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T3406-380-02

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Surfacing using Creo Parametric

Authored and published using

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Copyright 2011 Parametric Technology Corporation. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright for PTC software products is with Parametric Technology Corporation, its
subsidiary companies (collectively PTC), and their respective licensors. This software
is provided under written license agreement, contains valuable trade secrets and
proprietary information, and is protected by the copyright laws of the United States and
other countries. It may not be copied or distributed in any form or medium, disclosed to
third parties, or used in any manner not provided for in the software licenses agreement
except with written prior approval from PTC.
UNAUTHORIZED USE OF SOFTWARE OR ITS DOCUMENTATION CAN RESULT IN
CIVIL DAMAGES AND CRIMINAL PROSECUTION.
User and training guides and related documentation from PTC is subject to the copyright
laws of the United States and other countries and is provided under a license agreement
that restricts copying, disclosure, and use of such documentation. PTC hereby grants to
the licensed software user the right to make copies in printed form of this documentation
if provided on software media, but only for internal/personal use and in accordance
with the license agreement under which the applicable software is licensed. Any copy
made shall include the PTC copyright notice and any other proprietary notice provided
by PTC. Training materials may not be copied without the express written consent of
PTC. This documentation may not be disclosed, transferred, modified, or reduced to
any form, including electronic media, or transmitted or made publicly available by any
means without the prior written consent of PTC and no authorization is granted to make
copies for such purposes.
Information described herein is furnished for general information only, is subject to
change without notice, and should not be construed as a warranty or commitment by
PTC. PTC assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may
appear in this document.
For Important Copyright, Trademark, Patent and Licensing Information see
backside of this guide.

About PTC University


Welcome to PTC University!
With an unmatched depth and breadth of product development knowledge,
PTC University helps you realize the most value from PTC products. Only
PTC University offers:

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An innovative learning methodology - PTCs Precision Learning


Methodology is a proven proprietary approach used by PTC to develop and
deliver learning solutions.
Flexible Delivery Options PTC University ensures you receive the same
quality training programs regardless of the learning style. Our extensive
experience, innovative learning techniques, and targeted learning modules
facilitate the rapid retention of concepts, and higher user productivity.
Premier Content and Expertise A thorough instructor certification process
and direct access to the PTC product development and PTC consulting
organizations means that only PTC courses can give you highly-qualified
instructors, the most up-to-date product information and best practices
derived from thousands of deployments.
Global Focus PTC University delivers training where and when you
need it by providing over 100 training centers located across 35 countries
offering content in nine languages.
Delivering Value A role-based learning design ensures the right people
have the right tools to do their jobs productively while supporting the
organizations overall performance goals.

The course you are about to take will expose you to a number of learning
offerings that PTC University has available. These include:

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Instructor-led Training (ILT) - The ideal blend of classroom lectures,


personal demonstrations, hands-on workshops, assessments, and
post-classroom tools.
Pro/FICIENCY - This Web-based, skills assessment and
development-planning tool will help improve your skills and productivity.
eLearning Libraries - 24/7 access to Web-based training that will
compliment your instructor-led course.
Precision LMS - A powerful learning management system that will manage
your eLearning Library and Pro/FICIENCY assessments.

PTC University additionally offers Precision Learning Programs. These are


corporate learning programs designed to your organizations specific goals,
current skills, desired competencies and training preferences.
Whatever your learning needs are, PTC University can help you get the most
out of your PTC products.

PTC Telephone and Fax Numbers


North America

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Education Services Registration


Tel: (888) 782-3773
Fax: (781) 370-5307
Technical Support (Monday - Friday)
Tel: (800) 477-6435
Fax: (781) 707-0328
License Management and Contracts
Tel: 877-ASK-4-PTC (877-275-4782)
Fax: (781) 707-0331

Technical Support, License Management, Training & Consulting


Tel: +800-PTC-4-HELP (00-800-78-24-43-57)

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Please refer to http://www.ptc.com/services/training/contact.htm for contact


information.

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In addition, you can access the PTC Web site at www.ptc.com. Our Web
site contains the latest training schedules, registration information, directions
to training facilities, and course descriptions. You can also reach technical
support, and register for online service options such as knowledge base
searches, reference libraries and documentation. You can also find general
information about PTC, PTC Products, Consulting Services, Customer
Support, and PTC Partners.

Precision Learning
Precision Learning In The Classroom
PTC University uses the Precision Learning methodology to develop
effective, comprehensive class material that will improve the productivity
of both individuals and organizations. PTC then teaches using the proven
instructional design principal of Tell Me, Show Me, Let Me Do:

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Topics are introduced through a short presentation, highlighting the key


concepts.
These key concepts are then reinforced by seeing them applied in the
software application.
You then apply the concepts through structured exercises.

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After the course, a Pro/FICIENCY assessment is provided in order for you to


assess your understanding of the materials. The assessment results will also
identify the class topics that require further review.

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At the end of the class, you will either take a Pro/FICIENCY assessment via
your PTC University eLearning account, or your instructor will provide training
on how to do this after the class.

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Precision Learning After the Class

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Each student that enrolls in a PTC class has a PTC University eLearning
account. This account will be automatically created if you do not already
have one.
As part of the class, you receive additional content in your account:

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A Pro/FICIENCY assessment from the course content that generates a


Recommended Learning Report based on your results.
A Web-based training version of the course, based on the same
instructional approach of lecture, demonstration and exercise. The
Recommended Learning Report will link directly to sections of this training
that you may want to review.
Please note that Web-based training may not be available in all languages.
The Web-based training is available in your account for one year after the
live class.

Precision Learning Recommendations

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PTC uses a role-based training approach. The roles and the associated
training are graphically displayed in a curriculum map. Curriculum maps are
available for numerous PTC products and versions in the training section of
our Web site at http://www.ptc.com/services/edserv/learning/paths/index.htm.

Please note that a localized map may not be available in every language and
that the map above is partial and for illustration purposes only.
Before the end of the class, your instructor will review the map
corresponding to the course you are taking. This review, along with instructor
recommendations, should give you some ideas for additional training that
corresponds to your role and job functions.

Training Agenda
Day 1
01
02
03
04
05
06

Surface Modeling Overview


Advanced Selection
Advanced Datum Features
Advanced Sketching
Basic Surfacing Tools
Boundary Blend Surfaces

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Module
Module
Module
Module
Module
Module

Day 2

Additional Boundary Surfaces


Sweep Surfaces with Variable Sections
Helical Sweeps
Swept Blends
Analyzing Surface Curvature
Additional Surface Analysis Tools

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Module 07
Module 08
Module 09
Module 10
Module 11
Module 12

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Day 3

Extending and Trimming Surfaces


Manipulating Surfaces
Creating and Editing Solids using Quilts
Master Model Technique
Project

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Module 13
Module 14
Module 15
Module 16
Module 17

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Table of Contents
Surfacing using Creo Parametric

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Surface Modeling Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1


Introduction to Surfacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Surface Modeling Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Surface Modeling Paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Freeform Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Blending Surface Modeling Paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Surfacing Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

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Advanced Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Advanced Chain Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Advanced Surface Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6

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Advanced Datum Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Creating Datum Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Creating Datum Coordinate Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Creating Points On or Offset from Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Creating Points at Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Creating Points using an Offset Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Sketching Geometry Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Creating Curves Through a Point or Vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
Creating a Curve Through a Point Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35
Creating a Curve from a Cross-Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-40
Creating a Curve From Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-43
Creating Composite Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49
Creating a Curve from Curve Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52
Creating a Curve at Surface Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-54
Projecting and Wrapping Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56
Trimming Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-60
Creating Offset Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65
Creating Cosmetic Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-70
Advanced Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Using Sketched Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Sketching Ellipses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Sketching Elliptical Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Sketching Splines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Modifying Splines Basic Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Modifying Splines Advanced Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Importing and Exporting Spline Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Sketching Conics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27

Sketching Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing Sketcher Convert Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locking Sketcher Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing Sketcher Dimension Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sketcher Diagnostic Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-32
4-37
4-42
4-44
4-49

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Basic Surfacing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


Creating Surface Extrude Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Creating Surface Revolve Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Creating Fill Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Creating Sweep Surfaces with Open Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Creating Sweep Surfaces with Closed Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Creating Parallel Blend Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27
Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface Section Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Understanding Rotational and General Blend Theory . . . . . . . . . . . 5-34
Creating Rotational Blend Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-36
Analyzing Rotational Blend Surface Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-40
Creating General Blend Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-43
Analyzing General Blend Surface Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-47
Defining Rotational and General Blend Surface Tangency . . . . . . . 5-49
Selecting Sections for Rotational and General Blend Surfaces . . . . 5-53

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Boundary Blend Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


Understanding Boundary Curve Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Creating Boundary Blends in One Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Creating Boundary Blends in Two Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Analyzing Blended Surface Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Analyzing Blended Surface Constraint Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Analyzing Blended Surface Control Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Additional Boundary Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Creating Conic Surfaces from Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Creating Approximate Blended Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Analyzing Approximate Blended Surface Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Creating N-Sided Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Creating a Blend Tangent to Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Sweep Surfaces with Variable Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Understanding Sweeps with Variable Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Creating Sweep Surfaces using a Constant Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal to Trajectory . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Creating Sweep Surfaces using Constant Normal Direction . . . . . . 8-13
Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal to Projection . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control in a Sweep Surface . . . . 8-19

Creating Sweep Surfaces Utilizing Multiple Trajectories . . . . . . . . .


