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Approaches to Teaching Reading (A.

Four Pronged
Approach
Reporter:
SHIELLAH ROSE P. JUANITE
Subject: Developmental Reading 1

OBJECTIVES (MIND SET) :


At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to:

1 Discuss the four-pronged approach

2 Explain the rationale of the approach


3 Discuss the relevance of this approach to

the present curriculum

The most common method of


learning from reading is to
read cover to cover

The four-pronged approach is another


method

THE FOUR PRONGED APPROACH

1st Prong: Preparation


Read to extend your knowledge, not for learning.
Prepare our minds for new knowledge.
First spend 3minutes thinking about what
you already know about the subject, and
then browse through the book or chapter

Browsing
- is a key reading skill and is an excellent
preparation for serious study.

1st Prong: Preparation

Browsing

gives an overview of the material


focus on important details
learn the organization of text
relate the new information to previous
knowledge

2nd Prong: Overview


Concentrate next in obtaining an overview

Read any summaries


Look through the headings
and the index
Read the conclusion
Look at any diagrams or tables

3rd Prong: Closer

Reading

After the overview, you can now decide:


what you already know and dont need to study
what you do not know and therefore wish to study

Understanding difficult passages:


Dont spend hours trying to understand a difficult bit for two reason,
If you leave the difficulty on one side, your subconscious mind
will set to work on it.
What comes after the difficult bit may help you to understand

4th Prong: Review


An early review of what you have
read and learned is a key step both in
organizing the material and in
remembering it in the long term.

35 minute study periods


incorporate this.

RATIONALE OF FOUR-PRONGED APPROACH


After having narrated the beginnings of the four-pronged approach in
teaching beginning reading, the underlying principle can be seen from common
and traditional ideologies.

Content-Based Instruction
Thematic Approach to Teaching
Constructivism

Content-Based Instruction

Commonly known as CBI, is a strategy that covers reading in


relation to other content areas. Relating one subject area to
another.

A teaching method that emphasizes learning about something rather


than learning about language.

The incorporation of a particular content with language teaching aims


the synchronized teaching of academic subject matter and second
language skills.

Content-Based Instruction

Aims at the development of use-oriented second and foreign


language skills and is distinguished by the concurrent learning of a
specific content and related language use skills (Wesche, 1993)

An approach to language instruction that integrates the presentation


of topics or tasks from subject matter classes (e.g., math, social
studies) within the context of teaching a second or foreign language.
(Crandall & Tucker, 1990).

Thematic Approach to Teaching

A way of teaching and learning, whereby different areas of the


curriculum are related together and integrated to a central theme.

It allows learning to be more relaxed and less scrappy than when


school day time is divided into different subject areas and practice
exercises which frequently relate to nothing other than what the
teacher thinks of, as he/she writes them on the chalk board.

Thematic Approach to Teaching

Allows literacy to grow progressively, i.e., vocabulary is linked,


spelling and sentence writing are being frequently, but smoothly,
reinforced.

Thematic teaching is about students actively constructing their


own knowledge. Piaget and Vygotsky were strong proponents of the
constructivist approach (Thematic teaching is based on
constructivism).

Thematic Approach to Teaching

Piaget (1926)
- believed that knowledge is built in slow, continuous
construction of skills and understanding that each child brings to
each situation as he or she matures.
-emphasized the cognitive growth that takes place when students
cooperate and interact with one another.

Thematic Approach to Teaching

Piaget (1926)
- asserted that thematic teaching can be defined as the process of
integrating and linking multiple elements of a curriculum in an
ongoing exploration of many different aspects of the topic or subject.
-it involves a constant interaction between teacher and students and
their classroom environment.

Thematic Approach to Teaching

Vygotsky (1997)
- suggested that social interaction and collaboration were powerful
sources of transformation in the childs thinking:

In education it is far more important to teach the child


how to think than to communicate various bits of
knowledge to him.

Thematic Approach to Teaching

Vygotsky (1997)
- suggested that social interaction and collaboration were powerful
sources of transformation in the childs thinking:

In education it is far more important to teach the child


how to think than to communicate various bits of
knowledge to him.

Thematic Approach to Teaching


Among the most important elements that foster success in any thematic
project are:

Initiation of the theme

The teachers role

Group exploration

Integrating the theme with the curriculum and learning centers

Building and maintaining spirit and enthusiasm.

CONSTUCTIVISM
Argues that humans construct meaning from the current knowledge structures.

It is a philosophy of learning based on the idea that the


construction of ones knowledge of the world we live in is through
reflection of ones experiences.
Learners engender their own mental models to generate and
regenerate ideas from experiences and to adjust and accommodate
to new experiences.

CONSTUCTIVISM

Constructivist see reading as a social practice which affect


when you read, what you read, where you read, who you read
with, and why and how you read.

Table 8. CBI, Thematic Approach and


Constructivism
Content-Based
Instruction
Reading in relation to subject
matter
Learning about something
rather than learning about the
language

Development of use-oriented
second and foreign language
skills

Thematic Approach to
Teaching

Constructivism

Different areas in the curriculum


are related to central theme.

Understanding the world


through reflection of ones
experiences

Teachers role is to initiate the


theme.

Learners engender their own


mental models to generate
ideas from experiences

Students will construct their own


knowledge.

Reading is a social practice.

THANK YOU
for listening !