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Period _______ Date ______________

Science 20 Workbook | Geology | Chapter 3
Lesson 3.1: The Great Cooling
1. Many geologists suspect that the draining of the Bearspaw Sea was a
consequence of the final set of collisions between the North American
Plate and a plate supporting arcs of volcanic islands. Explain how these
final collisions could have cause the Bearspaw Sea to drain.

2. In Chapter 1 you learned that the Lethbridge area is rich in ammonite

fossils. Explain the source of these fossils and the sedimentary rock that
encases these fossil beds.

3. Explain why mowing a lawn does not kill the grass, but a cat can kill some
house plants by chewing off too many leaves.

4. The description of the Tertiary grasslands relates giant herds of large

grazing mammals stalked by predators. Identify an area on Earths current
landscape that could be described in a similar way.

1. As the graphic below shows, there are many types of Foraminifera, which
is a group of tiny marine organisms. Foraminifera have shells that contain
limestone. The interior plains of Alberta have mainly limestone-rich soils.
What does the presence of limestone within Albertas soil indicate about
Albertas environment during much of the provinces past?

Lesson 3.2: The Icy Epoch

5. Identify the event that marked the end of the Pleistocene Epoch and the
beginning of the Holocene Epoch.

6. Identify three examples of landforms that provide ecidence of glaciation in

Albertas past.

1. The photo to the right shows a glacial
a. Explain how it formed.

b. Use an arrow to indicate the

direction of ice-sheet flow.
2. The photo below shows a glacial landform. Explain how the highlighted
feature formed.

Lesson 3.3: Explaining and Predicting Climate Change

7. Explain the difference between cause and correlation.

8. Attempt to proved or disprove the statement, In the summer it always

seems to get cooler just before it rains. Therefore, a decrease in
temperature must cause rain.

9. Does the occurrence of rain and a drop in temperature have a casual

relationship or a correlational relationship?

10. Explain how you could use your answers to questions 8 and 9 to make
predictions about rain. What level of certainty would you have in your

11. Based on this exercise, infer two elements that determine the level of
certainty you can have in a prediction.

12. The table in this question summarizes possible causes of glaciation. The
causes are listed in the left column. The possible effects of each cause on
Earths layers, as well as the amount of solar radiation received on Earths
surface, are the headings across the top of the table. No answers are
required for boxes with Xs. Complete the table by adding a description of
how each cause of glaciation affects both Earths layers and the amount of
solar radiation received on Earths surface.

13. Consider the table you completed in question 12. Which causes of
glaciation show the greatest degree of interconnectedness by the effects
they have upon Earth?