Creating Sweep Surfaces using Tangent Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing Sweep Surface Trajectory Options and Rules. . . . . . . . .
Using Trajpar with Sweep Surface Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Trajpar and Datum Graphs with Sweep Surface Features . .

8-24
8-29
8-34
8-38
8-41

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Helical Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1


Understanding Helical Sweeps Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Utilizing Helical Sweeps for Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Analyzing Helical Sweep Surface Profile and Pitch Variations. . . . . . 9-7
Utilizing Variable Sections in Helical Sweep Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11

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Swept Blends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1


Understanding Swept Blend Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by Selecting Sections . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by Sketching Sections. . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section Plane Control . . . . . . . . . 10-19
Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control in a Swept Blend Surface10-23
Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Tangency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28
Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32
Analyzing Swept Blend Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36

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Analyzing Surface Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1


Analyzing Surfaces Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Defining Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Defining Curvature Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Analyzing Curvature of Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Analyzing Curvature of Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Analyzing Curvature using Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
Analyzing Curvature using Normals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Using Shaded Curvature Analysis for Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24
Using Shaded Section Curvature Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-29
Creating Curvature Continuous Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-33
Additional Surface Analysis Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Using the Point Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
Using the Radius Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Using the Dihedral Angle Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Using the Offset Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Using the Draft Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Using the Slope Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
Using the Reflection Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-24
Using the Shadow Analysis Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-27
Extending and Trimming Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1

Extending Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2


Extending Surfaces using Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Analyzing Extend Surface Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Creating a Surface Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15
Trimming Surfaces with Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20
Trimming Surfaces with Quilts Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23
Trimming Surfaces with the Silhouette Trim Option . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27
Trimming Surfaces with the Vertex Round Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30

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Manipulating Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1


Copying and Pasting Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Offsetting Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
Offsetting Surfaces with the Expand Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
Offsetting Surfaces with Draft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15
Moving and Rotating Quilts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19
Mirroring Quilts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-24
Merging Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-28

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Creating and Editing Solids using Quilts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1


Thickening Surface Quilts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Solidifying Quilts to Add Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Solidifying Quilts to Remove Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
Solidifying Quilts to Replace Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
Offsetting Surfaces using the Replace Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Creating Rounds on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Converting Solid Rounds to Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25

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Master Model Technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1


Master Model Technique Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Creating a Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Creating Framework in the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Creating Surfaces in the Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14
Refining and Completing the Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17
Sharing Geometry from the Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21
Completing Body Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-25
Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Shaver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating the Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Framework in the Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Surfaces in the Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refining and Completing the Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sharing Geometry from the Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Body Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17-1
17-2
17-3
17-4
17-5
17-6
17-7
17-8

Student Preface Using the Header

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In this topic, you learn about the course handbook layout and
the header used to begin each lab in Creo Parametric.

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Procedure / Exercise Header:

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Modules
Topics
Concept
Theory
Procedure
Exercise (if applicable)

Course Handbook Layout:

Course Handbook Layout


The information in this course handbook is organized to help students locate
information after the course is complete. Each course is organized into
modules, each covering a general subject. Each module contains topics,
with each topic focused on a specific portion of the module subject. Each
individual topic in the module is divided into the following sections:
Concept This section contains the initial introduction to the topic and
is presented during the class lecture as an overhead slide, typically with
figures and bullets.

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Theory This section provides detailed information about content


introduced in the Concept, and is discussed in the class lecture but not
shown on the overhead slide. The Theory section contains additional
paragraphs of text, bullets, tables, and/or figures.
Procedure This section provides step-by-step instructions about how to
complete the topic within Creo Parametric. Procedures are short, focused,
and cover a specific topic. Procedures are found in the Student Handbook
only. Not every topic has a Procedure, as there are knowledge topics that
contain only Concept and Theory.
Exercise Exercises are similar to procedures, except that they are
typically longer, more involved, and use more complicated models.
Exercises also may cover multiple topics, so not every topic will have an
associated exercise. Exercises are found in the separate Exercise Guide
and/or the online exercise HTML files.

Procedure / Exercise Header

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module. Process modules introduce you to the generic high-level
processes that will be taught over the span of the entire course.

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To make the exercises and procedures (referred to collectively as labs) as


concise as possible, each begins with a header. The header lists the name
of the lab, the working directory, and the file you are to open.
The following items are indicated in the figure above, where applicable:

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1. Procedure/Exercise Name This is the name of the lab.


2. Scenario This briefly describes what will be done in the lab. The
Scenario is only found in Exercises.
3. Close Windows/Erase Not Displayed A reminder that you should
close any open files and erase them from memory:
until the icon is no longer displayed.

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Click Close

and then click OK.


Click Erase Not Displayed
Folder Name This is the working directory for the lab. Lab files are
stored in topic folders within specific functional area folders. The path to
the lab files is:
PTCU\CreoParametric1\functional_area_folder\topic_folder
In the example, Rounds is the functional area folder and Variable
is the topic folder, so you would set the Working Directory to
PTCU\CreoParametric1\Round\Variable.
To set the working directory, right-click the folder in the folder tree or
browser, and select Set Working Directory.
Model to Open This is the file to be opened from the working
directory. In the above example, VARIABLE_RAD.PRT is the model to
open. The model could be a part, drawing, assembly, and so on. If
you are expected to begin the lab without an open model, and instead
create a new model, you will see Create New.
To open the indicated model, right-click the file in the browser and
select Open.

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4.

5.

6.
7.

Task Name Labs are broken into distinct tasks. There may be one
or more tasks within a lab.
Lab Steps These are the individual steps required to complete
a task.

Two other items to note for labs:


Saving Saving your work after completing a lab is optional, unless
otherwise stated.
Exercises Exercises follow the same header format as Procedures.

Setting Up Creo Parametric for Use with Training Labs

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Before you begin a lab from any training course, it is important that you
configure Creo Parametric to ensure the system is set up to run the lab
exercises properly. Therefore, if you are running the training labs on a
computer outside of a training center, follow these three basic steps:

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Extract the class files zip file to a root level drive such as C: or D:.
The extracted zip will create the default folder path automatically, such
as C:\PTCU\CreoParametric1\.
Locate your existing Creo Parametric shortcut.
Copy and paste the shortcut to your desktop.
Right-click the newly pasted shortcut and select Properties.
Select the Shortcut tab and set the Start In location to be the same as
the default folder. For example, C:\PTCU\CreoParametric1\.
Start Creo Parametric using the newly configured shortcut.
The default working directory will be set to the CreoParametric1 folder.
You can then navigate easily to the functional area and topic folders.

PROCEDURE - Student Preface Using the Header


In this exercise, you learn how to use the header to set up the Creo
Parametric working environment for each lab in the course.
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

SampleFunctionalArea\Topic1_Folder

Configure Creo Parametric to ensure the system is set up to run


the lab exercises properly.

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Step 1:

EXTRUDE_1.PRT

Perform this task only if you are running the labs on a computer
outside of a training center, otherwise proceed to Task 2.

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1. Extract the zipped class files to a root level drive such as C: or D:.
The extracted ZIP will create the default folder path automatically,
such as C:\PTCU\CreoParametric1.

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2. Locate your existing Creo Parametric shortcut.


Copy and paste the shortcut to your desktop.
Right-click the newly pasted shortcut and select Properties.
Select the Shortcut tab and set the Start In location to be
PTCU\CreoParametric1.

Add the Erase not Displayed icon to the Quick Access toolbar.

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Step 2:

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3. Start Creo Parametric using the newly configured shortcut.


The default working directory is set to the CreoParametric1 folder.
You can then navigate easily to the functional area and topic folders.

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1. Click File > Manage Session, and cursor over Erase Not Displayed.
Right-click and select Add to Quick Access Toolbar.
Step 3:

Close all open windows and erase all objects from memory to
avoid any possible conflicts.

1. If you currently have files open, click Close


toolbar, until the icon no longer displays.

from the Quick Access

2. Click Erase Not Displayed


from the Quick Access toolbar.
Click OK if the Erase Not Displayed dialog box appears.

Step 4:

Browse to and expand the functional area folder for this procedure
and set the folder indicated in the header as the Creo Parametric
working directory.

1. Notice the folder indicated in the header above.


2. If necessary, select the Folder Browser

tab from the navigator.

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Click Working Directory


to view the current working directory
folder in the browser.
Double-click SampleFunctionalArea.
3. Right-click the Topic1_Folder folder and select Set Working
Directory.

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4. Double-click the Topic1_Folder folder to display its contents in the


browser.

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Alternatively you can use the cascading folder path in the


browser to navigate to the topic folder, and then right-click and
select Set Working Directory from the browser.
Open the file for this procedure.

