculations is displayed.

5 Nodes

93

Fig 5.36

Source Tools
The initial sizing of a flare system is time consuming both in terms of time
taken to build the model and the computation time. Using an Ideal Gas
method can speed up the calculation during the initial sizing estimation.
Speed is an important issue during sizing calculations especially for a complex
multiple scenario case. Typically, the back pressure should be used for
calculations. Rigorous rating calculation for all scenarios can be done by the
Peng Robinson enthalpy method or any other enthalpy methods with
pressure dependency and provides the downstream temperature.

94

5 Nodes

Updating Downstream Temperatures


The downstream temperatures are only used to define the system entry
temperature when ideal gas enthalpies are used. After several cycles of rating
and sizing calculations, the original values for each source may no longer be
valid. These values may be updated to reflect the results of the last
calculation using an equation of state enthalpy method as follows:
Click Source Tools in Tools on the Home tab; select Refresh Source
Temperatures from the list.

Adding Single Source Scenarios


The thorough evaluation of a flare network will require the evaluation of many
scenarios. In most systems, there will be the possibility of each relief valve
lifting on its own. In the case of a petrochemical complex, this could have
several hundred relief valves and the task of setting up the scenarios for each
relief valve would be time consuming and error prone.
Once all the major scenarios have been defined, select Add Single Source
Scenarios from Source Tools. Click Yes to allow Aspen Flare System
Analyzer to analyze the existing scenarios to determine the greatest flow rate
for each relief valve and create a scenario using this data.

Flare Tip
The Flare Tip is used to model outflows from the system. It can model either
ignited combustible gas flare tips or open vents. Nonphysical equipment such
as a connection to a fixed pressure exit at a plant boundary can also be
modeled.

Connections Tab
The name of the flare tip and connectivity information is specified here.

5 Nodes

95

Fig 5.37

The location
n can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large
flowsheets, because you can provide a different location name to different
sections to make it more comprehensible.
The following fields are available on this tab:
Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Flare Tip (e.g. - HP Flare


Tip).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Upstream node

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from list.

At

You can specify the end of the


e pipe segment attached to the flare
tip.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this flare tip in the
calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab
Calculation methods are specified here.

96

5 Nodes

Fig 5.38

The following fields are a


available on this tab:
Field

Description

Diameter

You can specify a diameter for the tip. If this value is not
specified then the diameter of the connected pipe is used.

Methods Group
Use Curves

Select this check box if you are supplying pressure drop curves
c
to
calculate the pressure drop of the flare tip. Data for these curves
is entered on the Curves tab.

Fitting Loss
Coefficient

The fitting loss coefficient will be used to calculate the pressure


drop through the flare tip.

Fittings Loss
Coefficient Basis

Select whether the supplied Fittings Loss Coefficient will


calculate the total pressure loss including velocity
locity pressure loss
or static pressure loss only.

Isothermal
Pressure Drop

If this option is set to Yes,, the inlet temperatures used for the
size
ze change calculations in the flare tip will not update during
iterative calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used
to update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more
rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.
prope
The flare tip will do a one size calculation for the change in
diameter between inlet pipe and the flare tip.
Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some
cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

5 Nodes

97

Curves Tab
User specified pressur
pressure
e drop curves are specified here. These will only be
used if the Use Curves field on the Calculation tab
ab is unchecked.

Fig 5.39

The following fields are available on this tab:

98

Field

Description

Ref. Temp.

Enter the reference temperature to which the pressure


pr
drop
curves correspond. All curves must be for the same reference
temperature.

Pressure
Correction

If checked, the static pressure correction takes into account


density differences due to both the calculated inlet pressure and
calculated inlet pressure.
sure. The temperature correction is
automatically applied, but this box must be checked in order for
pressure effects to be modeled. This box should normally be
checked.

Mol. Wt.
Extrapolation

If this is selected, extrapolation beyond the range of supplied


supplie
molecular weight curves is performed if necessary; otherwise,
the bounding molecular weight curve is used.

Flow
Extrapolation

If this is selected, extrapolation beyond the range of supplied


mass flow rates is performed if necessary; otherwise, the
bounding mass flow is used.

5 Nodes

Field

Description

Mol. Wt.

Enter the molecular weight at which the pressure drop curve


applies. Add Mol. Wt. can be used to add additional curves. The
list can then be used to select which pressure drop curve is
displayed. Delete Mol. Wt. will delete the selected pressure drop
curve.

Mass Flow/Pres.
Drop

These pairs of data define points in the pressure drop curve.


Points may be added and removed from the curve by using Add
Point and Delete Point.. Pressure drops for flows between those
in the table are
re calculated using linear interpolation.

Summary Tab
The result of the calculation is displayed.

Fig 5.40

5 Nodes

99

100

5 Nodes

6 Calculations

This section provides information on the following topics:

Starting the Calculations

Efficient Modeling Techniques

Starting the Ca
Calculations
The following words before the object on the status bar show the type of
calculation being performed
performed:

B = Mass and Energy Calculations

P = Pressure Drop Calculations

To start the calculations, select Run from the Run group, on the Home tab of
the Ribbon.
The status of the rating calculations is shown on the Status Bar.
Bar The icon on
the left corner of the Status Bar shows the status of the current case. The
second display fiel
field
d on the Status Bar shows firstly the inner properties loop
iteration number, then the maximum pressure error for that iteration and
finally the name of the pipe segment responsible for the error. The third
display field shows firstly the number of iterati
iterations
ons taken by the loop solver,
and then the error in the objective function being solved by the loop solver.
The right corner of the Status Bar shows the Zoom Slider.. You can slide to
the percentage zoom setting to quickly zoom in or zoom out when viewing the
t
Process Flowsheet.

Fig 6.1
To abort calculations
calculations, click Stop, which activates during calculations.
Note: Due to speed considerations, it is recommended that sizing calculations
be performed subject to the constraints: Compressible Gas VLE,
VLE Ideal Gas
Enthalpy Method,, or no Heat Transfer Calculations.

6 Calculations

101

Efficient Modeling Techniques


Efficient modeling of a flare network requires some forethought in order to
meet the primary objectives which are in general:
1

Definition of the design constraints for the flare system. These are usually
defined by company standards or by local health and safety regulations. If
unavailable, standard texts such as API-RP-521 can be used to select
preliminary acceptable values.

Efficient acquisition of the data for the piping configuration and layout.

Definition of the scenarios or contingencies which should be evaluated.


Grass roots design will require analysis of a far wider range of scenarios to
those required by the simple expansion of a flare system to incorporate a
new relief valve.

Rapid construction of the computer model of the flare system.

Fast and efficient calculation of the computer model of the flare system.

Objectives 1 to 3 can only be achieved by the use of engineering skill and


judgment. Once complete, the efficient use of Aspen Flare System Analyzer
can lead to a satisfactory project conclusion.

Data Entry
Aspen Flare System Analyzer has a wide range of methods for entering the
data for each object within the model. In general, you should use the method
that you are most comfortable with, but experience has shown that use of the
Process Flowsheet environment for definition of the piping configuration and
layout can save many man days of labor with large flare networks.
Although there is no set order in which the model must be built, the
recommended sequence of data entry for building the model is:

102

Define the project description, user name, etc. by selecting Description


from the Application Menu which is displayed after clicking the aspenONE
Button on the upper left corner of the application window.

Set preferences for the default piping materials, type of Tee, composition
basis, etc. from the Preferences Editor, accessed via the Application
Menu. These may be overwritten on an object by object basis at any
stage. Ensure that the Edit Objects On Add check box is selected if you
want to edit the object data as each new flowsheet object is created.

Define a pipe class if appropriate. This will ensure that you only use pipe
sizes as allowed by your project. Open the Pipe Class Editor in the Tools
group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.

With the Calculation Options Editor, define default calculation methods


for VLE, Pressure Drop, etc. To open this view, click Options in the Run
group on the Home tab.

Define all the source nodes (relief valves and control valves) for the first
scenario. The first scenario should be the one that has the greatest level
of common data amongst the complete set of scenarios. The
recommended method of creation is to drag the nodes from the Palette
to the Process Flowsheet.

6 Calculations

Define the design constraints on Mach number, noise, etc. for the first
scenario using the Scenario Manager. To access this dialog box, in the
Build group on the Home tab, click Scenarios.

Define the pipe network (common to all scenarios). If the network is to be


sized, some care must be taken in defining reasonable estimates for the
pipe diameters.

Add the next scenario by clicking Add on the Scenario Manager. The
data for the sources should be cloned from the previously defined scenario
that has the most similar data. Edit the design constraints of this scenario
if necessary.

Make the new scenario current. Highlight it on the Scenario Manager


and click Current.

10 Edit the source data for each source for the new scenario. Double-click
sources on the Process Flowsheet.
11 Repeat steps 8 through 10 for all scenarios.

Calculation Speed
Calculation time will often be only a small percentage of the time taken to
construct the computer model. However, on low specification personal
computers, a sizing calculation for a complex multiple scenario model could
take several hours, if not days, when care is not taken in the selection of the
thermodynamic models or in the definition of the component slate.
When considering the desired accuracy for the calculations, due consideration
must be given to the fact that you are modeling a system that will rarely
come close to a steady state condition, with a steady state modeling tool.

Component Slate
As a rule of thumb you can assume that the calculation time is proportional to
the square of the number of components. This is especially true when the
VLE is calculated by an equation of state instead of treating the fluids as a
simple compressible gas.
Flare systems generally operate at conditions in which heavy components
such as hexane or heavier will stay in the liquid phase throughout the system.
You should therefore endeavor to characterize the heavy ends of petroleum
fluids by as few components as possible. The properties that you use for the
characterization should be optimized to:

Ensure the component stays in the liquid phase.

Match the liquid phase density.

VLE Method
Source compositions may be modeled either by definition of a molecular
weight or by a detailed component by component analysis. When a
composition is defined solely by molecular weight, Aspen Flare System
Analyzer analyzes the user defined component slate to select a pair of
components whose molecular weights straddle the defined value. A binary
composition is then calculated to match this value. This type of fluid
characterization is only suitable for network analyses in which the fluids are
6 Calculations

103

assumed to be vapor, since the VLE behavior cannot be reasonably predicted


from this level of detail. Thus the Compressible Gas VLE method is the only
one that should ever be used in association with molecular weight modeling.
When modeling using a detailed component by component analysis, if you are
confident that the system will be liquid free, then the Compressible Gas VLE
method should be used since it does not have the overhead of determining
the vapor/liquid equilibrium split. The computation time for the fluid
properties then becomes several orders of magnitudes faster that those
involving a liquid phase.
When modeling a system in which two phase effects are important,
consideration must be given to the pressures both upstream of the sources
and within the flare piping. The Vapor Pressure VLE method, which is the
fastest of the multiphase methods, is, strictly speaking, only valid for
pressures below 10 bar. The reduced temperature of the fluid should also be
greater than 0.3. Experience has shown that it also works to an acceptable
degree of accuracy for flare system analysis at pressures well beyond this. If
speed is an issue, it is recommended that a scenario with as many active
sources as possible be rated both using one of the cubic equations of state
and this method. If acceptable agreement between the results is achieved, it
may be reasonably assumed that the extrapolation is valid.

Sizing Calculations
The final calculations upon which a flare system is built should of course be
made using the most detailed model consistent with the quality of data
available, but for initial sizing calculations, a number of points should be
considered when selecting appropriate calculation methods.

There is not generally a great deal of difference between the pressure


drops calculated for a two phase system, whether calculated by
treating the system as a compressible gas or as a two phase fluid. This
occurs since the fluid condenses the velocities will decrease while the
two-phase friction factor will increase.

Unless choked flow is allowed in the system, the back pressure on


each source should not vary greatly with line size. The specification of
a reasonable fixed downstream temperature for each source to be
used with the ideal gas enthalpy model should therefore give
reasonable results.

The recommended procedure for performing sizing calculations is as follows:


1

Build the network using reasonable estimates for the pipe diameters.
Estimate the diameters from:

W
300PM

d = Diameter (m)
W = Mass flow (kg/s)
P = Tip pressure (bar abs)
M = Design mach number

104

6 Calculations

6 Calculations

Rate the network for all the scenarios with your desired detailed model for
the VLE and enthalpies. This will give reasonable temperatures
downstream of each source.

Copy the calculated temperatures downstream of each source to the


source data by selecting Refresh Source Temperatures from Source
Tools in the Tools group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.

Size the network for all scenarios using Compress Gas VLE and Ideal
Gas enthalpies.

Rate the network for all the scenarios with your desired detailed model for
the VLE and enthalpies. If there are any design violations, make a
debottlenecking calculation with these methods.

105

106

6 Calculations

7 Databases

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Database Features

Setting the Password

Pipe Schedule Database Editor

Fittings Database Editor

Component Database Editor

Overview
The data for the various installable components of the model are stored in
user-modifiable database files.
The database files are:

PIPE_SCHEDULE.MDB - The pipe schedule database. This contains


data for both carbon steel and stainless steel pipe.

FITTINGS.MDB - The pipe fittings database.

COMPONENTS.MDB - The pure component database.

These files are initially installed to the Database sub-directory in your Aspen
Flare System Analyzer working directory.
Note: You may add and edit your own data to the databases. However, you
cannot edit or delete any of the original data.
The databases may be password protected by a single password common to
each. If the password has been disabled, or an incorrect access password has
been entered, the databases may be reviewed in read-only mode. You must
have defined an access password before any database can be edited.
Note: Original data is always read-only.

7 Databases

107

Database Features
The Navigation Pane and tabbed environment provide a new user friendly way
to navigate and view simultaneously multiple results and input views. Input
and Results open in a tabbed environment like Microsoft Internet Explorer. All
the windows are dockable allowing you to organize and customize the
workspace.

Grid Controls
The data view is supported with rich grid controls for all input and result
views. The grid controls permit you to sort, custom filter on every column
field. With filtering, you can restrict the data and choose to view only those
that want to see.
To access the filters in the data grid, click the filter icon
header to display a list in which you can choose from.

in the column

You may use the following pre-defined auto filters:

Blanks

NonBlanks

Above Average

Below Average

Top 10

Top 10 percentile

Bottom 10

Bottom 10 percentile

If you need to add a custom filter, select Custom from the list. The Custom
Filter Selection window is displayed.
You need to add and edit the Operator and Operand in the table, then
group them with logical conjunction and disjunction to setup a custom filter.
The following buttons are available:
Button

Description

Add Condition

Add a condition in the table. You need to choose a proper Operator,


and then input a value for the Operand to complete the new
condition.

Remove
Condition (s)

Remove one or more previously added conditions. Press Ctrl to select


multiple rows in the table.

Group Selected

108

'And' Group

Group the selected conditions and perform the logical AND operation
for the group. Multiple conditions need to be selected before this
button is activated.

'Or' Group

Group the selected conditions and perform the logical OR operation


for the group. Multiple conditions need to be selected before this
button is activated.

Toggle

Toggle the selected logical groups between the logical operations


AND and OR.

7 Databases

Button

Description

Ungroup

Upgroup the selected conditions.

A logical formula is displayed under the table to show the relation for all the
conditions added. Click OK to apply the custom filter.

Maneuvering Through the Table


Click the table to select a record, and then navigate through the table using
the navigator and scroll bar controls.

Fig 7.1

Printing
Click Print All to print the pipe schedule, fittings or component data,
depending on which editor you are currently using. Aspen Flare System
Analyzer prints format
formatted
ted output using the default printer settings.

Adding/Deleting Data
When Add is clicked, a new record that contains dummy data is inserted as
the last record on the table. You should override this data with your actual
data.
1. When you add items, they will then become immediately available to the

simulation.
2. Click Delete to delete the current record.

7 Databases

109

Note: You can only delete your own data.


3. Click OK to confirm the update for database.

Setting The Password


To set or modify the password:
Select Set Password from the Application Menu that can be opened by
clicking the aspenONE button on the upper left corner of the application
window.
The Password
ord Editor window will now be displayed.

Fig 7.2

If you have already set your password, you first need to enter the existing
password before supplying the new one.
1. Enter your existing password in the Old Password box.
2. Enter your new password in both the New Password and Confirm New

Password boxes, and then click OK. Click Cancel to abort the procedure.

Pipe Schedule Database Editor


The Pipe Schedule Database Editor allows you to view the pipe schedule
data for all pipes
s in the database, and to add and edit user
user-defined
defined entries.
1

110

To use the Pipe Schedule Database Editor


Editor, select Pipe Schedule
Database Editor from the Databases tab on
n the Navigation Pane.
Pane After
you enter the password, tthe Pipe Schedule Database Editor view will
be displayed.

7 Databases

Fig 7.3

If you have already set your password, you will need to enter the
password before accessing the databases.

Select the mat


material you want to view from the Material list. This may be
either Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel.

The Nominal Diameter


Diameter, Schedule, Internal Diameter, Wall Thickness
and Group for each entry are tabulated.
The database can be modified by either adding or de
deleting
leting the entries using
Add or Delete,, respectively. Click Print All to print the database to the
printer defined in the Page Setup dialog box that can is opened from File |
Page Setup in the Print Preview window.
For information on the Database view fea
features
tures that are common to the Pipe
Schedule, Fittings and Components Databases, see Database Features.
Features

7 Databases

111

Fittings Database Editor


The Fittings Database Editor allows you to view the pipe fittings
fitt
data for all
fittings types in the database, and to add and edit user
user-defined
defined entries.
To display the Fittings Database Editor
Editor, select Fittings Database Editor
from the Database
Databases tab on the Navigation Pane.. After you enter the
password, the Fittings D
Database Editor will be displayed.

Fig 7.4

The description of each fitting, as well as the A and B term in the pipe fitting
equation is tabulated. The Reference defines the literature source for the
data.
The pipe fitting equation is:

K A BFt
For information on the Database view features that are common to the Pipe
Schedule, Fittings and Components Databases, see Database Features.
Features

Component Database Editor


The Component Dat
Database Editor allows you to view the component data
for all the pure components in the database, and to add and edit user-defined
user
entries.

112

7 Databases

To display the Component Database Editor


Editor, select Components
Component
Database Editor from the Database tab on the Navigation Pane.
Pa
After you
enter the password, the Component Database Editor will be displayed.

Fig 7.5

The data for each component in the database is tabulated.


For information on the Database view features that are common to the Pipe
Schedule, Fittings and Componen
Components Databases, see Database Features.
Features

Importing Component Data


Additional components may be added to the database via an ASCII file whose
format is given in Appendix A File Format.

7 Databases

113

114

7 Databases

8 Automation

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Objects

Aspen Flare System Analyzer Object Reference

Example

Updating Automation Files From Previous Versions

Overview
Automation, defined in its simplest terms, is the ability to drive one
application from another. For example, the developers of Product A have
decided in their design phase that it would make their product more usable if
they exposed Product As objects, thereby making it accessible to automation.
Since Products B, C and D all have the ability to connect to the application
that have exposed objects, each can programmatically interact with product
A.
The exposure of its objects makes Aspen Flare System Analyzer a very
powerful and useful tool in the design of hybrid solutions. Since access to an
application through Automation is language-independent, anyone who can
write code in Visual Basic, C++ or Java, to name three languages, can write
applications that will interact with Aspen Flare System Analyzer. There are a
number of applications that can be used to access Aspen Flare System
Analyzer through Automation, including Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Excel
and Visio. With so many combinations of applications that can transfer
information, the possibilities are numerous and the potential for innovative
solutions is endless.

8 Automation

115

Objects
The key to understanding Automation lies in the concept of objects. An object
is a container that holds a set of related functions and variables. In
Automation terminology, the functions of an object are called Methods and
the variables are called Properties. Consider the example of a simple car. If
it were an object, a car would have a set of properties such as; make, color,
engine, etc. The car object might also have methods such as; drive, refuel,
etc. By utilizing the properties and methods of the car object it is possible to
define, manipulate and interact with the object.

Fig 8.1

Each property of the car is a variable that has a value associated with it. The
color could be either a string or a hexadecimal number associated with a
specific color. The gas mileage could be a floating-point value. Methods are
nothing more than the functions and subroutines associated with the object.
An object is a container that holds all the attributes associated with it. An
object can contain other objects that are a logical subset of the main object.
The car object might contain other objects such as engine or tire. These
objects have their own set of independent properties and methods. An engine
can have properties related to the number of valves and the size of the
pistons. The tires would have properties such as the tread type or model
number.

