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ntensive

one
year MATERIAL
Course Material
MEE ABSOLUTE
COURSE

CYTOLOGY
Syllabus : Cell as basic unit of life, Mitochondria, Plastids, Nucleus, Golgi complex, ER, Ribosomes, Lysosomes,
Microbodies, Sphaerosomes, Peroxisomes, Cilia & Flagella Basal body, Cytoplasm, Cell wal & Plasma membrane
(As mentioned for AIPMT)
The Cell theory, or Cell doctrine, states that all
History of Cell biology
organisms are composed of similar units of
Credit for the first compound (more than one lens)
organization, called cells.
microscope is usually given to Zacharias Jansen,
The concept was formally articulated in 1839 by
of Middleburg, Holland, around the year 1595.
Schleiden & Schwann and has remained as the
In 1663 an English scientist (mathematician),
foundation of modern biology.
Robert Hooke, discovered cells in a piece of cork,
The Cell Theory is to Biology as Atomic Theory is
Actually, Hooke only observed cell walls because
to Physics.
cork cells are dead and without cytoplasmic
The theory states that : (1) The cell is the unit of
contents and also coined the word CELL.
structure, physiology, and organization in living
The word cell is derived from the Latin word
things.
'cellula' which means small compartment.
(2) The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct
Hooke published his findings in his famous work,
entity and a building block in the construction of
Micrographia: Physiological Descriptions of
organisms.
Minute Bodies made by Magnifying Glasses
(3) Cells form by free-cell formation, similar to
(1665). He is the Father of Cytology.
the formation of crystals (spontaneous generation).

Objections to Cell Theory:

Ten years later Anton van Leeuwenhoek (16321723), a Dutch businessman and a contemporary of
Hooke used his own (single lens) monocular
microscopes and was the first person to observe
bacteria and protozoa.

Leeuwenhoek is known to have made over 500


"microscopes," of which fewer than ten have
survived to the present day.

Leeuwenhoek looked at animal and plant tissues, at


mineral crystals, and at fossils. He was the first to
see microscopic single celled protists with shells,
the foraminifera, which he described as "little
cockles. . . no bigger than a coarse sand-grain." He
discovered blood cells, and was the first to see
living sperm cells of animals. He discovered
microscopic animals such as nematodes (round
worms) and rotifers. The list of his discoveries is
long.

Leeuwenhoek is Father of Bacteriology.

We know today that the first two tenets are correct, but
the third is clearly wrong. The correct interpretation of
cell formation by division was finally promoted by
others and formally enunciated in Rudolph Virchow's
powerful dictum, "Omnis cellula e cellula"... "All cells
only arise from pre-existing cells".
The modern tenets of the Cell Theory include:
1. all known living things are made up of cells.
2. the cell is structural & functional unit of all living
things.
3. all cells come from pre-existing cells by division.
(Spontaneous
Generation
does
not
occur).
4. cells contains hereditary information which is passed
from
cell
to
cell
during
cell
division.
5. All cells are basically the same in chemical
composition.
6. all energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life
occurs within cells.

Types of Cell :

Cell Theory

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Cells fall into prokaryotic (protocyte) and


eukaryotic (eucyte) types.

Terms eukaryote and prokaryote proposed by


Edward Chaffon in 1937 and later followed by
Dougherty.

Prokaryotic cell lack membrane bound cell


organelles including true nucleus.

Eucyte contains
organelles.

Prokaryotic cells are smaller (as a general rule) and


lack much of the internal compartmentalization and
complexity of eukaryotic cells.

No matter which type of cell we are considering, all


cells have certain features in common: cell
membrane, DNA, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.

Dinoflagellates
(plant
like
protists)
are
mesokaryotic cells show resemblance with both
prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They contain the true
nucleus without histones.

all

membrane

bound

cell

Cell Size and Shape

The shapes of cells are quite varied with some, such


as neurons, being longer than they are wide and
others, such as parenchyma (a common type of
plant cell) and erythrocytes (red blood cells) being
equidimensional. Some cells are encased in a rigid
wall, which constrains their shape, while others
have a flexible cell membrane (and no rigid cell
wall).

MITOCHONDRIA (Term by C. Benda)

The size of cells is also related to their functions.

Eggs (or to use the latin word, ova) are very large,
often being the largest cells an organism produces.

The large size of many eggs is related to


the process of development that occurs
after the egg is fertilized, when the
contents of the egg (now termed a zygote)
are used in a rapid series of cellular
divisions, each requiring tremendous
amounts of energy that is available in the
zygote cells. Later in life the energy must
be acquired, but at first a sort of
inheritance/trust fund of energy is used.

Mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from


Greek or mitos, thread + or
khondrion, granule) is a membrane-enclosed
organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells.

Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular


power plants", ATP generator, Biochemical
machine, Power house because they convert food
molecules into energy in the form of ATP via the
process of oxidative phosphorylation.

A typical eukaryotic cell contains about 2,000


mitochondria, which occupy roughly one fifth of
its total volume.

Mitochondria contain DNA that is partially


independent of the DNA located in the cell
nucleus.

According to the endosymbiotic theory,


mitochondria are descended from free-living
prokaryotes.

1857 : Klliker discovers the mitochondria in


muscle.

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1890 : Altmann describes a technique to dye


mitochondria and postulate their metabolic and
genetic autonomy and given the name Bioblast.

Benda named them as mitochondria.

molecules can only traverse the outer membrane by


active transport.

Inner membrane

The inner mitochondrial membrane


proteins with four types of functions:

Fine Structure: Studied by Sjostrand


and Palade

1.

Those that carry out the oxidation reactions of the


respiratory chain.

A mitochondrion contains inner and outer


membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers
and proteins.

2.

ATP synthase, which makes ATP in the matrix.

3.

Specific transport proteins that regulate the passage


of metabolites into and out of the matrix.

The two membranes, however, have different


properties. Because of this double-membraned
organization, there are 5 distinct compartments
within mitochondria. There is the outer membrane,
the intermembrane space (the space between the
outer and inner membranes), the inner membrane,
the cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner
membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner
membrane).

4.

Protein import machinery.

It contains more than 100 different polypeptides,


and has a very high protein-to-phospholipid ratio
(more than 3:1 by weight, which is about 1 protein
for 15 phospholipids).

Additionally, the inner membrane is rich in an


unusual phospholipid, cardiolipin, which is usually
characteristic of bacterial plasma membranes.

Unlike the outer membrane, the inner membrane


does not contain porins, and is highly impermeable;
almost all ions and molecules require special
membrane transporters to enter or exit the matrix.
In addition, there is a membrane potential across
the inner membrane.

The
inner
mitochondrial
membrane
is
compartmentalized into numerous cristae, which
expand the surface area of the inner mitochondrial
membrane, enhancing its ability to generate ATP.

In typical liver mitochondria, for example, the


surface area, including cristae, is about five times
that of the outer membrane.

Mitochondria of cells which have greater


demand for ATP, such as muscle cells, contain
more cristae than typical liver mitochondria.

Mitochondria of muscle cells are called


Sarcosomes.

Mitochondria range from 1 to 10 micrometers


(m) in size. Second largest cell organelle of
animal cell.

Outer membrane

The outer mitochondrial membrane, which encloses


the entire organelle, has a protein-to-phospholipid
ratio similar to the eukaryotic plasma membrane
(about 1:1 by weight).

Matrix or Mitoplasm or inner chamber

It contains numerous integral proteins called


porins, which contain a relatively large internal
channel (about 2-3 nm) that is permeable to all
molecules of 5000 daltons or less. Larger

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The matrix is the space enclosed by the inner


membrane.

The matrix contains a highly concentrated mixture


of hundreds of enzymes, in addition to the special

mitochondrial ribosomes, tRNA, and several copies


of the mitochondrial DNA genome.

Mitochondrial ribosomes are the 70S (bacterial)


type, in contrast to the 80S ribosomes found
elsewhere in the cell. As in prokaryotes, there is a
very high proportion of coding DNA, and an
absence of repeats.

Mitochondrial genes are transcribed as multigenic


transcripts which are cleaved and polyadenylated to
yield mature mRNAs. Unlike their nuclear cousins,
mitochondrial genes are small, generally lacking
introns, and many chromosomes are circular,
conforming to the bacterial pattern.

Of the enzymes, the major functions include


oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids, and the
citric acid cycle.

Mitochondrial functions
Although it is well known that the mitochondria convert
organic materials into cellular energy in the form of
ATP, mitochondria play an important role in many
metabolic tasks, such as:

Apoptosis-programmed cell death

Replication and gene inheritance

Glutamate-mediated excitotoxic neuronal injury

Cellular proliferation

Regulation of the cellular redox state

Mitochondria replicate their DNA (mt DNA) and


divide mainly in response to the energy needs of the
cell; in other words, their growth and division is not
linked to the cell cycle.

Heme synthesis

Steroid synthesis

Mitochondria store free calcium, a process that is


one important event for the homestasis of calcium
in the cell.

When the energy needs of a cell are high, mitochondria


grow and divide. When the energy use is low,
mitochondria are destroyed or become inactive
(Orthodox state).
Mitochondria divide by binary fission similar to
bacterial cell division.

Energy conversion

Unlike bacteria, however, mitochondria can also fuse


with
other
mitochondria
and
forms
a
chondrosphere.

A dominant role for the mitochondria is the production


of ATP as reflected by the large number of proteins in
the inner membrane for this task. This is done by
oxidising the major products of glycolysis: pyruvate and
NADH that are produced in the cytosol. This process of
cellular respiration, also known as aerobic respiration,
is dependent on the presence of oxygen.

Mitochondrial numbers
are controlled by
autophagy. This is a process by which lysosomes are
involved in controlling cell constituents.
Sometimes new mitochondria are synthesized in

When oxygen is limited the glycolytic products will be


metabolised by anaerobic respiration a process that is
independent of the mitochondria. The production of
ATP from glucose has an approximately 15 fold
higher yield during aerobic respiration compared to
anaerobic respiration.

centers that are rich in the proteins and polysomes


needed for their synthesis.
Mitochondria have some of their own DNA, ribosomes,
and can make many of their own proteins.
The DNA is circular and lies in the matrix.in punctate

Origin

structures called "nucleoids". Each nucleoid may


contain 4-5 copies of the mitochondrial DNA (mt

As mitochondria contain ribosomes and DNA, and


are only formed by the division of other
mitochondria, it is generally accepted that they
were originally derived from endosymbiotic
prokaryotes.

DNA).
Human mitochondrial DNA is 16,569 bp; encodes a
number of mitochondrial proteins

Studies of mitochondrial DNA, which is often


circular and employs a variant genetic code, show
their ancestor, the so-called proto-mitochondrion,
was a member of the Proteobacteria.

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Subunits 1, 2, and 3 of cytochrome oxidase

Subunits 6, 8,9 of the Fo ATPase

Apocytochrome b subunit of CoQH2-Cytochrome


C reductase

starch production & storage

Seven NADH-CoQ reductase subunits

22 tRNAs ; rRNAs 16S 12S 5S

without

the

outer

related

to

protein

elaioplasts or lipoplasts - colorless plant organelle

CHROMOPLASTS - often red, yellow or orange in


color; they are found in petals of flowers and in fruit.
their color is due to two pigments, carotene and

Colour of mitochondrion is yellow due to

xanthophyll.
Function - primary function in the cells of flowers is to

Life span is around 5 days.

attract agents of pollination, and in fruit to attract agents


of dispersal.

PLASTID (Term by Haeckel)

organelle

related to oil & lipid production & storage

mitoplasts (mitochondria
membrane).

vitamin B2 (riboflavin).

plant

production & storage

Special Points

aleuroplasts or Proteinoplast or aleuronoplastcolorless

Mitochondria also have their own ribosomes and tRNA:

amyloplasts - colorless plant organelle related to

Plastids are responsible for photosynthesis, storage

CHLOROPLAST (Term by Schimper)

of products like starch and for the synthesis of


many classes of molecules such as fatty acids and
terpenes which are needed as cellular building
blocks and/or for the function of the plant.

Depending on their morphology and function,


plastids have the ability to differentiate, or
redifferentiate, between these and other forms.

All plastids are derived from proplastids (formerly


"eoplasts", eo-: dawn, early), which are present in
the meristematic regions of the plant.

Proplastids and young chloroplasts commonly


divide, but more mature chloroplasts also have this
capacity.

In plants, plastids may differentiate into several


forms, depending upon which function they need

Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells


and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis
called Autoplast, Food factory, Solar Cooker or
Biological cooker.

Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use it in


conjunction with water and carbon dioxide gas to
produce food for the plant.

Chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun to


produce the free energy stored in ATP and NADPH
through a process called photosynthesis.

It is derived from the Greek words chloros which


means green and plast which means form ( in

to play in the cell.


Undifferentiated plastids (proplastids) may develop into
any of the following plastids:
ETIOPLAST - plastid whose development into a
chloroplast
has
been
arrested
(stopped)
by lack of light. They contain a dark crystalline bodies,
called prolamellar body, which is essentially a cluster
of thylakoid membranes in a somewhat tubular form.
LEUCOPLAST

types:

non-pigmented

plastids... (colourless plastid)

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biological terms it can be more roughly translated


as organelle or cell ).

Chloroplasts are flat discs usually 2-10 micrometer


in diameter and 1 micrometer thick.

Chloroplasts
contain
several
membranes, vital for their function.

Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have a doublemembrane envelope, called the chloroplast


envelope.

important

Each membrane is a phospholipid bilayer, between


6 and 8 nm thick, and the two are separated by a
gap of 10-20nm, called the intermembrane space.

The outer membrane is permeable to most ions and


metabolites, but the inner membrane is highly
specialised with transport proteins.

Within the inner membrane, in the region called the


stroma or chloroplasm, there is a system of
interconnecting flattened membrane compartments,
called the photosynthetic lamellae, or thylakoids
(Term by Menke).

These are the sites of light absorption and ATP


synthesis, and contain many proteins, including
those involved in the electron transport chain.

Photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a and


b, and some others e.g. xanthophylls and
carotenoids are also located within this space.

endosymbionts by Lynn Margulis - 1981

Pelomyxa palustis is a eukaryotic amoeba, that


lacks mitochondria, yet holds aerobic bacteria
within its cytoplasm (in a symbiotic relationship).

Chloroplasts share a common molecular ancestry


[DNA sequences are similar] with the
cyanobacteria (the 1st photosynthetic prokaryotes).

Number
striking
similarities
& Mitochondria/Chloroplasts

of Bacteria

both organelles are double


bound.... possibly the result of.....

both are semiautonomous : derived from


themselves,
by
divisional
fission...
i.e., replicate independently from their cell
hosts

both have their own DNA (a circular


molecule like DNA of prokaryotes) & protein
biosynthetic systems (can make some of own
proteins)

DNA sequence homology.... each has similar


DNA sequences mitochondria to aerobic
bacteria chloroplasts to cyanobacteria

ribosomes
ribosomes

membrane

are same size as bacterial


(70s)
(in euk = 80s)

Functions of Thylakoids
The membranes of the thylakoids contain photosystems
I and II which harvest solar energy in order to excite
electrons which travel down the electron transport
chain. This exergonic fall in potential energy along the
way is used to pump H+ ions from the stroma into the
thylakoid space. A concentration gradient is formed,
which allows chemiosmosis to occur, where the protein
ATP synthase harvests the potential energy of the
Hydrogen ions and uses it to combine ADP and a
phosphate group to form ATP.

Endomembrane System (Vacuolar System


or Cytocavity network)

The endomembrane system is the system of


internal membranes within eukaryotic cells that
divide the cell into functional and structural
compartments, or organelles.

Prokaryotes do not have an endomembrane system


and thus lack most organelles.

The endomembrane system also provides a


transport system, for moving molecules through the
interior of the cell, as well as interactive surfaces
for lipid and protein synthesis. The membranes that
make up the endomembrane system are made of a
lipid bilayer, with proteins attached to either side or
traversing them.

Origin of chloroplast
Chloroplasts are one of the many unique cells in the
body, and are generally considered to have
originated as endosymbiotic cyanobacteria

Some dinoflagellates take up algae as food and


keep the plastid of the digested alga to profit from
the photosynthesis; after a while the plastids are
also digested. These captured plastids are known as
kleptoplastids.

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The following organelles are part of the endomembrane


system:

The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer


membrane that separates the cell from its
environment and regulates the transport of
molecules and signals into and out of the cell.

The nuclear envelope is the membrane around the


nucleus of the cell. The nucleus itself is not part of
the Endomembrane system.

The endoplasmic reticulum is a synthesis and


transport organelle that is an extension of the
nuclear envelope.

The Golgi apparatus acts as the packaging and


delivery system for molecules.

vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several


specialized functions:

Lysosomes are the "digestive" units of the cell.


They
utilize
enzymes
to
break
down
macromolecules and also act as a waste disposal
system.

Vacuoles act as storage units in some cells.

Vesicles are small membrane-enclosed transport


units that can transfer molecules between different
compartments.

.Protein translation, folding, and transport of


proteins (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other
integral membrane proteins) to be used in the cell
membrane, or to be secreted (exocytosed) from the
cell (e.g., digestive enzymes); sequestration of
calcium; production and storage of glycogen,
steroids, and other macromolecules.

E.R. is found in all eukaryotic cells except human


RBCs, egg & embryonic cells and those of cancer
cells, absent in prokaryotes.

Spermatocytes have poorly developed E.R.

The endoplasmic reticulum


endomembrane system.

The basic structure and composition of the ER


membrane is similar to the plasma membrane.

The endoplasmic reticulum consists of an extensive


membrane network of tubules (branched
cisternae of 50-100 m) and cisternae ( long saclike membrane bound structures of 40-50m)
held together by the cytoskeleton.

The membrane encloses a space, the cisternal


space (or internal lumen) from the cytosol. Parts of
the endoplasmic reticulum membrane are
continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear
envelope, and the cisternal space of the
endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the space
between the two layers of the nuclear envelope (the
intermembrane space).

Parts of the endoplasmic reticulum are covered with


ribosomes (which assemble amino acids into
proteins based on instructions from the nucleus).

Their rough appearance under electron microscope


led to their being called rough endoplasmic
reticulum (rER), other parts are free of ribosomes
and are called smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(sER).

The ribosomes on the surface of the rough


endoplasmic reticulum insert the freshly produced
proteins directly into the endoplasmic reticulum,
which processes them and then passes them on to
the Golgi apparatus .

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULM
Term E.R. was first used by Porter and Thompson
(1945). Observed with the Electron microscope in the
cytoplasm of fibroblast-like cells in culture of chick
embryonic tissues

The endoplasmic reticulum also called endoskeleton (endoplasmic meaning "within the
cytoplasm," reticulum meaning "little net" in Latin)
or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells
that is an interconnected network of tubules,

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Rough
endoplasmic
endoplasmic Reticulum)

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is

reticulum

part

of

the

(Granular

The rough endoplasmic reticulum contains proteinmanufacturing ribosomes (the ribosomes on its
surface are responsible for its being named
"rough") and transports proteins. Ribosomes are
attached to the membrane by the large 60S
subunit.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is known for its


storage of calcium ions in muscle cells.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a special type of


smooth ER found in striated muscle, which is
specialized for calcium storage and release during
muscle contraction.

Membrane of RER conatins two transmembrane


glycoproteins Ribophorin-I & II.

In the retinal cells it exists in the form of vesicles


and tubes known as myeloid bodies.

RER occupies 20% of the cytoplasmic-volume.

RER occupies the region of the cytoplasm that


appear to be basophilic-ergastoplasm (term by
Garnier).

Total surface of the ER in liver tissue is about


11m2. 2/3rd is of RER.

Annulate Lamellae: In some invertebrates, oocytes and


spermatocytes of the vertebrates. ER conatins
annuli or pores. This form is called Annulate ER.
It occurs near the nucleus and forms a new nuclear
membrane.

Chemical composition:

Rough endoplasmic reticulum is connected to the


nuclear envelope as well as linked to the cisternae
of the Golgi apparatus by vesicles that shuttle
between the two compartments.

ER contains 60-70% protein (33 types); 30-40%


phospholipids.

ER conatins more proteins than the plasma


membrane.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum works in concert


with the Golgi complex to target new proteins to
their proper destinations.

There is nore lipid in relation to proteins in the SER


and Golgi membranes than in isolation.

RER of nerve cells is called Nissl granules or Nissl


bodies.

Smooth
endoplasmic
Endoplasmic Reticulum)

reticulum

(Agranular

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has functions in


several metabolic processes, including synthesis of
lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates and calcium
concentration, attachment of receptors on cell
membrane proteins.

It is connected to the nuclear envelope.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in adipose


cells, interstitial cells, glycogen storing cells of
liver, spermatocytes and leukocytes and corpus
luteum of ovary. It serves different functions in
each.

In plant cells develops at the surface where the


cellulose wall of the cell is being formed.

It consists of tubules and vesicles that branch


forming a network. In some cells there are dilated
areas like the sacs of rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Microsome is a small vesicle that is derived from


fragmented endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produced
when tissues such as liver are mechanically broken
(homogenized). Microsomes can be concentrated
and separated from other cellular organelles by
using a centrifuge to produce differential
centrifugation.

Functions

The network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum


allows increased surface area for the action or
storage of key enzymes and the products of these
enzymes.

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Secretory proteins are moved


endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

Proteins that are transported by the endoplasmic


reticulum and from there throughout the cell are
marked with an address tag called a signal
sequence.

Proteins that are destined for places outside


the endoplasmic reticulum are packed into
transport vesicles and moved along the
cytoskeleton toward their destination.

Insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic


reticulum membrane: Integral proteins must be
inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane
after they are synthesized. Insertion into the
endoplasmic reticulum membrane requires the
correct topogenic sequences.

across

the

Glycosylation:
Glycosylation
attachment of oligosaccharides.

Disulfide bond formation and rearrangement:


Disulfide bonds stabilize the tertiary and quaternary
structure of many proteins.

involves

the

Functions of SER

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum packages


proteins for transport, synthesizes membrane
phospholipids,

Synthesis of cholesterol and steroid hormones.

Transformation of bile pigments,

Glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen),

Detoxification of many drugs and chemical


agents. The elimination of foreign compounds
(xenobiotics) such as drugs and toxins from the
body is an essential process designed to protect
against potential toxicity from the foods we eat.

The food broken down in the stomach is absorbed


by the small intestine and then ferried directly to
the liver via the portal vein. This allows the liver
time to detoxify compounds before they are
distributed through the circulatory system.

In the liver, there are two main types of metabolism


that deal with xenobiotics, and a third that deals
with their transport.

Calcium storage: The smooth endoplasmic reticulum


serves as a major storage and release site of intracellular
calcium ions. This is of particular importance in striated
muscles which must be able to continually contract.

Golgi awarded the Nobel prize in 1906.

He observed the nerve cells contained an internal


reticular network which stains black with the Ag
stain. He called this structure apparato reticolare
internoor Internal reticulum apparatus.

Since the refractive Index of the Golgi appartus is


similar to that of cytosol. It was thought to be
artifact of various fixation and staining
procedures.

Holmgren described a clear system of canals and


called it trophospongium.

Golgi apparatus were called Lipochondria by


Baker.

Sjostrand called it as -cytomembrane.

Electron microscope study was done by Dalton


and Felix so known as Daltons Complex.

Absent in all prokaryotic cells; some eukaryotes


such as few fungi, sperms of bryophytes and
pteridophytes, cells of mature sieve tubes, size and
no. of golgi bodies vary from one type of cell to
another and according to the cells metabolic
activity.

Abundant in roots of corn and algal rhizoids.

Pinularia and Microsterias possess a single and


complicated Golgi apparatus.

In higher plants, golgi apparatuses are common in


secretory cells and in young rapidely dividing
cells.

He developed the Silver-chromate method or Silver


Impregnation methodfor studying the histological
details of nerve cells.

In higher plants, dictyosomes are found scattered


throughout the cytoplasm.

The Gogli bodies of plant cells are about 1-3micron


in length and 0.5 micrometer high.

Golgi Complex

The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to


process and package macromolecules synthesised
by the cell, primarily proteins and lipids. The Golgi
apparatus forms a part of the endomembrane
system present in eukaryotic cells.

(Secretory House or Export firm)

The Golgi apparatus (also called the Golgi body,


Golgi complex, or dictyosome) is an organelle
found in typical eukaryotic cells.
It was identified in 1898 by the Italian physician
Camillo Golgi in Purkinje cells of barn owl and cat.
and was named after him.

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Structure:

The Golgi apparatus is pleomorphic, composed of


a stack of flattened, membrane-bound sacs known
as cisternae or saccules. Group of cisternae form a
dictyosome. Group of dictyosome forms Golgi
complex.

Vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum fuse with


the facing cis face and subsequently progress
through the stack to the trans face, where they are
packaged and sent to the required destination.

The third part of organelle is tubule which is a


complex, anastomosing flat network of diameter
300-500A.

Each region contains different enzymes which


selectively modify the contents depending on where
they are destined to reside. Cells synthesise a large
number of different macromolecules required for
life.

A differentiated region of cytoplasm around Golgicomplex where ribosomes, glycogen and other
organelles are absent is called Zone of Exclusion
or Golgi ground substance.

Organelle contains 60% lipids.

The Golgi apparatus is integral in modifying,


sorting, and packaging these substances for cell
secretion (exocytosis) or for use within the cell. It
primarily modifies proteins delivered from the
rough endoplasmic reticulum, but is also involved
in the transport of lipids around the cell, and the
creation of lysosome.

Cisternae is simplest and functional unit of Golgi


complex.

Each cisterna is bounded by a smooth unit


membrane (7.5 mm thick) having a lumen varying
from about 500-1000nm). In each stack cisternae
are separated by a space of 20-30 nm.

In strict sense dictyosome does not include vesicles


that fuse with or discharged from the margins of
cisternae.

In this respect it can be thought of as similar to a


post office; it packages and labels "items" and then
sends them to different parts of the cell.

Between five and eight are usually present,


however as many as sixty have been observed.

The cisternae stack has three functional regions:


cisternae at the covex end forms the cis face or
forming space or proximal face, medial region,
and cisternae at the concave end forms the trans
face or maturing face or distal end or shipping
side.

Enzymes within the cisternae are able to modify


substances by the addition of carbohydrates
(glycosylation) and phosphate (phosphorylation)
to them.

Forming face is present next to the nucleus or a part


of the E.R.. This part of ER is called transitional
ER lacks ribosomes.

Proteins are also labelled with a signal sequence of


molecules which determine their final destination.
For example, the Golgi apparatus adds a mannose6-phosphate label to proteins destined for
lysosomes.

Vesicles which leave the rough endoplasmic


reticulum are transported to the cis face of the
Golgi apparatus, where they fuse with the Golgi
membrane and empty their contents into the lumen.
Once inside they are modified, sorted, and shipped
towards their final destination.

As such, the Golgi apparatus tends to be more


prominent and numerous in cells synthesising and
secreting many substances: plasma B cells, the

Maturing face is directed towards the plasma


membrane.

The golgi region is now thought to be an extension


of SER.

Surrounding the main cisternae are a number of


spherical vesicles which have budded off from the
cisternae.

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antibody-secreting cells of the immune system,


save prominent Golgi complexes.

Min function of lysosome is intra cellular


digestion.

Origin and development: Origin is intracellular


produced in 4 ways:

Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian


cytologist Christian de Duve in 1949 awarded the
nobel prize in 1974.

At pH 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is more


acidic than the cytosol (pH 7).

The lysosome single membrane stabilizes the low


pH by pumping in protons (H+) from the cytosol,
and also protects the cytosol, and therefore the rest
of the cell, from the degradative enzymes within the
lysosome.

For this reason, should a lysosome's acid hydrolases


leak into the cytosol, their potential to damage the
cell will be reduced, because they will not be at
their optimum pH.