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Step 5:

1. Notice the lab model is specified in the header above.


Double-click extrude_1.prt in the browser to open it.
2. You are now ready to begin the first task in the lab:
Read the first task.
Perform the first step, which in most cases will be to set the initial
datum display for the procedure or exercise. Complete the optional
task below to customize the In Graphics toolbar, making the
selection of the datum display options easier
Perform the remaining steps in the procedure or exercise.

Step 6:

OPTIONAL: Customize the In Graphics toolbar to show the datum


display options.

1. Right-click the In Graphics toolbar and clear the Datum Display


Filters check box.
Select the Plane Display, Axis Display, Point Display, and Csys
Display check boxes.
Click in the graphics window.

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3. The model should now appear


as shown.

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This completes the procedure.

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Enable only the following Datum Display types:


2. The In Graphics toolbar should appear as shown.

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Surface Modeling Overview

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Module

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Module Overview

Surface modeling in Creo Parametric enables you to create models with


sculpted, organic, or curvature continuous shapes that would be too complex
to create with typical solid modeling tools.

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In this module, you will be introduced to surface modeling, including surface


modeling uses, paradigms, and terminology.

Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Describe the capabilities and uses for a surface modeling environment.
Describe the parametric and freeform surface modeling paradigms.
Describe how the parametric and freeform surface modeling paradigms
can be integrated.
Discuss surface modeling terminology.

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Module 1 | Page 1

Introduction to Surfacing

Figure 1 Camera

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Surface modeling enables you to


design the models that have:
Geometric shapes with high
curvatures, or curvature in two
directions.
Fluid, sculpted, or organic
shapes.
Shapes that cannot be designed
using solid features.
Smooth shapes with tangent or
curvature continuity.
Surface Modeling Scenarios

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The figures in this slide illustrate examples of models that have


been developed using Creo Parametric surface modeling tools.

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Figure 2 Faucet

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Figure 3 Helmet

Figure 4 Hedge Trimmer

Introduction to Surfacing

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The figures illustrate examples of models that have been developed using
Creo Parametric surface modeling tools. Surface modeling enables you to
design the models that have:

Geometric shapes with high curvatures, or curvature in two directions.


Fluid, sculpted, or organic shapes.
Shapes that cannot be designed using solid features.
Smooth shapes with tangent or curvature continuity.

Surfacing Model Scenarios


Some of the surface modeling scenarios that you might encounter are:
Your colleague has developed a foam model of a product shape. You
create a model that matches to the mockup.
Your company must create a digital model of an engine head. There are no
drawings available. You create a rough scan of the actual casting.
Module 1 | Page 2

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You receive an E-mail attachment with the concept sketches of a molded


suitcase. You develop a Creo Parametric model.
Using drawings of an automobile mirror with views and sections, you create
a digital model of the mirror.
Using the internal components of a handheld PDA (Personal Digital
Assistant), you intuitively create the body design.
You design a toy based on the data available in IGES form.
You are designing a turbine blade with the sections defined in the form
of equations.
You are designing a product in which the external shape was roughly
conceptualized using another software program. You recreate the surface
model to define the shape in Creo Parametric, and then you generate
the part designs.
You prepare the design of a Creo Parametric model of a handheld PDA
(Personal Digital Assistant) for a model making company. The company will
design a physical mockup of the model using a rapid prototyping method.
You have received low-quality IGES data to design a tooling. You need to
fix the imported surface data before undertaking further modeling.

2011 PTC

Module 1 | Page 3

Surface Modeling Uses

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Figure 1 CD Player

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You use surface modeling to:


Design enclosures.
Visualize and develop
conceptual designs.
Design thin-walled components
with complex shapes.
Fix problems in imported
surface data.
Design tooling.
Redefine and manipulate solid
models.
Define complex fillets.

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You can use surface modeling for a variety of situations.

Figure 3 Molding

Figure 2 Casting Manifold

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Surface Modeling Uses

You can use surface modeling to:

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Design enclosures (the outside body of any product) Examples include


the body shells of consumer goods such as the CD player in Figure 1 or
skins or casings of highly contoured engineering components such as the
engine intake manifold in Figure 2.
Develop conceptual designs When you conceptualize product shapes,
you need the flexibility to manipulate the shape of the model interactively
and review the aesthetic requirements.
Design thin-walled components You use surface modeling to design
complexly shaped components, for example, the floor pan of an automobile.
Fix imported surface data It is common to receive imported surface data
with untrimmed and unstitched surfaces. This requires the data to be
manipulated and fixed for further design.
Design tooling To design tooling, you work on quilts using surface editing
tools such as the mold components in Figure 3.
Redefine and manipulate solid models In a solid modeling environment,
using surface features enables you to manipulate solids to cut and replace
Module 1 | Page 4

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solid surfaces, create transition surfaces, and create robust pattern


features using surface transform.
Design complex fillets In complex situations in which standard radii tools
do not provide satisfactory results, you create fillets using surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 1 | Page 5

Surface Modeling Paradigms

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Figure 1 Sheet Panel

Figure 2 Door Interior

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Parametric Surface Modeling:


Driven by dimensions,
parameters, and mathematical
equations.
Surface Modeling course.
Freeform Surface Modeling:
Driven by intuition, feel, and
aesthetic requirements.
Freeform Surface Modeling
Course.
Choosing appropriate method:
Design Input
Design Intent
Designers background

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In comparison to solid modeling, the surface modeling paradigm


uses very different approaches, techniques, and workflow.

Surface Modeling Paradigms

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The surface modeling paradigm can be very different from the solid modeling
paradigm. It can use different approaches, techniques, and workflow. You
can divide the surface modeling paradigm into two categories:
Parametric or constrained surface modeling (Also known as technical
surfacing) These techniques are covered in this Surface Modeling course.
Freeform or interactive surface design This technique is covered in the
Freeform Surface Modeling course.
Both approaches can often deliver the required surface model shape. You
can select a suitable approach based on the following factors:
The design input Hard data and dimension values versus sketches or
conceptual drawings.
The design intent Geometry is controlled based on dimensions versus
being controlled by pushing and pulling on surface contours.
The designer's background Users with Creo Parametric modeling
experience may prefer parametric modeling, whereas users with design or
artistic backgrounds may prefer freeform modeling.
Module 1 | Page 6

2011 PTC

Freeform Overview
The Style tool is a powerful and comprehensive surface
modeling tool.

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Style Tool
Freeform Curves
Surfaces

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Figure 1 Creating a Freeform


Curve

Figure 2 Creating a Second


Freeform Curve

Figure 3 Creating the Surface

Freeform Overview
The Style tool is a powerful and comprehensive surface modeling tool
which is covered in detail in the Freeform Surface Modeling course. It is
a spline-based freeform modeler that enables you to create 2-D and 3-D
curves and freeform surfaces. For example, in Figure 1 and Figure 2, two
freeform curves are being created. In Figure 3, the curves are used to create
the freeform surface. These curves and surfaces are created within a Style
feature. A Style feature is an independent feature with its own modeling
environment.

2011 PTC

Module 1 | Page 7

Where Do You Use the Style Tool?


You primarily use style features to create models in which the design intent is
dependent on a visual or aesthetic criterion. However, it can also be used in
other ways, including:

The Style tool enables you to:

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Create freeform planar and 3-D curves.


Project curves on surfaces.
Create surfaces from three or four boundaries.
Trim surfaces.
Define surface continuity.

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Style Tool Uses

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Creating freeform features on an otherwise parametric model.


Creating freeform curves and surfaces on top of controllable parametric
geometry.
Creating a conceptual model.
For reverse styling tasks.

Module 1 | Page 8

2011 PTC

Blending Surface Modeling Paradigms


Many product shapes can be constructed using a combination
of parametric and freeform surface features.

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Blending the two paradigms


Many product shapes can utilize a
combination of:
Parametric surface models with
freeform curves and surfaces.
Freeform surface models with
parametric framework and
relations.

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Figure 1 Designing a Ring

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Figure 2 Parametric Framework


Figure 3 Designing a Freeform
Surface

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Blending Surface Modeling Paradigms


Many product shapes can be constructed using a combination of parametric
and freeform surface features. Using surface modeling tools, you can
integrate feature-based parametric modeling with freeform unconstrained
surfacing in a single modeling environment. You can create freeform features
with reference to parametric features and vice-versa.
For example, jewelry design uses freeform surface modeling tools to create
the sculpted shapes and constrained surfaces to create a ring base and
precise jewel cavities. With a typical jewelry design for a ring, you create a
base model with an exact circular dimension, and then use Translate/Rotate
and Pattern tools to locate the stones. You can also use relations and family
tables. Figure 1 displays the construction of rings with a combination of
parametric and freeform surface features.
Another common approach is to create a parametric framework, and then
create freeform features with reference to the framework. Figure 2 displays a
2011 PTC

Module 1 | Page 9

personal data assistant where a parametric framework is used to modify the


overall dimensions of free form surfaces.