Object Hierarchy
The path that is followed to get to a specific property may involve several
objects. The path and structure of objects is referred to as the object
hierarchy. In Visual Basic the properties and methods of an object are
accessed by hooking together the appropriate objects through a dot operator
(.) function. Each dot operator in the object hierarchy is a function call. In
many cases it is beneficial to reduce the number of calls by setting
intermediate object variables.
For instance, expanding on our previous example involving the car, suppose
there exists an object called Car and you wish to set the value of its engine
size. You could approach the problem in one of two ways.
Direct specification of object property
Car.Engine.Size = 3
Indirect specification of object property

116

8 Automation

Dim Eng1 as Object


Set Eng1 - Car.Engine.Size
Eng1 = 3
If the Engine size is a property that you wish to access quite often in your
code, using the indirect method of specification might be easier as it reduces
the amount of code thereby reducing the possibility of error.

The Aspen Flare System Analyzer Type


Library
In order to do anything with objects it is first necessary to know what objects
are available. When an application is exposed to Automation, a separate file is
usually created that lists all the objects and their respective properties and
methods. This file is called the type library and nearly all programs that
support Automation have one of these files available. With the help of an
Object Browser, such as the one built into Microsoft Excel, you now have a
way to view all the objects, properties, and methods in the application by
examining the type library. For Aspen Flare System Analyzer, the type library
is contained within the file AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.dll.
The Aspen Flare System Analyzer type library reveals numerous objects that
contain many combine properties and methods. The type library shows the
associated properties and methods for every object, and returns type for
every property. The type library shows what types of arguments are required
and what type of value might be returned for every method.
Accessing a specific property or method is accomplished in a hierarchical
fashion by following a chain of exposed objects. The first object in the chain is
an object from which all other objects can be accessed. This object will
typically be the main application. In Aspen Flare System Analyzer, the
starting object is the Application object. All other objects are accessible from
this starting object.

Object Browser
The type library itself does not exist in a form that is immediately viewable to
you. In order to view the type library, you require the use of an application
commonly referred to as an Object Browser. The Object Browser will
interpret the type library and display the relevant information. Microsoft Excel
and Visual Basic both include a built in Object Browser.

Accessing the Object Browser in Excel for V7.3


Onwards

8 Automation

Press <Left Alt><F11> or select Visual Basic Editor from Macro group
in the Tools menu (For Excel 2007 or later, please select Visual Basic in
the Code group on the Developer tab).

Within the Visual Basic Editor, choose References from the Tools menu.

Select the box next to AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces. If


this is not displayed, use Browse to locate
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.dll.
117

Click OK.

Choose Object Browser from the View menu or press <F2>.

Click the arrow in the box at the upper left of the window, and then select
s
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer
FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.dll from the list.

Example: Navigating through the type library


This example shows how to navigate through tthe
he type library in order to
determine the object hierarchy necessary to access a particular property. The
desired property is the mass flow of a relief valve called PSV 1 in the
currently active scenario.
The first step is to start with the starting obje
object
ct that in the case of Aspen
Flare System Analyzer is always the Application object.

Fig 8.2

Selecting the Application object in the browser reveals all of its related
properties and methods. Examination of the list of properties does not reveal
a relief valve object so access to a particular relief valve must be through
another object. The properties that are links to other objects can be
determined by looking at the type shown when a property is selected. If the
type is not String
String, Boolean, Variant, Double, Integer or Long then it is
most likely an object. The object type shown will be found somewhere in the
object list and the next step is to determine the object hierarchy.
With prior experience in Aspen Flare System Analyzer, the ReliefValves
object is a logical choice.

118

8 Automation

Fig 8.3

The ReliefValves object is shown to be of type IReliefValve.. This object is a


simple object that is a collection of other objects with some properties and
methods for navigation through the collection.

Fig 8.4

The Item proper


property
ty is shown to return an indexed object of type
IReliefValve,, The argument named What is of type Variant which is the
default argument type for an argument unless otherwise specified. All
collection objects within Aspen Flare System Analyzer allow access to an
individual member of the collection either by index number (like an array) or
8 Automation

119

directly by name. Named arguments are case insensitive so PSV 1 is the


same as psv 1. Either approach is equally valid.
Examining the IReliefValve object type shows a property called
PropertyByName
PropertyByName, which is type Variant.

Fig 8.5

This property is a read/write property that is used to access all data for a
relief valve.
The argument is a case insensitive string that describes the variable that we
wish to access. In th
this
is case this string would have the valve MassFlow. A full
list of property names for each type of object is given at the end of this
chapter.
The resulting syntax to access the desired property is:
ReliefValves.Item(PSV1).PropertyByName(MassFlow)

Automation
omation Syntax
Declaring Objects
An object in Visual Basic is another type of variable and should be declared.
Objects can be declared using the generic type identifier object.
object The
preferred method however uses the type library reference to declare the
object
ect variables by an explicit object name.
Early Binding:
Dim | Public | Private Objectvar as ObjectName as specified in the type
library
Late Binding:

120

8 Automation

Dim | Public | Private objectvar as Object


Once a reference to a type library has been established, the actual name of
the object as it appears in the type library can be used. This is called early
binding. It offers some advantages over late binding, including speed and
access to Microsofts IntelliSense functionality when using Visual Basic or
VBA.

Example: Object Declaration


Early Binding:
Public fnApp as Object
Public thisPsv as Object
Late Binding:
Public fnApp as AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.Application
Public thisPsv as AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.IReliefValve

The Set Keyword


Syntax:
Set objectvar = object.[object...].object | Nothing
Connections or references to object variables are made by using the Set
keyword.
Example: Set
Assuming fnApp is set to the Application Object
Dim thisPsv as AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.IReliefValve
Set thisPsv - fnApp.ReliefValves.item(1)

CreateObject, GetObject
Syntax for creating an instance of an application:
CreateObject (class)
GetObject ([pathname] [,class])
Where class is the starting object as specified in the type library.
In order to begin communication between the client and server applications,
an initial link to the server application must be established. In Aspen Flare
System Analyzer this is accomplished through the starting object
Application.
The CreateObject function will start a new instance of the main application.
CreateObject is used in Aspen Flare System Analyzer with the
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.In
terfaces.Application class as defined in the type library. This connects to the
main application interface of Aspen Flare System Analyzer.

8 Automation

121

Example: CreateObject
Dim FnApp As Object
Set FnApp = CreateObject
(AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.
Interfaces.Application)
The following example uses early binding in the object declaration to create
an instance of Aspen Flare System Analyzer and then load a specified model.
Example: CreateObject
Dim FnApp As
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.In
terfaces.Application
Set FnApp = CreateObject
(AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.
Interfaces.Application)
FnApp.OpenModel c:\Aspen Flare System Analyzer
<version>\Samples\Ole\Excel\olesample.fnw
The GetObject function will connect to an instance of the server application
that is already running. If an instance of the application is not already running
then a new instance will be started.

Object Properties, Methods and Hierarchy


Syntax for creating and accessing properties:
Set objectvar = object.[object.object...] .object
Variable = object.[object.object...] .object.property
Syntax for accessing methods:
Function Method
returnvalue = object.method ([argument1, argument2, ...])
Subroutine method
object.method argument1, argument2, ...
The sequence of objects is set through a special dot function. Properties and
methods for an object are also accesses through the dot function. It is
preferable to keep the sequences of objects to a minimum since each dot
function is a call to a link between the client and the server application.
The object hierarchy is an important and fundamental concept for utilizing
automation. A particular property can only be accessed by following a specific
chain of objects. The chain always begins with the Application object and
ends with the object containing the desired property.
The methods of objects are accessed in the same fashion as properties by
utilizing the dot function. A method for a particular object is nothing more
than a function or subroutine whose behavior is related to the object in some
fashion.

122

8 Automation

Typically the methods of an object will require arguments to be passed when


the method is called. The type library will provide information about which
arguments are necessary to call a particular method. A function will return a
value.
Note: Subroutines in Visual Basic do not require parentheses around the
argument list.

Examples: Accessing Aspen Flare System


Analyzer Object Properties
Dim FnApp As
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.In
terfaces.Application
Dim SepDiam as Double
Set FnApp = CreateObject
(AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.
Interfaces.Application)
FnApp.OpenModel c:\Aspen Flare System Analyzer
<version>\Samples\Ole\Excel\olesample.fnw
SepDiam - FnApp.HorizontalSeparators.Item[1].PropertyByName
(Diameter)
This example starts up Aspen Flare System Analyzer and opens a specific
case. The diameter of a specific horizontal separator is then obtained. The
diameter is obtained through a connection of the Application and
HorizontalSeparators objects.
Dim FnApp As
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.In
terfaces.Application
Dim Seps as
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.In
terfaces.IHorizontalSeparators
Dim Sep as
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.In
terfaces.IHorizontalSeparator
Dim SepDiam as Double
Set FnApp = CreateObject
(AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.InterfacesAspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.
Interfaces.Application)
FnApp.OpenModel c:\Aspen Flare System Analyzer
<version>\Samples\Ole\Excel\olesample.fnw
Set Seps = FnApp.HorizontalSeparators
Set Sep = Seps.Item[I]
SepDiam = Sep.PropertyByName (Diameter)

8 Automation

123

This example also gets the diameter of a specific horizontal separator, but
creates all the intermediate objects so that when the diameter value is
actually requested the chain of objects only contains one object.

Collection Objects
Syntax: Properties of a Collection Object:

Item(Index) -- Accesses a particular member of the collection by name


or number

Count -- Returns the number of objects in the collection

Syntax: Enumeration of Objects:


Dim Element as Object
Dim iElement as Long
Dim nElements as Long
For iElement=1 to nElements
Set Element = FnApp.Elements.Item(iElement)
[statements]
Next [element]
A collection object is an object that contains a set of other objects. This is
similar to an array of objects. The difference between an array of objects and
a collection object is that a collection object is that a collection object contains
a set of properties and methods for manipulating the objects in the collection.
The Count property returns the number of items in the collection and the
Item property takes an index value or name as the argument and returns a
reference to the object within the collection.

Examples: Accessing Collection Objects


Dim myPsvs as AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.IReliefValves
Dim name as String
Dim i As Integer
Set myPsvs = myApp.ReliefValves
For i = 1 To myPsvs.Count
name = myPsvs.Item(i).PropertyByName(Name)
MsgBox name
Next i
This example connects to a collection of relief valves by setting the myPsvs
object. A For loop is created that uses the Count and item properties of a
collection in order to display a message box that display the name of each
relief valve in turn. The items in the collection are indexed beginning at 1. The
application object is assumed to have been already set to myApp.

Variants
Syntax: Using variant values:

124

8 Automation

Dim myvariant as Variant


myvariant = [object.property]
To determine the upper and lower bound of the variant:
UBound(arrayname[,dimension])
LBound(arrayname[,dimension])
A property can return a variety of variable type. Values such as
Temperature or Pressure are returned as Doubles or 32-bit floating point
values. The Name property returns a String value. Visual Basic provides an
additional variable called Variant. A Variant is a variable that can take on
the form of any type of variable including Integer, Long, Double, String,
Array, and Objects.
If the property of an object returns an array whose size can vary depending
upon the case, then a Variant is used to access that value. For example, the
Composition property of a ControlValve returns an array of Doubles sized
to the number of components in the model.
In Visual Basic, if a variable is not explicitly declared then it is implicitly a
Variant. Variants have considerably more storage associated with their use
so for a large application it is good practice to limit the number of Variants
being used. It is also just good programming practice to explicitly declare
variables whenever possible.

Example: Using Variants in Aspen Flare System


Analyzer
Dim myPsvs as AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.IReliefValve
Dim molefracs as Variant
Dim i As Integer
Set myPsv = myApp.ReliefValves.Item(1)
molefracs = myPsv.PropertyByName (Composition)
For i = LBound(molefracs) To Ubound (molefracs)
Debug.Print molefracs(i)
Next i
This example shows how to get the mole fractions of a relief valve for the
current scenario. The values are sent to the Visual Basic Immediate window.
The application object is assumed to have been already set to myApp.

Unknown Values
There are a number of occasions where a variable may be unknown such as
all the calculated values prior to the calculation or the flange size of a control
valve. In all cases this is represented by the value
fntVariableStatus_fntUnknownValue.

8 Automation

125

Example: Using Unknown Values in Aspen Flare


System Analyzer
Dim myValve as AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.IControlValves
Dim myValves as AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.Interfaces.IControlValve
Dim flange as Double
Dim name as String
Set myValves = myApp.ControlValves
For i=1 to myValves.Count
flange = myValves.Item(i).PropertyByName (FlangeDiameter)
If flange = fntVariableStatus_fntUnknownValue Then
name = myValve.PropertyByName(Name)
MsgBox name
EndIf
Next i
This example loops through all the control valves and displays the name of
any whose flange diameter is unknown. The application object is assumed to
have been already set to myApp.

Aspen Flare System Analyzer


Object Reference
The following subsections summarize the methods and properties available for
each object available within Aspen Flare System Analyzer. They are ordered
purely alphabetically.
For each object the attributes comprise the type (or class) of object followed
by the access characteristics which may be read-only or read/write. In
general, data has the read/write attribute and calculated values have the
read-only attribute.
Each method is shown with the method name including any arguments, a
description of the method and a description of the arguments.
Each property is shown with the property name including any arguments, a
description of the property, the property attributes and a description of the
arguments. Optional arguments are shown in square brackets [].
Many objects support a PropertyByName property. In such cases a further
table gives the valid property names which are case insensitive as well as the
property attributes and the units of measure where appropriate. The property
names will generally match the field descriptions on the corresponding views
but they never contain any space characters.

126

8 Automation

Application
Description : Application object
Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

OpenModel(fileName As
String)

Open an Aspen Flare


System Analyzer model

fileName = Model filename

SaveModel(fileName As
String)

Save an Aspen Flare


System Analyzer model

fileName = Model filename

DoImport(imType As
Import an Aspen Flare
importType, source As
System Analyzer Model
String, Definition As
String, Flag As Reserved)
As Integer

imType = 0,1,2 for


xml,xls,mdb files

DoExport(exType As
Export an Aspen Flare
exportType, source As
System Analyzer Model
String, Definition As
String, Flag As Reserved)
As Integer

exType = 0,1,2 for xml, xls,


mdb files

LaunchFlarenet([fileName Display the Aspen Flare


As String])
System Analyzer
application window

fileName = Model filename

Quit()

Please call this method before


your scripts end.

source = Import filename


Definition = Definition filename
Flag = 0

source = Export filename


Definition = Definition filename
Flag = 0

Quit Aspen Flare System


Analyzer.

Note: The LaunchFlarenet method only launches the Aspen Flare System
Analyzer Graphical User Interface (GUI) in a separate process which cannot
be controlled directly. The Quit method cannot terminate the GUI opened by
the LaunchFlarenet method.
Properties

8 Automation

Name

Description

Attributes

Bleeds

Collection of flow bleed


objects

IBleeds, readonly

Components

Collection of component
objects

IComponents,
read-only

Connectors

Collection of connector
objects

IConnectors,
read-only

ControlValves

Collection of control valve


objects

IControlValves,
read-only

HorizontalSeparat
ors

Collection of horizontal
separator objects

IHorizontalSepar
ators,
read-only

Nodes

Collection of node objects

INodes, readonly

OrificePlates

Collection of orifice plate


objects

IOrificePlates,
read-only

Pipes

Collection of pipe objects

IPipes, read-only

ReliefValves

Collection of relief valve


objects

IReliefValves,
read-only

Arguments

127

Name

Description

Attributes

Scenarios

Collection of scenario objects

IScenarios, readonly

Solver

Solver object

ISolver, readonly

Tees

Collection of tee objects

ITees, read-only

Tips

Collection of flare tip objects

ITips, read-only

VerticalSeparators Collection of vertical


separator objects

Arguments

IVerticalSeparato
rs, read-only

Bleed
Description : Flow bleed object
Attributes :

IBleed, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx As
fntNodeEnd, Pipe As IPipe,
PipeConnectionIdx As
fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a pipe

ConnectionIdx = Connection
on bleed

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect from a
pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx =
Connection on pipe
ConnectionIdx = Connection
on bleed

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

PropertyByName(Wha Property value for a


t As String)
named property

Variant, read/write What = Property


name

PropertyNames

String, read-only

Collection of all the


property names

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

Location

String, read/write

Name

String, read/write

OfftakeMaximum

kg/hr

OfftakeMinimum

kg/hr

OfftakeMultiplier

Double, read/write
Double, read/write
Double, read/write

OfftakeOffset

kg/hr

Double, read/write

PressureDrop

bar

Double, read/write

Bleeds
Description : Collection of flow bleed objects
Attributes :
128

IBleeds, read-only
8 Automation

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new
bleed

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete (What)

Delete a bleed

What = Index as Name (String) or


Number (Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in the


collection

Long, read-only

Item
(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

IBleed, readonly

Arguments

What = Index as Name


(String) or Number
(Integer/Long)

Component
Description : Component object
Attributes :

IComponent, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Clear (Optional Cname Clear all component data


compName As String
= Nothing)
EstimateUnknown

Cname = Component
Name. If omitted all
components will be
cleared.

Estimate all unknown component data

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

IsValid

Validate component
data is complete

Boolean, read-only

Arguments

PropertyByName(W Property value for a


hat As String)
named property

Variant, read/write What = Property


name

PropertyNames

String, read-only

Collection of all the


property names

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

AcentricFactor

Double, read/write

AcentricFactorSrk
CharacteristicVolume

8 Automation

Attributes
Double, read/write

m3/kgmole

Double, read/write

CriticalPressure

bar abs

Double, read/write

CriticalTemperature

Double, read/write

129

Name

Units

Attributes

CriticalVolume

m3/kgmole

Double, read/write

EnthalpyCoefficients

kJ/kgmole

Double(1 To 6), read/write

kJ/kgmole/K
kJ/kgmole/K2
kJ/kgmole/K3
kJ/kgmole/K4
kJ/kgmole/K5
EntropyCoefficient

Double, read/write

Id

Integer, read/write

MolecularWeight

Double, read/write

Name

String, read/write

NormalBoilingPoint

Double, read/write

StandardDensity

kg/m3

Double, read/write

Type

fntCompType, read/write

WatsonK

Double, read/write

ViscosityCoefficient

Double(1 To 2), read/write

Components
Description : Collection of component objects
Attributes :

IComponents, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

AddLibrary(What As
Variant)

Add a library
component

What = Component identifier as


either name (String) or ID
(Integer/Long)

AddHypothetical(What
As String)

Add a named
hypothetical component

What = Name for new


component

Delete(What)

Delete a component

What = Index as component as


either Name (String) or Number
(Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in
the collection

Long, read-only

Item(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

IComponent,
read-only

Arguments

What = Index as Name


(String) Or Number
(Integer/Long)

Connector
Description : Connector node object
Attributes :

130

IConnector, read-only

8 Automation

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd, Pipe As
IPipe, PipeConnectionIdx
As fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a pipe

ConnectionIdx = Connection on
connector

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect from a
pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx = Connection
on pipe
ConnectionIdx = Connection on
connector

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

PropertyByName(W Property value for a


hat As String)
named property

Variant,
read/write

What = Property name

PropertyNames

String, read-only

Collection of all the


property names

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

Angle

radians

Double, read/write

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

Length

Double, read/write

Location

String, read/write

Name

String, read/write

Connectors
Description : Collection of connector objects
Attributes :

IConnectors, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new
connector

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete (What)

Delete a connector

What = Index as Name (String) or


Number (Integer/Long)

Properties

8 Automation

Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in the


collection

Long, read-only

Item(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

IConnector, readonly

Arguments

What = Index as
Name (String) Or
Number
(Integer/Long)
131

ControlValve
Description : Control valve object
Attributes :

IControlValve, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd, Pipe As
IPipe, PipeConnectionIdx
As fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a pipe

ConnectionIdx = Connection on
control valve

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect from a
pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx = Connection
on pipe
ConnectionIdx = Connection on
control valve

Properties
Name

Description

PropertyByName(W Property value for


hat As String,
a named property

Attributes

Arguments

Variant,
read/write

What = Property name


Scenario = Scenario Index
as Name (String) or
Number (Integer/Long)

