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Fluid Power Applications

Trisha Litong & Damien Young

Energy Institute High School


Principles of Engineering

Table of Contents
Device Description: Forklift....Pages 2-3
Function......Page 2
Additional Information with Tables......Page 3
Component IdentificationPages 4-7
Reservoir........Page 4
Pump........Page 4
Valve.........Page 5
Cylinder..........Page 5
Additional components...........Page 6
Component Tables..........Page 7
System Operation........Page 8
Schematic.........Page 9
Reflection.........Page 9
Conclusion Questions...........Page 10
Presentation Printout..........Pages 11-12
Part 1........Page 11
Part 2........Page 12
References.......Page 13

Device Description: Forklift Function

The most basic function of the forklift is to lift and stack heavy materials, and to load
and unload them on and off of trucks and loading docks. There are numerous varieties of
forklifts, including Pallet Trucks, Electric Counter Balance Forklift, and IC Engine Trucks. These
different forklifts are specialized for distinct purposes. For instance, IC Engine Trucks are
outdoor forklifts that work with liquefied petroleum gas and compressed natural gases, while
Pallet Trucks are typically used to move smaller and crated loads. Depending on the size, the
forklift can be transported to a desired location to do its task. The forklift is commonly used in
warehouses and loading docks, and it can use electric power only, fluid power only, or a
combination of both. The forklift described in the following paper uses fluid power, and is used
exclusively indoors.
Additional information about the forklift include the brand information of the forklift car
itself, and the fork attachment. The brand of the forklift is Crown, using Griptech appliances.
The forklifts type is Griptech REE2, model FPN-R-ESR-17-1200/800, and is a part of the SR 5000
Series. The serial number of the forklift is 5A223454. Its mast collapsed height is 3790
kilograms, and the attachment data is 2920 E. The brand of the fork attachment is also
Griptech. It is type REE2 and model FPN-R 17-ESR. The fork attachment was produced in 2015,
and its serial number 9150334. The weight is 1700 kilograms at 600 millimeters, and its poids
are 205 kilograms at 310 millimeters. Finally, the V-LLC-Deport is at 12 millimeters, with a
maximum press at 250 BAR.

Device Description: Additional Information

Forklift Truck
Brand Name
Type Model
Serial Number
Mast Collapsed Height
Attachment Data

Griptech REE2 FPN-R-ESR-17-1200/800
SR 5000 Series
3790 kg
2920 E

Fork Attachment
Brand Name
Type Model
Year Serial Number
Weight CoG
Poids CDG
V-LLC-Deport Maximum

2015 9150334
1700 kg 600 mm
205 kg 310 mm
12 mm 250 BAR

Component Identification
1. Reservoir
The reservoir is a storage unit that contains the forklifts hydraulic fluid. In the forklift
studied, the reservoir is located behind the battery,
so it is not visible in Figure 1. It is a pressurized
reservoir that is represented by a capsule within the
schematic. The volume of the reservoir is 37.85
liters, or 10 gallons, and it is closed off with
openings to let out and receive hydraulic fluid.
Figure 1 - The reservoir is located behind the battery
shown here.

2. Pump
The pump converts the mechanical power
of the forklift cylinders to fluid power. The
forklifts pump is pressure-compensated with a
drain line, meaning it can be controlled and it is
connected with an adjustable spring for mobility. It
is attached to the valve of the hydraulic system.
There is also a drain line to allow fluid to return to

Figure 2 - The pump of the forklift is pictured here,

connected to the valve.

the reservoir. The pumps capacity is 15 gpm at 2,500 rpm. The pump is represented in the
schematic by a circle with a diagonal arrow and dotted line to indicate the drain line. In Figure
2, the hydraulic pumps are shown in between the forklifts protective back and the battery,
connecting to the valve below.

3. Valve
Valves are used to control the direction and the amount of the hydraulic fluid in the
systems flow. The valve is also shown in Figure 2, connected to the hydraulic pumps. The
forklifts valve type is an adjustable orifice, shown in the schematic with an arrow through two
arcs. This means that the hydraulic pumps can move up and down to increase and decrease the
orifices size. Fixed orifices, on the other hand, cannot move up and down, though both types
of valves allow flow of hydraulic fluid through a defined area. The valve is located below the
hydraulic pumps and in between the protective back and the forklifts battery.