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In parametric surface modeling, you can define blends and transition surfaces
using freeform surfaces. Figure 3 displays a blending surface, highlighted in
wire mesh, which is designed as the freeform surface between parametric
features.

Module 1 | Page 10

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Surfacing Terms
Surface modeling terms are important to understand because
they are used throughout this course.
Surfaces
Quilt
Surface Patch
Solid Surface
Datum Planes

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Edges
Surface edge
One-sided
Two-sided
Solid edge

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Figure 1 Viewing a Surface

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Figure 2 Surface Quilt

Figure 4 Surface Edge

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Figure 3 Solid Surface


and Edge

Surfacing Terms
Surface modeling terms are used throughout this course. Therefore, they
are important to understand.

Surface Surfaces are infinitely thin, non-solid features used to aid in the
design of highly complex and irregular shapes. Notice that surfaces are
shown using orange and purple highlighting on the edges when viewed in
wireframe display, as in Figure 1.
Orange denotes outer or one-sided edges.
Purple denotes inner or two-sided edges, since they border two surface
patches.
In Creo Parametric, the term surface can be used for any of the following:
Quilts A quilt may consist of a single surface or a collection of surfaces.
A quilt represents a patchwork of connected surfaces. A multi-surface
quilt contains information describing the geometry of all the surfaces
2011 PTC

Module 1 | Page 11

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that compose it, and information on how these surfaces are joined or
intersected, such as the models shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Surface Patch If you create a surface feature, which is made of several
segments, the surface is created with multiple patches, as in Figure 1.
Solid Surfaces A face of a solid feature, such as the solid model shown
in Figure 3.
Datum Planes A planar datum feature that extends infinitely but is
represented by a rectangular border.
Edge An edge is the boundary of a solid, as in Figure 3 or a surface, as in
Figure 4. Surface edges can be one-sided or two-sided depending on the
presence of adjacent surface geometry.

Module 1 | Page 12

2011 PTC

2
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Module

Advanced Selection

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Module Overview

In this module, you learn advanced methods for how to select edges and
geometry within a part model. Learning advanced methods for selection
enables you to create more robust models in a shorter period of time.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Understand advanced chain selection.
Understand advanced surface selection.

2011 PTC

Module 2 | Page 1

Advanced Chain Selection

Figure 1 Intent Chain

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Chain types:
Intent chain
One-by-one
Tangent chain
Surface loop
Surface loop from to
Boundary
From-to Boundary loop
Multiple chains
Selection methods:
Direct with mouse
Chain dialog box

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You can select multiple edges in Creo Parametric using different


types of chains to increase efficiency and feature robustness.

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Advanced Chain Selection

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Figure 2 Surface Loop

Chain Types

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You can select multiple edges in Creo Parametric using different types of
chains to increase efficiency and feature robustness. A chain is a collection
of adjacent edges and curves that share common endpoints. Chains can be
open-ended or closed-loop, but they are always defined by two ends.

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The following are the different types of chains that can be used to select
edges:

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Intent chain Enables you to select edges based on their intent. For
example, say you use an intent chain to select the four edges of a square
cut for purposes of rounding them. If the square cut is redefined into a
hexagon cut, the intent chain automatically adds the two additional edges
and rounds them, because your intent was to round the edges of the cut.
If you instead select the edges one at a time and round them, the round
feature either fails or does not round the newly added edges.
One-by-one Enables you to select adjacent edges one at a time along a
continuous path.
Tangent chain Enables you to select all the edges that are tangent to
an anchor edge.
Surface loop Enables you to select a loop of edges on a surface.
Surface loop from to Enables you to select a range of edges from the
surface loop.
Boundary Enables you to select the outermost boundaries of a quilt.
From-to Boundary loop Enables you to select a range of edges from
the boundary.
Module 2 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Multiple chains You can select multiple chains by selecting the first chain,
pressing CTRL and selecting an edge for a new chain, then holding down
SHIFT and completing the new chain from the selected edge.

Selection Methods
There are two different ways to select entities:
Directly with the mouse.

Figure 3 Chain Dialog Box

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Using the Chain dialog box


The Chain dialog box enables a
GUI approach to selection. This
dialog box is only available in the
context of a tool. You can click
the Details button near the tool's
reference collector to display the
Chain dialog box.

2011 PTC

Module 2 | Page 3

PROCEDURE - Advanced Chain Selection


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Selection\Adv_Chain
Task 1:

ADV_CHAINS.PRT

Experiment with the different chain selection types.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Select Extrude 3.

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4. Cursor over one of the vertical


edges and right-click to
query-select the side edges
Intent chain.

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5. De-select all geometry.


6. Select the top, front horizontal
edge.

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3. Cursor over one of the top edges


and right-click to query-select the
end edges Intent chain.

7. Press SHIFT and select the two


adjacent edges One-by-one.

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8. De-select all geometry.


9. Select Extrude 1.

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10. Select the top, front horizontal


edge.

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11. Press SHIFT and select the top,


right front edge to select the
Tangent chain.

12. De-select all geometry.

13. Select Extrude 1.


14. Select one of the top, front
edges.
15. Press SHIFT and select the top,
right flat surface to select the
Surface loop.
16. De-select all geometry.

Module 2 | Page 4

2011 PTC

17. Select Extrude 1.


18. Select the top, front edge.
19. Press SHIFT and select the top,
back edge to select the Surface
loop from to chain.
20. Select the quilt on the right.
21. Select an edge of the quilt.

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22. Press SHIFT and select the quilt


to select the Boundary.

24. Select the quilt again.


25. Select the front, vertical edge.

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27. De-select all geometry.

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26. Press SHIFT and select the


back, vertical edge to select the
From-to Boundary loop.

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23. De-select all geometry.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 2 | Page 5

Advanced Surface Selection


You can select multiple surfaces in Creo Parametric using
different types of sets.

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Surface set types:


Individual Surfaces
Solid Surfaces
Intent Surfaces
Seed and Boundary
Loop Surfaces
Exclude Surfaces
Selection methods:
Direct with mouse
Chain dialog box

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Figure 1 Selecting Multiple


Individual Surfaces

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Figure 2 Selecting a Surface Loop

Advanced Surface Selection

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You can select multiple surfaces in Creo Parametric using different types of
sets. A surface set is a collection of surface patches from solids or quilts.
Surface patches do not need to be adjacent.

Surface Set Types

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The following are the different types of surface sets that can be used to
select surfaces:
Individual Surfaces Enables you to select surfaces from solids or quilts
one at a time. To select multiple individual surfaces, press CTRL.
Solid Surfaces Enables you to select all surfaces of the solid geometry
in a part model.
Intent Surfaces Enables you to select surfaces based on their intent.
An intent surface set tends to be more robust because it can account for
changes made to geometry.
Seed and Boundary Surfaces Enables you to select all surfaces from the
selected seed surface up to the boundary or boundaries.
Loop Surfaces Enables you to select all the surfaces that are adjacent
to the edges of a surface.
Exclude Surfaces Enables you to exclude surface patches during or
after a surface set has been created.
Module 2 | Page 6

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Selection Methods
There are two different ways to select entities:
Directly with the mouse.

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Using the Surface Sets dialog


box The Surface Sets dialog
box enables a GUI approach
to selection. This dialog box is
only available in the context of
a tool. You can click the Details
button next to the tool's reference
collector to display the Surface
Sets dialog box.

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Figure 3 Surface Sets Dialog Box

2011 PTC

Module 2 | Page 7

PROCEDURE - Advanced Surface Selection


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Selection\Adv_Surface
Task 1:

ADV_SURFACE-SETS.PRT

Experiment with the different surface set selections.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Select Extrude 1.

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3. Select the front surface of


Extrude 1.

4. Press CTRL and select the


second individual surface.

7. Select any surface on that


feature.

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8. Right-click and select Solid


Surfaces.

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6. Select any feature.

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5. De-select all geometry.

9. De-select all geometry.

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10. Right-click to query and select


cut Extrude 2.

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11. Select the Intent surface.

12. De-select all geometry.


13. Select the front surface on the
silver protrusion as the seed
surface.
14. Press SHIFT and select the
top, right flat surface as the
Boundary.

Module 2 | Page 8

2011 PTC

15. Release SHIFT to select all the


surfaces from the seed surface
up to the Boundary.
You can continue to use
SHIFT to select additional
boundaries.
16. Select the top, flat surface.

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17. Press SHIFT and select the front


edge.

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20. De-select all geometry.

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19. Press CTRL and click to


de-select the two surfaces,
excluding them from the loop.

18. Release SHIFT to select the


Surface loop.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 2 | Page 9

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Module 2 | Page 10

2011 PTC

3
O

Advanced Datum Features

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Module

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Module Overview

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Datum features often serve as the foundation when modeling advanced


geometry. A datum feature framework can efficiently capture the design
intent of the model, and then solid features can be created on the framework.
Datum curves and sketches may reference other datum features, such as
datum points and coordinate systems. In addition, you can create datum
graphs that can be utilized by relations to control part geometry.