[Scenario])
PropertyNames

Collection of all
the property
names

String, read-only

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

Composition

fractions

Double (1 To ?), read/write

CompositionBasis
Energy

132

fntCompBasis, read/write
kJ/hr

Double, read-only

Enthalpy

kJ/kgmole

Double, read-only

Entropy

kJ/kgmole/K

Double, read-only

FlangeDiameter

mm

Double, read/write

FluidType

fntCompType, read/write

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

Location

String, read/write

LockMabp

fntYesNo, read/write

Mabp

bar abs

Double, read-only

MassFlow

kg/hr

Double, read/write

MolecularWeight

Double, read/write

Name

String, read/write

OutletMachNumber

Double, read-only

OutletSonicVelocity

m/s

Double, read-only

OutletTemperature

Double, read-only

OutletTemperatureSpecification

Double, read-only

OutletVelocity

m/s

Double, read-only

ReliefPressure

bar abs

Double, read-only

StaticOutletPressure

bar abs

Double, read-only
8 Automation

Name

Units

Attributes

StaticInletPipePressureDrop

bar

Double, read-only

Temperature

Double, read-only

TemperatureSepcification

fntTempSpec, read/write

TotalOutletPressure

bar abs

Double, read-only

TotalInletPipePressureDrop

bar

Double, read-only

VapourFraction

molar fraction

Double, read-only

ControlValves
Description : Collection of control valve objects
Attributes :

IControlValves

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new
control valve

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete(What)

Delete a control
valve

What = Index as Name (String) or


Number (Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in
the collection

Long, read-only

Item(What) Indexed item in the


collection

Arguments

IControlValve,
read-only

What = Index as Name


(String) or Number
(Integer/Long)

HorizontalSeparator
Description : Horizontal separator object
Attributes :

IHorizontalSeparator, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd, Pipe As
IPipe, PipeConnectionIdx
As fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a pipe

ConnectionIdx = Connection on
horizontal separator

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect from
a pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx = Connection on
pipe
ConnectionIdx = Connection on
horizontal separator

Properties

8 Automation

133

Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

PropertyByName(
What As String)

Property value for a named


property

Variant,
read/write

What = Property
name

PropertyNames

Collection of all the property


names

String, readonly

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

Diameter

mm

Double, read/write

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

LiquidLevel

mm

Double, read/write

Location

String, read/write

Name

String, read/write

HorizontalSeparators
Description : Collection of horizontal separator objects
Attributes :

IHorizontalSeparators, read-only

Method
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As
String],
[Xcoordinate As
Single = 0]
[Ycoordinate As
Single = 0])

Add a new
horizontal
separator

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated

Delete(What)

Delete a horizontal
separator

Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the


Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
What = Index as Name (String) or
Number (Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

Count

Number of items
in the collection

Long, read-only

Item(What)

Indexed item in
the collection

IHorizontalSepar What = Index as Name (String)


ator, read-only
Or Number (Integer/Long)

Nodes
Description : Collection of all node objects
Attributes :

INodes, read-only

Properties

134

Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in the


collection

Long, read-only

Arguments

8 Automation

OrificePlate
Description : Orifice plate object
Attributes :

IOrificePlate, read-only

Method
Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd, Pipe As
IPipe, PipeConnectionIdx
As fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a
pipe

ConnectionIdx = Connection on
orifice plate

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect from
a pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx = Connection on
pipe
ConnectionIdx = Connection on
orifice plate

Properties
Name

Description

PropertyByName Property value for a


(What As String) named property
PropertyNames

Attributes

Arguments

Variant,
read/write

What = Property name

Variant array of all the Variant, read-only


property names

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

Diameter

mm

Double, read/write

DratioIn

Double, read/write

DratioOut

Double, read/write

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

Location

String, read/write

Name

String, read/write

OrificePlates
Description : Collection of orifice plate objects
Attributes :

IOrificePlates, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new
orifice plate

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete(What)

Delete an orifice
plate

What = Index as Name (String) or


Number (Integer/Long)

Properties

8 Automation

135

Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in the


collection

Long, read-only

Item(Wha Indexed item in the


t)
collection

Arguments

IOrificePlate, readonly

What = Index as
Name (String) Or
Number
(Integer/Long)

Pipe
Description : Pipe object
Attributes :

IPipe, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

AddFitting(FittingName
As String, [Count As
Long = 1])

Add a fitting to the


fittings list

FittingName = Name of
fitting defined in the pipe
fittings database
Count = Number of fittings
of this type to add

Connect(ConnectionIdx
as fntPipeEnd, Node As
Object,
NodeConnectionIdx as
fntNodeEnd)

Connect to a node

ConnectionIdx =
Connection on pipe

DeleteAllFittings()

Delete all fittings


from the fittings list

DeleteFittingByIndex(Fi
ttingIndex As Long)

Delete a fitting from


the fittings list

FittingIndex = Index of
fitting in the fittings list to
delete

DeleteFittingByName(Fi
ttingName As String,
[Count As Long = 1])

Delete a fitting from


the fittings list

FittingName = Name of
fitting defined in the pipe
fittings database

Node = Node to connect to


NodeConnectionIdx =
Connection on node

Count = Number of fittings


of this type to delete
Disconnect(ConnectionI
dx As fntPipeEnd)

Disconnect from a
node

GetFittingCount() As
Long

Get number of
fittings in the fitting
list

GetFittingName(FittingI
ndex As Long) As
String

Get name of indexed


pipe fitting

ConnectionIdx =
Connection on pipe

FittingIndex = Index of
fitting in the fittings list to
retrieve name for

Properties

136

8 Automation

Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

PropertyByName(
What As String,

Property value for a


named property

Variant,
read /write

What = Property name

[Scenario],
[Phase],
[PipeEnd])

Scenario = Scenario Index as


Name (String) or Number
(Integer/Long)
Phase = Phase Index
(fntFluidPhase)
PipeEnd = Pipe end
(fntPipeEnd)

PropertyNames

Collection of all the


property names

String, readonly

UseFittings

Flag to indicate if a
fittings list is used
instead of loss
coefficients

Boolean,
read/write

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

AccelerationPressureDrop

bar

Double, read-only

AmbientTemperature

Double, read-only

CanSize

fntYesNo, read/write

MoleFractions

Double(1 To ?), readonly

Density

kg/m3

Double, read-only

Duty

kJ/hr

Double, read-only

ElevationChange

Double, read/write

ElevationPressureDrop

bar

Double, read-only

Emissivity
kJ/hr

Double, read-only

Enthalpy

kJ/kgmole

Double, read-only

Entropy

kJ/kgmole/K

Double, read-only

EquivalentLength

Double, read-only

ExternalDuty

Double, read/write

ExternalHeatTransferCoefficient

W/m2/K

Double, read-only

ExternalRadiativeHeatTransferCoefficient

W/m2/K

Double, read-only

ExternalTemperature

Double, read-only

FittingsLossConstant

Double, read-only

FittingsLossMultiplier

Double, read-only

FittingsPressureDrop

8 Automation

Double, read-only

Energy

bar

Double, read-only

FlowRegime

fntFlowRegime, readonly

FrictionFactor

Double, read-only

FrictionPressureDrop

bar

Double, read-only

HeatCapacity

kJ/kgmole/K

Double, read-only

HeatTransfer

kJ/hr

Double, read-only

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

IgnoreHeadRecovery

fntYesNo, read/write

137

Name

Units

InsulationName

Attributes
String, read/write

InsulationThickness

mm

Double, read/ write

InsulationThermalConductivity

W/m/K

Double, read/write

InternalDiameter

mm

Double, read/write

Length

Double, read/write

LengthMultiplier

Double, read/write

Location

String, read/write

MachNumber

Double, read-only

MassFlow

kg/hr

Material
MolecularWeight
MolarFlow

Double, read-only
kgmole/hr

Name
Noise

Double, read/write
fntPipeMaterial,
read/write
Double, read-only
String, read/write

dB

NominalDiameter

Double, read-only
String, read/write

OutletTemperatureSpecification

Double, read/write

OverallHeatTransferCoefficient

W/m2/K

Double, read-only

UsePipeClass

fntYesNo, read/write

PhaseFraction

Double, read-only

PressureDrop

bar

RatedMassFlow

kg/hr

ReynoldsNumber

Double, read-only
Double, read-only
Double, read-only

RhoV2

kg/m/s2

Roughness

mm

Double, read/write

StaticPressure

bar abs

Double, read-only

Schedule
SurfaceTension

Double, read-only

String, read/write
dynes/cm

TailPipe

Double, read-only
fntYesNo, read/write

Temperature

Double, read-only

ThermalConductivity

W/m/K

Double, read-only

TotalPressure

bar abs

Double, read-only

VapourFraction

molar fraction Double, read-only

Velocity

m/s

Double, read-only

Viscosity

cP

Double, read-only

WallThermalConductivity

W/m/K

Double, read/write

WallTemperature

Double, read-only

WallThickness

mm

Double, read/write

WindSpeed

m/s

Double, read/write

Zfactor

Double, read-only

Pipes
Description : Collection of pipes
138

8 Automation

Attributes :

IPipes

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new
pipe

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete(What)

Delete a pipe

What = Index as Name (String) or


Number (Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in the


collection

Long, read-only

Item(Wha Indexed item in the


t)
collection

IPipe, read-only

Arguments

What = Index as Name


(String)
or Number (Integer/Long)

ReliefValve
Description : Relief valve object
Attributes :

IReliefValve, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx As
fntNodeEnd, Pipe As IPipe,
pipeConnectionIdx As
fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a
pipe

ConnectionIdx = Connection on relief


valve

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect
from a pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx = Connection on
pipe
ConnectionIdx = Connection on relief
valve

Properties
Name

Description

PropertyByName Property value for a


(What As String, named property

Attributes

Arguments

Variant,
read/write

What = Property name

[Scenario])

PropertyNames

Collection of all the


property names

Scenario = Scenario
Index as Name (String)
or Number
(Integer/Long)

String, read-only

Named Properties For PropertyByName()

8 Automation

Name

Units

Attributes

Composition

fractions

Double (1 To ?),
read/write
139

Name

Units

CompositionBasis

fntCompBasis,
read/write

Contingency

fntContingency,
read/write

Energy

kJ/hr

Double, read-only

Enthalpy

kJ/kgmole

Double, read-only

Entropy

kJ/kgmole/K

Double, read-only

FlangeDiameter

mm

Double, read/write

FluidType

fntCompType,
read/write

HemCd

Double, read/write

HemLiqCd

Double. Read/write

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

Kb

Double, read/write

Location

String, read/write

LockMabp

fntYesNo, read/write

LockReliefPressure

fntYesNo, read/write

LockRatedMassFlow

fntYesNo, read/write

Mabp

bar abs

MassFlow

kg/hr

Double, read/write

Mawp

bar abs

Double, read/write

MechanicalPressure

bar abs

Double, read/write

Double, read-only

MolecularWeight

Double, read/write

Name

String, read/write

Orifice

String, read/write

OutletMachNumber
OutletSonicVelocity

Double, read-only
m/s

Double, read-only

OutletTemperature

Double, read-only

OutletTemperatureSpecification

Double, read-only

OutletVelocity

m/s

Double, read-only

RatedMassFlow

kg/hr

Double, read/write

ReliefPressure

bar abs

Double, read-only

SizingBackPressure

Bar abs

Double, read/write

SizingMethod
StaticOutletPressure

Integer, read/write
bar abs

Double, read-only

StaticInletPipePressureDrop

bar

Double, read-only

Temperature

Double, read-only

TemperatureSpecification

140

Attributes

fntTempSpec,
read/write

TotalOutletPressure

bar abs

Double, read-only

TotalInletPipePressureDrop

bar

Double, read-only

ValveArea

mm2

Double, read/write

ValveCount

Integer, read/write

ValveType

fntPsvType, read/write

8 Automation

Name

Units

Attributes

VapourFraction

molar fraction Double, read-only

ReliefValves
Description : Collection of relief valve objects
Attributes :

IReleifValves

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new relief


valve

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on
the Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinated on
the Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete(What)

Delete a relief valve

What = Index as Name (String)


or Number (Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in
the collection

Long, read-only

Item(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

IReliefValve,
read-only

Arguments

What = Index as Name


(String) or Number
(Integer/Long)

Scenario
Description : Scenario object
Attributes :

IScenario, read-only

Properties
Name

Description

PropertyByName Property value for a


(What As String) named property
PropertyNames

Attributes

Arguments

Variant,
read/write

What = Property name

Variant array of all the String, read-only


property names

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

AtmosphericPressure

bar abs

Double, read/write

m/s

Double, read/write

Calculate
HeaderLiquidVelocityLimit

fntYesNo, read/write

HeaderMachLimit

8 Automation

Double, read/write

HeaderNoiseLimit

dB

Double, read/write

HeaderRhoV2Limit

kg/m/s2

Double, read/write

141

Name

Units

Attributes

HeaderVapourVelocityLimit

m/s

Double, read/write

m/s

Double, read/write

TailpipeNoiseLimit

dB

Double, read/write

TailpipeRhoV2Limit

kg/m/s2

Double, read/write

TailpipeVapourVelocityLimit

m/s

Double, read/write

Name

String, read/write

TailpipeLiquidVelocityLimit
TailpipeMachLimit

Double, read/write

Scenarios
Description : Collection of scenario objects
Attributes :

IScenarios, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add([Name As
String],

Add a new scenario

Name = New scenario name


CloneIdx = Index of scenario to copy data
from for initialization

[CloneIdx As
Long = 1])
Delete(What)

Delete a scenario

What = Index as Name (String) or Number


(Integer/Long)

Name

Description

Attributes

Active

Set active scenario

ActiveScenario

Get active scenario

Count

Number of items in the Long, read-only


collection

Item(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

Properties
Arguments
What = Index as Name
(String) or Number
(Integer/Long)
IScenario, readonly

IScenario, readonly

What = Index as Name


(String) or Number
(Integer/Long)

Solver
Description : Solver object
Attributes :

ISolver, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Halt

Stop calculations

Start

Start calculations

Arguments

Properties

142

8 Automation

Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

IsActive

Get calculation status

Boolean, readonly

PropertyByName(
What As String)

Property value for a


named property

Variant,
read/write

PropertyNames

Collection of all the


property names

String, read-only

What = Property
name

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

AmbientTemperature

Double, read/write

AtmosphericPressure

bar abs

Double, read/write

CalculationMode

fntCalcMode, read/write

CheckChokedFlow

fntYesNo, read/write

Elements

Integer, read/write

EnableHeatTransfer

fntYesNo, read/write

EnthalpyMethod

fntEnthMethod,
read/write

InitialPressure

bar abs

Double, read/write

KineticEnergyBasis

fntKeBasis, read/write

LengthMultiplier

Double, read/write

LoopIteration

Integer, read-only

LoopIterationLimit

Integer, read/write

LoopTolerance

Double, read/write

PressureDropMethod

fntPresDropMethod(0 to
2), read/write

PropertyIteration

Integer, read-only

PropertyIterationLimit

Integer, read/write

PropertyTolerance

ScenarioMode

Double, read/write
fntScenarioMode,
read/write

UnitOperationTolerance

Double, read/write

UseKineticEnergy

fntYesNo, read/write

UseRatedFlow

fntYesNo, read/write

VleMethod

fntVleMethod,
read/write

WindSpeed

Double, read/write

Tee
Description : Tee object
Attributes :

ITee, read-only

Methods
Name

8 Automation

Description

Arguments

143

Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx As
fntNodeEnd, Pipe As IPipe,
PipeConnectionIdx As
fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a pipe

ConnectionIdx =
Connection to tee

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect from a pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx =
Connection on pipe
ConnectionIdx =
Connection on tee

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

PropertyByName(
What As String)

Property value for a


named property

Variant,
read/write

What = Property name

PropertyNames

Collection of all the


property names

String, read-only

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

Angle

fntTeeAngle, read/write

Body

fntTeeEnd, read/write

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

Location

String, read/write

Name

String, read/write

Tees
Description : Collection of tee objects
Attributes :

ITees, read-only

Method
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new tee

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete(What)

Delete a tee

What = Index as Name (String) or


Number (Integer/Long)

Properties

144

Name

Description

Attributes

Count

Number of items in
the collection

Long, read-only

Item(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

ITee, read-only

Arguments

What = Index as Name


(String) Or Number
(Integer/Long)

8 Automation

Tip
Description : Flare tip object
Attributes :

ITip, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

AddCurve()

Add a pressure drop


curve

AddCurvePoint(Index As Long)

Append a point to a
pressure drop curve

Index = Index of curve

Connect(ConnectionIdx As
fntNodeEnd, Pipe As IPipe,
PipeConnectionIdx As
fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a pipe

ConnectionIdx =
Connection to tee

DeleteCurve(Index As Long)

Delete a pressure drop


curve

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx =
Connection on pipe

DeleteCurvePoint(Index As Long,
Which As Long)
Disconnect(ConnectionIdx As
fntNodeEnd)

Arguments

Index = Index of curve


Index = Index of curve
Which = Index of point

Disconnect from a pipe

ConnectionIdx =
Connection on flare tip

Properties
Name

Description

CurveMolWt(Inde Molecular weight of


x As Long)
indexed pressure drop
curve

Attributes

Arguments

Double, read/write Index = Curve index

CurvePointMassF Mass flow of point on a Double, read/write Index = Index of curve


low(Index As
pressure drop curve
Which = Index of point
Long, Which As
(kg/hr)
Long)
CurvePointPressu Pressure drop of point
reDrop(Index As on a pressure drop
Long, Which As
curve (bar)
Long)

Double, read/write Index = Index of curve

PropertyByName Property value for a


(What As String) named property

Variant,
read/write

PropertyNames

String, read-only

Collection of all the


property names

Which = Index of point


What = Property name

Named Properties For PropertyByName()

8 Automation

Name

Units

Diameter

mm

Attributes
Double, read/write

Ignored

fntYesNo, read/write

Double, read/write

Kbasis

fntKbasis, read/write

Location

String, read/write

Name

String, read/write

Reference Temperature

Double, read/write
145

Name

Units

Attributes

UseCurves

fntYesNo, read/write

Tips
Description : Collection of flare tip objects
Attributes :

ITips, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As
String], [Xcoordinate
As Single = 0]
[Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new
flare tip

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated

Delete(What)

Delete a flare
tip

Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the


Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
What = Index as Name (String) or
Number (Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

Count

Number of items in
the collection

Long, read-only

Item(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

ITip, read-only

What = Index as Name


(String) Or Number
(Integer/Long)

VerticalSeparator
Description : Vertical separator object
Attributes :

IVerticalSeparator, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Connect(ConnectionIdx As
fntNodeEnd, Pipe As IPipe,
PipeConnectionIdx As
fntPipeEnd)

Connect to a pipe

ConnectionIdx = Connection
on vertical separator

Disconnect(ConnectionIdx
As fntNodeEnd)

Disconnect from a
pipe

Pipe = Pipe to connect to


PipeConnectionIdx =
Connection on pipe
ConnectionIdx = Connection
on vertical separator

Properties
Name

146

Description

Attributes

Arguments

PropertyByName Property value for a


(What As String) named property

Variant,
read/write

What = Property name

PropertyNames

String, read-only

Collection of all the


property names

8 Automation

Named Properties For PropertyByName()


Name

Units

Attributes

Diameter

mm

Double, read/write

Ignored

Boolean, read/write

Location

String, read/write

Name

String, read/write

VerticalSeparators
Description : Collection of vertical separator objects
Attributes :

IVerticalSeparators, read-only

Methods
Name

Description

Arguments

Add ([Name As String],


[Xcoordinate As Single =
0] [Ycoordinate As Single
= 0])

Add a new
vertical
separator

Name: If omitted a new name is


automatically generated
Xcoordinate = X coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)
Ycoordinate = Y coordinate on the
Process Flowsheet (Twips)

Delete(What)

Delete a vertical
separator

What = Index as Name (String) or


Number (Integer/Long)

Properties
Name

Description

Attributes

Arguments

Count

Number of items in
the collection

Long, read-only

Item(What)

Indexed item in the


collection

IVerticalSeparator What = Index as Name


, read-only
(String) Or Number
(Integer/Long)

Example Automation In
Visual Basic
This example shows how that Aspen Flare System Analyzer can be used as an
automation server by a program that analyses an Aspen Flare System
Analyzer model to search for the maximum and minimum values of a user
defined named property within all the pipes.
Note: Although Visual Basic 6 is recommended for this example, you may
create the Automation application in the Visual Basic editor provided in
Microsoft Excel 2007 (or later) and Microsoft Word 2007 (or later).
1

8 Automation

Open a new project in Visual Basic 6. From the New tab of the New
Project property view; select the Standard EXE icon and click OK. Your
screen should appear similar as below.