The constant pH of 4.8 is maintained by proton


pumps and Cl- ion channels

Vesicles dispatched from the SER.

Vesicles dispatched from the outer membrane of


the nuclear envelope.

Division called Dictyokinesis.

Vesicles dispatched from plasma membrane.

Functions:
The transport mechanism itself is not yet clear; a
number of hypotheses currently exist:

Cisternal progression: the Golgi apparatus itself


moves, building new cisternae at the cis face and
destroying them at the trans face.

Static compartments: small vesicles transport the


proteins from one cisterna to the next, while the
cisternae remain unchanged.

Creation

It has also been proposed that the cisternae are


interconnected, and the transport of cargo molecules
within the Golgi is due to diffusion, while the
localisation of Golgi-resident proteins is achieved by an
unknown mechanism.

They are involved in the creation of enzymes that


undergo phagocytosis.

Lysosomal
enzymes
are
synthesized
on
endoplasmic reticulum, where they receive a
mannose-6-phosphate tag that targets them for the
lysosome. Aberrant lysosomal targeting causes
inclusion-cell disease, whereby enzymes do not
properly reach the lysosome, resulting in
accumulation of waste within these organelles.

All these enzymes are produced in the endoplasmic


reticulum, and transported and processed through
the Golgi apparatus.

The Golgi apparatus produces lysosomes by


budding.

Each acid hydrolase is then targeted to a lysosome


by phosphorylation.

Lysosomes
(Suicidal bags or Digestive bodies or Stomach of cell
or Scavanger or Atomb bomb of cell)

Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive


enzymes (acid hydrolases).

They digest excess or worn out organelles, food


particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.

The membrane surrounding a lysosome prevents


the digestive enzymes inside from destroying the
cell.

Lysosomes can fuse with vacuoles and dispense


their enzymes into the vacuole, digesting its
contents.

They are built in the Golgi apparatus.

The name lysosome came from the Greek words


lysis which means dissolution or destruction and
"soma" which means body.

They are frequently nicknamed "suicide-bags" or


"suicide-sacs" by cell biologists due to their role in
autolysis.

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Enzymes

Page 11

Some important enzymes in lysosomes are:

Lipase, which digests lipids,

Carbohydrases, which digest carbohydrates (e.g.,


sugars),

Proteases, which digest proteins,

Nucleases, which digest nucleic acids.

Phosphatases,
monoesters

A specific anti bacterial enzyme is Lysozyme or


muramidase is also found which hydrolyse the
bacterial cell wall is secreted in tears and saliva of
mammals.

which

digest

phosphoric

There are a number of illnesses that are caused by the


malfunction of the lysosomes or one of their digestive
proteins, e.g., Tay-Sachs disease, or Pompe's disease.
These are caused by a defective or missing digestive
protein, which leads to the accumulation of substrates
within the cell, resulting in impaired cell metabolism.

NUCLEUS
(Control room, Heart, Brain, Director of Cell
or Karyon)

acid

Lysozyme is a slowest enzyme on earth.

The nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or


nuculeus, kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle
found in most eukaryotic cells.

Study of nucleus is called Karyology.

It contains most of the cell's genetic material,


organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules
in complex with a large variety of proteins such as
histones to form chromosomes.

The genes within these chromosomes make up the


cell's nuclear genome.

The function of the nucleus is to maintain the


integrity of these genes and to control the activities
of the cell by regulating gene expression.

In 1700 Leeuwenhoek has detected refractile


bodies in the centre of the R.B.Cs of Salmon fish.

The nucleus was the first organelle to be


discovered, and was first described by Franz
Bauer in 1802. It was later popularized by Scottish
botanist Robert Brown in 1831.

Scleiden stated the importance of nucleus in cell


and called it as Cytoblast.

Brown was studying orchids microscopically when


he observed an opaque area, which he called the
areola or nucleus, in the cells of the flower's outer
layer.

Hertwig and Von Benden showed the role of


nucleus in Fertilization.

The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle.

It varies in diameter from 11 to 22 m and occupies


about 10% of the total cell volume.

Size of nucleus is directly proportional to that of


cyotplasm.

This is called nucleoplasmic Index NP= Vn/VcVn.

Functions
The lysosomes are used for the digestion of
macromolecules from phagocytosis (ingestion of cells),
from the cell's own recycling process (where old
components such as worn out mitochondria are
continuously destroyed and replaced by new ones, and
receptor proteins are recycled), and for autophagic cell
death, a form of programmed self-destruction, or
autolysis, of the cell, which means that the cell is
digesting itself.

Other functions include digesting foreign bacteria that


oinvade a cell and helping repair damage to the plasma
membrane by serving as a membrane patch, sealing the
wound. Lysosomes also do much of the cellular
digestion required to digest tails of tadpoles and to
remove the web from the fingers of a 3-6 month old
fetus. This process of programmed cell death is called
apoptosis.
Clinical relevance

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Size is also related with the number of


chromosomes i.e., haploid cells have small size
nucleus than diploid than polyploid cells.

Present in centre of cytoplasm. Position may


change according to metabolic status of cell.

In Acetabularia the nucleus is present at the base of


the cell. In plant cell the nucleus is displaced in
periphery, the centre is occupied by large vacuole.

called the perinuclear space and is continuous with


the RER lumen.

Nucleus is found in all eukaryotes but in human


RBC, sieve tubes, nucleus is absent. Absent in
prokaryotes.

Structure

The nuclear envelope consists of two


cellularmembranes, an inner and an outer
membrane, arranged parallel to one another and
separated by 10 to 50 nm.

One of the features that make the nuclear


membranes unique are the large pores they contain.

The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus and


separates the cell's genetic material from the
surrounding cytoplasm, serving as a barrier to
prevent macromolecules from diffusing freely
between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.

Nuclear pores, which provide aqueous channels


through the envelope, are composed of a number of
different proteins, collectively referred to as
nucleoporins.

Callan and Tomlin first observed the pores in the


nuclei of amphibian.

The pores are about 125 million daltons in


molecular weight and consist of around 50 (in
yeast) to 100 proteins (in vertebrates).

The pores are 100 nm in diameter; however, after


the annulus and other regulatory gating system
molecules are present, the space left for molecules
to enter is reduced to 9 nm. Th orifice is circular
or polygonal (Octagonal shape).

The pores appear as rings called annulus. Inside


diameter is 60-100nm.

This size allows the free passage of small watersoluble molecules whilst excluding larger
structures, such as DNA or proteins.

Large molecules can still enter the nucleus, but


need to be transported. The nucleus of a typical
mammalian cell will have about 3000 to 4000
pores throughout its envelope.

Cytoskeleton

Two networks of intermediate filaments provide


the nucleus with mechanical support: the nuclear
lamina forms an organised meshwork on the
nuclear face of the envelope; less organised support
is provided on the cystolic face of the envelope.

The mechanical functions provided include


structural support for the nuclear envelope, as well
as providing anchorage sites for chromosomes and
nuclear pores.

Nucleoplasm
is
called
karyolymph
or
karyoplasm. Term was given by Strasburger.

The nuclear lamina is mostly composed of lamin


proteins.

Nucleoplasm is denser than cytoplasm, transparent,


granular, semi-solid, minerals, contains DNA,
RNA, ribosomal protein, enzyme, chromatin,
nucleolus suspended in the nucleoplasm.

The lamin proteins are transported into the nucleus


interior, where they are assembled, before being
incorporated into the nuclear lamina.

The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with


the membrane of the rough endoplasmic
reticulum (RER), and is similarly studded with
ribosomes. The space between the membranes is

In addition to their role in the lamina, lamin


proteins are also found inside the nucleoplasm
where they form another regular structure,[10] called
the nucleoplasmic veil.

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Chromosomes

Page 13

The cell nucleus contains the majority of the cell's


genetic material, in the form of DNA molecules.

During most of the cell cycle these are organized in


a DNA-protein complex known as chromatin (term
by Flemming), and during cell division the
chromatin can be seen to form well defined
chromosomes.

facilitating further ribosomal assembly, and hence


further association.

Microbodies
Peroxisomes

Peroxisomes
(Uricosome)
are
ubiquitous
organelles in eukaryotes that function to rid the cell
of toxic substances.

They have a single membrane that separates their


contents from the cytosol (the internal fluid of the
cell)

There are two types of chromatin: euchromatin


which is the less compact DNA form, and which
contains genes that are frequently expressed by the
cell; heterochromatin which is the more compact
form, and contains DNA that is not transcribed.

Peroxisomes were discovered by the Belgian


cytologist Christian de Duve in 1965

Tolbert isolated from plant cells.

It is further categorized into facultative


heterochromatin, consisting of those nonexpressed
genes,
and
constitutive
heterochromatin, which consists of DNA's
structural
components,
telomeres
and
centromeres.

Peroxisomes are found in all eukaryotic cells.

Peroxisomes contain enzymes for certain oxidative


reactions.

Prokaryotes lack peroxisomes, so they are more


vulnerable to toxic substances like hydrogen
peroxide.

During interphase the chromatin organise


themselves into discrete individual patches, called
chromosome territories.

Active genes, which are generally found in the


euchromatic region of the chromosome, tend to be
located towards the chromosome's territory
boundary.

The enzymatic content of peroxisomes varies


between species, but the presence of common
protein import and organelle biogenesis systems
support a single evolutionary origin.

Chemically chromatin is a nucleoprotein, binds


basic protein. The ration of DNA-protein in
chromosome is 1:1. This constitutes about 60-90%
of the chromosome.

Occurrence and evolution

The ability of peroxisomes to divide and import proteins


post-translationally, just like mitochondria and
chloroplasts, has traditionally been used to suggest an
endosymbiotic origin (Lazarow and Fujiki 1985).

Nucleolus

In 1781, Fontana observed similar oval-bodies


inside the skin cells of an eel.

Peroxisomes help in
biohazardous chemicals.

Term was given by Bowmann.

Function

The nucleolus is a discrete densely-stained structure


found in the nucleus.

It is not surrounded by a membrane, and is


sometimes called a suborganelle.

Peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes, such as


catalase, D-amino acid oxidase and uric acid
oxidase.

By using molecular oxygen, hydrogen atoms are


removed from specific organic substrates (labeled
as R), in an oxidative reaction, producing hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2, a toxic byproduct of cellular
metabolism):

Catalase uses H2O2 generated by other enzymes in


the peroxisome to oxidize other substrates,
including phenols, formic acid, formaldehyde
and alcohol, by means of the peroxidation
reaction:

It forms around tandem repeats of rDNA, DNA


coding for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These regions
are called nucleolar organizer regions (NOR).

The main roles of the nucleolus are to synthesize


rRNA and assemble ribosomes. The structural
cohesion of the nucleolus depends on its activity, as
ribosomal assembly in the nucleolus results in the
transient association of nucleolar components,

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the

decomposition

of

towards the synthesis of numerous carbon compounds


(mainly carbohydrates).

This reaction is important in liver and kidney cells


where the peroxisomes detoxifiy various toxic
substances that enter the blood. About 25% of the
ethanol we drink is oxidized to acetaldehyde in this
way. In addition, when excess H2O2 accumulates in
the cell, catalase converts it to H2O through this
reaction:

A major function of the peroxisome is the


breakdown of fatty acid molecules, in a process
called beta-oxidation. In this process, the fatty
acids are broken down two carbons at a time,
converted to Acetyl-CoA, which is then transported
back to the cytosol for further use. In animal cells,
beta-oxidation can also occur in the mitochondria.

In yeast and plant cells this process is exclusive for


the peroxisome.

Peroxisomes also play a role in the production of


bile acids.

Cytoskeleton elements (Cytomusculature) - Cell


Muscular System

Elements of this system


Microfilaments and IFs

Deficiencies
A deficiency in the protein import can lead to empty
peroxisomes, leading to abnormalities in the brain,
called Zellweger syndrome..

are

Microtubules,

Glyoxysome
(convert fat to carbohydrate)

Discovered by Breidenbach and Beevers.

Glyoxysomes are membrane-bound organelles


found in plants, particularly in the fat storage
tissues of germinating seeds.

Glyoxysomes contain enzymes that initiate the


breakdown and conversion of fatty acids to sugars,
which the emerging seedling uses as an energy and
carbon source until it is able to produce its own
sugar by photosynthesis.

Microtubules
Microtubules are protein structures found within cells,
one of the components of the cytoskeleton discovered
by Robertis & Franchi in axoplasm of myelinated
nerve fibres, called them neurotubules.

In this pathway, fatty acids are hydroylzed to


acetyl-CoA
for
the
glyoxylate
bypass.
Glyoxysomes are the site of the glyoxalate cycle
that is tightly linked to the breakdown of fatty
acids.

The glyoxysome metabolism: beta - oxidation of fatty


acids.
During plant germination are glyoxysomes in a keyposition. They control and catalyze the degradation of
storage fat and they channel the degradation products

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They have diameter of ~ 24 nm and length varying


from several micrometers to possibly millimeters in
axons of nerve cells.

Microtubules serve as structural components within


cells and are involved in many cellular processes
including mitosis, cytokinesis, and vesicular
transport.

Microtubules are polymers of - and -tubulin


dimers.

The tubulin dimers polymerize end to end in


protofilaments. The protofilaments then bundle in
hollow cylindrical filaments.

Typically, the protofilaments arrange themselves in


an imperfect helix with one turn of the helix
containing 13 tubulin dimers each from a different
protofilament.

Another important feature of microtubule structure


is polarity.

Tubulin polymerizes end to end with the subunit


of one tubulin dimer contacting the subunit of the
next. Therefore, in a protofilament, one end will
have the subunit exposed while the other end will
have the subunit exposed. These ends are
designated (-) and (+) respectively.

They are part of a structural network (the


cytoskeleton) within the cell's cytoplasm, but, in
addition to structural support, microtubules take
part in many other processes, as well.

Nuclear lamins are localized to the cell nucleus.

Microfilament
(Actual muscles of cell)

Microfilament is structurally made up of Actin


protein.

Actin is a globular structural protein that


polymerizes in a helical fashion to form an actin
filament (or microfilament).