In

In this module, you learn how to create datum points and several types of
datum curves. You will also learn how to create datum graphs and coordinate
systems.

Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Create datum graphs.
Create datum coordinate systems.
Sketch geometry datums.
Create numerous types of datum points.
Create numerous types of datum curves.
Create cosmetic sketches.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 1

Creating Datum Graphs


A 2-D datum graph can be created as a feature in the model.

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Created like a Sketch feature:


Used as an X-Y function.
Can be used to control
part geometry.
Must contain a Sketcher
coordinate system.
Must contain sketched
geometry.

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Figure 1 Datum Graph Features

Figure 3 Creating a Datum Graph


from a Spline

In

Figure 2 Creating a Datum


Graph using Lines

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Creating Datum Graphs

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A 2-D datum graph can be created as a feature in the model, as shown in


Figure 1. The datum graph is created much like a sketch feature, except that
a visible datum curve is not created. Instead, the system is able to use the
sketch as an X-Y function. This function can then be utilized by relations to
control part geometry based on the X-Y relation of the graph.
The datum graph must contain a Sketcher coordinate system, and sketched
geometry. Centerlines and construction geometry can be used to simplify the
sketch creation, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. However, the system
only recognizes solid sketched geometry such as lines, arcs, and splines
for the graph function.

Module 3 | Page 2

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Datum Graphs


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Graph
Task 1:

DATUM_GRAPH.PRT

Create a datum graph comprised of lines.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


.

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2. Click the Datum group drop-down menu and select Graph


3. Press ENTER to accept the default graph name GRAPH_1.

4. A new Sketcher window opens.

6. Click Centerline
from the
Sketching group and sketch a
vertical and horizontal centerline.

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5. Enable only the following Sketcher Display types:

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7. Click Coordinate System


from the Sketchng group.
Click the intersection of
the centerlines to place the
coordinate system.

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8. Click Line Chain


and sketch
an angled line and a horizontal
line. The left endpoint of the
angled line should be aligned to
the vertical centerline.

9. Click Normal
from the
Dimension group and dimension
the sketch, editing the values as
shown.
10. Click OK

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 3

11. Notice the datum graph feature


in the model tree.

Task 2:

Create a datum graph comprised of two arcs.


.

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1. Click the Datum group drop-down menu and select Graph


2. Press ENTER to accept the default graph name GRAPH_2.

3. A new Sketcher window opens.

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5. Click Coordinate System


and click the left intersection
of the centerlines to place the
coordinate system.

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4. Click Centerline
from the
Sketching group and sketch
two vertical centerlines and one
horizontal centerline.

6. Click 3-Point / Tangent End

PT

In

and sketch two arcs. The


arcs should be tangent to
one-another, and their endpoints
aligned to the vertical centerlines.

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7. Click Perpendicular
from the Constrain group and constrain the
arc endpoints perpendicular to the vertical centerlines.
8. Click Normal
from the
Dimension group and dimension
the arcs and centerlines,
pressing ENTER to accept the
default values.
9. Click One-by-One and edit the
dimensions as shown.

10. Click OK

Module 3 | Page 4

2011 PTC

11. Notice the datum graph feature


in the model tree.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 5

Creating Datum Coordinate Systems


Datum coordinate systems can be used as a modeling or
assembly reference, as the basis for calculations, and for
assembling components.

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Define References:
Datum features
Existing model geometry
Define Orientation:
References selection
Selected CSYS axes

In

Figure 1 Datum Coordinate


System Types

Coordinate Systems

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Datum coordinate systems are individual features that can be redefined,


suppressed, hidden, or deleted. A coordinate system defines a specific
location in space based on coordinates. Datum coordinate systems can be
used as a modeling or assembly reference, as the basis for calculations, and
for assembling components.

Creating Datum Coordinate Systems


To create a new datum coordinate system, you must define the following
two items:
References Used to define the coordinate system location. You can
select existing datum references including datum planes, datum axes,
datum points, or other datum coordinate systems. You can also select
existing geometry including edges, vertices, and surfaces.
Orientation Used to define the position of the coordinate system's axes.
There are two different ways to orient the datum coordinate system:
References selection Enables you to select reference geometry for
any two of the coordinate system's axes.
Selected CSYS axes Is available only when another coordinate
system is specified as the reference. This option enables you to rotate
the coordinate system about the axes of the reference coordinate
Module 3 | Page 6

2011 PTC

system. You can also use the Set Z Normal to Screen option to orient
the z-axis perpendicular to the screen.

Defining Coordinate System Offset Types


If a coordinate system is selected as a reference, there are three coordinate
system offset types that can be created in Creo Parametric.

Defining Coordinate System Placement Types

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Cartesian Created by defining X, Y, and Z parameters.


Cylindrical Created by defining R, Theta (), and Z parameters.
Spherical Created by defining r, Theta (), and Phi () parameters.

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If datum planes or surfaces are specified as references, there are up to three


coordinate system types that can be defined in Creo Parametric. The type
defines the dimensioning scheme used to locate the coordinate system. The
three types are as follows:

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Linear Places the coordinate system using two linear dimensions.


Radial Places the coordinate system using a linear dimension and an
angular dimension.
Diameter Places the coordinate system using a linear dimension and
an angular dimension.

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You must specify the offset references from which to define the dimensions.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 7

PROCEDURE - Creating Datum Coordinate Systems


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Coord_Sys
Task 1:

COORD-SYS.PRT

Create an offset datum coordinate system.

1. Enable only the following Datum

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Display types:

2. Click Coordinate System


from the Datum group in the
ribbon.

In

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4. In the Coordinate System dialog


box, edit the Offset type to
Cartesian, if necessary.
Edit the Z offset to 10.
Select the Orientation tab.
Select the Selected CSYS
axes option.
Edit the About Z angle to 180.
Click OK.

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3. Select coordinate system DEF.

5. De-select the geometry.

Create a datum coordinate system using three planes.

PT

Task 2:

1. Click Coordinate System

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2. Select the front surface of the


model.
3. Press CTRL and select datum
planes TOP and RIGHT from the
model tree.
4. In the Coordinate System dialog
box, select the Orientation tab.
Use the surface to determine
Z.
Use datum plane TOP to
project Y.
Click OK.
5. De-select the geometry.

Module 3 | Page 8

2011 PTC

Task 3:

Create a datum coordinate system using axes and planes.

1. Start the Coordinate System


.
2. Press CTRL and select datum
axis A_4 and datum plane DTM1
as references.
3. In the Coordinate System dialog
box, select the Orientation tab.

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5. In the Orientation tab, click in the


Second Direction collector.
Select datum axis A_4.
Use datum axis A_4 to project
Y.
Click Flip to flip the Y
projection.

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4. In the Orientation tab, click in the


First Direction collector.
Select datum coordinate
system CS1 and use Z to
determine Z.

In

6. Click OK from the Coordinate


System dialog box.

7. De-select the geometry.


Task 4:

PT

Create a datum coordinate system on a surface.

1. Start the Coordinate System

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2. Select the top, rounded surface.


3. Right-click and select Offset
References.
4. Press CTRL and select datum
plane RIGHT from the model
tree and the front surface.
5. Edit the Angle from datum plane
RIGHT to 0.
6. Edit the Axial distance from the
front surface to 30.
7. Click OK.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 9

8. Enable only the following Datum


.

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This completes the procedure.

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Display types:

Module 3 | Page 10

2011 PTC

Creating Points On or Offset from Entities

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Figure 1 Datum Point on a


Surface Offset from Datum Planes

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Reference types:
Placement
Offset
Reference combinations:
On/Offset surface or datum
plane
On/Offset axis
On curve:
Length Ratio
Real Length
Reference
Center of surface or curve

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You can create datum points both on and offset from geometry
or other datum features.

PT

Figure 2 Datum Point on


Curve Ratio Offset

Figure 3 Datum Point at


Center of Curve

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Creating Points On or Offset from Entities


You can create datum points as reference geometry for other datum features,
for solid features, or for surface features. You can create points both on and
offset from geometry or other datum features. Most geometry that defines or
locates a point in 3-D space can be specified as a reference. Both Placement
references and Offset references can be selected, depending upon the
combination.
The following reference combinations are available:
On/Offset surface or datum plane Locate a point directly on a surface or
datum plane, or offset a specified distance. In Figure 1, the datum point is
on the selected surface, and offset from the two datum planes.
On/Offset axis Locate a point on a datum axis, or offset a specified
distance.
On curve You can locate a point on a curve. There are three ways to
further define the point location on the curve:
2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 11

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Length ratio Enables you to locate the point as a function of the curve's
overall length. For example, if you want to locate the curve 3/4 from the
end of the curve you type 0.75 as the ratio. You can also switch from
which curve endpoint the ratio is determined by clicking Next End. In
Figure 2, the point is on the curve, offset from the right endpoint a ratio
of 0.75.
Real length Enables you to locate the point a specified distance from
the curve's endpoint. You can switch from which curve endpoint the
distance is measured by clicking Next End.
Use reference You can specify another entity as an offset reference
and specify the offset value from that reference.
Center of surface or curve Selecting a rounded surface or curve enables
you to locate a point at the center of the surface or curve, as shown in
Figure 3.