147

Fig 8.6

By default you should have a form associated with th


the
e project. In the
Name field of the Properties window, give the form the name:
frmBounds.

Note: This complete example has also been pre


pre-built
built and is located in the
\Samples\Ole\Vb
Vb\Bounds directory.

148

In the Caption field typ


type: Aspen Flare System Analyzer Model Pipe
Property Bounds
Bounds.. This caption should now appear in the title bar of the
form.

Before adding objects to the for


form,, resize the view to accommodate the
different objects that will be rrequired. In the Width filed found in the
Properties w
window, change the width of the form to 6900
00 or to any
value such that the form is sufficiently wide to fully display the caption.

From the Tool Box select Text Box; create


te a text box on the form as
shown below..

8 Automation

Fig 8.7

Ensure that the text box is the active control. This can be done in one of
two ways:
Select the text box on the form so that the object guides appear around
the object.
From the box found at the top of the Properties window, select the name
of the text box you have just created.

8 Automation

In the Properties windows, set the name of the text box as


ebModelName in the Name field. If you wish, you may also
lso change the
default text that appears inside the edit box by entering a new name in
the Text field.

You may add a label to the form. i.e. to identify the object from others, by
selecting the Label tool and drawing the label
abel on the form just above the
text box you have just created.

Ensuring that the label control is active using one of the methods
suggested in step 6, go to the Properties Window and change the text
in the Caption field to Model Name.

149

Fig 8.8

10 Add the following objects to the form using the previously described
methods.

Fig 8.9

11 Only two more objects are required on the form. Select the Command
Button control from the tool bar and add two buttons to the form as
shown below.

150

8 Automation

Fig 8.10

12 You are now ready to begin defining the events behind the form and
objects. You may enter the code environment using a number of methods:
methods
Click View Code in the Project window.
Select Code from the View menu.
Double-click
click the frmBounds form.

8 Automation

151

Fig 8.11

The Private Sub Form_Load() method definition will only be visible if


you enter the code environment by double
double-clicking
clicking the form.
13 Begin by declaring the following variables under the Option Explicit
Declaration.

Fig 8.12

14 Add a reference to the Aspen Flare System Analyzer type library to allow
access to predefined constant
constants by selecting References from the Project
menu.

152

8 Automation

Fig 8.13

15 The first subroutine should already be declared. The Form_Load


subroutine is the first subroutine called once the program is run. It is
usually used to initializ
initialize
e the variables and objects used by the program.
Enter the following code into the Form_Load subroutine.
Code

Explanation

Private Sub
Form_Load()

Signifies the start of the form load subroutine.


You do not have to add as it should already be
there.

ebModelName.Text
elName.Text = ""
ebPropertyName.Text =
""
ebMinValue.Text = ""
ebMaxValue.Text = ""
End Sub

Clears all the text fields.

Signifies the end of the initialization subroutine.


This line does not need to be added.

16 The next section


ection of code to be added is what will occur when the name of
the model is changed in the ebModelName box.
Code

Private Sub
ebModelName_Validate(Cancel
As Boolean)

8 Automation

Explanation
Signifies the start of the subroutine.

ModelName = ebModelName.Text

Copies the
e entered name for the model
to the String Variable ModelName

End Sub

Signifies the end of the subroutine.

153

17 The next section of code to be added is what will occur when the desired
property is changed in the ebPropertyName box.
Code

Private Sub
ebPropertyName_Validate(Canc
el As Boolean)

Explanation
Signifies the start of the subroutine.

PropertyName =
ebPropertyName.Text

Copies the entered name for the


property to the String Variable
PropertyName

End Sub

Signifies the end of the subroutine.

18 The final two routines define the actions of the two buttons: btnUpdate
and btnExit.
Code

Explanation

Private Sub btnUpdate_Click()

Signifies the start of the subroutine.

Dim OwnedByMe As Boolean


Dim MaxVal As Double
Dim MinVal As Double
Dim Pipe As
AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.I
nterfacesObject
Dim iPipe As Long
Dim npipes As Long
Dim WorkVal As Double
On Error Resume Next

If Trim$(ModelName) = "" Then


OwnedByMe = False
Set FnApp = GetObject(,
"AspenTech.FlareSystemAnalyzer.
Interfaces.Application")
Else
Set FnApp =
CreateObject("AspenTech.FlareSy
stemAnalyzer.Interfaces.Applica
tion")
OwnedByMe = True
FnApp.OpenModel ModelName
End If

Prevents an error from being raised


if, for example, an invalid name for
the property is selected.
If a model name is defined then
opens the model defined by the
String variable ModelName;
otherwise, connects to the currently
running instance of Aspen Flare
System Analyzer.

If Not FnApp Is Nothing Then

Ensure successful connection to the


Application object.

MaxVal = -10000000000#
MinVal = 10000000000#

Initializes the maximum and


minimum values to values outside
the range of possible values.

npipes = FnApp.Pipes.Count
For iPipe = 1 To npipes
Set pipe =
FnApp.Pipes.Item(iPipe)

154

Declare work variables.

Loop through all the pipes in the


model.

8 Automation

Code

Explanation

WorkVal =
Pipe.PropertyByName(PropertyNam
e)

Get the property named and stores


in the String variable
PropertyName.

If WorkVal <>
fntVariableStatus_fntUnknownVal
ue Then

Check for an unknown value. Do not


consider the value further if it is
unknown.

If WorkVal > MaxVal Then MaxVal


= WorkVal
If WorkVal < MinVal Then MinVal
= WorkVal

Update minimum value.


End of loop and value update.

End If
Next iPipe
ebMinValue.Text
Format$(MinVal,
ebMaxValue.Text
Format$(MaxVal,

Update maximum value.

=
"0.000e+00")
=
"0.000e+00")

Disconnect the Application object.

Set FnApp = Nothing


End If

Signifies the end of the subroutine.

End Sub
Private Sub
btnExit_Click()
Set FnApp = Nothing
Unload Me
End
End Sub

Update the displayed values in the


ebMinValue and ebMaxValue Text
boxes.

Signifies the start of the subroutine.


Releases the connection to Aspen Flare
System Analyzer.
Unload the form and end the program.
Signifies the end of the subroutine.

19 You are now ready to compile and run the program. Before you begin,
please ensure that you have a copy of Aspen Flare System Analyzer on
the computer.
20 To compile the program do one of the following:

Click the Start button...

Select Start from the Run menu.

Press <F5> from the keyboard.

Visual Basic will inform you of any errors that occur during compile time.

Updating Automation Files


From Previous Versions
Aspen Flare System Analyzer now uses a new .Net interface to provide access
to the software via automation. As a result a few changes have to be made in
the way the VB6 application code accesses the available methods and
properties. If you have an existing application, it may fail to run with the new

8 Automation

155

interface. Below are some notes on what needs to be updated in your


applications to ensure it runs successfully in this new version.

156

Currently Application.Visible can only be set to False. The user


cannot make the application visible. The application will be running as
usual in the background. The LaunchFlarenet method described in this
chapter can be used to launch a separate process showing the graphical
user interface. This process can only be controlled manually and needs to
be manually terminated as well.

In the declarations Integer should be replaced by Long.

Objects cannot be enumerated in a collection. Previously you could write


the following code:
Dim Pipe As Object
For Each Pipe In FnApp.Pipes
WorkVal = Pipe.PropertyByName(PropertyName)

Next
Now this type of code must be written as follows:
Dim iPipe As Long
Dim npipes As Long
For iPipe = 1 To npipes
Set pipe = FnApp.Pipes.Item(iPipe)
WorkVal = pipe.PropertyByName(PropertyName)

Next iPipe

In VB6 enum values are actually constants, thus Enum members can be
used directly without the Enum type, e.g. fntUnknownValue. In VB.Net
the Enum type is just a type, not a constant. Also in VB6 it is not possible
to have items of the same name under different Enums, e.g.
fntFlowRegime.fntUnknownValue and
fntVariableStatus.fntUnknownValue. Therefore to avoid this issue,
MicroSoft determines that all Enum items should be renamed by having
their Enum type as prefix followed by character _. Thus existing code
must be modified to include the new Enum item names. For instance,
instead of fntUnknownValue for Variable Status, we now have
fntVariableStatus_fntUnknownValue. Please look in the
AspenTech.FlareSystem.Analyzer Object Browser for the new Enum items
names.

8 Automation

9 Theoretical Basis

Pressure Drop
Pipe Pressure Drop Method
Vapor Phase Pressure Drop Methods
Pressure drop can be calculated either from the theoretically derived equation
for isothermal flow of a compressible fluid in a horizontal pipe2:

2
2
L G
G P1 M P2 P1
2 f f 0
In
2 RT
a P2
a
2

9.1

where :
G Mass flow
a Cross sectional area of pipe
P1 Upstream pressure
P2 Downstream pressure
R Universal gas constant
f f Fanning friction factor

Internal diameter
L Equivalent length
T Temperature
M Molecular weight

9 Theoretical Basis

157

Or from the theoretically derived equation for adiabatic flow of a compressible


fluid in a horizontal pipe2:
2
L - 1 P1 a V1
Af f
1
2 V1 G V2

1 V
In 2

V1

9.2

where :
G Mass flow
a Cross sectional area of pipe
P1 Upstream pressure
R Universal gas constant
V1 Upstream specific volume
V2 Downstream specific volume
f f Fanning friction factor

Internal diameter
L Equivalent length
Ratio of specific heats
The friction factor is calculated using an equation appropriate for the flow
regime. These equations correlate the friction factor to the pipe diameter,
Reynolds number and roughness of the pipe4:
Turbulent Flow (Re > 4000)
The friction factor may be calculated from either the Round equation:

1
ff

Re
3.61 log
e
0.135 Re 6.5

9.3
where :
f f Fanning friction factor
Re Reynolds number
Internal diameter
e Absolute pipe roughness
Or from the Chen21 equation:

1
ff

158

0.8981
1.1098
e /

5.0452 e /
7.149

4 log

log

3
.
7065
Re
2
.
8257
Re

9 Theoretical Basis

9.4
where :
f f Fanning friction factor
Re Reynolds number
Internal diameter
e Absolute pipe roughness
Transition Flow (2100 Re 4000)

1
ff

e 5.02 e 5.02 e
13.0

4.0 log
log
log

3.7 Re
3.7 Re
3.7 Re

9.5
where :
f f Fanning friction factor
Re Reynolds number
Internal diameter
e Absolute pipe roughness
Laminar Flow (Re < 2100)

ff

16
Re

9.6

where :
f f Fanning friction factor
Re Reynolds number
The Moody friction factor is related to the Fanning friction factor by:

fm 4 f f
9.7

where :
f f Fanning friction factor
f m Moody friction factor

9 Theoretical Basis

159

2-Phase Pressure Drop


Although the Beggs and Brill method was not intended for use with vertical
pipes, it is nevertheless commonly used for this purpose, and is therefore
included as an option for vertical pressure drop methods.

Beggs and Brill


The Beggs and Brill9 method is based on work done with an air-water mixture
at many different conditions, and is applicable for inclined flow. In the Beggs
and Brill correlation, the flow regime is determined using the Froude number
and inlet liquid content. The flow map used is based on horizontal flow and
has four regimes: segregated, intermittent, distributed and transition. Once
the flow regime has been determined, the liquid hold-up for a horizontal pipe
is calculated, using the correlation applicable to that regime. A factor is
applied to this hold-up to account for pipe inclination. From the hold-up, a
two-phase friction factor is calculated and the pressure gradient determined.

Fig 9.1

The boundaries between regions are defined in terms of two constants and
the Froude number10:

L1 exp 4.62 3.757x 0.481x 2 0.0207x 3


9.8

L2 exp 1.061 4.602x 1.609x 2 0.0179x 3 0.000625x 5

160

9 Theoretical Basis

9.9
where :
x In
Input liquid content q liquid / qliquid q gas
q In situ volumetric flowrate
According to Beggs and Brill:
1

If the Froude number is less than L1, the flow pattern is segregated.

If the Froude number is greater than both L1 and L2, the flow pattern is
distributed.

If the Froude number is greater than L1 and smaller than L2 the flow
pattern is intermittent.

Dukler Method
The Dukler10 method breaks the pressure drop into three components Friction, Elevation and Acceleration. The total pressure drop is the sum of the
pressure drop due to these components:

PTotal PF PE PA
9.10
where :
PTotal Total change in pressure
PF Change in pressure due to friction
PE Change in pressure due to elevation
PA Change in pressure due to acceleration
The pressure drop due to friction is:
2

2 f LV m m
PF TP
144 g c D
9.11
where :
f TP Two phase friction factor (determined empirically )
L Equivalent length of the pipeline ( ft )
Vm Velocity of the two phase mixture in pipeline assuming equal
velocity ( ft / s )
m Density of two phase mixture (lb / ft 3 )
g c Gravitational constant (32.2lbm ft / lbf s 2 )
D Inside diameter of pipe ( ft )

9 Theoretical Basis

161

The pressure drop due to elevation is as follows:

PE

Eh L H
144

9.12
where :
Eh Liquid head factor (determined empirically )
L Liquid density

H Sum of

elevation changes

The pressure drop due to acceleration is usually very small in oil/gas


distribution systems, but becomes significant in flare systems:

1
PA
144 g c A 2

2
2
2
2
g QGPL

g QGPL

L QLPL
L QLPL

cos

1 RL
RL
RL
1 RL

DS
US

9.13
where :
A Cross sectional area
g Gas density
QGPL Volume of gas flowing at pipeline temperature and pressure ( ft 3 / hr )
QLPL Volume of liquid flowing at pipeline temperature and pressure ( ft 3 / hr )
RL Liquid holdup in pipeline as a percentage of pipeline capacity
Angle of the pipe bend

Orkiszewski Method
The Orkiszewski11,12 method assumes there are four different flow regimes
existing in vertical two-phase flow - bubble, slug, annular-slug transition and
annular-mist.
The bubble flow regime consists mainly of liquid with a small amount of a
free-gas phase. The gas phase consists of small, randomly distributed gas
bubbles with varying diameters. The gas phase has little effect on the
pressure gradient (with the exception of its density).
In the slug flow regime, the gas phase is most pronounced. The gas bubbles
coalesce and form stable bubbles of approximately the same size and shape.
The gas bubbles are separated by slugs of a continuous liquid phase. There is
a film of liquid around the gas bubbles. The gas bubbles move faster than the
liquid phase. At high flow velocities, the liquid can become entrained in the
gas bubbles. The gas and liquid phases may have significant effects on the
pressure gradient.
Transition flow is the regime where the change from a continuous liquid phase
to a continuous gas phase occurs. In this regime, the gas phase becomes

162

9 Theoretical Basis

more dominant, with a significant amount of liquid becoming entrained in the


gas phase. The liquid slug between the gas bubbles virtually disappears in the
transition regime.
In the annular-mist regime, the gas phase is continuous and is the controlling
phase. The bulk of the liquid is entrained and carried in the gas phase.
Orkiszewski defined bubble flow, slug flow, mist flow and gas velocity
numbers which are used to determine the appropriate flow regime.
If the ratio of superficial gas velocity to the non-slip velocity is less than the
bubble flow number, then bubble flow exists, for which the pressure drop is:
2

VsL

RL

P f tp L
2g c D

9.14
where :
P Pressure drop (lb / ft 2 per foot of length)
f tp Two phase friction factor
L Liquid density (lb / ft 3 )
VsL Superficial liquid velocity ( ft / s )
RL Dimensionless factor dependent on non slip velocity
g c Gravitational constant (32.2 lbm ft / lbf s 2 )
D Hydraulic diameter ( ft )
If the ratio of superficial gas velocity to the non-slip velocity is greater than
the bubble flow number, and the gas velocity number is smaller than the slug
flow number, then slug flow exists. The pressure drop in this case is:

f tp LVns2
P
2g c D

VsL Vr

Vns Vr

9.15
where :
Vns Non slip velocity
Vr Bubble rise velocity
Constant
The pressure drop calculation for mist flow is as follows:

P f tp g

9 Theoretical Basis

sg

2gc D

163

9.16
where :
Vsg Superficial gas velocity ( ft / s )
g Gas density (lb / ft 3 )
The pressure drop for transition flow is:

P Ps 1 x Pm
9.17
where :
Ps Pressure drop for slug flow
Pm Pressure drop for mixed flow
x Weighting factor , dependent on mist flow, slug flow, and gas velocity numbers
The pressure drop calculated by the previous equations, are for a one-foot
length of pipe. These are converted to total pressure drop by:

Ptotal

PL
Qtotal G f

144 1
2
4637 PA p

9.18
where :
Density of the flowing regime (lb / ft 3 )
Qtotal Mass rate of combined liquid / gas (lb / s )
G f Gas flow rate ( ft 3 / s )
A p Cross sectional area of pipe ( ft 2 )
p Average pressure in segment ( psia )
P Unit pressure drop (as calculated above)
L Length of line segment ( ft )

164

9 Theoretical Basis

Fittings Pressure Change Methods


The correlations used for the calculation of the pressure change across a
fitting are expressed using either the change in static pressure or the change
in total pressure. Static pressure and total pressure are related by the
relationship:

Pt Ps

v 2
2

9.19
In this equation and all subsequent equations, the subscript t refers to total
pressure and the subscript s refers to the static pressure.

Enlargers/Contractions
The pressure change across an enlargement or contraction may be calculated
using either incompressible or compressible methods. For two phase systems
a correction factor that takes into account the effect of slip between the
phases may be applied.
Figure A.2 and A.3 define the configurations for enlargements and
contractions. In these figures the subscript 1 always refers to the fitting inlet
and subscript 2 always refers to the fitting outlet.

Fig 9.2

Fig 9.3

9 Theoretical Basis

165

Fitting Friction Loss Coefficient


The friction loss coefficients for Enlargements & Contractions are given by:
Sudden and Gradual Enlargement
For an enlarger, both Crane & HTFS methods use the same the fittings loss
coefficients which are defined by Crane26. These methods are based on the
ratio of smaller diameter to larger diameter ().
If < 45

K1 2.6 sin 1 2
2

9.20
Otherwise

K1 1 2

9.21
where, is the ratio of smaller diameter to larger diameter
d
1
d2
Sudden and Gradual Contraction
For a contraction the fittings loss coefficient in Crane & HTFS methods are
calculated differently for abrupt sudden contractions. Otherwise the
coefficients are same for Crane & HTFS methods. These calculation methods
are as described below:
Crane
The fitting loss coefficient is calculated as per HTFS27. These methods are
based on the ratio of smaller diameter to larger diameter ().

K1

K t Cc
2

9.22
K t 19.2211 2 8.54038 2.5 14.242651.5 4.5385
0.39543 0.5 0.57806
9.23
where:
d
2
d1
166

9 Theoretical Basis

The contraction coefficient, is defined by

C c 0.0179le 9.6240' 0.03614' 1 '4.79028

0.25

9.24

where :
' /180o
HTFS
The fittings loss coefficients are defined by HTFS27. These methods are same
as the previous Crane method (Equations A.22 A.24) except for sudden
contractions where the contraction coefficient is calculated differently.
If

= 180 (Abrupt contraction)

Cc

1
1 0.411 -

9.25
Incompressible Single Phase Flow
The total pressure change across the fitting is given by:

Pt K 1

1v12
2

9.26
where :
p Total pressure change
K1 Fittings loss coefficient
Mass density
v Velocity

Incompressible Two Phase Flow


Sudden and Gradual Enlargement
The static pressure change across the fitting is given by HTFS27

1 2

K1 1 2 m 1

2
Ps
LO
2 l
9.27
2
LO

9 Theoretical Basis

x g2 l
1 xg

g g
1- g

2
167

9.28
where :
m Mass flux
Phase mass density
Phase void fraction
x Phase mass fraction
K 1 Fittings loss coefficient
Sudden and Gradual Contraction
The static pressure change across the fitting is given by HTFS27

Ps

1 2 m 22 2
LO
2 l

9.29
2
LO
L2 1 x g

9.30

L2 1

C
1
2
X X

9.31

1 xg
X
x
g

g


l

0.5

g

l

9.32

C l

0. 5

0. 5

9.33
where :
m Mass flux
Phase mass density
Phase void fraction
x Phase mass fraction
K 1 Fittings loss coefficient

168

9 Theoretical Basis

Compressible Single Phase Flow


Sudden and Gradual Enlargement
The static pressure change across the fitting is given by HTFS27

Ps

m 12 1

1
1 2

9.34
where :
m Mass flux
Phase mass density
Sudden and Gradual Contraction
The static pressure change across the fitting is calculated using the two-phase
method given in Compressible Two Phase Flow below. The single-phase
properties are used in place of the two-phase properties.