4. Cylinder
The cylinders of the system are double-acting, since they must let in hydraulic fluid at
two different ends. These cylinders are represented in the
schematic by using two lines and a shaft. The cylinder types
used in the forklift are lifting and tilting. The lifting cylinders
lift the loads carried in the forks in an upward and downward
motion. The tilting cylinders allow the loads to be moved in a
forward or backward motion. The cylinders are located within
the forklifts mast, behind the protective back of the loads and
in front of the forklift car. The cylinders are usually visible by

Figure 3 - The lifting cylinders are located

on the left. The tilting cylinders are
located on the right.

the operator. The lifting cylinders in the studied forklift are on

the left side, and the tilting cylinders are on the right side (Shown in Figure 3).

Additional Components
In addition to the reservoir, pump, valve, and
cylinder, miscellaneous components include the forklifts
protective back, counterweight, and overhead protection
(Shown in Figure 4). All of these components are
produced by Griptech and Crown specifically for forklifts.
The protective back, also known as a load guard, is located
on the forks, in front of the forklift car. It ensures that the
load on the forks will not fall onto the car by providing
stability. The forward wheels below the forks act as the
counterweight of the forklift. It prevents the forklift from

Figure 4 - From top to bottom: overhead

protection, protective back, and

tipping over from the weight of the load. Finally, overhead protection is used to stabilize the
mast of the forklift, and it protects the operator from any overhead hazards. It is located on
top of the forklift car, and it has an orange light that blinks whenever the forklift is in use.

Component Identification Tables

1. Reservoir
37.85 liters/10 gallons
Mode of Operation Closed with openings to let hydraulic fluid in and out

2. Pump

Pressure-compensated with drain line

Between protective back and battery
15 gpm @ 2,500 rpm

3. Valve
Adjustable orifice
Beneath hydraulic pumps, in between protective back and battery/car
What is controlled Hydraulic fluid

4. Cylinder

Double-acting; lifting & tilting

In between the forklift car and protective back
Lifts loads up, down, left, and right

Hidden below is the reservoir


Pictured below are the cylinder


Pictured below is the valve component

connected to the hydraulic pumps.

System Operation
The system operation of the forklift is provided below in simple steps:
1. The operator sits sideways in the forklift and has control of the gears and handles, which
in turn, control the pumps.
2. The operator shifts the gears and moves the handles to start the hydraulic fluid into
3. The reservoir, pump, valve, and cylinder are connected through fluid conductors. These
fluid conductors allow flow between these components.
4. Hydraulic fluid stored in the reservoir is forced through the valve and into the pumps.
5. The pumps convert the mechanical power into fluid power.
6. The cylinders move up, down, left, and right depending on the direction of the fluid and
the amount of force that is flowing.
7. The forks attached to the mast where the cylinders are moving become mobile. The
width and height of the forks are dependent upon the amount of force provided by the
fluid in the cylinders.
8. The forks can then be directed to lift loads to their desired positions.


The forklift functions harmoniously due to the various components that work together.
The motion of the cylinders in accordance with the forks are simple and efficient. The motion
of the cylinders directly affect the motion of the forks, economizing the amount of material
needed to create the forklift. However, the mast containing the cylinders and chains that lift
the forks tends to block the view of the operator, whether the operator is sitting facing towards
the mast or away from it. This mast tends to create somewhat of a blind-spot for the operator.
Potential improvements for the forklift include having a taller sitting position for the
operator by raising the seat. That way, the forks would only be below the operator, and the
operator can oversee the device at work. Or, cameras can be mounted on different sides of the
forklift and connected to a monitor where the operator can view his or her blind spots when
working with the device. The overhead protection of the forklift can cover the cameras so that
they would not get damaged.


Conclusion Questions
The forklift is a fluid power device that can be used at stores, office buildings, and
schools. The reservoir, valve, pump, and cylinder are functioning components of the forklift
that enable it to do work. The reservoir contains the hydraulic fluid, the valve allows fluid in
and out of the reservoir, the pumps turn mechanical power into fluid power, and the cylinders
give the forks mobility. The purpose of the forklift is to load and unload different cargo varying
in weight. Forklifts are useful in construction and in moving furniture.
If a fluid power device were utilized, the everyday task of moving up and down buildings
could be performed more efficiently. The same kind of hydraulic system in a forklift could
replace the machinery of the elevator. An elevator could use cylinders just as in the hydraulic
system of a forklift to move people in between stories of a building. Instead of having to rely
on cables that can be easily damaged or cut, cylinders, pumps, reservoirs, and other
components can be used. This would make the everyday movement from floor to floor more


Presentation Part 1


Presentation Part 2


Trisha Litong (2016, February 13). All photographs. Houston, Texas.
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