Module 3 | Page 12

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Points On or Offset from Entities


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Points_On-Offset
Task 1:

POINTS_ON-OFFSET.PRT

Create datum points on and offset from surfaces.

1. Enable only the following Datum

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Display types:

2. Click Point
from the Datum
group in the ribbon.

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6. Edit both offset values to 5.

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5. Press CTRL and select datum


planes FRONT and RIGHT from
the model tree.

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4. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click in the Offset references
collector.

3. Select the top surface in the


back, left quadrant.

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7. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

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8. Select the right, drafted surface


near the front center.
Edit the Offset from On to
Offset.
Edit the Offset value to 2.

9. In the graphics window,


right-click and select Offset
References.
Press CTRL and select datum
plane FRONT from the model
tree and the bottom, flat
surface.
Edit the offset from datum
plane FRONT to 3.00.
Edit the offset from the bottom
surface to 7.00.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 13

10. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.
11. Select the top, curved surface.
Edit the Offset from Offset to
Center.

Create datum points on axes and curves.

1. Click Point

Task 2:

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3. In the graphics window,


right-click and select Offset
References.
Right-click to query and select
the bottom, flat surface.

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2. Select datum axis A_2 in the


model tree.

4. In the graphics window, edit the


offset value to 25.00.

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12. Click OK from the Datum Point


dialog box.

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5. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

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6. Select the back, top vertex.

7. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

8. Select the curve on the right,


drafted surface.
9. Edit the offset to Center.
10. Click OK.

Module 3 | Page 14

2011 PTC

Task 3:

Create datum points on curves.

1. Click Point

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2. Select the front datum curve to


the right of the datum plane that
intersects it.
Edit the Offset drop-down to
Ratio.
Edit the Offset value to 0.75.
Click Next End twice.

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4. Select the front datum curve to


the right of the datum plane that
intersects it.
Edit the Offset drop-down to
Real.
Edit the Offset value to 8.00.
Click Next End twice.

3. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

In

5. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

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6. Select the front datum curve to


the right of the datum plane that
intersects it.
Select Reference as the
Offset reference.
Select datum plane RIGHT as
the reference.
Edit the Offset value to 2.00.
Click OK.

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 15

Creating Points at Intersections

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Figure 1 Point at the Intersection


of Three Planes

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Combinations include:
Three planes/three surfaces
Two curves
Two edges
A curve and edge
Two axes
Curves/Edges/Axes with
Surfaces/Planes
References do not need to
physically intersect
Next Intersection

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You can create points at the intersections of two or three


references from geometry or other datum features.

PT

Figure 2 Points at the Intersections


of Curves and Planes

Figure 3 Point at the Intersection


of a Surface and Datum Axis

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Creating Points at Intersections


You can create datum points as reference geometry for other datum features,
for solid features, or for surface features. You can create points at the
intersections of two or three references from geometry or other datum
features. Most geometry that defines or locates a point in 3-D space can
be specified as a reference.
The following reference combinations are available for creating intersections:
Three planes/three surfaces Locate a point at the intersection of three
planes, three surfaces, or a combination. In Figure 1, the point is located at
the intersection of the three datum planes.
Two curves Locate a point at the intersection of two curves. In Figure 2,
points 4 and 5 are located at the intersection of the two curves.
Two edges Locate a point at the intersection of two edges.
A curve and edge Locate a point at the intersection of a curve and edge.
Two axes Locate a point at the intersection of two axes.
Module 3 | Page 16

2011 PTC

Curves/Edges/Axes with Surfaces/Planes Locate a point at the


intersection of a curve, edge, or axis, and a surface or plane. In Figure 2,
point 6 is located at the intersection of a datum plane and a curve. In Figure
3, the point is located at the intersection of the datum axis and the surface.

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There does not need to be a physical intersection between the selected


entities. The system extrapolates to find an intersection, if one exists. If
more than one intersection exists between the selected entities, you can
click Next Intersection to toggle between all available intersections for the
specified entities. In Figure 2, there are two intersections between the two
datum curves. Point 4 is located at one intersection, and point 5 is located at
the other intersection.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 17

PROCEDURE - Creating Points at Intersections


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Points_Intersect
Task 1:

POINTS_INTERSECT.PRT

Create points at the intersections of different entities.

1. Enable only the following Datum

2. Click Point
group.

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Display types:

from the Datum

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3. Press CTRL and select datum


axis A_1 and the top surface.

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5. Press CTRL and select the top,


rear edge and datum plane
RIGHT from the model tree.
6. Click OK.

8. Click Point

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7. Disable

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4. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

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9. Press CTRL and select datum


planes TOP, RIGHT, and
FRONT from the model tree.

10. Disable the following Datum


Display types:

11. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.
12. Press CTRL and select the rear,
right, and front surfaces.
13. Click OK.
14. Notice that the selected
references do not have to
physically touch. The point
determines the intersection.
Module 3 | Page 18

2011 PTC

15. Click Point

16. Press CTRL and select the two


datum curves to the left side of
the model.

17. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

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18. Press CTRL and select the two


datum curves on the left side of
the model.

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21. Press CTRL and select the top


datum curve and datum plane
RIGHT.

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20. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click New Point.

19. In the Datum Point dialog box,


click Next Intersection.

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22. Click OK.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 19

Creating Points using an Offset Coordinate


System

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Array is one feature in model tree.


Specify reference coordinate system.
Specify coordinate system type:
Cartesian
Cylindrical
Spherical
Specify parameters based on coordinate system type.

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You can create an array of datum points by referencing a


coordinate system.

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Figure 1 Creating an Array of Points using an Offset Coordinate System

Creating Points using an Offset Coordinate System

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You can create an array of datum points by referencing a coordinate system.


The entire array of points created becomes a single feature in the model tree.
To create the array of points you must first select a reference coordinate
system. You can then specify the type of coordinate system selected. The
coordinate system type specified determines the parameters that must be
typed for each datum point. The locations of all points in the array are based
on the coordinates for each parameter. The following coordinate system
types are available:
Cartesian You must specify X, Y, and Z parameters for the points.
Cylindrical You must specify R, Theta (), and Z parameters for the points.
Spherical You must specify r, Theta (), and Phi () parameters for the
points.
You can create new points in the array by clicking in the empty row at the
bottom of the existing point array. You can edit the point coordinate values
within the table by editing the values in the graphics window, or by dragging
the handle in the appropriate parameter direction. For example, if the
Module 3 | Page 20

2011 PTC

reference coordinate system type is Cartesian, the drag handle parameters


are X, Y, and Z.
You can also specify the option for Use Non Parametric Array. Enabling this
option converts the point array to a Non Parametric Array, which does not
include any dimensions. You are not able to modify the values using the
Edit command in the right mouse button menu, as this option is removed
from the menu.
The following file options are available for creating points using an offset
coordinate system:

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Import Enables you to import a text file of coordinate data. The file type
that can be imported is a .pts file.
Update Values Enables you to add, delete, or update the point
coordinates using a text editor. Upon saving the file in the text editor, the
list of points in the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box updates.
Save Enables you to save an array of points as a .pts file.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 21

PROCEDURE - Creating Points using an Offset


Coordinate System
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Points_Offset-Csys
Task 1:

POINTS_OFFSET-CSYS.PRT

Create a set of datum points using an offset coordinate system.

Display types:

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1. Enable only the following Datum


.

3. Select coordinate system CS0.

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4. Click in the first row of the Datum


Point dialog box to create the
first row of points.
Right-click the first row of
points and select Rename.
Edit the name to START.
Verify that the X, Y, and Z
coordinates are 0, 0, and 0,
respectively.

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from the
Coordinate System
Point types drop-down menu in
the Datum group.

2. In the ribbon, select Offset

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5. Click in the second row of the


Datum Point dialog box to create
the second row of points.
Edit the X, Y, and Z coordinates
to 0, 10, and 0, respectively.

6. Click in the third row of the


Datum Point dialog box and
create seven more rows of
points.
7. Edit the values as shown.

Module 3 | Page 22

2011 PTC

8. Click OK from the Datum Point


dialog box.
9. Disable the following Datum
.

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This completes the procedure.

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Display types:

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 23

Sketching Geometry Datums


Create points, axes, and coordinate systems in a Sketch.

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Geometry Points Create:


Datum Points (External Sketch)
Datum Axes (Internal Sketch)
Geometry Centerlines Create:
Datum Axes
Geometry Csys Create:
Datum Csys

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Figure 1 Geometry Points

Figure 2 Geometry Centerline


and Csys

Figure 3 Datum Features Created

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Sketching Geometry Datums

PT

You can create datum points, datum axes, and datum coordinate systems
in a sketch. A sketch may contain any number of sketched datum features
without any further geometry. Likewise, a sketch may contain sketched
geometry or construction geometry in addition to sketched geometry datums.
You can also use a sketch that contains sketched datum features to create
features, such as an extrude or revolve.