These form the cytoskeleton - a three-dimensional


network inside an eukaryotic cell.

Actin filaments provide mechanical support for the


cell, determine the cell shape, enable cell
movements (through lamellipodia, filopodia, or
pseudopodia); and participate in certain cell
junctions, in cytoplasmic streaming and in
contraction of the cell during cytokinesis..

In muscle cells they play an essential role, along


with myosin, in muscle contraction.

In the cytosol, actin is predominantly bound to ATP, but


can also bind to ADP.

They are capable of growing and shrinking in order


to generate force, and there are also motor proteins
that move along the microtubule.

A notable structure involving microtubules is the


mitotic spindle used by eukaryotic cells to
segregate their chromosomes correctly during cell
division.

An ATP-actin complex polymerizes faster and


dissociates slower than an ADP-actin complex.
Actin is one of the most abundant proteins in many
eukaryotic cells, with concentrations of over 100
M.

Microtubules are also part of the cilia and flagella


of eukaryotic cells (prokaryote flagella are entirely
different).Microtubules also move organelles and
cell structures to new locations.

It is also one of the most highly conserved proteins,


differing by no more than 5% in species as diverse
as algae and humans.

Cilia and Flagella (Undulopodium) Extracellular


organelles

Intermediate filaments
(IFs) are cytoskeletal structures formed by members of
a family of related proteins.

There are about 70 different genes coding for various


intermediate filament proteins. However, different kinds
of IFs share basic characteristics: they are all polymers
that generally measure between 9-11 nm in diameter
when fully assembled.

Organization within cells


Microtubules are nucleated and organized by the
microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), such
as centrosomes and basal bodies.

Most types of intermediate filaments are located in


the cytosol between the nuclear envelope and the
cell surface membrane.

Types

The protofilaments bundle parallel to one another,


so in a microtubule, there is one end, the (+) end,
with only subunits exposed while the other end,
the (-) end, only has subunits exposed.

Intermediate filaments have a diameter between


that of actin (microfilaments) and microtubules.

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The outer segment of the rod photoreceptor cell in


the human eye is connected to its cell body with a
specialized non-motile cilium.

A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long, slender


projection from the cell body, composed of
microtubules and surrounded by the plasma
membrane.

A cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in


eukaryotic cells.

In small, single-cell organisms they may function to


propel the cell by beating in a whip-like motion; in
larger animals, they often serve to move fluids
along mucous membranes such as the lining of the
trachea.

Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending


approximately 510 micrometers outwards from the
cell body.

Eukaryotic flagella are quite different from the


flagella of prokaryotes and bacteria.

A eukaryotic flagellum is a bundle of nine fused


pairs of microtubule doublets surrounding two
central single microtubules.

The so-called "9+2" structure is characteristic of


the core of the eukaryotic flagellum called an
axoneme.

At the base of a eukaryotic flagellum is a basal


body, "blepharoplast" or kinetosome, which is
the microtubule organizing center for flagellar
microtubules and is about 500 nanometers long.

Basal bodies are structurally identical to centrioles.

The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma


membrane, so that the interior of the flagellum is
accessible to the cell's cytoplasm.

Each of the outer 9 doublet microtubules extends a


pair of dynein arms (an "inner" and an "outer" arm)
to the adjacent microtubule; these dynein arms are
responsible for flagellar beating, as the force
produced by the arms causes the microtubule
doublets to slide against each other and the
flagellum as a whole to bend.

These dynein arms produce force through ATP


hydrolysis.

The flagellar axoneme also contains radial spokes,


polypeptide complexes extending from each of the
outer 9 mictrotubule doublets towards the central
pair, with the "head" of the spoke facing inwards.

The radial spoke is thought to be involved in the


regulation of flagellar motion, although its exact
function and method of action are not yet
understood.

There are two types of cilia: motile cilia(kinocilia),


which constantly beat in a single direction, and
non-motile cilia(sterocilia), which typically serve
as sensory organelles.

Along with flagella, they make up a group of


organelles known as undulipodia.

Cilia are rare in plants, occurring most notably in


cycads.

Protozoans (ciliates) possess motile cilia


exclusively and use them for either locomotion or
to simply move liquid over their surface.

Some ciliates bear groups of cilia that are fused


together into large mobile projections called cirri
(singular, cirrus).

Larger eukaryotes, such as mammals, have motile


cilia as well.

Motile cilia are rarely found alone, usually present


on a cell's surface in large numbers and beating in
coordinated waves. In humans, for example, motile
cilia are found in the lining of the trachea
(windpipe), where they sweep mucus and dirt out of
the lungs.

In female mammals, the beating of cilia in the


Fallopian tubes moves the ovum from the ovary to
the uterus.

In contrast to motile cilia, non-motile cilia usually


occur one per cell.

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The cell wall also prevents over-expansion when water


enters the cell. They are found in plants, bacteria,
archaea, fungi, and algae.

Motile flagella serve for the propulsion of single


cells (e.g. swimming of protozoa and spermatozoa)
and the transport of fluids (e.g. transport of mucus
by stationary flagellated cells in the trachea

Animals and most protists do not have cell walls.

Centriole

The cell wall is constructed from different materials


dependent upon the species.

The centrosome is the main microtubule


organizing center (MTOC) of the cell as well as a
regulator of cell-cycle progression.

It was discovered in 1888 by Theodor Boveri and


was described as the 'special organ of cell division.'

Although the centrosome has a key role in efficient


cell division, it has been recently shown that it is
not necessary.

Centrosomes are composed of two orthogonally


arranged centrioles surrounded by an amorphous
mass of pericentriolar material (PCM).

Each centriole comprises nine triplet microtubule


blades in a pinwheel structure as well as centrin,
cenexin and tektin

In plants, the cell wall is constructed primarily from a


carbohydrate polymer called cellulose, and the cell wall
can therefore also functions as a carbohydrate store for
the cell.
In bacteria, peptidoglycan forms the cell wall. Archaea
have various chemical compositions, including
glycoprotein
S-layers,
pseudopeptidoglycan,
or
polysaccharides.
Fungi possess cell walls of chitin, and algae typically
possess walls constructed of glycoproteins and
polysaccharides, however certain algal species may
have a cell wall composed of silicic acid. Often, other
accessory molecules are found anchored to the cell wall.
Plant cell walls

Roles of the centrosome


Centrosomes are often associated with the nuclear
membrane during interphase of the cell cycle. In mitosis
the nuclear membrane breaks down and the centrosome
nucleated microtubules can interact with the
chromosomes to build the mitotic spindle.
The mother centriole, the one that was inherited from
the mother cell, also has a central role in making cilia
and flagella
The centrosome is duplicated only once per cell cycle so
that each daughter cell inherits one centrosome,
containing two centrioles.
The centrosome replicates during the S phase of the cell
cycle. During the prophase of mitosis, the centrosomes
migrate to opposite poles of the cell. The mitotic spindle
then forms between the two centrosomes. Upon
division, each daughter cell receives one centrosome.
Aberrant numbers of centrosomes in a cell have been
associated with cancer.

Composition
Cell wall

The major carbohydrates making up the primary cell


wall are cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin.

(Exoskeleton): is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell,


located external to the cell membrane, that provides the
cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering
mechanism.

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The cellulose microfibrils are linked via hemicellulosic


tethers to form the cellulose-hemicellulose network,
which is embedded in the pectin matrix.

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The most common hemicellulose in the primary cell


wall is xyloglucan.

carbohydrates (oligosaccharides). Their proportion


in the plasma membrane of different types of cells
varies greatly.

The three primary polymers that make up plant cell


walls consist of about 35 to 50% cellulose, 20 to 35 %
hemicellulose and 10 to 25% lignin.

Thus, chemically plasma membrane and the other


membranes of different organelles contain proteins,
lipids and carbohydrates, but in different ratios, For
example, in the plasma membrane of human red
blood cells, proteins represent 52 per cent, lipids 40
per cent and carbohydrates 8 per cent.

Lignin fills the spaces in the cell wall between cellulose,


hemicellulose and pectin components.
Plant cells walls also incorporate a number of proteins;
the most abundant include hydroxyproline-rich
glycoproteins (HRGP), also called the extensins, the
arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), the glycine-rich
proteins (GRPs), and the proline-rich proteins (PRPs).

Lipids
The main lipids of plasma membrane
phospholipids, cholesterol and galactolipids.

are

Secondary cell wall may contain lignin and suberin,


making the walls rigid.It may also contain cutin.

Phospholipids
are
asymmetrical,
elongated
molecules, amphipathic or dipole in nature. Each
molecule consists of :

Plasma Membrane

Proteins

A plasma membrane encloses every type of cell,


both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

It physically separates the cytoplasm from the


surrounding cellular environment.

Plasma membrances contain three different classes


of proteins, structural proteins, enzymes and carrier
proteins.

Plasma membrane is living, ultrathin, elastic,


dynamic and selective transport-barrier.

It is a fluid-mosaic assembly of molecules of lipids


(phospholipids and cholesterol), proteins and
carbohydrates.

Structural proteins form the backbone of the cell


membrane. They have little catalytic activity and are
extremely lipophilic.
The plasma membrane consists largely of structural
proteins
Enzymes form the major component of many
membranes and are catalytic proteins. The structure of
enzymes varies from membrane to membrane.

Plasma membrane controls the entry of nutrients


and exit of waste products and generates
differences in ion concentration between the
interior and exterior of the cell.

Carrier proteins (permeases) transport molecules


across cell membrane without being permanently altered
in the process and against concentration gradient.
The plasma membrane proteins fall in two main
categories, intrinsic or integral proteins and extrinsic
or peripheral proteins. The former are firmly
associated with the membrane, while the latter have a
weaker association and bound by electrostatic
interaction.

It acts as sensor of external signals and allows the


cell to react or change in response to environmental
signals.

Ultrastructure
Under electron microscope, plasma membrane
appears as a trilaminar membrane consisting of
1.

An outer dense layer of about 2 nm, formed of


proteins and polar ends of phospholipids.

2.

An inner dense layer, of about 2 nm, formed of


proteins and polar ends of phospholipids.

3.

A middle layer sandwiched between the two dense


layers, of about 3.5 nm formed of nonpolar fatty
acid chains of phospholipid molecules.

Extrinsic or Peripheral Proteins


These are present on the outermost and inner surface
of lipid bilayer.
These do not interact directly with the hydrophobic
core of phospholipid membrane and are loose bound to
the surface of lipid bilayer, either indirectly by
interactions with integral proteins, or directly by
interactions with polar heads of phospholipid molecules.
Their hydrophilic side chains permit interaction with the
surrounding water and with the polar surface of lipids.

Chemical composition
The plasma membrane is composed of globular
proteins, lipids and a small percentage of

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Peripheral proteins constitute about 20-30 per cent of


the total membrane proteins. Some examples are
Spectrin, Cytochrome C and Acetycholinesterase.

The carbohydrates of plasma membrane (collectively


called glucocalyx) are hexose, herosamine fucose and
sialic acid. These are 5 per cent and are confined
exclusively to the external surface.
These are mostly oligosaccharides and occur in two
different
combinations
:
(i)
attached
to
proteinsglycoproteins,
(ii)
attached
to
lipidsglucolipids.
Glycoproteins bind hormones and serve to send
transmembrane messages. These also act as antigens
and play important role in cell interactions and cell
recognition.
Glycolipids are formed of amphipathic molecules
with large highly hydrophilic carbohydrate heads. The
carbohydrate head is attached to glycerol moiety by a
glycosidic linkage.

Intrinsic or Integral Proteins


These proteins penetrate the lipid layer partially or
wholly. Their polar heads , protrude from the surface of
lipid bilayer and nonpolar regions are embedded in it.
Glycoproteins of mammalian RBCs and bacterial
rhodopsin in the membrane of photosynthetic bacteria
are examples of integral proteins.
The integral protein molecules that span entire
bilayer are called transmembrane proteins. These
have central hydrophobic region flanked with a
hydrophilic or polar region at either end that project out
of the lipid bilayer.
The integral proteins remain embedded in the lipid
bilayer by three basic types of interactions:
1. Ionic interactions with the polar head groups of lipids.
2. Hydrophobic interactions with the hydrophobic ends
of lipids within the lipid bilayer.
3. Specific interactions with defined regions of lipids,
glycolipids or oligosaccharids.
The integral proteins occur in following five forms :
1. Large globular integral protein molecules project
beyond lipid bilayer on both the sides. These are also
called transmembrane or channel proteins. These bind
channels or water filled pores that provide passage for
water soluble substances and their ions.
2. Small integral protein molecules partially penetrate
the lipid bilayer and are exposed only one surface.
3. Glycoproteins are oligosaccharides, attached to the
integral protein molecules that project on the outer
surface of plasma membrane.
4. Career proteins are called permeases serve for
transport of substances across plasma membrane into
and out of the cell against concentration gradient (i.e.,
active transport)
5. Enzymes are some membrane proteins and act as
enzymes. Each membrane carrier is an assortment of
enzymes according to the function it carries out. For
example , mitochondrial membranes contain enzymes of
electron transport system .
The transmembrane proteins extend across the lipid
bilayer in two forms :
1.
As a single -helix, called single pass protein
(Single spanning)
2. As a multiple -helix, called multiple pass
proteins. (Multiple spanning)

Models of Plasma Membrane


1. Existence of lipids in plasma membrane
Overtone observed that substances soluble in organic
solvents entered the cells more rapidly than compounds
soluble in water . On this basis he postulated that the
plasma membrane is composed of a thin layer of lipid,
consisting of cholesterol, lecithin and fatty oils.
2. Gorter and Grendels bimolecular lipids leaflet
model In 1926 , Gorter and Grendel measured the
lipid content of haemolyzed erythrocytes (ghosts) from
mammals and concluded that the cell membrane as
chiefly formed of phospholipids arranged to form
bimolecular lipid sheet. The polar ends of lipid
molecules of one layer were directed outward and those
of other layer were directed towards cell cytoplasm.
3. Danielli and Davson membrane model (Lamellar
theory) To explain the low surface tension and high
electrical impedance of plasma membrane, Danielli and
Davson in 1935 proposed a lipoprotein model. The
plasma membrane formed of a bimolecular layer of
phospholipids sandwiched between two layers of
proteins. The proteins are in the form of folded chains. The polar hydrophilic ends of phospholipids are
associated with protein molecules by electrostatic
interactions between polar ends of lipid molecules and
charged amino acid side chains.
4. Robertsons unit membrane Roberston described
trilaminar structure of plasma membrane consisting of
two parallel outer dense osmophilic layers of 2025 ,
which correspond to the two protein layers ; and a
middle light coloured osmophobic layer of 35-35

Carbohydrates

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Page 20

(Raj. PMT 84)

d) Absence of chlorophyll

thickness corresponding to the hydrocarbon chains of


the lipids.