Compressible Two Phase Flow


Sudden and Gradual Enlargement
The static pressure change across the fitting is given by HTFS27

Ps

m 12 vE 2

vE1

9.35

where :
vE Equivalent specific volume given by

1 xg

u R 1

vE x g v g u R 1 x g vl x g
1

u R v g 0.5

v 1

9.36

v
u R H
vl

0.5

9.37

vH xg vg 1 xg vl

9 Theoretical Basis

169

9.38

where :
m Mass flux
Phase mass density
x Phase mass fraction
Sudden and Gradual Contraction
The pressure loss comprises two components. These are the contraction of
the fluid as is passed from the inlet to the vena contracta plus the expansion
of the fluid as it passes from the vena contracta to the outlet. In the following
equations the subscript t refers to the condition at the vena contracta.
For the flow from the inlet to the vena conracta, the pressure change is
modeled in accordance with HTFS27 by:

2
vE
m 12 v E1 v Et
1

d
1

v E1
2 P1 v E1 C c 2

9.39

P
P1

9.40
For the flow from the vena contracta to the outlet the pressure change is
modeled used the methods for Sudden and Gradual Expansion given above.

Tees
Tees can be modeled either by using a flow independent loss coefficient for
each flow path or by using variable loss coefficients that are a function of the
volumetric flow and area for each flow path as well as the branch angle. The
following numbering scheme is used to reference the flow paths.

Fig 9.4
Constant Loss Coefficients
The following static pressure loss coefficients values are suggested by the
API23:

170

9 Theoretical Basis

K13

K 23

K 12

K 31

K 32

K 21

<90o

0.76

0.50

1.37

0.76

0.50

1.37

90o

1.37

0.38

1.37

1.37

0.38

1.37

The selection of the coefficient value is dependent on the angle and the
direction of flow through the tee.
For flow into the run, the loss coefficient for tee is:

K13

K 12

90o

0.38

1.37

<>90o

0.50

1.37

For flow into the branch, the loss coefficient for tee is:

K 21

K 23

90o

1.37

1.37

<>90o

1.37

0.76

For flow into the tail, the loss coefficient for tee is:

K 31

K 23

90o

0.38

1.37

<>90o

0.50

0.76

where : Reference numbers 1,2 and 3 are assigned as shown in Figure A.4
The static pressure change across the fitting is given by:

Ps K

v 2
2

9.41
Variable Loss Coefficients
The loss coefficients are a function of the branch angle, branch area to total
flow area ratio and branch volumetric flow to total volumetric flow ratio.
These coefficients can be determined either from graphical representation by
Miller25 or from the Gardel28 equations. Using these methods, static pressure
changes can be calculated from:
Combining Flow

1v12

3 v32

P
P3

1
2
2

K 13
2
3 v2
2

9 Theoretical Basis

171

9.42
2v22
3v32

P2
P3

2
2

K 23
3v22
2
9.43
Dividing Flow

3v32
1v12

3
1
2
2

K 31
3v22
2
9.44

K 32

3 v32
2 v 22

P
P2

3
2

2
3 v2
2

9.45
Miller Method
A typical Miller chart for

K 23

in combining flow is shown.

Fig 9.5

Gardel Method

172

9 Theoretical Basis

These coefficients can also be calculated analytically from the Gardel28


Equations given below:
Combining flow:

cos

1
2
K 13 0.921 q r 1.2
1 0.81 2

2 q r 1 q r

cos 2
1
qr

2
cos

2
K23 0.031 qr 1 1.62
1 0.381 q r

2 q r 1 q r
9.46
Dividing Flow

0.4 0.1
2
2

K 31 0.951 q r 1.3 tan 0.3


1

0
.
9
qr

2

2

1
0.41 tan q r 1 q r
2

K 32 0.03 1 q r 0.35q r 0.2q r 1 q r


2

9.47
Where,
qr = Ratio of volumetric flow rate in branch to total volumetric flow rate
= Area ratio of pipe connected with the branch to the pipe carrying the
total flow
= Ratio of the fillet radius of the branch to the radius of the pipe connected
with the branch
= Angle between branch and main flow as shown in Fig 9.4

Orifice Plates
Orifice plates can be modeled either as a sudden contraction from the inlet
pipe size to the orifice diameter followed by a sudden expansion from the
orifice diameter to the outlet pipe size or by using the HTFS equation for a
thin orifice plate.

Ps

2.825
1 2
4

1.5082 0.08956

m 12
21

9.48
See Incompressible Single Phase Flow on Page 263 for a definition of the
symbols.
9 Theoretical Basis

173

Vertical Separators
The Pressure change across the separator comprises the following
components:
Expansion of the multiphase inlet from the inlet diameter, d1, to the body
diameter dbody.
Contraction of vapor phase outlet from the body diameter, dbody, to the outlet
diameter, d2
Friction losses are ignored.

Fig 9.6

Horizontal Separators
The Pressure change across the separator comprises the following
components calculated using the methods described in Incompressible Single
Phase Flow on Page 263:
Expansion of the multiphase inlet from the inlet diameter, d1, to the vapor
space characterized by equivalent diameter of the vapor area.
Contraction of vapor phase outlet from the vapor space characterized by the
equivalent diameter of the vapor area, to the outlet diameter, d2
Friction losses are ignored.

Fig 9.7

174

9 Theoretical Basis

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
Compressible Gas
The PVT relationship is expressed as:

PV ZRT
9.49

where :
P Pressure
V Volume
Z Compressibility factor
R Gas constant
T Temperature
The compressibility factor Z is a function of reduced temperature and
pressure. The overall critical temperature and pressure are determined using
applicable mixing rules.

Vapor Pressure
The following equations are used for estimating the vapor pressure, given the
component critical properties3:

Inp * r Inp * r

Inp
0

9.50

Inp 5.92714 6.09648


1.28862InT
T
*

0.169347Tr6

9 Theoretical Basis

175

9.51

Inp 15.2518 16.T6875 13.4721InT


*

0.43577Tr6

9.52
where :
pr* Reduced vapour pressure ( p * / pc )
p * Vapour pressure ( psi abs )
pc Critical pressure ( psi abs )
Acentric factor
Tr Reduced temperature (T / Tc )
T Temperature ( oR)
Tc Critical temperature ( oR)
This equation is restricted to reduced temperatures greater than 0.30, and
should not be used below the freezing point. Its use was intended for
hydrocarbons, but it generally works well with water.

Soave Redlich Kwong


It was noted by Wilson (1965, 1966) that the main drawback of the RedlichKwong equation of state was its inability of accurately reproducing the vapor
pressures of pure component constituents of a given mixture. He proposed a
modification to the RK equation of state using the acentricity as a correlating
parameter, but this approach was widely ignored until 1972, when Soave
(1972) proposed a modification of the SRK equation of this form:

RT
a T , Tc ,

V b V V b

9.53
The a term was fitted in such a way as to reproduce the vapor pressure of
hydrocarbons using the acentric factor as a correlating parameter. This led to
the following development:

RT
ac

V b V V b

9.54
ac a

176

R 2Tc2
a the same as RK
Pc

9 Theoretical Basis

9.55

1 S 1 Tr0.5

9.56
S 0.480 1.574 - 0.176 2

9.57
The reduced form is:

Pr

3Tr
3.8473

Vr 0.2559 Vr Vr 0.2599

9.58
The SRK equation of state can represent with good accuracy the behavior of
hydrocarbon systems for separation operations, and since it is readily
converted into computer code, its usage has been extensive in the last twenty
years. Other derived thermodynamic properties, like enthalpies and entropies,
are reasonably accurate for engineering work, and the SRK equation enjoys
wide acceptance in the engineering community today.

Peng Robinson
Peng and Robinson (1976) noted that although the SRK was an improvement
over the RK equation for VLE calculations, the densities for the liquid phase
were still in considerable disagreement with experimental values due to a
universal critical compressibility factor of 0.3333, which was still too high.
They proposed a modification to the RK equation which reduced the critical
compressibility to about 0.307, and which would also represent the VLE of
natural gas systems accurately. This improved equation is represented by:

RT
ac

V b V V b bV b

9.59
R 2Tc2
ac 0.45724
Pc
9.60

b 0.07780

RTc
Pc

9.61
They used the same functional dependency for the term as Soave:

9 Theoretical Basis

177

1 S 1 Tr0.5

9.62
S 0.37464 1.5422 - 0.26992 2

9.63

Pr

3.2573Tr
4.8514
2
Vr 0.2534 Vr 0.5068Vr 0.0642

9.64
The accuracy of the SRK and PR equations of state are roughly the same
(except for density calculations).

Physical Properties
Vapor Density
Vapor density is calculated using the compressibility factor calculated from
the Berthalot equation5. This equation correlates the compressibility factor to
the pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo reduced temperature.

P
Z 1.0 0.0703 r
Tr

6.0
1.0 2
Tr

9.65

PM
ZRT

9.66

Liquid Density
Saturated liquid volumes are obtained using a corresponding states equation
developed by R. W. Hankinson and G. H. Thompson14 which explicitly relates
the liquid volume of a pure component to its reduced temperature and a
second parameter termed the characteristic volume. This method has been
adopted as an API standard. The pure compound parameters needed in the
corresponding states liquid density (COSTALD) calculations are taken from
the original tables published by Hankinson and Thompson, and the API data
book for components contained in Aspen Flare System Analyzer's library. The
parameters for hypothetical components are based on the API gravity and the
generalized Lu equation. Although the COSTALD method was developed for
saturated liquid densities, it can be applied to sub-cooled liquid densities, i.e.,
178

9 Theoretical Basis

at pressures greater than the vapor pressure, using the Chueh and Prausnitz
correction factor for compressed fluids. The COSTALD model was modified to
improve its accuracy to predict the density for all systems whose pseudoreduced temperature is below 1.0. Above this temperature, the equation of
state compressibility factor is used to calculate the liquid density.

Vapor Viscosity
Vapor viscosity is calculated from the Golubev3 method. These equations
correlate the vapor viscosity to molecular weight, temperature and the
pseudo critical properties.
Tr > 1.0

3.5M 0.5 Pc0.667Tr( 0.71 0.29 / Tr )


10000.0Tc0.167

9.67
Tr 1.0

3.5 M 0.5 Pc0.667Tr( 0.965)


10000.0Tc0.167

9.68

Liquid Viscosity
Aspen Flare System Analyzer will automatically select the model best suited
for predicting the phase viscosities of the system under study. The model
selected will be from one of the three available in Aspen Flare System
Analyzer: a modification of the NBS method (Ely and Hanley), Twu's model,
and a modification of the Letsou-Stiel correlation. Aspen Flare System
Analyzer will select the appropriate model using the following criteria:
Chemical System

Liquid Phase Methodology

Lt Hydrocarbons (NBP < 155 F)

Mod Ely & Hanley

Hvy Hydrocarbons (NBP > 155 F)

Twu

Non-Ideal Chemicals

Mod Letsou-Stiel

All the models are based on corresponding states principles and have been
modified for more reliable application. These models were selected since they
were found from internal validation to yield the most reliable results for the
chemical systems shown. Viscosity predictions for light hydrocarbon liquid
phases and vapor phases were found to be handled more reliably by an inhouse modification of the original Ely and Hanley model, heavier hydrocarbon
liquids were more effectively handled by Twu's model, and chemical systems
were more accurately handled by an in-house modification of the original
Letsou-Stiel model.

9 Theoretical Basis

179

A complete description of the original corresponding states (NBS) model used


for viscosity predictions is presented by Ely and Hanley in their NBS
publication16. The original model has been modified to eliminate the iterative
procedure for calculating the system shape factors. The generalized LeechLeland shape factor models have been replaced by component specific
models. Aspen Flare System Analyzer constructs a PVT map for each
component and regresses the shape factor constants such that the PVT map
can be reproduced using the reference fluid.
Note: The PVT map is constructed using the COSTALD for the liquid region.
The shape factor constants for all the library components have already been
regressed and are stored with the pure component properties.
Pseudo component shape factor constants are regressed when the physical
properties are supplied. Kinematic or dynamic viscosity versus temperature
curves may be supplied to replace Aspen Flare System Analyzer's internal
pure component viscosity correlations. Aspen Flare System Analyzer uses the
viscosity curves, whether supplied or internally calculated, with the physical
properties to generate a PVT map and regress the shape factor constants.
Pure component data is not required, but if it is available it will increase the
accuracy of the calculation.
The general model employs methane as a reference fluid and is applicable to
the entire range of non-polar fluid mixtures in the hydrocarbon industry.
Accuracy for highly aromatic or naphthenic oil will be increased by supplying
viscosity curves when available, since the pure component property
generators were developed for average crude oils. The model also handles
water and acid gases as well as quantum gases.
Although the modified NBS model handles these systems very well, the Twu
method was found to do a better job of predicting the viscosities of heavier
hydrocarbon liquids. The Twu model18 is also based on corresponding states
principles, but has implemented a viscosity correlation for n-alkanes as its
reference fluid instead of methane. A complete description of this model is
given in the paper18 titled "Internally Consistent Correlation for Predicting
Liquid Viscosities of Petroleum Fractions".
For chemical systems the modified NBS model of Ely and Hanley is used for
predicting vapor phase viscosities, whereas a modified form of the LetsouStiel model15 is used for predicting the liquid viscosities. This method is also
based on corresponding states principles and was found to perform
satisfactorily for the components tested.
The parameters supplied for all Aspen Flare System Analyzer pure library
components have been fit to match existing viscosity data over a broad
operating range. Although this will yield good viscosity predictions as an
average over the entire range, improved accuracy over a more narrow
operating range can be achieved by supplying viscosity curves for any given
component. This may be achieved either by modifying an existing library
component through Aspen Flare System Analyzer's component librarian or by
entering the desired component as a hypothetical and supplying its viscosity
curve.

180

9 Theoretical Basis

Liquid Phase Mixing Rules for Viscosity


The estimates of the apparent liquid phase viscosity of immiscible
Hydrocarbon Liquid - Aqueous mixtures are calculated using the following
"mixing rules":
If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is greater than or equal to
0.33, the following equation is used19:

eff oil e3.61voil


9.69
where :
eff Apparent viscosity
oil Viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase
voil Volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase
If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is less than 0.33, the
following equation is used20:

oil 0.4 H 2O
H O
eff 1 2.5voil

H 2O
oil

9.70
where :
eff Apparent viscosity
oil Viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase
H 2O Viscosity of Aqueous phase
voil Volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase
The remaining properties of the pseudo phase are calculated as follows:

mweff xi mwi

(molecular weight)

9.71

eff 1 / xi / pi (mixture density)


9.72

Cpeff xi Cpi

9 Theoretical Basis

(misture specific heat )

181

9.73

Thermal Conductivity
As in viscosity predictions, a number of different models and component
specific correlations are implemented for prediction of liquid and vapor phase
thermal conductivities. The text by Reid, Prausnitz and Polings15 was used as
a general guideline in determining which model was best suited for each class
of components. For hydrocarbon systems the corresponding states method
proposed by Ely and Hanley16 is generally used. The method requires
molecular weight, acentric factor and ideal heat capacity for each component.
These parameters are tabulated for all library components and may either be
input or calculated for hypothetical components. It is recommended that all of
these parameters be supplied for non-hydrocarbon hypotheticals to ensure
reliable thermal conductivity coefficients and enthalpy departures.
The modifications to the method are identical to those for the viscosity
calculations. Shape factors calculated in the viscosity routines are used
directly in the thermal conductivity equations. The accuracy of the method
will depend on the consistency of the original PVT map.
The Sato-Reidel method15 is used for liquid phase thermal conductivity
predictions of glycols and acids, the Latini et al. Method15 is used for esters,
alcohols and light hydrocarbons in the range of C3 - C7, and the Missenard
and Reidel method15 is used for the remaining components.
For vapor phase thermal conductivity predictions, the Misic and Thodos, and
Chung et al. 15 methods are used. The effect of higher pressure on thermal
conductivities is taken into account by the Chung et al. method.
As in viscosity, the thermal conductivity for two liquid phases is approximated
by using empirical mixing rules for generating a single pseudo liquid phase
property.

Enthalpy
Ideal Gas
The ideal gas enthalpy is calculated from the following equation:

H ideal Ai BiT CiT 2 DiT 3 EiT 4


9.74

where :
H Ideal enthalpy
T Temperature
A, B, C , D, E Ideal gas heat capacity terms

182

9 Theoretical Basis

Lee-Kesler
The Lee-Kesler enthalpy method corrects the ideal gas enthalpy for
temperature and pressure.

H H ideal H dep
9.75
s
r
H dep H dep
H dep

RTc RTc RTc

H dep


RTc

9.76

H dep

RTc

2b3k 3b4k
k

2
Tr Tt 2
k

Tr Z 1.0
TrVr

c2k

3c k
23
Tr
2TrVr2

k
d 2 3E

5TrVr5

9.77

k
k Vr2
k
1.0 1 2 e
Vr

ck
E 34 k
2Tr

9.78

where :
Tc Critical temperature
H Specific enthalpy
Acentric factor
r Reference fluid
s Simple fluid
H ideal Ideal enthalpy
b, c, d , , Lee Kesler terms
H dep Ideal gas departure enthalpy

Equations of State
The Enthalpy and Entropy calculations are performed rigorously using the
following exact thermodynamic relations:
V

H H ID
1 P
Z 1
P dV
T

RT
RT T V

9 Theoretical Basis

183

9.79
V
1 P
S S oID
P
1
InZ In o
dV
R
P R T V V

9.80
For the Peng Robinson Equation of State, we have:

H H ID
1
Z 1 1. 5
RT
2 bRT

da V 2 0.5 1 b

T
In

dt V 2 0.5 1 b

9.81

S S oID
P
A Tda Z 2 0.5 1 B
In Z B In o 1.5
In

R
P
2 B adT Z 2 0.5 1 B

9.82
where :
a xi x j ai a j 1 kij
N

0.5

i 1 j 1

9.83
For the SRK Equation of State:

H H ID
1
Z 1
RT
bRT

da
b

a T dt In1 V

9.84

S SoID
P A Tda B
InZ B In o
In1
R
P
B adT Z
9.85
A and B term definitions are provided below:
Term

184

Peng-Robinson

bi

0.077796

ai

acii

RTci
Pci

Soave-Redlich-Kwong

0.08664

RTci
Pci

acii

9 Theoretical Basis

Term

Peng-Robinson

aci

0.457235

RTci 2
Pci

1 mi 1 Tri0.5

0.37646 1.54226i 0.26992i2

mi

Soave-Redlich-Kwong

0.42748

RTci 2
Pci

1 mi 1 Tri0.5

0.48 1.57i 0.176i2

where :
a xi x j ai a j 1 kij
N

0.5

i 1 j 1

9.86
and
N

b xi bi
i 1

9.87
ID Ideal gas
o

Reference state

R Ideal gas constant


H Enthalpy
S Entropy

9 Theoretical Basis

185

Noise
The sound pressure level at a given distance from the pipe is calculated from
the following equations. In these equations the noise producing mechanism is
assumed to be solely due to the pressure drop due to friction.

P
Wm 1.36

L 4

9.88
1013 Wm L
t
SPLr 10 log
2
4 r

9.89
where :
L Equivalent length
SPL Sound pressure level
r Distance from pipe
Internal diameter
Acoustic efficiency
P Change in pressure
t Pipe wall transmission loss
v Average fluid velocity

186

9 Theoretical Basis

Fig 9.8
10 - 3

10 - 4

Aco us tical Efficien cy

1 0-5

10 - 6

10 - 7

10 - 8
pt = 1 0.0
10 - 9
p t = 1.0
10 - 10
p t = 0. 1
10 - 11
0 .0

0.2

0 .4

0 .6

0. 8

1.0

M ach N um b er

The transmission loss due to the pipe wall is calculated from:

0.5mv
36.0
t 17.0

9.90

where :
m Pipe wall mass per unit area

Internal diameter
v Average fluid velocity
The acoustical efficiency is calculated from the equation below.