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The following tools, found in the Datum group of the ribbon, are used to
create geometry datums:
Point

Centerline
Coordinate System
Traditional sketched points, centerlines, and coordinate systems
now have new icons with a dashed appearance to distinguish from
the new sketched geometry tools.
Geometry datums can be created in external or internal sketches:
For external sketches existing on their own, the geometry datums are
created in the sketching plane.
For an internal sketch within an Extrude, the Geometry Point tool creates
an axis normal to the sketching plane.
Module 3 | Page 24

2011 PTC

Note the following when creating geometry datums:

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PT

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When a sketch containing geometry datums is used for a feature, the


geometry datums are hidden along with the sketch.
When a geometry datum is selected, you can right-click and select
Construction to convert it to a sketch entity. Likewise you can select
a construction point, centerline, or sketched coordinate system, and
right-click and select Geometry to convert the entity to a geometry datum.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 25

PROCEDURE - Sketching Geometry Datums


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Geometry_Datums
Task 1:

SKETCH_DATUMS.PRT

Create geometry points in an external sketch.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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2. Select Sketch 1 from the model


tree.
Right-click and select Edit
Definition.

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3. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

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4. Select the arc, then right-click


and select Construction.

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PT

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5. Click Point
from the Datum
group in the ribbon.
Place three points on the
construction arc: one on each
centerline, and one on the
vertical reference.

6. Click OK

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7. Notice that datum points are


created as part of Sketch 1 in the
model tree.

Task 2:

Place geometry points in an internal sketch for an extrude.

1. Click Extrude
from the Shape group in the ribbon.
Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch.
Click Use Previous.

Module 3 | Page 26

2011 PTC

2. Click Center and Ends


from
the Arc drop down menu in the
Sketching group in the ribbon.
Sketch and dimension an arc as
shown.
3. Click Point
, and place a
geometry point on each arc
endpoint.
.

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4. Click OK

5. Right-click and select Remove


Material.

8. Click Complete Feature

Create a geometry centerline and a geometry coordinate system.

. Click Use

In

1. Click Sketch
Previous.

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Task 3:

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9. Notice the created axes.

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7. Right-click the depth handle and


select Through All.

6. Right-click and select Flip Depth


Direction.

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2. Right-click and select


References. Select PNT1
and click Close.

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3. Click Centerline
from the
Datum group in the ribbon.
Place a horizontal geometry
axis through PNT1.

4. Click Coordinate System


from the Datum group.
Place a geometry coordinate
system as shown.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 27

5. Click OK

6. Notice the axis and coordinate


system.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 3 | Page 28

2011 PTC

Creating Curves Through a Point or Vertex


You can create a curve through a series of at least two datum
points, or edge/curve vertices.

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Figure 1 Defining Curve


Placement

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Use Line
Line
Spline
Use Spline
Curve Attributes:
Free
Place curve on surface
Ends conditions:
Free
Tangent
Normal
Curvature Continuous
Tweak:
Move type
Style Points
Movement Plane
Motion direction
Region
Sliders
Diagnostics

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Curve Dashboard options:

Figure 2 Displaying Curvature Plot

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Creating Curves Through a Point or Vertex

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You can create a curve through a series of at least two datum points, or
edge/curve vertices. Each point to point segment can be defined as either a
line (Use Line
) or a spline (Use Spline
).
Segments defined as straight lines can be filleted at the points where they
connect to one another using the Add fillet option. When this option is used,
the segments are selectable so that a dragger for a radius value can be
accessed. If no radius is added, the segments are joined through each point.
You can group points of equal fillet radii together, thereby controlling multiple
radii with a single dimension.

Defining Curve Placement Options


When creating a curve through points, you can define the following placement
options:
Free (Default) The curve passes through the selected points using the
Free option. The curve in the upper image of Figure 1 is Free.
On Surface The curve passes through the selected points and lies on
a specified quilt or surface using the Place curve on surface option. Only
2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 29

one surface can be selected, so it may be necessary to merge surfaces if


more than one is to be selected. The curve in the lower image of Figure
1 lies on the surface.

Defining Tangency Conditions


Using the Ends Condition tab in the dashboard, you can define tangency
conditions for both the start point and end point of the curve. The following
options are available for tangency conditions:

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Free Enables you to set the end tangencies to be free (default).


Tangent Enables you to define the curve endpoints tangent to the
selected reference.
Normal Enables you to define the curve endpoints normal to the selected
reference.
Curvature Continuous Enables you to define the curve as curvature
continuous. This means that the curvature equals the curvature of the
selected tangency reference. This option is only available for the tangent
condition.

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When specifying the tangency condition, you must select a reference that is
used to set the tangency condition against. For example, if you define a
tangent condition, you must select a reference to which the curve endpoint
is tangent. The reference types that can be selected include curves, edges,
axes, surfaces, or a surface normal to the edge. You can also create an axis.
You can always remove a tangency condition from either end point by
selecting Free from the End condition drop down list.

In

Defining Tweak Options

The Tweak curve option enables you to click Tweak Curve Settings and
dynamically manipulate the spline. The following types of manipulations can
be performed to the curve:

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Move type Enables you to move the curve either using its control
polyhedron or by its spline points. In Figure 2, the spline's control
polyhedron is displayed.
Style Points Enables you to move, add, delete, or redistribute points.
This option is only available when the Move type is set to spline points.
Movement Plane Enables you to specify the movement plane as the
Curve Plane, a Defined Plane, or the View Plane.
Motion direction Enables you to move the curve in the First direction,
Second direction, or the Normal direction.
Region Enables you to determine which area of the curve to move,
whether Local, Smooth Region, Linear Region, or Constant Region.
Sliders You can move the curve using sliders for First direction, Second
direction, and Normal direction. You can also adjust the sensitivity of the
sliders.
There is also a series of diagnostics available to help you achieve the desired
curve shape. Available diagnostics include:
Curvature display
Radius display
Module 3 | Page 30

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Tangents display
Interpolation Points display

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 31

PROCEDURE - Creating Curves Through a Point or


Vertex
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curve_Thru-Pnt-Vtx
Task 1:

CURVE_THRU-PNT-VTX.PRT

Create a curve through two vertices.

Display types:

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1. Enable only the following Datum


.

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2. Click the Datum group drop-down


menu and select Curve through
Points
from the Curve types
drop-down list.
3. Select the two vertices.

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4. Select the Ends Condition tab


from the Curve dashboard.

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5. Select Start Point from the Curve


side list and select Tangent from
the End condition drop-down
menu.
Select the front edge on the
left surface.

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PT

6. Select End Point from the Curve


side list and select Tangent from
the End condition drop-down
menu and select the front edge
on the right surface.

7. Select the Options tab, select


Tweak curve and click Tweak
Curve Settings.
8. In the Modify Curve dialog box,
click Diagnostics and display
the Curvature plot.
9. In the graphics window, click the
middle two points and drag them
outward so the curvature plot
line resembles an arc.

Module 3 | Page 32

2011 PTC

10. Click Apply Changes


from
the Modify Curve dialog box.
11. Click Complete Feature
the dashboard.

Task 2:

from

Create a curve through two vertices and a point.

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1. Click Curve
from the Datum
drop-down menu.

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2. Select the left vertex, the datum


point, and the right vertex.

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3. Cursor over the left control


handle, then right-click and
select Normal.

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4. Select the long adjacent edge on


the left surface.

5. Cursor over the right control


handle, then right-click and
select Normal.

PT

6. Select the long adjacent edge on


the right surface.
from

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7. Click Complete Feature


the dashboard.

8. Right-click datum plane DTM2


from the model tree and select
Edit.
9. Edit the offset value to -1.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 33

Task 3:

Create a curve through a point and vertex.

1. Click Curve

O
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3. Spin the model and notice that


the curve is above the surface.
Select the Placement tab
in the dashboard and select
Place curve on surface.
Right-click to query, select
Quilt:F11.
Notice that the curve now lies
on the quilt.

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2. Select datum point PNT1, and


the rear vertex.

4. Click Complete Feature

from the dashboard.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 3 | Page 34

2011 PTC

Creating a Curve Through a Point Array


You can quickly create a datum curve through a number of
points.