3. Main difference between plant and animal cells is


a) Animals cell has large vacuoles

5. Fluid-Mosaic model - This model was proposed by


Singer and Nicolson (1972). The essential feature of the
fluid-mosaic model is that biological membranes are
considered to be quasifluid structure in which the lipids
and integral proteins are arranged in a mosaic manner.
The fluid-mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson is now
widely accepted as best explaining the properties of the
cell membrane. This model assumes that there is a
continuous bilayer of phospholipid molecules in which
are embedded globular proteins.
Thus biological membrances are considered to be
quastifluid structure in which lipids and integral
proteins are arranged in a mosaic manner. While the
Danielli-Davson model assumes hydrophilic bonding
between lipids and proteins, the Singer-Nicolson model
considers the lipid-protein association to be
hydrophobic reaction.
Because of the rapid movement of the lipid and protein
molecules the Singer-Nicolson membrane is considered
to be highly fluid. This contrasts with the static picture
of the membrane in The Danielli-Davson model
6. Micellar theory (model) Hilleir and Hoffman
proposed that the plasma membrane consists of a
mosaic of globular subunits or micelles of lipid
molecules. In each subunit hydrophilic polar ends of its
lipid molecules are directed towards the periphery of the
subunit. The globular protein forms a mono layer on
either side of the lipid micelles. The space between
globular micelles represents pores bounded partly by the
polar groups of micelles and partly by polar groups of
associated proteins.

b) Plant cell has small vacuoles


c) Animal cell lacks rigid cell wall
d) Plant cell lacks rigid cell wall

(RPMT 85)

4. Figure of cork cells observed by Robert Hooke were


published in
a) Genera Plantarum

b) Species Plantarum

c) Origin of Species

d) Micrographia
(RPMT85)

5. Smaller cell is
a) Less active metabolically
b) with smaller nucleus
c) with larger nucleus
(CPMT86)

d) More active metabolically


6. Which one is a procaryote
a) Green algae

b) Bacteriophage

c) Salmonella

d)Agaricus

(BHU 86)

7. The function of centrosome is


a) inhibition of cell division
b) initiation of cell division
c) to provide site for cell division
(BHU 88)

d) None
8. Tubulin protein occurs in
a) Enzymes of Krebs cycle
b) RER
c) Microtubules

(BHU 88)

d) Microfilaments

9. The Principal protein of cilia and flagella is

Objective Problems:
EXERCISE I :

c) DNA

d) All the above

envelope

nucleolus

a) Ribosomes and DNA

and

b) DNA
c) Double limiting membrane

c) absence of cell wall

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(CPMT 90)

11. Which one is common in nucleus, chloroplast and


mitochondria?

a) with well defined nucleus


nuclear

(BHU 88)

c) Absence of nucleolus

d) Protoplasm

2. Procaryotes are organisms that are characterized by


of

d) albumin

b) Absence of membrane bound organelles

(CPMT 83)

b) Absence
nucleoplasm

c) tubulin

a) Absence of nuclear envelop

1. Physical basis of life is


b) Nucleus

b) mycoglobin

10. Which is characteristic of procaryote

(Cell as a unit of life)


a) Cell

a) Keratin

Page 21

(BHU 90)

d) All

12. The cells discovered in thin sections of cork


Robert hooke were actually
a) Cell walls

b) Cellulose

c) Protoplasm

d) Nuclei

22. The difference between plant and animal cells is


a) Plant cells have one large central
animal cells have many small vacuoles

(DPMT 90)

b) Porter

vacuole while

b) Animal cells have thinner cells walls than the ones


present in plant cells

13. Ribosomes were first observed by


a) Palade

(AIIMS 92)

d) malic dehydrogenase

c) Plant cells lack chloroplast which are abundant in


animals cells

c)Claude d) Svedberg
(UPCMPT 90)

(AFMC 93)

d) None

14. The arrangement of central and outer microtubules


in a cilium is called the

23. Cup shaped chloroplast is found in

a) 9 + 2 pattern

b) 2 + 9 pattern

a) Spirogyra

b) Chlamydomonas

c) 9 + 0 pattern

d) 0+2 pattern(CBSE 91)

c) Ulothrix

d) All

(CBSE 93)

15. An example of cell devoid of nuclear membrane


and mitochondria is

24. Which is correct about cell theory in view of


current status of our knowledge about cell structure

a) Sperm

b) Protist

c) Bacteria cell

d) Sponge cell

a) It needs modifications due to discovery of subcellular


structure like chloroplast and mitochondria
b) Modified cell theory means that all living beings are
composed of cells capable of reproducing

(ZIPMER 92)
16. Precisely speaking, protoplasm is

c) Cell Theory does not hold good because all living


beings (e.g. viruses) do not have cellular organization

a) Colloidal solution

d) Cell Theory means that all living objects consists of


cells whether or not capable of reproducing.

b) True solution
c) Crystallocolloidal solution

(CBSE 93)

(UP CPMT 92)

d) Suspension

17. Apparato reticulare interno (internal


apparatus) is

25. Primary function of rough Endoplasmic reticulum


(RER) is

reticular

a) ER

b) Golgi bodies

c) Microtubules

d) Microfilaments

a) Protein synthesis

b) glucose synthesis

c) starch synthesis

d) strength
(UP CPMT 93)

(CBSE 92)
26. Golgi complex is derived from
18. Golgi bodies are maximum in
a) root tip cells

b) root cap cells

c) quiestcent centre

d) calyprogen(DPMT 92)

b) nucleoli

c) lysosomes

d) vacuoles

b) Cytoplasm

c) Nuclear membrane

d) Cell membrane
(UP CPMT 93)

27. Pyrenoids are centre of

19. A delimiting membrane is absent in


a) plastids

a) SER

(CBSE 92)

a) fat storage

b) starch storage

c) protein formation

d) enzyme formation
(CBSE 93)

20. Golgi bodies are absent in


a) All types of RBC

28. Outer and inner membrane of mitochondria are

b) Cyanobacteria

a) structurally and functionally similar

c) Egg cell and young sperm d) Higher plants

b) structurally different but functionally similar

(CBSE 92)

c) Structurally similar but functionally different

21. Enzymes found attached to inner membrane of


mitochondria instead of matrix is /are

d)Structurally and functionally dissimilar


(Rohtak 93)

a) succinic dehydrogenase
b) Cytochrome oxidase

29. Minimum cell size seen under light microscope is

c) both (a) and (b)

a) 1m

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Page 22

b) 0.1m

c) 0.25m

d) 0.5m

(BHU 93)
30. Mitochondria do not occur in

39. The four


protoplasm are

a) Bacteria

b) Brown Algae

a) Proteins, carbohydrates, fats ad nucleic acids

c) Green Algae

d) Red Algae

b) Proteins, amino acids , fats and carbohydrates

out vesicles, golgi

organic

constituents

d) Amino acids, sugars, nucleic acids and hormones

bodies are

(Karnataka95)

a) Plastids

b) Lysosomes

c) Grana

d) Cell plate

40. Which is not a intracellular compartment in the


cell?
a) Nucleus

b) Mitochondria

32. The term nucleosome was given by Outdet. Olius


and
olius called these particles as nu particles .
Which histone is absent in nucleosome

c) Chloroplast

d) Centriole (Rohtak 95)

a) H 1

b) Enzyme production

(CBSE 94)

b) H 2

c) H 3 a

41. Golgi apparatus serves as the centre of


a) Protein production

d) H 4
(Rohtak PMT 94)

c) Fat production

33. An exception to cell theory is

d) Carbohydrate metabolism

a) Mycoplasma

b) Virus

42. Raphides are found in

c) Protistans

d) Algae
(CPMT 94)

(Karnataka 95)

a) Dahlia

b) Asparagus

c) Nut

d) Guava

(BHU 95)

34. In Mitochondria, cristaea are sites for

43. Controlling centre of cell is

a) Protein synthesis

a) Ribosomes

b) Nucleolus

b) Oxidation-reduction reactions

c) Nucleus

d) Mitochondria

c) breakdown of molecules

(AFMC 96)

d) phosphorylation of flavoprotein

44. Cell is the unit of life and all cells


remain united was the idea of

(CBSE 94)
35. Centromere is required for

a) Steward

b) Schleiden

a) DNA duplication

c) Schwann

d) Dutrochet

in a tissue

(Rohtak 96)

b) cytoplasmic cleavage
c) chromosome segregation
d) poleward movement of chromatids

45. Solar energy is trapped in


(CBSE 94)

a) Stoma

b) Lamellae

36. Best stage to observe shape , size and number of


chromosome is

c) DNA

d) Oxysomes

a) 1 phase

b) Metaphase

46. Contractile vacuoles help in

c) Prophase

d) S phase

(Rohtak 96)

(CBSE 94)

a) Excretion

37. Primary lysosomes are

b) Osmoregulation

c) Osmoregulation and respiration

a) Digestion

b) Autolysis

c) Autodigestion

d) None

d) Digestion
(CBSE 94)

(UPCPMT96)

47. Procaryotic ribosomes are

38. The Organelle involved in photorespiration are

a) 30S

b) 50S

c) 70S

a) mitochondria, chloroplast & peroxisomes

d) 80S
(MPPMT 97)

b) mitochondria, nucleus and ribosomes

48. The suffix S in ribosomes unit indicates

c) mitochondria, glyoxysomes & peroxisomes

a) Sedimentation coefficient

d) mitochondria, chloroplast & glyoxysomes

b) Solubility
(BHU 94)

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of

c) Carbohydrates, Protein, vitamins and hormones

(MPPMT 94)
31. Besides giving
concerned with

principal

Page 23

b) Surface area

a) energy transduction
(Pb. PMT 97)

d) Size

c) digestion

49. In plant cells, the number of golgi bodies increases


during
a) food synthesis

b) cell division

c) translocation

d) respiration.

b) glycosidation of lipids
(BHU 89, 90)

d) conversion of energy

59. Which organoid (organel) is located near the


nucleus and contains stack of flattened
tubular
structures?
a) Chloroplast

b) Golgi bodies

50. A flattened disc like sac in chloroplast is called

c) centrosome

d) Centriole (CBSE 94, 96)

a) loculus

b) thylakoid

60. Longest cells in human body are

c) stroma

d) fret

(MPPMT 97)

a) Nerve cells

b) Bone cells

51. The number of mitochondria increases in the cells


of

c) Leg muscle cells

d) Heart muscle cells

a) seeds

b) germinating seeds

61. The term protoplasm was coined by

c) dry seeds

d) dormant seeds

a) Robert Hooke

b) Dujardin

c) Robert Brown

d) Purkinje

(MPPMT 97)

(MPPMT 98)

(MPPMT 97)

(CPMT 88,89 , BHU 89,97)

52. Which one is absent in RBC?


a) Biomembrane

b) Enzymes

62. Prokaryotic genetic system has

c) Hyaloplasm

d) Krebs cycle (CBSE 97)

a) Neither DNA nor histones

53. Oxidative enzymes occur mostly in

b) Both DNA and histones

a) Lysosomes

b) Golgi bodies

c) DNA but no histones

c) Mitochondria

d) Ribosomes

d) Either DNA or histones


(AFMC 95)

63. Nuclear matter without envelope occurs in

54. What would happen if lysosomes get ruptured


inside the cell in which they are present?

a) Cyanobacteria and Red Algae

a) Cell will swell

c) Bacteria and Green Algae

b) Cell will shrink

d) Mycoplasma and Green Algae

b) Bacteria and Cyanobacteria

c) Cell will die

(MPPMT 94, AMU98)


(MPPMT 97)

d) Nothing would happen

55. At maturity which of the following is enucleate?

64. Who proposed cell


from pre-existing cell?

a) Sieve cell

b) Companion cell

a) Lamarck

b) Virchow

c) Palisade cell

d) Cortical cell

c) Schwann

d) Darwin

(CBSE 97)

lineage /cell always arises

(Pb. PMT 97, MPPMT97,AFMC97)

56. Nucleolus is the site of

65. A prokaryotic structure is

a) r-RNA synthesis

a) Bacteria and Archaebacteria

b) assemblage of ribosomal units

b) Blue green algae and Mycoplasma

c) both (a) and (b)

c) Ricketts

d) DNA and ribosomes synthesis (MPPMT 97)

d) All

57. Centrioles and centrosome are found in the cells of

66. Infolding of a cell organelle on which


formed ?

a) Bacteria

b) Cyanobacteria

c) Green plants

d) Animals
(CBSE 97, MPPMT 97)

a) Mitochondria

b) Cristae

c) Quantasomes

d) Oxysomes

ATP are

(CBSE 91, 94, BHU 83)

58. Golgi complex is specialized for

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(BHU 89, AMU 90, CBSE 94)

Page 24

67. The inner membrane of mitochondria bears


foldings/ finger like projections called cristae. These
cristae

b) 300 chl molecules


c) 230 chl molecules
d) 230 chl and 50 carotenoid molecule

a) increase the thickness of wall

(UPCPMT 96, CBSE 91)

b) increase surface area


c) increase ATP supply

76. The layer of vacuole is

d) keep external substances away

a) plasmalemma

b) tonoplast

c) biomembrane

d) cytoplasmic membrane

(UPCPMT 96, CBSE 91,94)

(UP CPMT 96, DPMT 92, BHU 82)

68. Peroxisomes found in green cells of leaves are


associated with
a) Phototropism

b) Photosynthesis

c) Photorespiration

d) Photoperiodism

EXERCISE I I
(Cell Membrane)

(CBSE 93, UP CPMT 93)

1. Every living cell has a

69. Term chromosome was coined by


a) Waldeyer

b) Straburger

c)Hofmeister

d) Sanger & Altman

a) Chloroplast

b) Cell membrane

c) Cell wall

d) Food vacuole.
(DPMT1981)

(UP CPMT92, MPPMT 97)

2. Liquid food drinking is

70. Lysosomes are called


a) suicide bags
b) atom bombs of cell

a) Pinocytosis

b) Phagocytosis

c) Imbibition

d) None of the above.