Pr exp4.9986* ln M 9.5388
9.91
where
Pr = Ratio of higher absolute Pr over lower absolute Pr between two ends of
the pipe (i.e. if upstream pr.> downstream pr., Pr = upstream
pr./downstream pr. Else if upstream pr.< downstream pr., Pr = downstream
pr./upstream pr.)
M = Mach No.
9 Theoretical Basis

187

188

9 Theoretical Basis

A File Format

Import/Export Details
This section provides further details of the import and export capabilities of
Aspen Flare System Analyzer.
Important! The definition format for Import/Export has changed since Aspen
Flare System Analyzer V7.3. As a result, if you are using Aspen Flare System
Analyzer V7.3 or later, you cannot import files generated from Aspen Flare
System Analyzer V7.2 and earlier versions or export on top of a file that has
been generated using Aspen Flare System Analyzer V7.2 or earlier versions.

Process Descriptions
Import Wizard
The purpose of this section of the documentation is to describe step by step
the operation of the import wizard.

End of Step 1
At this stage the import process verifies that the specified import file exists
and opens it. The import wizard is then configured for the appropriate file
type.
Any errors are reported.

End of Step 2
At this stage the import process opens the specified import definition file or
the default or new import definition file as specified in Preferences as
appropriate. A check is made that the import definition file type matches the
file type specified in step 1. The version of the import definition file is then
checked; data object and data item elements are added to update to the
current Aspen Flare System Analyzer version if required.
The next step is to process the file to build the object selector tree view for
Step 3. Any problems in reading the import definition file are reported.

A File Format

189

Step 3
During this step, the Import Wizard extracts Source tab data and Field
Details for each data item as different data objects are selected. Whenever a
new data object is selected, the data on the Source tab is validated and any
problems are reported.

End of Step 4
The first action taken is to save the import definition file if required,
prompting for the file name to be used. The import process then begins. In
detail, the steps are:
1

Clear current results.

Open log file if required.

Read components one by one. For each component check to see if it


already exists in the current Aspen Flare System Analyzer case. If not,
add the component to list. For database components, use information
from database; otherwise, use the data values from file.

Read binary interaction parameter data.

Read data for pipes, connector nodes and source nodes one object type at
a time; updating the progress view as appropriate.

As each instance of a particular object type is read, check if it already


exists. If so, use the data read to update it; otherwise, create a new
instance of the appropriate object type.

Make connections between pipes and nodes. Processing allows for only
one end of the connection to be read.

Read scenario data. Existing scenarios will be updated, and new ones
created if required.

Read Solver options.

10 Update automatic calculations to reflect new data values.


11 Refresh all views.
12 Close log file, and then close Import Data File. Any background copy of
Excel will be closed at this point.
13 Close the Import Wizard and finish.

General Data Object Import Procedure


For each object type that is read, the detailed import procedure is as follows:

190

Check to see if import of this object type is required. Quit reading this
type of data object if not.

Process the data object definition data from the Import Definition File.
Search for and open the specified source object. Quit if any errors are
encountered.

Search the source data object for an instance of the appropriate object
type using the defined select criteria if required. For Access imports, this
will be a row in the specified table; for Excel imports, this will be a row or
column range in the specified worksheet where cell offset 1,1 is not blank;
for XML imports, this will be an item element within the specified group
element.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 to open any sub section data objects.


A File Format

Read data items from source one by one.

Update counters for number of instances read and search data source for
next object instance. For an Access imports, this will be the next row; for
Excel imports, the next row or column range; for XML imports, the next
item element. Selection criteria will apply if specified. Quit if the next
instance cannot be found.

Repeat steps 5 and 6 until all instances have been read.

Export Process
The purpose of this section of the documentation is to describe step by step
the operation of the export wizard.

End of Step 1
At this stage the export process checks to see if the target export file exists.
If so, it opens the file; otherwise, a new file with the defined name is created.
The Export Wizard is then configured for the appropriate file type.
Any errors are reported.

End of Step 2
At this stage, the export process opens the specified export definition file or
the default or new export definition file specified in Preferences as
appropriate. A check is made that the export definition file type matches the
file type specified in step 1. The version of the export definition file is then
checked and data object and data item elements are added to update it to the
current Aspen Flare System Analyzer version if required.
The next step is to process the file to build the object selector tree view for
Step 3. Any problems in reading the export definition file are reported.

Step 3
During this step, the Export Wizard extracts Target tab data and Field
Details for each data item as different data objects are selected. Whenever a
new data object is selected, the data on the Target tab is validated and any
problems are reported.

End of Step 4
The first action taken is to save the export definition file if required,
prompting for the file name to be used. The export process then begins. In
detail the steps are:

A File Format

Clear existing data from export file if requested.

Write components data.

Write binary interaction parameter data.

Write pipe data.

Write connector node and source node data, working through each type of
node in turn.

Write scenario data for scenarios that are selected for calculation.

191

Write results data for scenarios that are selected for calculation.

Write solver options.

Save export file. Any background copy of Excel will be closed at this point.

10 Close the Export Wizard.

General Data Object Export Procedure


For each object type that is written, the detailed export procedure is as
follows:
1

Check that export of this data object type is required. Quit if not.

Create target data object using information from export definition file. For
Access export, this will create a table with the correct fields; for Excel
export, a worksheet with the correct name; for XML export, a group tag
with the correct name. Quit if any errors are encountered.

Create target data objects as required for any data subsections.

For each instance of the data object to be written, search the output file to
see if this instance already exists. If so, select this to be overwritten;
otherwise, create a new instance for the data object in the output file. For
Access export, this will be a new row in that target table; for Excel export,
the next row or column range where cell offset 1,1 is blank; for XML
export, a new item element. Quit if the new target instance cannot be
found.

Write the values to the target object instance.

Update counters for number of items read and mark target instance as
complete.

Repeat steps 4 to 6 until each instance of this data object has been
written.

Definition File Formats


The import and export definition files are XML formatted data files that
describe how the various Aspen Flare System Analyzer data objects and their
corresponding data items should be read from or written to the supported
external file formats. This section of the documentation describes the layout
of these files.

Import File Formats


File Header
The top level element of an import definition file must have the tag name
FlarenetImport and contain the following attributes:

192

Attribute

Description

LastModified

This is a date string that indicates the date that the file was last
updated.

FlarenetVersion

This indicates the version of Aspen Flare System Analyzer that the
file is applicable to.

FileType

This indicates the type of external file import that is described in


this definition file. Valid values are Access, Excel or XML.
A File Format

Data Object Elements


The child elements of the FlarenetImport tag define the various data objects
that may be imported by Aspen Flare System Analyzer. These parent data
object elements may contain child data object elements that describe data
subsections which may be imported from a different location to the parent
data object. For example, a pipe data object has a data subsection defined for
the PFD layout information.
A data object element has the following attributes:
Attribute

Description

ObjectName

This defines the source of the data object in the external file. Its usage
depends on the type of external file as follows:

Access The entry defines a database table.

Excel The entry defines a worksheet.

XML The entry defines the tag name of a group element.

Import

This indicates whether this object type is to be imported. Valid values


are Yes or No.

Contained

This indicates whether the data for this object is contained in the same
external data source as the parent object. Valid values are Yes or No.
This setting is always No for a parent data object.

DataBy

This entry appears in Excel import definition files only. It defines how
the data for this object is organized. Valid values are Row, Column or
Sheet.

StartAt

This entry appears in Excel import definition files only. When DataBy is
set to Row or Column, it defines the starting row or column for the
data. When DataBy is set to Sheet, it defines the tag by which
worksheets of the requisite layout can be identified.

PerItem

This entry appears in Excel import definition files only. It defines the
number of rows or columns occupied by a single instance of a data
object, including any spacing, when DataBy is set to Row or Column.

ItemTag

This entry appears in XML import definition files only. It defines the
element tag name used to identify each instance of a data object within
the group tag name defined in the ObjectName attribute.

A list of valid Data Object elements names is given in Data Objects List.

Data Item Elements


Each data object element contains data item elements that define the location
of the individual data item in the external data source. A data item element
contains the following attributes:

A File Format

Attribute

Description

Import

This indicates whether the item is to be imported. Valid values are Yes
or No.

193

Attribute

Description

Offset

This defines the location of the data value in the external file. Its usage
depends on the type of external file, but data substitution codes can be
defined for the offset in all cases see Data Substitution Codes.

Access The entry defines a field within the database table for
the object.

Excel The entry defines a cell within the worksheet for the
object. The cell is defined either by a single row or column offset
or by a row, column offset.

XML The entry defines the tag name of an element within the
item tag element for the object.

A list of the data item elements that are recognized for each data object is
given in Data Items List.

Export File Formats


File Header
The top level element of an export definition file must have the tag name
FlarenetExport and contain the following attributes:
Attribute

Description

LastModified

This is a date string that indicates the date that the file was last
updated.

FlarenetVersion

This indicates the version of Aspen Flare System Analyzer that the
file is applicable to.

FileType

This indicates the type of external file export that is described in this
definition file. Valid values are Access, Excel or XML.

Data Object Elements


The child elements of the FlarenetExport tag define the various data objects
that may be exported by Aspen Flare System Analyzer. These parent data
object elements may contain child data object elements that describe data
subsections which may be exported to a different location to the parent data
object.
A data object element has the following attributes:

194

Attribute

Description

ObjectName

This defines the name of the data object that will be created and written
to in the external file. Its usage depends on the type of external file as
follows:

Access The entry defines a database table.

Excel The entry defines a worksheet.

XML The entry defines the tag name of a group element.

Export

This indicates whether this object type is to be exported. Valid values


are Yes or No.

Contained

This indicates whether the data for this object is to be written to the
same external data source as the parent object. Valid values are Yes or
No. This setting is always No for a parent data object.

A File Format

Attribute

Description

DataBy

This entry appears in Excel export definition files only. It defines how
the data for this object is organized. Valid values are Row, Column or
Sheet.

StartAt

This entry appears in Excel export definition files only. When DataBy is
set to Row or Column, it defines the starting row or column for the
data. When DataBy is set to Sheet, it defines the name of the
worksheet that will be copied to create a worksheet for each instance of
the data object. This name must begin with a % character.

PerItem

This entry appears in Excel export definition files only. It defines the
number of rows or columns occupied by a single instance of a data
object, including any spacing, when DataBy is set to Row or Column.

ItemTag

This entry appears in XML export definition files only. It defines the
element tag name used to identify each instance of a data object within
the group tag name defined in the ObjectName attribute.

A list of valid Data Object elements names is given in Data Objects List.

Data Item Elements


Each data object element contains data item elements that define how an
individual data item is to be written to the external data source. A data item
element contains the following attributes:
Attribute

Description

Export

This indicates whether the item is to be exported. Valid values are Yes
or No.

Offset

This defines the location where the data value will be written in the
external file. Its usage depends on the type of external file, but data
substitution codes can be defined for the offset in all cases see Data
Substitution Codes.

Access The entry defines a field within the database table for
the object.

Excel The entry defines a cell within the worksheet for the
object. The cell is defined either by a single row or column offset
or by a row, column offset.

XML The entry defines the tag name of an element within the
item tag element for the object.

Type

This appears in Access export definition files only. It defines the data
type of the field to be created for this item. Valid values are Text for
text strings, Long for integer values, Double for floating point values.

Length

This appears in Access export definition files only. It defines the length of
the field to be created. For fields of type Text, it defines the length of
the text string in characters; for fields of types Long and Double, it is
set to 0 and will be ignored though it must be present.

A list of the data item elements that are recognized for each data object is
given in Data Items List.

Data Substitution Codes


As indicated in the above data substitution codes may be defined in the Offset
attribute for item import and export data items. The details of these codes are
as follows:
A File Format

195

Offset Codes
The following codes are recognized and processed in the Offset attribute in
both import and export definition files.
%ObjectName
where ObjectName is the name of a data object element, will be replaced
by a value that iterates as successive instances of that type of object are
read or written for this instance of the parent data object. It is used to
provide a value that iterates through repeated data items, e.g. component
data or pipe fitting data. ObjectName may refer to any data object
element that is a parent of the data item. The code is usually used in
conjunction with a + symbol to add the iteration value to some constant
value.
In an Access or XML import or export definition file, the + symbol means
that the iteration value is concatenated with the constant value. E.g.
Frac+%Composition will be expanded to Frac1, Frac2 etc.
In an Excel import or export definition file, *, -, and / symbols as well as
the + symbol are recognized to combine the iteration value with a
constant value to calculate a cell address. E.g. 2,2+%Composition will be
expanded to the cell references 2,3 then 2,4 etc. See the CurveMassFlow
data item in the TipCurveData data object in the definition file
DefExcel.fni for a more complicated example.
#ObjectName
where ObjectName is the name of a data object element, will be replaced
by the total number of instances of that type of data object that have
been read. ObjectName may refer to any data object element that is a
child of the current data object element. The value returned is usually
combined with some constant value through a + or other symbols as for
the %ObjectName code.
?Composition
is a special code that is used exactly as it stands. ?Composition will be
replaced by each component name or offset in turn as successive
component composition data items are read or written. It is generally
used in conjunction with a + symbol to each component name or offset to
some constant value.
In an Access or XML import or export definition file, ?Composition will
return component names in turn from the master component list. e.g.
Frac+?Composition will be evaluated as FracMethane, FracEthane etc.
In an Excel import or export definition, ?Composition will return the index
number of a component in the master component list to allow it to be
used to calculate a cell offset.
In both cases, the master component list is the union of the components
in the current Aspen Flare System Analyzer case and the import or export
definition files. Essentially this code allows unambiguous specification of a
component identity when merging of the component lists between a Aspen
Flare System Analyzer case and an import or export definition file.

196

A File Format

Recognized Objects and Items


Data Objects List
Data object elements for the following data objects and sub-sections are
recognized in import and export definition files.
Element Tag

Sub Section Data


Object Elements

Description

Components

None

Component data

BIPs

None

Binary interaction parameters

Connectors

PFDLayout

Connector nodes

ControlValves

PFDLayout

Control valve source nodes

Composition
SourceData
FlowBleeds

PFDLayout

Flow bleed nodes

HorizontalSeparators

Composition

Horizontal separator nodes

PFDLayout
OrificePlates

PFDLayout

Orifice plate nodes

Fitting

None

Fitting data for pipes

Pipes

PFDLayout

Pipes

ReliefValves

PFDLayout

Tees

PFDLayout

Tee nodes

FlareTips

PFDLayout

Flare tip nodes

Fitting
Relief valve source nodes

SourceData

Curves
Curves

Points

Tip pressure drop curves

Points

None

Data points in tip pressure drop curve

VerticalSeparators

PFDLayout

Vertical separator nodes

Solvers

None

Solver options

Scenarios

SourceData

Scenario data

Composition

None

Component composition data

SourceData

Composition

Scenario specific source data

PFDLayout

None

PFD layout information

Results

Phase

Summary results data for each pipe.


Export definition files only.

Phase

CompResults

Properties for each phase at each end of


each pipe. Export definition files only.

CompResults

None

Composition results for each pipe. Export


definition files only.

Data Items List


The data items that can be read for each data object are as follows:

A File Format

197

Components
Attribute

Description

Hypothetical

The hypothetical components

Name

The component name

Id

The component ID number

Type

The component type

Formula

The component formula

MolWt

The component molecular weight

NBP

The component normal boiling point (K)

StdDensity

The component standard density (kg/m3)

WatsonK

The component Watson K value

Pc

The component critical pressure (bar a)

Tc

The component critical temperature (K)

Vc

The component critical volume (m3/kgmole)

Vchar

The component characteristic volume (m3/kgmole)

Omega

The component acentric factor

OmegaSRK

The component SRK acentric factor

Ha

The enthalpy A coefficient (kJ/kgmole)

Hb

The enthalpy B coefficient (kJ/kgmole/K)

Hc

The enthalpy C coefficient (kJ/kgmole/K2)

Hd

The enthalpy C coefficient (kJ/kgmole/K3)

He

The enthalpy C coefficient (kJ/kgmole/K4)

Hf

The enthalpy C coefficient (kJ/kgmole/K5)

The entropy coefficient

ViscA

The viscosity A parameter

ViscB

The viscosity B parameter

HeatOFCombustion

The heat of combustion

NBPValue

The value of normal boiling point

PcValue

The value of critical pressure

TcValue

The value of critical temperature

BIPs
Attribute

Description

PropPkg

The code for the property package:

Comp1

198

0 Vapor pressure

1 Peng Robinson

2 Soave Redlich Kwong

3 Compressible Gas

The name of the first component

Comp2

The name of the second component

Kij12

Value of interaction parameter for comp1 / comp2

Kij21

Value of interaction parameter for comp2 / comp1

A File Format

Connectors
Attribute

Description

FittingLossMethod

Code for the fitting loss method: 0 = ignored, 1 =


calculated

IsothermalDPOption

Code for enabling isothermal pressure drop


calculations: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

TwoPhaseCorrection

Code for two phase correction option: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

SwageMethod

Code for size change calculation method: 0 =


Compressible, 1 = Incompressible, 2 = Transition

CompressibleTransition

DP percent of inlet pressure for transition (%)

Length

Length of the swage (mm)

Angle

The internal angle of the swage (radians)

ChokeMethod

Choke flow check

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

Name

The connector name

Location

The location text

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

DownstreamConnnection

The name of the downstream pipe

DownstreamConnnectionAt

Code for the downstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

ControlValves

A File Format

Attribute

Description

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Ignore

Ignore flag

KMultiply

Fittings loss Ft factor for inlet pipe

KOffset

Fittings loss offset for inlet pipe

FlangeDiameter

Internal diameter of flange (mm)

ElevationChange

The elevation change of the inlet piping (m)

Length

The length of the inlet piping (m)

InternalDiameter

The inlet pipe diameter (mm)

Schedule

The inlet pipe schedule

NominalDiameter

The inlet pipe nominal diameter

Roughness

The inlet pipe roughness (mm)

Material

The code for the inlet pipe material: 0 = Carbon


Steel, 1 = Stainless steel

Thickness

Code for the thickness of the pipe wall

UsePipeClass

Code for enabling pipe class usage: 0 = No, 1 =


Yes

Name

The control valve name


199

Attribute

Description

Location

The location text

UpstreamConnnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

FlowBleeds
Attribute

Description

OfftakeMultiplier

Flow bleed multiplier

OfftakeOffset

Bleed flow offset (kg/h)

OfftakeMinimum

Minimum bleed flow (kg/h)

OfftakeMaximum

Maximum bleed flow (kg/h)

PressureDrop

Pressure drop over bleed (bar)

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Name

The flow bleed name

Location

The location text

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point


0 = upstream end, 1 = downstream end

DownstreamConnnection

The name of the downstream pipe

DownstreamConnnectionAt

Code for the downstream pipe connection point


0 = upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

HorizontalSeparators

200

Attribute

Description

LiquidLevel

The liquid level (mm)

Diameter

The vessel diameter (mm)

FittingLossMethod

Code for fittings loss calculation: 0 = Ignored, 1 =


Calculated

IsothermalPressureDrop

Code for enabling isothermal pressure drop


calculations: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

TwoPhaseCorrection

Code for two phase correction option: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

SwageMethod

Code for size change calculation method: 0 =


Compressible, 1 = Incompressible, 2 = Transition

CompressibleTransition

DP percent of inlet pressure for transition (%)

BodyDimension

Code for body area usage: 0 = Full body area, 1 =


Partial body area on flow

ChokeMethod

Choke flow check

CannotTear

Cannot tear

DesignLength

Design length

Ddrop

Ddrop
A File Format

Attribute

Description

DrainVol

Drain volume

Holduptime

Holdup time

Vsettling

V settling

IsTear

Is tear

PresBody

Body pressure

TempBody

Body temperature

VelBody

Body velocity

DenBody

Body density

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Name

The horizontal separator name

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

Location

The location text

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

BranchstreamConnection

The name of the branch stream pipe

BranchstreamConnectionAt

Code for the branch stream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

DownstreamConnection

The name of the downstream pipe

DownstreamConnectionAt

Code for the downstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

OrificePlates

A File Format

Attribute

Description

FittingLossMethod

Code for pressure loss method: 0 = Ignored, 1 = Thin


Plate, 2 = Contraction/Expansion

IsothermalPressureDrop

Code for enabling isothermal pressure drop calculations:


0 = No, 1 = Yes

TwoPhaseCorrection

Code for two phase correction option: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

SwageMethod

Code for size change calculation method: 0 =


Compressible, 1 = Incompressible, 2 = Transition=

CompressibleTransition

DP percent of inlet pressure for transition (%)

DownstreamDiameterRatio

Ratio of orifice to downstream diameter

UpstreamDiameterRatio

Ratio of orifice to upstream diameter

Diameter

Diameter of orifice (mm)

ChokeMethod

Choke flow check

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Name

The orifice plate name

Location

The location text

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream pipe

201

Attribute

Description

UpstreamConnectionAt

The code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

DownstreamConnnection

The name of the downstream pipe

DownstreamConnnectionAt

The code for the downstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

Pipes

202

Attribute

Description

LimitReached

Reached limit or not

TailPipe

Code to identify tailpipe: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

Sizeable

Code for indicating sizeable pipe: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

UsePipeClass

Code for pipe class usage: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

WallThickness

Pipe wall thickness (mm)

InternalDiameter

Pipe internal diameter (mm)

Schedule

Pipe schedule

NominalDiameter

Pipe nominal diameter

ThermalConductivity

Pipe material thermal conductivity (W/m/C)

Roughness

Pipe absolute roughness (mm)

Material

Code for pipe material: 0 = Carbon steel, 1 =


Stainless steel

ElevationChange

Pipe elevation change (m)

Length

Pipe length (m)

FittingsLossMultiply

Fittings loss Ft factor

FittingsLossOffset

Fittings loss offset

LengthMultiplier

Multiplier for pipe length

MultipleElementCalculation

Code for the multiple element heat transfer


calculation: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

Emissivity

The material fractional emissivity

ExternalRadiativeHTC

Code for including radiative heat transfer: 0 = No, 1


= Yes

HeatTransferEnabled

Code to enable heat transfer calculations: 0 = No, 1


= Yes

WindVelocity

Wind speed (m/s)

Temperature

Temperature outside pipe (C)

InsulationThermalConductivity

Insulation thermal conductivity (W/m/C)

Thickness

Insulation thickness (mm)

InsulationName

Insulation description

Duty

Duty (kJ/h)

OutletTemperatureSpecification

Temperature leaving pipe (C)

DampingFactor

Damping factor

VLEMethod

Code for VLE method: 0 = Default, 1 = Compressible


Gas, 2 = Peng Robinson, 3 = Soave Redlich Kwong,
4 = Vapor Pressure

A File Format

Attribute

Description

StaticHeadContribution

Code for the static head contribution: 0 = Include, 1


= Ignore Downhill Recovery, 2 = Ignore

FrictionFactorMethod

Code for friction factor method: 0 = Default, 1 =


Round, 2 = Chen

Elements

Number of elements for pipe calculation

VerticalPipe

Code for DP method for vertical pipes: 0 = Default, 1


= Isothermal gas, 2 Adiabatic gas, 3 =
Beggs&Brill, 4 = Dukler, 5 = Orkisewski

InclinedPipeMethod

Code for DP method for inclined pipes: 0 = Default,


1 = Isothermal gas, 2 Adiabatic gas, 3 =
Beggs&Brill, 4 = Dukler

HorizontalPipeMethod

Code for DP method for horizontal pipes: 0 =


Default, 1 = Isothermal gas, 2 Adiabatic gas, 3 =
Beggs&Brill, 4 = Dukler

ExternalMedium

Code for the external medium: 0 = Air, 1 = Sea


Water

RoughnessForFitting

Roughness for fitting

Klocked

K locked

Kusing

K using

CalcStatus

Calculation status

FittingCount

Number of fittings linked to this pipe

PhysicalLength

Physical length

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Name

Name

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

Location

The location text

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream node

UpstreamConnectionAt

Code for the upstream node connection point: 0,1,2


depending on upstream node

DownstreamConnnection

The name of the downstream node

DownstreamConnnectionAt

Code for the downstream pipe connection point:


0,1,2 depending on downstream node

ConnectedCount

Connection count

Fitting
Attribute

Description

ItemName

The name of the fitting

ID

Description of the fitting

KOffset

Fitting loss constant

KMultiplier

Fitting loss Ft factor

ReliefValves

A File Format

Attribute

Description

MAWP

Maximum allowable working pressure (bar a)

203

Attribute

Description

MechPres

Mechanical pressure limit (bar a)

ValveType

Type code for valve: 0 = Balanced, 1 =


Conventional

OrificeType

Standard type code for orifice

ValveArea

Area of each valve orifice (mm2)

ValveCount

Number of valves

IsenTropicFlash

Isentropic flash

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Ignore

Ignore flag

KMultiply

Fittings loss Ft factor for inlet pipe

KOffset

Fittings loss offset for inlet pipe

FlangeDiameter

Internal diameter of flange (mm)

ElevationChange

The elevation change of the inlet piping (m)

Length

The length of the inlet piping (m)

InternalDiameter

The inlet pipe diameter (mm)

Schedule

The inlet pipe schedule

NominalDiameter

The inlet pipe nominal diameter

Roughness

The inlet pipe roughness (mm)

Material

Code for the inlet pipe material: 0 = Carbon Steel,


1 = Stainless steel

Thickness

Thickness

UsePipeClass

Code for enabling pipe class usage: 0 = No, 1 =


Yes

Name

The relief valve name

Location

The location text

UpstreamConnnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

Tees

204

Attribute

Description

Body

Code for body type: 0 = Run, 1 = Tail, 2 = Branch, 3


= Auto

Theta

Code for branch angle: 0 = 30 deg, 1 = 45 deg, 2 =


60 deg, 3 = 90 deg

ThetaAsReal

Theta as real

FittingLossMethod

Code for fittings loss calculation: 0 = Ignored, 1 =


Simple, 2 = Miller

MillerChartExtrapolation

Code for Miller chart extrapolation: 0 = None, 1 =


Miller Ratio Squared, 2 = Gardel

ConnectorIfIncomplete

Code to use connector calculation: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

IsothermalPressureDrop

Code for enabling isothermal pressure drop


calculations: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

A File Format

Attribute

Description

TwoPhaseCorrection

Code for two phase correction option: 0 = No, 1 =


Yes

SwageMethod

Code for size change calculation method: 0 =


Compressible, 1 = Incompressible, 2 = Transition

CompressibleTransition

DP percent of inlet pressure for transition (%)

BodyDimension

Code for body area usage: 0 = Full body area, 1 =


Partial body area on flow

ChokeMethod

Choke flow check

Orientation

Orientation

Separate

Separate

CannotTear

Cannot tear

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Name

The tee name

Location

The location text

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

BranchstreamConnection

The name of the branch stream pipe

BranchstreamConnectionAt

Code for the branch stream pipe connection point: 0


= upstream end, 1 = downstream end

DownstreamConnection

The name of the downstream pipe

DownstreamConnectionAt

Code for the downstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

FlareTips

A File Format

Attribute

Description

Diameter

Diameter of flare (mm)

CompressibleTransition

DP percent of inlet pressure for transition (%)

Method

Method

TwoPhaseCorrection

Code for two phase correction option: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

IsothermalPressureDrop

Code for enabling isothermal pressure drop calculations:


0 = No, 1 = Yes

FittingLossCoefficient

Fittings loss coefficient

FittingLossCoefficientBasis

Code for fittings loss basis: 0 = Total pressure, 1 =


static pressure

UseCurves

Code for curve usage: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

NumCurves

Number of pressure drop curves

FlowExtrapolation

Flow extrapolation

MolWtExtrapolation

Molecular weight extrapolation

PressureCorrection

Pressure correction

RefTemp

Reference temperature for curve data (C)

Sizeable

Code for indicating sizeable pipe

205

Attribute

Description

UsePipeClass

Code for enabling Pipe Class usage

WallThickness

Wall thickness

InternalDiameter

Internal diameter

Schedule

Pipe schedule

NominalDiameter

Pipe nominal diameter

ThermalConductivity

Pipe material thermal conductivity (W/m/C)

Roughness

Pipe roughness

Material

Code for the inlet pipe material

ChokeMethod

Choke flow check

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Name

The flare tip name

Location

The location text

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

Curves
Attribute

Description

TipName

The name of the top (30 chars)

MolWt

The reference molecular weight for the curve

CurveNumPoints

The number of points in the curve

Points
Attribute

Description

CurveDataPointNo

The number of the curve data point

MolWt

The mole weight of the curve

MassFlow

The mass flow for the curve data point (kg/h)

PresDrop

The pressure drop for the curve data point (bar)

VerticalSeparators

206

Attribute

Description

Diameter

The vessel diameter (mm)

FittingLossMethod

Code for fittings loss calculation: 0 = Ignored, 1 =


Calculated

IsothermalPressureDrop

Code for enabling isothermal pressure drop calculations:


0 = No, 1 = Yes

TwoPhaseCorrection

Code for two phase correction option: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

SwageMethod

Code for size change calculation method: 0 =


Compressible, 1 = Incompressible, 2 = Transition

CompressibleTransition

DP percent of inlet pressure for transition (%)


A File Format

Attribute

Description

ChokeMethod

Choke flow check

DesignDiameter

Design diameter

Ddrop

Ddrop

Vsettling

V settling

PresBody

Body pressure

TempBody

Body temperature

VelBody

Body velocity

DenBody

Body density

DescribeCalculations

Describe calculations

MaxConnectionCount

Maximum possible connection count

Name

The vertical separator name

Location

The location text

Ignore

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

UpstreamConnection

The name of the upstream pipe

UpstreamConnectionAt

Code for the upstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

DownstreamConnection

The name of the downstream pipe

DownstreamConnectionAt

Code for the downstream pipe connection point: 0 =


upstream end, 1 = downstream end

ConnectedCount

Connection count

Scenarios
Attribute

Description

Name

The scenario name (30 chars)

OptionVelConstr

Option velocity constraint

Done

Done

HeaderMach

Header mach number limit

HeaderVapVel

Header vapor velocity limit (m/s)

HeaderLiqVel

Header liquid velocity limit (m/s)

HeaderRV2

Header momentum limit (kg/m/s2)

HeaderNoise

Header noise limit (dB)

TailPipeMach

Tailpipe mach number limit

TailPipeVapVel

Tailpipe vapor velocity limit (m/s)

TailPipeLiqVel

Tailpipe liquid velocity limit (m/s)

TailPipeRV2

Tailpipe momentum limit (kg/m/s2)

TailPipeNoise

Tailpipe noise limit (dB)

Pressure

System back pressure (bar a)

CalculateMe

Calculate me

SolverOptions

A File Format

Attribute

Description

AmbientTemperature

External temperature (C)

AtmosphericPressure

Atmospheric pressure (bar a)


207

208

Attribute

Description

CheckChoke

Check for choke flow: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

Choke

Code for choke calculation method: 0 = Simple, 1 =


HEM

HeatTransfer

Enable heat transfer calculations: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

ExternalRadiation

External radiation

Mode

Code for calculation mode: 0 = Rating, 1 = Design, 2


= Debottleneck

RatedFlow

Use rated flow for inlet pipes

RatedFlowNodes

Use rated flow for downstream nodes attached to


tailpipes

RatedFlowTailPipe

Use rated flow for tailpipes: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

WindSpeed

Wind velocity (m/s)

UseKineticEnergy

Include kinetic energy: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

IgnoreSepKineticEnergy

Ignore kinetic energy in separators: 0 = No, 1 - Yes

KineticEnergyBasis

Code for kinetic energy basis: 0 = Inlet Pipe Velocity,


1 = Zero velocity

CalcIgnoredSources

Calculate ignored sources as zero flow: 0 = No, 1 =


Yes

MabpForInactiveValves

Check MABP for inactive sources: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

IgnoreSourceSizeChangeWh
enSizing

Ignore valve flange size change in design calculations:


0 = No, 1 = Yes

MaxmumSystemVelocity

Maximum system velocity

AllScenarios

Code to indicate which scenarios are calculated: 0 =


Current, 1 = All, 2 = Selected

VLE

Code for VLE method: 0 = Compressible gas, 1 =


Peng Robinson, 2 = Soave Redlich Kwong, 3 = Vapor
Pressure

Enthalpy

Code for enthalpy method: 0 = Ideal gas, 1 =


PengRobinson, 2 = Soave Redlich Kwong, 3 = Lee
Kesler

VleSourceOutletTemp

VLE source outlet temperature

EnthalpySourceOutletTemp

Enthalpy source outlet temperature

Horizontal

Code for horizontal pressure drop method: 0 =


Isothermal gas, 1 = Adiabatic Gas, 2 = Beggs&Brill 3
= Dukler

Inclined

Code for inclined pressure drop method: 0 =


Isothermal gas, 1 = Adiabatic Gas, 2 = Beggs&Brill 3
= Dukler

Vertical

Code for vertical pressure drop method: 0 =


Isothermal gas, 1 = Adiabatic Gas, 2 = Beggs&Brill 3
= Dukler, 4 = Orkisewski

Elements

Number of elements for two phase calculations

FrictionFactor

Code for friction factor method: 0 = Round, 1 = Chen

UsePipeRoughnessForFitting

Use pipe roughness for fitting

RoughnessForFitting

Roughness for fitting

WarnMachForSizing

Warn Mach for sizing

WarnVelocityForSizing

Warn velocity for sizing

WarnRhoV2ForSizing

Warn RhoV2 for sizing


A File Format

A File Format

Attribute

Description

WarnNoiseForSizing

Warn noise for sizing

WarnIceFormForSizing

Warn Ice form for sizing

WarnBPForSizing

Warn BPF for sizing

WarnChokeForSizing

Warn choke flow for sizing

WarnSlugForSizing

Warn slug flow for sizing

WarnTempForSizing

Warn temperature for sizing

WarnPressureBasis

Warn pressure basis

WarnPhysPropFailure

Warn physical properties failure

WarnHeatBalanceFailure

Warn heat balance failure

WarnChokePresFailure

Warn choke pressure failure

WarnPresDropFailure

Warn pressure drop failure

WarnLiqWithVapMethodFail
ure

Warn liquid with vapour only method failure

WarnCorrRangeFailure

Warn correlation out of range failure

WarnInitWhileSizing

Warn initialization while sizing

WarnSizeChangeWhileSizing

Warn size change while sizing

WarnLimitReachedWhileSizi
ng

Warn limit reached while sizing

PresTolProperties

Pressure tolerance in properties loop (%)

PresTolUnitOp

Pressure tolerance for unit operation calculations (%)

PresTolLoop

Pressure tolerance for loop calculations (%)

MassToLoop

Mass balance tolerance in outer loop (%)

IterationsProperties

Number of iterations in inner (properties) loop

IterationsLoop

Number of iterations for loop calculations

DamperProperties

Damping factor for inner (properties) loop

DamperLoop

Damping factor for loop calculations

LoopMethod

Select loop convergence method: 0=Newton Raphson,


1=Broyden, 2=Force Convergent

LoopAnalyser

Select analyzer for looped systems: 0 = Convergent, 1


= Simultaneous

EchoLoops

Are loop calculations echoed: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

KeepBad

Keep bad

UpdateEstimates

Update flow estimates from solution: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

InitalPressure

Initial pressure for property calculations (bar a)

LengthMultiplier

Pipe length multiplication factor

InitPhaseMethodForSizing

Initialization phase method for sizing

UpstreamMinTemp

Upstream minimum temperature

DownstreamMinTemp

Downstream minimum temperature

UpstreamMaxTemp

Upstream maximum temperature

DownstreamMaxTemp

Downstream maximum temperature

InletFlowCheck

Inlet flow check

GaugeInletCheck

Gauge inlet check

IgnoreInlet

Ignore inlet

209

SourceData
Attribute

Description

ScenarioName

The name of the scenario

SourceName

The name of the source

MassFlow

Mass flow of the source (kg/h)

Ignored

The ignored flag: 0 = not ignored, 1=ignored

PresAllow

Allowable pressure

OutletTemperature

Outlet temperature (C)

InletTemp

Inlet temperature

InletTempSpec

Inlet specified temperature value (C)

InletPressure

Inlet pressure

LockMABP
VLEMethod

Code for VLE method: 0 = Model default, 1 =


Compressible gas, 2 = Peng Robinson, 3 = Soave
Redlich Kwong, 4 = Vapor Pressure

FittingLossMethod

Code for fitting loss calculation: 0 = Ignored, 1 =


Calculated

IsothermalPressureDrop

Code for enabling isothermal pressure drop


calculations: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

TwoPhaseCorrection

Code for two phase correction option: 0 = No, 1 =


Yes

SwageMethod

Code for size change calculation method: 0 =


Compressible, 1 = Incompressible, 2 = Transition

CompressibleTransition

DP percent of inlet pressure for transition (%)

VapourFraction

Vapour fraction

VapourMolWt

Vapour molecular weight

IsentropicEfficiency

210

Auto update of MABP: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

Isentropic efficiency

SizingMethod

Code for PSV sizing method: 0 = API, 1 = HEM

BackPressure

Back pressure

MultiPhaseCd

Multi-phase Cd

LiquidCd

Liquid Cd

Kb

Kb

RuptureDisk

Rupture disk

PresCalc

Static pressure

DenCalc

Calculated density

VelCalc

Velocity

TempCalc

Temperature

ChokeMethod

Choke flow check

Energy

Energy

Enthalpy

Enthalpy

Entropy

Entropy

Quality

Quality

Tempincalc

Calculated inlet temperature

SonicCalc

Calculated sonic

NonRecoverablePresDrop

Piping non-recoverable pressure drop

InletVelocity

Inlet velocity

A File Format

Attribute

Description

InletDensity

Inlet density

StaticPresDrop

Static pressure drop

TotalPresDrop

Total pressure drop

HasProblem

Has problem flag

HeaderVapourFraction

Header vapour fraction

HeaderVapourMolWt

Header vapour molecular weight

HasProblemDp

Constraint violation: pressure drop

HasProblemVel

Constraint violation: velocity

HasProblemMach

Constraint violation: Mach number

HasProblemChoke

Constraint violation: choke

HasProblemRhoV2

Constraint violation: RhoV2

HasProblemPres

Constraint violation: pressure

HasProblemTemp

Constraint violation: temperature

VfCalc

Vf calculation

StagnationEnthalpy

Stagnation enthalpy

StagnationEnthalpyCalc

Calculated stagnation enthalpy

FlowPathCount

Flow path count

FlowPathName

Flow path name

FlowPathType

Flow path type

RatedFlow

Rated flow of the source (kg/h)

Contingency

Code for sizing contingency: 0 = Operating, 1 = Fire

LockRatedFlow

Auto update of rated flow: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

LockReliefPressure

Auto update of relieving pressure: 0 = No, 1 = Yes

CpCvRatio

Cp Cv ratio

Compressibility

Compressibility

InletPresTotalCalc

Total inlet pressure

PresTotalCalc

Total pressure

MachNo

Mach number

RhoV2Calc

Rho V2

MolarFlow

Molar flow

MolWt

Fluid molecular weight

StaticPresDropForSummary

Valve static pressure drop

TotalPresDropForSummary

Valve total pressure drop

Composition

A File Format

Attribute

Description

ScenarioName

The name of the scenario

SourceName

The name of the source

FluidType

Fluid type

Basis

Code for composition input basis: 0 = MolWt, 1 = Mole


fraction, 2 = Mass fraction

MolWt

Molecular weight

211

PFDLayout
Attribute

Description

ItemName

The name of the PFD item

XPosition

The X coordinate of the item

YPosition

The Y coordinate of the item

LabelXPosition

The X coordinate of the item label

LabelYPosition

The X coordinate of the item label

RotationFlipType

Code for icon rotation: 0 = None, 1 = Rotate 90, 2 = Rotate


180, 3 = Rotate 270, 4 = Flip X, 5 = Rotate 90 + Flip Y, 6 =
Flip Y, 7 = Rotate 90 + Flip X

Results
Attribute

Description

ScenarioName

The name of the scenario

SegmentName

The name of the pipe segment

MolWt

Molecular weight

MolarFlow

Molar weight

MassFlow

The mass flow (kg/h)