(BHU 1983)

c) disposal units and scavengers of cell


d) All

3.Who proposed the concept of unit


tripartite structure of lipoproteins.

(UPCMPT 91, BHU 83, CBSE 97)

71. Cellular organoid rich in hydrolytic acidic enzymes


is
a) ribosomes

b) phagosome

c) lysosomes

d) peroxisomes

a) Seifriz
c) Davson and Danielli

72. Lysosomes are called suicidal bags because of


b) hydrolytic enzymes

c) proteolytic enzymes

d) All

b) Buvat
d)Robertson(RPMT 1985)

4.Plasmalemma is another name of

(CBSE 92, 96, UPCPMT 81, 90, 93, 96)


a) Phagocytic activity

a) Cell wall

b) Middle lamella

c) Microfibrils

d) Plasma membrane.
(JIPMER. 1986)

5. Carbohydrates are present in the plasmalemma in the


form of

(AFMC 91, MPPMT 94)

a) Glycolipids and Glycoproteins b) Cellulose

73.
Lysosomes
were
discovered
by deDuve
accidentally. Who gave the term lysosome and
examined under electron microscope?

c) Hemicellulose

a) Fitz James

b) Novikoff

6. Cell membrane is

c) Palade

d) Robertson

a) Semipermeable

b) Permeable

c) Impermeable

d) Inelastic.

d) Starch.
(BHU 1986)

(BHU 91, UPPMT 96)

(MPPMT 1988)

74. Nuclear envelope and Nucleolus disappear at


a) Inter phase

b) Telophase

c) Late Prophase

d) Early Prophase

membrane for

7. Carrier molecules facilitating transport across cell


membrane are

(UPCPMT 90, MPPMT 95, AFMC 96)

a) Proteinaceous

b) Fatty

75. Quantsome discovered by Park and Biggins (1964)


has

c) Starch

d) Alkaloids.

a) 100 chl molecules

8. Extrinsic proteins in Singer and Nicolsons model of


cell membrane are

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(AMU 1989)

Page 25

a) Tightly attached to intrinsic proteins and cannot be


easily separated

15. The plasma membrane is made up of

b) Tightly attached to intrinsic proteins and can be


easily separated

b) Fats and proteins

a) Carbohydrates and fats

c) Proteins and carbohydrates

c) Superficially present but cannot be separated easily

d) Carbohydrates and proteins.

d) Superficially present and can be easily separated.

16.A biomembrane/unit membrane is made up of

(AMU 1991)

a) cellulose

9. Cell recognition is due to

b) protein lipid protein

a) Lipid portion of cell membrane

c) lipid protein Lipid

b) Carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins

d) phospholipid Glycolipids glycoproteins

c) Protein portion of glycoprotein


d) Both carbohydrate
glycoprotein.

and

(BHU 1993)

(UP CPMT 1993)

protein portion of
(CBSE 1990)

17. Facilitated diffusion requires

10. Pinocytosis is

a) Enzymes and energy

b) Carriers but no energy

a) Ingestion of solid particles by plasma membrane

c) Carriers and energy

d) Receptors and energy


(HPMT 1994)

b) Ingestion of liquid particles


c) Changed permeability of plasmalemma towards ions
d) Both A and B.

18. The plasma membrane of an animal cell is


composed of

(AFMC 1991)

11. Fluid mosaic model explains

a) Lipids, proteins, oligosaccharides

a) a bilipid layer in between 2protein layers

b) Lipids, proteins, polysaccharides

b) a layer of proteins on one side and a bilayer of lipid


on other side

c) Lipids, proteins, disaccharides


d) Lipids,proteins,monosaccharides.

c) 2 lipid layers and 1 protein Layer

(BHU 1994)

19. Facilitated diffusion involves

d) a phospholipid bilayer with proteins between and on


both side of lipid layer.
(CBSE 1991)
12. Size of the molecules that can pass through plasma
membrane is

a) carriers but no energy

b) receptors and energy

c) enzymes and energy

d) carriers and energy


(Rohtak PMT 1994)

a) 1 15

b) 8 10

20. Desmosomes are concerned with

c) 10 13

d) 15 75

a) cell division

b) cellular excretion

c) cytolysis

d) cell adherence

(AMU 1991)

(CBSE 1995)

13. Cell membrane consists of (as per lamellar model )

21. Active transport involves

a) Carbohydrate Protein lipid

a) against concentration gradient requiring ATP

b) Lipid Protein Lipid

b) along conc. gradient requiring ATP

c) Protein - Lipid Protein

c) against conc. gradient but not requiring ATP

d) Phospholipid Glycoprotein Protein

d) along conc. gradient requiring no ATP. (BHU 1995)


(CPMT 1993)

14. Cellular recognition and adhesion are facilited by


components in plasmalemma.

22. Who among the following was the first to recognize


the role of phagocytosis in combating bacterial
infections?

These are

a) Pasteur

b) Metchnikoff

a) lipids

c) Koch

d) F.Redi

b) proteins
c) both a & b
d) Glycolipids and glycoproteins (CBSE 1993)

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(BHU 1995)

23. Phagocytosis was first seen by


a) Huxely

b) Strasburger

c) Haeckel

d) Metchnikoff.
(BHU 1995)

Page 26

24. Action potential of


plasmalemma is generally

the

outer

surface

of

a) Proteins and carbohydrates


b) Proteins and lipids

a) Neutral

b) Positive

c) Negative

d) Variable (CPMT 1996)

c) Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates


d) Proteins, some nucleic acid and lipids.

25. Two animal cells are interconnected by

(C.B.S.E. 1989, B.H.U. 1992, C.P.M.T. 1994)

a) Plasmodesmata

b) Cell wall

c) Desmosomes

d) Plasma membrane.

34.Average thickness of unit membrane is


a) 75

(BHU 1997)
26.The biomembrane
substances because

allow

active

transport

b) 250

c) 25

d) 5

(B.H.U.1992, M.P.P.M.T. 1994, A.M.U. 1908)

of

35. The latest model for plasma membrane is

a) ATP synthesis is involved

a) Lamellar model

b) Unit membrane model

b) Substances are rapidly taken up

c) Fluid mosaic model

d) Molecular lipid model.

c) A carrier is needed for transport


d) Energy is needed for transport

(D.P.M.T. 1981, A.P.M,E.E. 1990, C.B.S.E. 1990,


A.I.I.M.S.1992).

(JIPMER 1997)

36. Fluid mosaic model of cell membrane was put


forward by

27. Lignin is the important constituent in the cell wall


of
a) Cambium

b) parenchyma

c) Phloem

d) Xylem.

a) Danielli and Davson

b) Singer and Nicolson

c) Garner and Allard

d) Watson and Crick.

(MPPMT 1998)

(CBSE 1991, BHU 1992, AIIMS 1992, CPMT 1993,


94, AMU 1997, AFMC 1998)

28. according to unit membrane, the thickness of


membrane is

37. Correct sequence of protein (P) and lipid (L) in cell


membrane is ( as per lamellar model )

a) 7.5nm

b) 75mn

a) L P L- P

b) L- P- P- L

d) 150nm

c) P L L- P

d) P P L L.

c) 75nm

(AMU 1998)

(BHU 1984, HPMT 1993)

29. Element that constitute cell wall


a) Ca

b) Mg

c) Fe

38. Robertsons model of cell membrane is similar to


that of Danielli and Davsons in

d) K
(CMC Ludhiana 1998)

a) Types of proteins b) Lammellar structure

30. Which one is correct for the structure of cell wall of


fungi and bacteria?

c) Permeases

d) Carrier particles.

(CPMT 1993, JIPMER 1994, MPPMT 1987)

a) Both have glycopeptides


b) Both have NAM

39. Desmosomes are concerned with

c) Both have NAG

a) Cell adherence
c) Cell division

d) Both have chitin /cellulose

(UPCPMT 1998)

(CBSE 1995, AIIMS 1997)

31. Generally cell wall in plants is made up of


a) Cellulose

b) Cellulose and pectin

c) Chitin

d) Murein

EXERCISE III
(Structural organization of the cell)
1. If the contents of a leaf tissue are carefully fractionated
which of the fractionate could be called alive?
a) Mitochondria b) Endoplasmic reticulum
c) Cell Wall
d) Ribosome
(DPMT 82)
2. The two subunits of 70 S ribosomes are
a) 40 S and 50 S
b) 40 S and 40 S
c) 60 S and 40 S
d) 50 S and 30 S

(UPCPMT 1998)
32. Carrier proteins are involved in
a) Active transport of ions
b) Passive transport of ions
c) Water transport
d) Water evaporation

b) Cytolysis
d) Cellular excretion.

(MPPMT 1998)

(CPMT 82)

33. Plasma membrane is made of


3. Nucleolus is formed of

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Page 27

a)
c)
4.
a)
c)

DNA and RNA


b) DNA, RNA and Protein
RNA and protein d) RNA
(DPMT 82)
Starch grains in potato tuber are located in
Ribosomes
b) Nucleus
Leucoplasts
d) Golgi bodies (CPMT 82)

5. Glyoxylate cycle plays


conversion of

an

important

a) Hydrolases

b) Transferases

c) Oxidases

d) Isomerases
(DPMT 85)

13. Nucelosomes are units of

role in

a) Chromosomes

b) DNAs

c) RNAs

d) Proteins
(BHU 85)

a) Fatty acids into carbohydrates


b) Glycerol into carbohydrates

14. Cytoliths are made of

c) Protein into carbohydrates

a) Calcium oxalate

d) Simple carbohydrates into complex carbohydrates

c) Calcium carbonate

(BHU 83)

b) Calcium chloride
(CPMT 85)

d) Potassium bicarbonates

6. Plastids present in unilluminated cells are

15. Thylakoids are found commonly in the plastids of

a) Chloroplast

b) Chromoplasts

a) Bacteria

b) Blue green algae

c) Leucoplasts

d) Proplastids

c) Higher plants

d) All

(BHU 86)

(NCERT 83)
7. Chloroplast is

16. Cell organelles are embedded in

a) Completely dependent on nucleus

a) Cytoplasmic membrane b) Protoplasm

b) Completely independent on nucleus

b) Cytoplasm

(CPMT 86)

d) None

c) Autonomous body
(BHU 83)

d) Semi-autonomous body

17. Basal bodies are associated with the formation of

8. Liquid food drinking is


a) Pinocytosis

b) Phagocytosis

c) Imbition

d) None

a) Phragmoplast

b) Cilia and flagella

c) Cell plate

d) Kinetochore

(BHU 83)

9. Ribosomes are attached to endoplasmic


through
a) Ribophorin

b) rRNA

c) tRNA

d)Hydrohobic intraction

(BHU 87)

reticulum

18. Cell sap is


a) Living content of cytoplasm
b) Nonliving content of cytoplasm
c) Nonliving content of vacuole

(CPMT 85)

d) Living content of vacuole

10. Cellulose and Hemicellulose the constituents of


cell wall are synthesized by

19. A smaller cell is characterized by


a) More metabolic activity

a) Lysosomes

b) Less metabolic activity

b) Microbodies

c) Larger nucleus

c) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

(CPMT 86)

d) Smaller nucleus

d) Golgi apparatus

20. Plastids develop from

(CPMT 85)
11. Structure of nuclear envelope facilitates
a) Nucelocytoplasmic exchange of materials

a) Nucleus

b) Vacuole

c) Proplastids

d) Cell wall
(CPMT 86)

b) Spindle organization

21. The functional unit of Golgi apparatus is

c) Synapsis of homologous chromosomes


d) Separation of daughter chromosome
(CPMT 85)

a) Protein synthesis

b) ATP synthesis

c) Cellular secretion

d) None
(DPMT 87)

12. Peroxisomes possess

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(CPMT 86)

Page 28

22. Centrosomes occurs in

30. Intact chloroplast are isolated from green l eaves by

a) Chrososomes

b) Nucleus

a) Alcohol

b) Sugar solution

c) Nucleolus

d) Cytoplasm

c) Acetone

d) Petroleum ether

(CPMT 88)

(AIIMS 90)

23. Conversion of green tomatoes into red involves

31. Which one is common amongst nucleus, chloroplast


an mitochondria?

a) Formation of chromoplasts from chloroplasts


b) Destruction of chloroplasts and development of
chromoplasts from leucoplasts

a) Cristae

c) Formation of chromoplasts forms proplastids

d)Carbohydrate metabolism

c) Nucleic acid

[CPMT88]

d) All the above

b) Pleuropneumonia

c) Acetabularia

d) Chlamydomonas

(BHU 90)

32. Extrinic proteins in Singer and Nicolsons model


of cell membrane are
a) Tightly attached to intrinsic proteins and cannot be
easily separated

24. Smallest cell that of


a) Virus

b) Thylakoids

b) Tightly attached to intrinsic proteins and can be


easily separated

(AIIMS 88)

c) Superficially present but cannot be separated e asily.

25. Mitochondria and chloroplast are considered to be


endosymbionts of cells because they

d) Superficially present and can not be easily separated.


(AMU 91)

a) Do not arise de Novo.


33. Material
facilitated by

b) Possess their own nucleic acids


c) Have membranes similar to those of bacteria
d) All

exchange

through

nuclear

pore

is

a) Protein rhodopsin

(CPMT 88)

b) Lamina propria

26. Inner mitochondria membrane possesses enzymes

c) Lipid bilayer

a) ATP synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and


respiratory chain enzymes

d) Protein nuceloplasmin

b) NADH Cytochrome reductase and monomeric


oxidase

34. Which organelle is absent in animal cell ?


a) Plastids

b) Golgi apparatus

c) Malate and isocitrate dehydrogenase, Fumarate


aconitase and citrate synthetase

c) E.R.

d) Lysosomes

d) Adenylate kinase and nucleoside diphosphokinase

35. Hammerlings experiment on Acetabularia involved


exchanging

(Bih. PMT 91)

(AMU 89)
27. A cell organelle with folded inner membrane is
disrupted with ultrasonic breaker. Its fragments can
synthesis ATP . The organelle is
a) Ribosomes

b) Centrosome

c) Chloroplast

d) Mitochondrion

c) Epidermal cell

d) Gamete

b) Carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins


c) Protein portion of glycoproteins
d) Both carbohydrates
glycoprotein

c) Protoplasmic fibrils

d) Plasmodesmata

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and

protein

portion

of

(CBSE 90)

29. Proptoplasmic strands between adjacent plant cell


are
(BHU 90)
b) Desmosomes

d) Gametes

a) Lipid portion of cell membrane

(BHU 90)

a) Ectodesmata

c) Rhizoid and stalk

36. Cell recognition is due to

28. Which one of the following plant cells are devoid


of a wall ?
b) Stem hair

b) Nucleus
(CBSE 90)

(CPMT 90)

a) Root hair

a) Cytoplasm

37. Reduced coenzyme is regenerated electron transport


system by
a) Loss of hydrogen
b) Addition of hydrogen

Page 29

c) Loss of electrons

46.All plastids have similar structure because they can

d) Gain of electrons

a) Store starch, lipids and proteins


(CPMT 90)

b) Get transformed from one type to ano ther

38. Plant cells without nuclei are

c) Perform same function

a) Companion cells b) Xylem vessel elements

d) Be present together

c) Root hair

47. Membrane bound Krebs cycle enzyme is

d) Cambium cells

(CBSE 92)

a) Fumarase

(BHU 91)

b) Cis-aconitase
c) Succinic dehydrogenase

39. Size of molecules that can pass through plasma


membrane is
a) 1 15

48. The colour of chromoplast can be

b) 8-10 c) 10-13d) 15-75 (AMU 91)

a) Yellow

40. Cell organelles common in prostista and Monera are


a) Vacuoles
c) Chloroplast

(AIIMS 92)

d) Malate dehydrogenase
b) Red

c) Orange

d) All
(CPMT 92)

b) Lysosomes

49. Factory for synthesis of sugar in autotrophic


enkaryote is

d) Ribosomes (AMU 91)

a) Chloroplast
41. Addition of new cell wall particles amongst the
existing ones is
a) Deposition

b) Apposition

c) Intussuception

d) Aggregation

b) Mitochondrion

c) Endoplasmic reticulum d) Ribosomes


(AIIMS 92)
50. Golgi apparatus is absent in

(CBSE 91)
42. Functional activities of a cell are under the control
of

a) Higher plants

b) Yeast

c) Blue-green algae

d) Liver cells
(CBSE 93)

a) Mitochondria

b) Nucleus

51. Cell recognition and adhesion occur due to


biochemicals of the cell membrane named

c) Nucleolus

d) Protoplasm

a) Proteins
(BHU 91)

b) Lipids

43. An outer covering membrane is absent over

c) Proteins and lipids

a) Nucleolus

b) Lysosome

d) Glycoproteins and glycolipids

c) Mitochondrion

d) Plastid

52. Difference between active and passive modes of


membrane transport is

(CBSE 92)

a) Active transport is confined to cations while passive


is connected to anions

44. During symport or cotransport of sugar or amino


acid Na + moves

b) Active transport is nonselective while passive one is


selective

a) Opposite its concentration gradient


b) Along its concentration gradient

c) Active transport requires metabolic energy while


passive transport requires concentration gradient

c) In both direction
d) Not involved

(CBSE 93)

d) Active transport is more rapid

(CBSE 92)

(CBSE 93)

45. Role of nucleus in morphological differentiation


was discovered in

53. Protein tubulin is absent in


a) Flagella

b) Cilia

a) Acetabularia by Hamerling

c) Microtubules

d) Plasma membrane
(BHU 93)

b) Drosophila by Morgan
54. Cell wall consist of

c) Neurospora by Beadle and Tatum


d) Garden Pea by Mendel

(DPMT 92)

a) Lignin , hemicellulose , pectin and lipid


b) Hemicellulose ,pectin , protein and lipid

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Page 30

c) Cellulose , hemicellulose ,pectin and lignin

b) ATP is hydrolysed by ATP ase to release energy

d) Cellulose, hemicellulose, tubulin and lignin

c) Energy for Na + - K + pump comes from ATP

(BHU 93)

61. Inner membrane convolutions of a mitochondrion


are known as

55. Glyoxisomes are connected with metabolism of


a) Fats

b) Proteins

c) Carbohydrates

d) All

(CBSE 94)

d) ATP is carrier protein

a) Lamellae

b) Thylakoids

56. Tetrad is made of

c) Grana

d) Cristae(CBSE 94)

a) Four homologus chromosomes with four chromatids

62. Mitochondrial cristae are sites of

b) Two homologous, chromosomes, each with two


chromatids

a) Breakdown of macromoclcules

c) Four nonhomologous chromatids

c) Phosphorylation of flavoprotein

d) Four nonhomologous chromosomes (MPPMT 93)

d) Oxidation reduction reactions

57. There are two assertions (A) Eucaryotes have more


DNA than prokaryotes (B) Eucaryotes are generally
more complex than prokaryotes

63. Organelle having flattened membrane


cisternae and lying near the nucleus is
a) Golgi apparatus

b) Mitochondrion

a) Both (A) and (B) are correct and (B) is a correct


explanation of (A)

c) Centriole

d) Nucleolus (CBSE 94)

(BHU 93)

b) Protein synthesis

bound

64. Besides giving out vesicles, Golgi apparatus is


connected with formation of

b) Both (A) and (B) are correct but (B) is not correct
explanation of (A)
c) (A) is true while (B) is false
d) (A) is false while (B) is true

(CBSE 94)

(MPPMT 93)

a) Grana

b) Cell plate

c) Lysosomes

d) Plastids

(CBSE 94)

65. Series of reactions which can convert fatty acids to


sugar in plants but not in animals is

58. Compare in the two lists

a) Krebs cycle

b) Glyoxylate cycle

List II

c) Ornithine cycle

d) Glycolysis (CBSE 94)

1. Microtubules

Structuralcomponents

66. The smallest structure unit of cell wall is

2. Centrioles

Store hydrolases

a) fibril

b) microfibril

3. Peroxisomes

Store carbohydrates,

c) micelle

d) Cellulose (CBSE 94)

List I

fats &protein in plants.

67. Organelles involved in photorespiration are

a) 1 & 3 correct, 2 false

a) Mitochondria, chloroplast and ribosomes

b) 1 correct, 2 and 3 false

b) Mitochondria, peroxisomes and chloroplast

c) 1,2 and 3 correct


d) 1 and 2 correct, 3 false

c) Mitochondria , nucleus and ribosomes


(MPPMT 93)

d) Mitochondria, peroxisomes and glyoxysomes


(BHU 94)
68. Facilitated diffusion involves

59. Which is correctly matched ?

a) carriers but no energy b) receptors and energy

a) Centrosome Enzymes for digestion

c) enzyme and energy

d) carriers and energy

b) Lysosomes Synthesis of amino acids

(Rohtak PMT 94)

c) E.R. formation of new nuclear membrane


d) Microsomes Photosyntheis

69. Smallest unit in cell wall is

(MPPMT 93)

60. Poisons like cyanide inhibit Na + efflux and K +


influx. The effect is reversed by injection of ATP
indicating that
+

b) Middle lamella

c) Microfibril

d) Micelle
(CBSE 94)

70. An RBC was kept in a certain solution for a few


minutes where it got burst. The solution taken was

a) Na - K pump operates in cells

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a) Fibril

Page 31

a) hypotonic

a) Lysosomes

b) Microbody

b) hypertonic

c) Golgi Apparatus

d) Ribosome
(MPPMT 95,)

c) concentrated electrolyte solution


(CBSE 94)

d) isotonic

81. Which one tales part in a acrosome synthesis ?

71. An element present in middle lamella is

a) Golgi apparatus

b) Lysosome

a) Calcium

b) Potassium

c) Nucleus

d) Mitochondria

c) Sodium

d) Iron

(CBSE 94)

(RPMT 95)

72. Which causes softening of fruits?

82. Oxysomes occur in

a) Citric acid

b) Magnesium

c) Pectin

d) Iron

(CPMT 95)

a) Golgi body

b) Chloroplast

c) Mitochondria

d) Endoplasmic reticulum
(RPMT 95)

73. A granal chloroplast are found in some

83. The term thylakoid was coined by

a) Succulents

b) Hydrophytes

a) Arnon

b) Park and Biggins

c) C 4 plants

d) C 3 Plants

c) Menke

d) Willstatter

(MPPMT 95)

(RPMT 95)

a) Cellulose

b) Chitin

84. Which one separates the mitochondrial core from


outside?

c) Suberin

d) Pectin

a) Outer membrane

74. Cell wall substance affected in ripe fruits is

b) Inner membrane

(MPPMT95)
75. Main element present in middle lamella is

c) Perimitochondrial space

a) Fe

d) All

b) Ca

c) Mg

d) K

(CPMT 96)

(MPPMT 95)
85. Plasmalemme prevents escape of Na + and K + to

76. Glycolate metabolism occurs in


a) Lysosomes

b) Ribosomes

c) Glyoxysomes

d) Peroxisomes

a) Cause disruption in neighboring cells through


desmosomes
b) Maintain electrostatic neutrality of cells

(MPPMT 95)

c) Maintain cell sap

77. Desmosomes are concerned with


a) cell division

b) Cellular excretion

c) cytolysis

d) cell adherence

d) All
(RPMT 96)
86. Which cell organelle reduces the number of other
organelles?

(CBSE 95)
78. Active transport involves

a) Oxysome

b) Lysosome

a) against concentration gradient requiring ATP

c) Mitochondria

d) None

b) along conc. gradient requiring ATP

87. Cellular membrane occurs in

c) against conc. gradient but not requiring ATP

a) Eucaryotes

b) Prokaryotes

d) along conc. gradient requiring no ATP

c) Akaryotes

d) All

(RPMT 96)

(BHU 95)

(RPMT 96)

79. Which one is living ?


a) Protoplasm

b) Nucleus

88. Action potential on the outer surface of plasma


membrane is

c) Cytoplasm

d) All

a) Neutral

b) Positive

c) Negative

d) Variable

(RPMT 95)

89. Karyolymph is

80. A unit membrane is absent over

a) Nuclear pore

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(CPMT 96)

Page 32

b) Nuclear sap

c) SPM membrane

d) Cell sap

c) Mitochondria
(BHU 96)

(AIIMS 97)

d) Endoplasmic reticulum

90. Which one does not possess RNA?

99. Export house of cell is

a) Plasmalemma

b) Chromosome

a) E.R.

b) Golgi body

c) Ribosomes

d) Nucleus

c) Nucleus

d) Lysosomes

(BHU 96)

(AIIMS 97)

91. Organelle involved in transformation of cell


membrane is

100. Polymorphic cell organelle is


a) Glyoxysome

b) Peroxisomes

92. Controlling centre for cell is

c) Lysosome

d) Golgi complex

a) Mitochondrion

b) Nucleus

c) Nucleus

d) Ribosome (AIIMS 97)

(MPPMT 97)

93. GERL is associated with

101. In plant cells the number of Golgi bodies increases


during

a) Lysosome

b) Golgi body

a) Cell division

b) Photosynthesis

c) Mitochondrion

d) Lomasome

c) Respiration

d) Translocation

(AIIMS 97)

(MPPMT 97)

94. Protein synthesis occur in an animal cell in

102. Microtubules take part in

a) Cytoplasm

a) Muscle contraction

b) Cytoplasm as well as mitochondria

b) Membrane architecture

c) Ribosomes attached to nuclear envelope

c) DNA recognition

d) Nucleolus as well as cytoplasm (CBSE 97)

d) Cell division

(CBSE 98)

103. Carrier proteins take part in


95. Number of mitochondria increases in cells of

a) Passive transport of ions

a) Dormant seeds

b) Dry seeds

b) Active transport of ions

c) Ripening fruits

d) Germinating seeds

c) Water transport

(MPPMT 97)

(MPPMT 98)

d) Water evaporation

104. Cell organelle covered by a single unit membrane


is
96. Nucleus is covered by

a) Glyoxysome

b) Lysosome

a) Porous double membrane

c) Peroxisome

d) All

b) Porous single membrane

105. Ribosome is formed of

c) Nonporous single membrane

a) RNA + Protein

b) DNA + RNA

d) Nonporous double membrane

c) DNA + Protein

d) Protein only

(MPPMT 98)

(MPPMT 98)

(MPPMT 97)
97. The plasma membrane is made up of

106. Detoxification site in liver is

a) one layers of protein

a) Free ribosomes

b) Golgi complex

b) one layers of lipid

c) SER

d) RER
(AIIMS 91, DPMT 97)

c) one layer of protein and one layers of lipids


107. Circular DNA occurs in

d) two layers of protein and two layers of lipids

a) Bacteria only

(MPPMT 97)
98. Membrane system considered to be extension of
infolded plasma membrane is

b) Bacteria and chloroplasts

a) Golgi complex

d) Bacteria, chloroplast and mitochondria

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c) All viruses

b) plastids

Page 33

(CPMT 81, 84)


116. Polyribosomes are aggregates of
a) Ribosomes and rRNA
b) Only rRNA
c) Peroxisomes
d) Several ribosomes held together by string of mRNA.
(CBSE 89, DPMT 84, BHU 85,88)
117. Average thickness of unit membrane is
a) 75 A
b) 250A
c) 25A
d) 5A

(CBSE 95, AIIMS 97)


108. Desmosomes are concerned with
a) Cell adherence

b) Cytolysis

c) Cell division

d) Cellular excretion
(CBSE 95, AIIMS 97)

109. E.R. of rapidly dividing cells is


a) Non-functional

(BHU 92, MPPMT 94, AMU 98)


118. Cell organelles having hydrolases/ digestive
enzymes are
a) Peroxisome
b) Lysosomes
c) Ribosomes
d) Mesosomes

b) Poorly developed
c) attached to Ribosomes
d) attached to Mitochondrion
(RPMT95,96, Bih. PMT96, MPPMT94, AMU 98)
110.
Acetabularia
used
in
nucleocytoplasmic experiments is

Hammerlings

a) Unicellular fungus

(BHU 85, DPMT 86, AMU 89, CPMT 90,91,


CBSE 94, ZIPMER 97)
119. The diameter of mitochondria is

b) Multicellular fungus

a) 0.5 2 m

b) 5- 20 m

c) Unicellular uninucleate green alga

c) 500 1000 m

d) 150 300 m
( CPMT 72, 80)

d) Unicellular multinucleate green alga.