UpstreamTestFlow

Test flow of upstream

DownstreamTestFlow

Test flow of downstream

dp_F

Pressure drop due to friction (bar)

dp_A

Pressure drop due to acceleration (bar)

dp_E

Pressure drop due to elevation change (bar)

dp

Pressure drop

Noise

Noise (dB)

HtcInternal

Internal heat transfer coefficient (W/m2/C)

HtcConvExternal

External heat transfer coefficient (W/m2/C)

HtcOverall

Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2/C)

UpstreamVelocityNonRated

Upstream non-rated velocity

DownstreamVelocityNonRated

Downstream non-rated velocity

UpstreamVelocityRated

Upstream rated velocity

DownstreamVelocityRated

212

Downstream rated velocity

UpstreamVelocity

Velocity at upstream end of pipe (m/s)

DownstreamVelocity

Velocity at downstream end of pipe (m/s)

UpstreamSonicVelocity

Upstream sonic velocity

DownstreamSonicVelocity

Downstream sonic velocity

UpstreamPresTotalNonRated

Upstream total non-rated pressure

DownstreamPresTotalNonRated

Downstream total non-rated pressure

UpstreamPresTotalRated

Upstream total rated pressure

DownstreamPresTotalRated

Downstream total rated pressure

UpstreamPresTotal

Upstream total pressure

DownstreamPresTotal

Downstream total pressure

UpstreamPresStatic

Upstream static pressure

DownstreamPresStatic

Downstream static pressure

A File Format

Attribute
UpstreamTemperature

Temperature at upstream end of pipe (C)

DownstreamTemperature

Temperature at downstream end of pipe (C)

UpstreamEnthalpy

Energy at upstream end of pipe (kJ/kgmole)

DownstreamEnthalpy

Energy at downstream end of pipe (kJ/kgmole)

UpstreamDensity

Density at upstream end of pipe (kg/m3)

DownstreamDensity

Density at downstream end of pipe (kg/m3)

UpstreamFlowRegime

Flow regime at upstream end of pipe

DownstreamFlowRegime

Flow regime at downstream end of pipe

CanCalc

Can calculate

Duty

Heat transferred (kJ/h)

FrictionFactor

Friction factor

Dp_Fittings

Pressure drop due to fittings (bar)

RatedFlow

The rated flow (kg/h)

ReynoldsNonRated

Reynolds non-rated

ReynoldsRated

Reynolds rated

Reynolds

Reynolds number

SourcePres

Pressure of attached source node (bar a)

Equivlength

Equivalent length (m)

UpstreamEnergy

Energy at upstream end of pipe (kJ/h)

DownstreamEnergy

Energy at downstream end of pipe (kJ/h)

UpstreamEnthalpyEnergy

Upstream enthalpy energy

DownstreamEnthalpyEnergy

Downstream enthalpy energy

UpstreamMachNoNonRated

Upstream non-rated Mach number

DownstreamMachNoNonRated

Downstream non-rated Mach number

UpstreamMachNoRated

Upstream rated Mach number

DownstreamMachNoRated

Downstream rated Mach number

UpstreamMachNo

Mach number at upstream end of pipe

DownstreamMachNo

Mach number at downstream end of pipe

UpstreamPresProp

Upstream pressure property

DownstreamPresProp

Downstream pressure property

UpstreamRhoV2NonRated

Upstream non-rated Rho V2

DownstreamRhoV2NonRated

Downstream non-rated Rho V2

UpstreamRhoV2Rated

Upstream rated Rho V2

DownstreamRhoV2Rated

Downstream rated Rho V2

UpstreamRhoV2

Momentum at upstream end of pipe (kg/m/s2)

DownstreamRhoV2

Momentum at downstream end of pipe (kg/m/s2)

UpstreamVapourFraction

A File Format

Description

Upstream vapour fraction

DownstreamVapourFraction

Downstream vapour fraction

UpstreamProbChoked

Upstream probable choked

DownstreamProbChoked

Downstream probable choked

UpstreamProbMachNo

Upstream probable Mach number

DownstreamProbMachNo

Downstream probable Mach number

ProbNoise

Probable noise

213

Attribute
ProbSourcePres

Description
Probable source pressure

ProbSource

Probable source

UpstreamProbRhoV2

Upstream probable Rho V2

DownstreamProbRhoV3

Downstream probable Rho V2

ProbSlugs

Probable slug flows

UpstreamProbTemp

Upstream probable temperature

DownstreamProbTemp

Downstream probable temperature

UpstreamProbVelLiq

Upstream probable liquid velocity

DownstreamProbVelLiq

Downstream probable liquid velocity

UpstreamProbVelVap

Upstream probable vapour velocity

DownstreamProbVelVap

Downstream probable vapour velocity

PresBody

Body pressure

DenBody

Body density

VelBody

Body velocity

Estimate

Estimate

CannotTear

Cannot tear

WallTemperature

Temperature of pipe wall (C)

MaxStep

Maximum step

MaxFlow

Maximum flow

MinFlow

Minimum flow

HtcRadExt

External radiative HTC

ExtTemperature

External temperature

UpstreamVelLiqNonRated

Upstream non-rated liquid velocity

DownstreamVelLiqNonRated

Downstream non-rated liquid velocity

UpstreamVelLiqRated

Upstream rated liquid velocity

DownstreamVelLiqRated

Downstream rated liquid velocity

UpstreamVelLiq

Upstream liquid velocity

DownstreamVelLiq

Downstream liquid velocity

UpstreamVelVapNonRated

Upstream non-rated vapour velocity

DownstreamVelVapNonRated

Downstream non-rated vapour velocity

UpstreamVelVapRated

Upstream rated vapour velocity

DownstreamVelVapRated

Downstream rated vapour velocity

UpstreamVelVap

Upstream vapour velocity

DownstreamVelVap

Downstream vapour velocity

PresDrop

Pressure drop over pipe (bar)

UpstreamPressure

Pressure at upstream end of pipe (bar a)

DownstreamPressure

Pressure at downstream end of pipe (bar a)

TotalPresDrop

Total pressure drop

EquivlengthForPipeSummary

Equivalent length

Phase

214

Attribute

Description

ScenarioName

The name of the scenario

A File Format

Attribute

Description

SegmentName

The name of the pipe segment

SegmentEnd

End of the pipe segment

Phase

Phase description

Density

Density of the phase (kg/m3)

Enthalpy

Energy of the phase (kJ/kgmole)

Entropy

Entropy of the phase (kJ/kgmole/K)

Fraction

Fraction of the phase

HeatCap

Heat capacity of the phase (kJ/kgmole/K)

MolWt

Mol Wt of the phase

SurfTen

Surface tension of the phase (dyne/cm)

ThermCond

Thermal conductivity of the phase (W/m/K)

Viscosity

Viscosity of the phase (cP)

ZFactor

Z Factor of the phase

CompResults
Attribute

Description

ScenarioName

The name of the scenario

SegmentName

The name of the pipe segment

FluidType

Fluid type

Basis

Basis

MolWt

The molecular weight of the fluid

Fraction

The mole fraction of each component

Report File Formats


The printouts can be customized to a limited extent using a XML file with the
extension .xml. This file may be edited using any ASCII text editor such as
the NOTEPAD application distributed with Microsoft Windows.
The default .xml file for the printed reports is: ReportFormat.xml
By default, the report format file is located in the Aspen Flare System
Analyzer program directory. You can change the location and .xml file for
the reports on the Reports tab on the Preferences Editor.

A File Format

215

Fig A.1

The following defines which variable may be printed with each report:

216

Variable Name

Variable Description

ambient

Ambient temperature

backpres

Back pressure

basis

Composition basis

class

Pipe class

conductivity

Thermal conductivity

connections

Item connections

densitydown

Downstream density

densityup

Upstream density

description

Description

dsn

Downstream node

duty

Heat loss

elevation

Elevation change

energy

Energy

energyflowdown

Downstream energy flow

A File Format

A File Format

Variable Name

Variable Description

energyflowup

Upstream energy flow

enthalpy

Enthalpy

enthalpyflowdown

Downstream enthalpy flow

enthalpyflowup

Upstream enthalpy flow

enthalpyup

Upstream enthalpy

enthalpydown

Downstream enthalpy

entropy

Entropy

entropydown

Downstream entropy

entropyup

Upstream entropy

equivlength

Equivalent length

exttemperature

External temperature

fittinglist

Fitting list

fittingsa

Fitting loss A

fittingsb

Fitting loss B

flange

Flange diameter

fractiondown

Downstream phase fraction

fractionup

Upstream phase fraction

frictionfractor

Friction factor

group

Item group

headmach

Header mach number

headvelvap

Header vapor velocity

headvelliq

Header liquid velocity

headrhov2

Header rho V2

headnoise

Header noise

heatcapdown

Downstream heat capacity

heatcapup

Upstream heat capacity

hia

Enthalpy A coefficient

hib

Enthalpy B coefficient

hic

Enthalpy C coefficient

hid

Enthalpy D coefficient

hie

Enthalpy E coefficient

hif

Enthalpy F coefficient

htcradext

External radiative HTC

htcoverall

Overall HTC

htcexternal

External HTC

htcinternal

Internal HTC

id

Item ID

ignored

Item ignored

inletlength

Inlet pipe length

217

218

Variable Name

Variable Description

inletelevation

Inlet pipe elevation change

inletmaterial

Inlet pipe material

inletroughness

Inlet pipe roughness

inletnominal

Inlet pipe nominal diameter

inletschedule

Inlet pipe schedule

inletinternal

Inlet pipe internal diameter

inletclass

Inlet pipe class

Inletfittingsa

Inlet pipe fitting loss A

Inletfittingsb

Inlet pipe fitting loss B

insname

Insulation description

insthick

Insulation thickness

insconductivity

Insulation conductivity

internal

Internal diameter

length

Segment length

lmultiply

Length multiplier

location

Segment location

machdown

Downstream mach number

machup

Upstream mach number

massflow

Mass flow

material

Material of construction

methoddamping

Damping factor

methodelements

Two phase elements

methodfriction

Friction factor

methodfitlos

Fitting loss method

methodhordp

Horizontal 2 phase pressure drop method

methodincdp

Inclined pressure drop

methodverdp

Vertical 2 phase pressure drop method

methodvle

VLE method

molarflow

Molar flow

molwt

Molecular weight

molwtdown

Downstream molecular weight

molwtup

Upstream molecular weight

multiply

Fittings equation multiplier

name

Item name

nbp

Normal boiling point

node

Node

nodetype

Node type

noise

Noise

nominal

Nominal pipe diameter

A File Format

A File Format

Variable Name

Variable Description

number

Index number

offset

Fittings equation offset

omega

Acentric factor

omegasrk

SRK acentric factor

orificearea

Orifice area

orifice

Orifice

pc

Critical pressure

phase

Phase label

pressource

Static source back pressure

presallow

Allowable back pressure

presdown

Downstream static pressure

presdrop

Pressure drop

presdropfriction

Static pipe friction loss

presdropacceleration

Static pipe acceleration loss

presdropelevation

Static pipe elevation loss

presdropfittings

Static pipe fitting loss

presin

Inlet pressure

preslimit

Back pressure limit

presup

Upstream static pressure

ratedflow

Rated mass flow

refer

Literature reference

regime

Flow regime

resize

Resizable flag

reynolds

Reynolds number

rhov2up

Upstream rho V2

rhov2down

Downstream rho V2

roughness

Wall roughness

schedule

Pipe schedule

si

Entropy coefficient

stddensity

Standard density

surftendown

Downstream surface tension

surftenup

Upstream surface tension

tailmach

Tailpipe mach No.

tailnoise

Tailpipe noise

tailpipe

Tailpipe flag

tailrhov2

Tailpipe rho V2

tailvelliq

Tailpipe liquid velocity

tailvelvap

Tailpipe vapor velocity

tc

Critical temperature

219

220

Variable Name

Variable Description

tempcalc

Inlet temperature calculations

tempdown

Downstream temperature

tempout

Outlet temperature

tempspec

Inlet temperature specification

tempup

Upstream temperature

thermconddown

Downstream thermal conductivity

thermcondup

Upstream thermal conductivity

type

Item type

usn

Upstream node

valvecount

Number of valves

valvetype

Valve type

vapfrac

Source vapor fraction

vc

Critical volume

vchar

Characteristic volume

veldown

Downstream velocity

velup

Upstream velocity

visca

Viscosity A coefficient

viscb

Viscosity B coefficient

viscdown

Downstream viscosity

viscup

Upstream viscosity

wall

Wall thickness

walltemperature

Wall temperature

watson

Watson characterisation parameter

wind

Wind velocity

zfactordown

Downstream compressibility factor

zfactorup

Upstream compressibility factor

A File Format

B References

GPSA Engineering Data Book.

Chemical Engineering Volume 1, J. M. Coulson and J. F. Richardson,


Pergamon Press, 2nd Edition.

Viscosity of Gases And Mixtures, I. F. Golubev, National Technical


Information Services, TT7050022, 1959.

Chemical Process Computations 1, Chemical Engineering-Data


Processing, Raman, Raghu, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, 1985.

Journal Of Physics, D. J. Berthalot, P.3 ,263.

Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining, American Petroleum Institute,


1977.

A Computer Program for the Prediction of Viscosity and Thermal


Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures, J.F. Ely and H.J.M. Hanley, NBS
Technical Note, 1039, 1983.

R.W. Hankinson and G.H. Thompson, AIChE Journal, 25, 653, 1979.

A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes, H.D. Beggs and J.P. Brill, J.
Petrol. Technol., P. 607, May, 1973.

10 Gas Conditioning and Processing, R. N. Maddox and L. L. Lilly, Volume 3,


1982 by Campbell Petroleum Series, 2nd edition, 1990.
11 J. Orkiszewski, Journal of Petroleum Technology, B29-B38, June, 1967.
12 Gas Conditioning and Processing, R. N. Maddox and L. L. Lilly, Volume 3,
1982 by Campbell Petroleum Series, 2nd edition, 1990.
13 API Technical Data Book Volume 1, American Petroleum Institute, 1983.
14 R.W. Hankinson and G.H. Thompson, A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 25, No. 4, P.653
1979.
15 The Properties of Gases &Liquids, R.C. Reid, J.M. Prausnitz and B.E.
Poling, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1987.
16 A Computer Program for the Prediction of Viscosity and Thermal
Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures, J.F. Ely and H.J.M. Hanly, NBS
Technical Note 1039.
17 Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria,J.M. Pausnitz, R.N.
Lichtenthaler and E.G. Azevedo, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1986.
18 C.H. Twu, IEC. Proc Des & Dev, 24, P. 1287, 1985.
19 Viscosity of Crude-Oil Emulsions, W. Woelfin, Spring Meeting, Pacific
Coast District, Division of Production, Los Angeles, Calif., Mar. 10, 1942.
20 W.R. Gambill, Chem Eng., March 9, 1959.

B References

221

21 An Explicit Equation for Friction Factor in Pipe, N.H. Chen, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Fund., 18, 296, 1979.
22 Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure - Relieving Devices in
Refineries, API Recommended Practice 520, Part I, 6th Edition, American
Petroleum Institute, March, 1993.
23 Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems, API
Recommended Practice 521, 3rd Edition, American Petroleum Institute,
November, 1990.
24 Easily Size Relief Devices and Piping for Two-Phase Flow, J.C. Leung,
Chem. Eng. Prog., P. 28, December, 1996.
25 Internal Flow Systems, D.M. Miller, 2nd Edition, BHR Group Limited,
1990.
26 Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings and Pipe, Crane Technical Paper
410M. 1988.
27 PIPE 3, Single and Two-Phase Pressure Drop Calculations in Pipeline
Systems, HTFS Design Report 38, 1996.
28 Les Pertes de Charges dans les coulements au Travers de, A. Gardel,
Bulletin Technique de la Suisse Romande, 83, 1957.

222

B References

C Glossary of Terms

Adiabatic Flow
Adiabatic flow is the constant enthalpy flow of a fluid in a pipe.

Choked Flow
The velocity of a fluid in a pipe of constant cross-sectional area cannot exceed
the sonic velocity of the fluid. If the flow of fluid in a pipe is great enough that
the sonic velocity is reached, then a pressure discontinuity is seen at the exit
end of the pipe.

Critical Pressure
The critical pressure is the pressure at which the vapor density and liquid
density of a substance may be the same.

Critical Temperature
The critical temperature is the temperature at which the vapor density and
liquid density of a substance may be the same.

Dongle
See Security Device.

Equivalent Length
The equivalent length of a pipe is the straight length of pipe which would
create the same pressure drop as the actual pipe length plus losses due to
bends and fittings.

C Glossary of Terms

223

Isothermal Flow
Isothermal flow is the constant temperature flow of a fluid in a pipe. In
general when the pressure of a gas reduces, there is a small change in
temperature. This assumption leads to a small error in the calculated pressure
profile. In practice, for pipes of length at least 1000 diameters, this difference
does not exceed 5% and in fact never exceeds 20%.

MABP
The Maximum Allowable Back Pressure on a relief device is the maximum
pressure that can exist at the outlet of the device without affecting the
capacity of the device.
In general the MABP for a conventional pressure relief valve should not
exceed 10% of the set pressure at 10% overpressure.
In general the MABP for a balanced pressure relief valve should not exceed
40% of the set pressure at 10% overpressure.

Mach Number
Mach number is the ratio of the fluid velocity to the sonic velocity in the fluid.

Node
Nodes define the connection points between pipes, and pipes with sources.
Each node must have a unique name.

Reduced Pressure
Reduced pressure is the ratio of the absolute pressure to the critical pressure
of the fluid.

Reduced Temperature
Reduced temperature is the ratio of the absolute temperature to the critical
temperature of the fluid.

Scenario
A scenario represents a set of flow and compositional data for all sources in
the system. It may also represent a particular set of limiting operating
conditions.
224

C Glossary of Terms

Schedule
The schedule of a pipe defines a standard thickness for a given nominal pipe
size. In general, flare and vent systems are constructed from schedule 40 or
80 pipe.

Security Device
The hardware device that is connected to the parallel port of the computer.

Source
A source refers to a fluid entering the piping network regardless of the type of
pipe fitting from which it enters. the fluid is defined in terms of its
composition, mass flowrate, pressure and temperature.

Static Pressure
The pressure acting equally in all directions at a point in the fluid.
Physical properties are calculated at the static pressure condition.

Tailpipe
The section of pipe between the discharge flange of the source valve and the
main collection header is generally referred to as a tailpipe.

Total Pressure
The sum of the static and velocity pressures.

Velocity Pressure
Given by

C Glossary of Terms

U 2
, also called the kinematic pressure.
2

225

Index

A
Automation 115
B
binary interaction parameters 11
C
calculations
sizing 104
speed 103
status 101
stop 101
type 101
Component Editor 6
Component Manager 3
components
binary interaction parameters 11
changing 11
combining 11
estimating unknown properties 10
list 4
name string 5
selecting 4
selection filter 5
type 4
updating with user data 10
Connector 43
Control Valve 71
D
data
adding/deleting 109
filters 108
printing 109
protection 110
tables 109
Database Editor

226

Index

component 112
fittings 112
pipe schedule 110
database features
adding/deleting data 109
grid controls 108
F
Flare Tip 95
Flow Bleed 47
H
Horizontal Separator 50
M
modeling flare networks
primary objectives 102
recommended sequence 102
N
Node Manager 41
nodes
Connector 43
Control Valve 71
Flare Tip 95
Flow Bleed 47
Horizontal Separator 50
Orifice Plate 56
Relief Valve 81
Tee 60
Vertical Separator 65
Nodes 41
noise 186
O
Orifice Plate 56
P
password
setting 110
physical properties 178
Pipe Class Editor 39
Pipe Manager 25
pipes
multiple editing 38
Pipe Class 39
pressure drop methods 157

Index

227

R
Relief Valve 81
S
Scenario Editor 17
Scenario Manager 16
scenario selector 16
scenarios 15
adding single source 23
adding/editing 17
tools 23
sizing
recommended procedure 104
source tools 94
adding single source scenarios 95
updating downstream temperatures 95
sources
Control Valve 71
Relief Valve 81
tools 94
Status bar 101
T
Tee 60
V
vapour-liquid equilibrium 175
Vertical Separator 65
VLE method 103

228

Index