120. Cell wall shows


a) Complete permeability
b) Semipermeability
c) Differential permeability
d) Impermeability

(CBSE 88, MPPMT 90)


111. Correct sequence of protein (P) and lipid(L) in cell
membrane is
a) L-P-L-P

b) L-P-P-L

c) P-L-L-P

d) P-P-L-L

(CBSE 91, CPMT 91, AIIMS 92)


121. Golgi complex is specialized for
a) Glysosidation of lipids and proteins
b) Conversion of light energy into chemical energy
c) Energy transduction
d) Digestion of carbohydrates and proteins

(BHU 84, Har. PMT 93)


112. Succinate dehydrogenase and
peroxides are located in mitrochondria in

cytochrome

a) Outer membrane
b) Inner membrane

(BHU 87, 89, 90)


122. RER is well developed in cells engaged in
synthesis of
a) Nucleotides
b) Proteins
c) Lipids
d) Secretory products

c) Perimitochondrial space
(DPMT 87, AIIMS 91)

d) Matrix
113. Ribosomes
chloroplast are of

of

bacteria,

mitochondria

a) 50 S type

b) 80 S type

c) 70 S type

d) 30 S type

and

(CPMT 93)
123. Ripening fruit softness due to
a) Jelly formation at acidic pH
b) Solubilisation of pectate of middle lamella
c) Conversion of starch into sugar
d) Incorporation of pectate on middle lamella

(MPPMT 94, DPMT 83, BHU 85, 96, AMU 98)


114. Dictyosomes are
a) Class of ribosomes
b) Places of flagellar origin

(MPPMT 86, DPMT 94)

c) Respiratory particles
d) Golgi bodies

Exercise IV

(BHU 82, AFMC 85)

1. Which of the following is responsible for mechanical


support and enzyme transport ?

115. The following is not a non-protoplasmic cell


inclusion
a) Cystolith
b) Starch grain
c) Raphide
d) Mitochondrion

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Page 34

a) Dictysome

b) Cell membrane

c) E.R.

d) Mitochondria

c) Mitochondria

[AIIMS 1999]

d) Chloroplast
[AIIMS 2001]

2. Which of the following is present between cell walls


of the plant cells ?

11. Spindle fibres of mitotic cells are made up of :


a) Tubulin

b) Actin

a) Lomosome

b) Microsome

c) Myosin

d) Collagen

c) Lysosome

d) Middle lamella

[AIIMS 2001]

[AIIMS 1999]

12. Which of the following organelle is related with


photorespiration ?

3. Rough E. R. differs from Smooth E. R. due to the


presence of :
a) DNA

b) Nucleus

c) Ribosome

d) Enzyme

c) ss DNA

d) ds DNA

d) Lysosome

13. The nicotinamide is synthesized in our body from :

4. HIV has a protein coat and genetic material :


b) ds RNA

b) Chloroplast

c) Mitochondria

[AIIMS 2002]
[AIIMS 2000]

a) ss RNA

a) Peroxisome

a) Tyhptophan

b) Tryosine

c) Valine

d) alanine
[AIIMS 2002]

14. The phagocytosis was first of all seen by :


[AIIMS 2000]

5. Electron microscope was invented by :


a) Robert Hooke

b) Knoll and Ruska

c) Pastuer

d) Schwann and Schleiden

a) Huxley

b) Haeckel

c) Metchnikoff

d) Darwin
[AIIMS 2002]

15. Plasmodesmata connections help in

[AIIMS 2000]

a) cytoplasmic streaming

6. Double membrane structure of cell are :

b) synchronous mitotic divisions

a) Nucleus

b) Chloroplast

c) locomotion of unicellular organisms

c) Mitochondria

d) All the above

d) movement of substances between cells

[AIIMS 2000]

[AIIMS 2003]

7. Hydrolytic enzymes are found in :

16. DNA is present in

a) Peroxisomes

b) Lysosomes

a) chromosomes streaming

c) Lepdosomes

d) Losmasomes

b) chloroplast and lysosomes

[AIIMS 2001]

c) mitochondria and chloroplasts

8. A prokaryotic cell lacks :

d) mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum

a) True nucleus

[AIIMS 2004]

b) Nuclear membrane

17. When synapsis is complete all along the


chromosome, the cell is said to have entered a stage
called
a) zygotene
b) pachytene

c) Membrane bound organelles


d) All the above
[AIIMS 2001]

c) diplotene

9. Induction of cell division and delay in senescence is


done by :
a) Cytokinins

b) Auxins

c) GA

d) CoA

[AIIMS 2005]
18. Many cells function properly and divide mitotically
even though they do not have

[AIIMS 2001]
10. Which of the following is a single membranous
structure ?
a) Lysosomes

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d) diakinesis

b) Nucleus

Page 35

a) plasma membrane

b) cytoskeleton

c) mitochondria

d) plastids

[AIIMS 2005]

19. Three of the following statements regarding cells


organelles are correct while one is wrong. Which one is
wrong ?

d) do not contain any DNA and rely totally on the


genes in the nucleus for the coding of their required
proteins

a) Lysosomes are double membraned vesicles budded


off from Golgi apparatus and contains digestive
enzymes

24. Which statement about chloroplasts is false ?

b) Endoplasmic reticulum consists of a network of


membranous tubules and helps in transport, synthesis
and secretion

b) They contain their own gentic information and


ribosomes

a) They are organelles with a double membrane

c) Leucoplasts are bound by two membranes, lack


pigment but contain their own DNA and protein
synthesizing machinery

c) They are found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

d) Sphaerosomes are single membrane bound and are


associated with synthesis and storage of lipids

e) They contain ATP

d) The thylakoid membranes within the chloroplast


contain chlorophyll

[AIIMS 2005]

25. Centrioles :

20. Genes present in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells are


found in :

a) hold sister chromatids together during metaphase


b) are duplicated before cell division

a) mitochondria and inherited via egg cytoplasm

c) are only present during cell division

b) lysosomes and peroxisomes

d) consist of DNA and histones

c) golgi bodies and smooth endoplasmic reticulum

e) are found in plant cells

d) plastids and inherited via male gamete


[AIIMS 2005]

26. A major break through in the studies of cells came


with development of electron microscope. This is
because :

21. The cell membrane of eukaryotic cells can not :


a) be involved in receptor mediated endocytosis
b) undertake pinocytosis

a) The resolution power of the EM is much higher than


that of light microscope

c) undertake phagocytosis

b) The resolving power of the EM is 200-350 nm as


compared to 0.1-0.2 nm for the light microscope.

d) stop the diffusion of water


[2 nd ABO]

c) Electron beam can pass through thick materials,


wherea light microscopy requires thin sections.

22. Which of the following statements are correct for


mammalian cell membranes ?

d) The EM is more powerful than the light microscope


as it uses a beam of electrons which has wavelength
much longer than that of protrons.

(i) There are two phospholipid layers coating a layer of


protein.
(ii) They contain cholesterol to moderate fluidity.

[CBSE 2006]

(iii) They are supported on the inner cellular layer by a


thin peptose layer.

27. Which of the following statements regarding to


mitochondrial membrane is not correct ?

a) (i) only

a) Outer membrane is permeable to all kinds of


molecules

b) (ii) only

b) Enzymes of the ETC are embedded in the outer


membrane

c) (i) and (ii) only


d) (i), (ii) and (iii)

c) Inner membrane is highly convoluted forming a


series of infoldings

23. Chloroplasts :

d) Outer membrane resembles a sieve

a) are found in all plant cells.

[CBSE 2006]

b) are involved in the synthesis of sugar

28. Which of the following statements regarding cilia is


not correct ?

c) have chlorophyll as their only pigment

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Page 36

a) The organized beating of cilia is controlled by fluxes


of Ca 2+ across membrane

[MP PMT 2007]


37. Acid hyrolase is found in :

b) Cilia are hair-like cellular appendages


c) Microtubules of cilia are composed of tubulin
d) Cilia contain an outer ring of nine doublet
microtubules surrounding two single microtubules

b) ER

c) Lysosome

d) Vacuole
[MP PMT 2007]

38. RNA is not found in :

[CBSE 2006]
29.
What
is
common
between
chromoplasts and leucoplasts ?

a) Golgi body

chloroplasts,

a) Chromosome

b) Plasmalemma

c) Nucleolus

d) Ribosome

a) Presence of pigments

[MP PMT 2007]

b) Possession of thylakoids and grana


c) Storage of starch, proteins and lipids

Assertion & Reason

d) Ability to multiply by a fissin-like process

a) Assertion is True, Reason is True; Reason is a


correct explanation for the Assertion

[AIIMS 2006]
30. Site protein of synthesis is :
a) Ribosomes

b) SER

b) Assertion is True, Reason is True; Reason is NOT a


correct explanation for Assertion

c) Golgi body

d) Lysosome

c) Assertion is True, Reason is False


d) Assertion is False, Reason is True

[CPMT 2007]

e) Assertion is False, Reason is False


31. Cristae are associated with :
a) Endoplasmic reticulum b) Mitochondria

39. Assertion : Power house of cell is mitochondria.

c) Cytoplasm

Reason : ATP is produced in mitochondria.

d) Protoplasm
[CPMT 2007]

32. Centrosome is not present in the cells of :

40. Assertion : Cell wall is not found in animal cell.

a) Higher plants

b) Lower plants

Reason : Animal cells are covered by cell membrane.

c) Higher animals

d) Lower animals
41. Assertion : Organisms are made up of cells.

[CPMT 2007]

Reason : Cells are structural unit of living organisms.


A cell keeps itrs chemical composition steady within its
boundary.

33. Which of the following is a prokaryote ?


a) Amoeba

b) Spirogyra

c) Bacteria

d) Chlamydomonas

42. Assertion : Specialization of cells is useful for


organisms.

[MP PMT 2007]


34. The mineral present in the cell wall is :
a) Na

b) Ca

c) K

d) Mg

Reason : It increases the operational efficiency of an


organisms.
43. Assertion : The number of cells in a multicellular
organism is inversely proportional to size of body.

[MP PMT 2007]


35. The cell theory was proposed by :
a) Virchow

b) Schleiden and Schwann

c) Robert Hooke

d) B. McClintock

Reason : All cells of biological world are alive.

44. Assertion
behaviour.

[MP PMT 2007]


36. Which organelle is present in more number in
secretory cells ?
a) Dictyosomes

b) ER

c) Lysosomes

d) Vacuoles

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cell

membrane

shows

fluid

Reason : A membrane is a mosaic or composite of


diverse lipids and proteins.

Page 37

45. Assertion : Mitochondria and chloroplasts are


semiautonomous organelles.

7d

8a

9a

10d

11a

12c

13a

14c

15c

16b

17b

18c

19a

20c

21c

22d

23a

24b

Answers

25d

26a

27d

28d

29d

30b

Exerrcise I (Cell as a unit of life)

31c

32d

33d

34a

35c

36b

37c

38b

39a

40d

41c

42b

43a

44b

45a

46b

47c

48d

49a

50c

51d

52c

53d

54c

55a

56b

57a

58b

59c

60c

61d

62d

63a

64b

65b

66c

67b

68a

69d

70a

71a

72c

73c

74d

75b

76d

77d

78a

79a

80d

81a

82c

83c

84d

85b

86b

87d

88c

89b

90a

91b

92b

93a

94b

95d

96c

97d

98d

99b

100c

101a

102d

103b

104d

105a

106c

107d

108a

109b

110d

111c

112b

113c

114d

115d

116d

117a

118b

119a

120a

121a

122b

123b

Reason : They are formed by division of prexistig


organelles as well as contain DNA but lack protein
synthesizing machinery.

1d

2b

3c

4d

5d

6c

7d

8c

9c

10d

11d

12a

13b

14b

15c

16c

17b

18b

19b

20b

21c

22a

23b

24c

25a

26a

27b

28d

29c

30a

31d

32a

33b

34b

35d

36b

37d

38a

39a

40d

41d

42d

43c

44d

45b

46b

47c

48a

49a

50b

51b

52d

53c

54c

55a

56c

57d

58b

59b

60a

61d

62c

63b

64b

65d

66b

67b

68c

69a

70d

71c

72b

73b

74c

75d

76b

Exerrcise II (Cell Membrane)


1b

2a

3d

4d

5a

6c

7a

8d

9b

10b

11d

12a

13c

14d

15b

16b

17b

18a

(Structural organization of the cell)

19a

20d

21a

22b

23d

24c

1c

2a

3c

4a

5b

6d

25c

26c

27d

28a

29a

30c

7b

8d

9a

10a

11a

12c

31b

32a

33c

34a

35c

36b

13a

14c

15d

16c

17b

18b

37c

38b

39a

19a

20a

21d

22d

23a

24c

25b

26b

27b

28a

29b

30a

31b

32a

33c

34b

35b

36a

37c

38b

39a

40a

41a

42a

43d

44a

45c

Exerrcise IV

Exerrcise III
(Structural organization of the cell)
1a

2d

3b

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4c

5a

6c

Page 38

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Page 39