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Connection types:
Spline
Single Radius
Multiple Radius
Point selections:
Single Point
Whole Array

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Figure 1 Fitting a Spline Curve

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Figure 2 Fitting a Single


Radius Curve

Figure 3 Fitting a Multiple


Radius Curve

Creating a Curve Through a Point Array


You can quickly create a datum curve through a number of points when those
points are created as a point array. When selecting the points, query the
array until all points highlight, then select the whole array. You can fit the
following types of curves through an array of datum points:
Enables you to create a spline curve through the
Use Spline
selected array of datum points.
Use Line
Enables you to join points with line segments and, if
desired, to add a radius to the line segments, making the resulting curve
smoother.
Zero Radius
Single Radius A single radius value controls the fit of the curve.
2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 35

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Multiple Radii Provided the points are selected individually within the
array, multiple radii can be used to control the fit. Enable the Group with
equal radius points option to group separate radii controls together,
thereby controlling them with a single dimension value.

Module 3 | Page 36

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating a Curve Through a Point Array


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Crv_Thru-Pnt-Array
Task 1:

CRV_THRU-PNT-ARRAY.PRT

Create a spline datum curve through an array of points.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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2. Click the Datum group drop-down


menu and select Curve through
Points
from the Curve
drop-down list.

4. Right-click so the entire point


array highlights, then select the
point.
.

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5. Click Complete Feature

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3. Highlight datum point START.

Create a curve through an array of points with straight line


segments, with zero radius and a single radius.

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Task 2:

In

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6. Right-click Curve 1 in the model


tree and select Hide.

1. Click the Datum group drop-down


menu and select Curve
.

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2. Highlight datum point START,


then right-click and then select it.
3. Click Use Line
in the
dashboard to toggle from a
spline to straight lines.
4. Click Preview Feature

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 37

5. Click Resume Feature

.
and edit

6. Click Round Curve


the radius to 10.

7. Click Complete Feature

1. Click the Datum group drop-down


menu and select Curve
.
2. Select datum point START.

4. Click Use Line


dashboard.

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from the

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3. Select the next adjacent datum


point in the array.

Create a multiple radius datum curve through an array of points.

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Task 3:

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8. Right-click Curve 2 in the model


tree and select Hide.

5. Select the next 7 points in the


array.

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6. Select the Placement tab in the


dashboard.

PT

7. Select Point 2, press CTRL and


select Point 3, and Point 4.
Select Add fillet.
Edit the Radius to 5.00.

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8. Select Point 5.
Select Add fillet.
Disable Group with equal
radius points.
Edit the Radius to 10.00.
9. Select Point 6, press CTRL and
select Point 7, Point 8, and
Point 9.
Select Add fillet.
Edit the Radius to 5.00.
Enable Group with equal
radius points.

Module 3 | Page 38

2011 PTC

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12. Right-click the third Curve 3 in


the model tree and select Edit.
Notice that even though bend
radius 2 was used in multiple
locations, it is only displayed
once.

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11. Click Complete Feature

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10. Double-click any of the 5.00


radius values on the model, and
edit it to 2.00.

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PT

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 39

Creating a Curve from a Cross-Section


You can create a curve at the intersection of a planar
cross-section and part outline.

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You can use solid or surface models.


The cross-section boundary is used to create the datum curve.

Figure 1 Planar Cross-Section

Figure 2 Creating the Curve

In

Creating a Curve from a Cross-Section

You can use the Curve from Cross Section


option to create a datum
curve from a planar cross-section by selecting the cross-section from the
drop-down list in the dashboard.

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PT

Alternatively, you can create or select a cross-section from the Xsec tab
in the View Manager, by right-clicking and selecting Curve from xsec. The
system creates a curve at the intersection of the planar cross-section and
the part outline. You can create cross-section curves from solid or surface
models. The cross-section boundary is used to create a datum curve. If a
cross-section has more than one chain, each chain has a composite curve.
In Figure 1, a cross-section was created at a datum plane intersecting the
model. The curve in Figure 2 was then created using this cross-section
boundary.
You cannot use a boundary from an offset cross-section to create
a datum curve.

Module 3 | Page 40

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating a Curve from a Cross-Section


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curve_Xsec
Task 1:

XSEC.PRT

Create a surface cross-section.

3. In the menu manager, click


Surf/Quilt > Planar > Single >
Done.

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4. Click anywhere on the model.

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from
2. Click View Manager
the In Graphics toolbar.
Select the Xsec tab.
Click New and press ENTER
to accept the default name of
Xsec0001.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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5. Select datum plane DTM3 from


the model tree.
6. Click Repaint
from the In
Graphics toolbar.

In

7. Click Close.

Create the curve from the cross-section.

PT

Task 2:

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1. Click the Datum group drop-down


menu and select Curve from
Cross Section
from the
Curve types drop-down menu.

2. In the dashboard, select


cross-section XSEC0001 from
the Cross-section drop-down list.
3. Click Complete Feature

4. Notice that the curve is created.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 41

Task 3:

Create a Cross Section Curve from the View Manager.

In

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2. Right-click and select Curve


from xsec.
Notice that the curve is
created.

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1. Click View Manager


from
the In Graphics toolbar.
Select the Xsec tab, if
necessary.
Double-click cross section A
to activate it.

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PT

This completes the procedure.

Module 3 | Page 42

2011 PTC

Creating a Curve From Equation


You can create a 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D datum curve defined by a
mathematical equation.

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Figure 1 Straight Line Curve

Figure 2 Parabola Curve

Figure 3 Sine Wave Curve

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Can create in terms of parameter T


Varies from 0 to 1
Can also type in explicit equations
Automatically finds the
independent variable.
Range specified by the user.
You may use substitutions to
keep expressions simple.
You must specify the following:
Coordinate system
Coordinate system type
Cartesian
Cylindrical
Spherical
Equation

PT

Creating a Curve From Equation

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You can create a 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D datum curve defined by a mathematical
equation. The equation can be defined for one, two, or three coordinate
system axes. The coordinate system type can be specified for the selected
coordinate system. The following three coordinate system types can be used:
Cartesian You must specify X, Y, and Z parameters in the equation.
Cylindrical You must specify R, Theta (), and Z parameters in the
equation.
Spherical You must specify R, Theta (), and Phi () parameters in the
equation.
You type the equation into a text editor, which launches once you specify the
type of coordinate system. You define the three parameters for the coordinate
system type specified, each on a separate line of the text editor.

Using the T Parameter


One method of defining equations is to do so in terms of a parameter T,
which varies from 0 to 1. The following are examples of different Cartesian
coordinate system equations that you can create a curve from:
Straight Line (in X direction) x=35*t, y=0, z=0. Shown in Figure 1.
2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 43

Parabola (in XZ plane) x=35*t, y=0, z=35*t^2. Shown in Figure 2.


Sine wave (in XY plane) x=t*10, y=3*sin(t*360), z=0. Shown in Figure 3.
Circle (in XY plane) x=4*cos(t*360), y=4*sin(t*360), z=0. Shown in Figure
4.

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Figure 4 Circular Curve

Using Explicit Equations

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Another method of defining curves is to type in an explicit equation. Creo


Parametric automatically finds the independent variable and internally
parameterizes the equations to draw the curve. You type in the independent
variables range, with the default range being 0 to 1. You may use
substitutions to keep the expressions simple, as long as there is only a single
independent variable.

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The following are examples of different explicit equations that you can create
a curve from:

In

Straight Line y=x, range 0 to 10. Shown in Figure 5.

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Figure 5 Straight Line Curve


Angled Line y=x/2+5 range 0 to 10. Shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6 Angled Line Curve


Full parabola y=10*(x/10)2, range 10 to 10. Shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 Full Parabola Curve


Half parabola y=10*(x/10)2, range 0 to 10. Shown in Figure 8.

Module 3 | Page 44

2011 PTC

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Figure 8 Half Parabola Curve


Sine wave y=100*sin(2*x)+10, range 0 to 360. Shown in Figure 9.

Figure 10 Helical Curve

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Figure 9 Sine Wave Curve


Helix along Z axis, cylindrical csys r=1000, z=5*theta, range 0 to 360.
Shown in Figure 10.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 45

PROCEDURE - Creating a Curve From Equation


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curves_Equation
Task 1:

CURVES_EQUATION_1.PRT

Create a datum curve from an equation using the T parameter.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Click the Datum group drop-down


menu and select Curve from
Equation
from the curve
types drop-down list.

5. Click Equation.

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6. Read the Equation information


dialog box then click Close.

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4. In the dashboard, select


Cartesian, if necessary.

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3. In the model tree, select


coordinate system CS0.

PT

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7. In the Equation dialog box, type


the following equation:
x=6*t
y=0
z=0

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8. Click OK from the Equation


dialog box.

9. Click Complete Feature

Module 3 | Page 46

2011 PTC

10. Edit the definition of Curve 1.


11. Click Equation.
12. In the Equation dialog box, edit
the equation to:
x=6*t
y=14*t
z=0
13. Click OK.

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15. Edit the definition of Curve 1.

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14. Click Complete Feature

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16. Click Equation.

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17. In the Equation dialog box, edit


the equation to:
x=6*t
y=14*t^3
z=0

18. Click OK.

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PT

19. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 47

Task 2:

Investigate and refine a datum curve using an explicit equation.

1. Click Open
, select
CURVES_EQUATION_2.PRT,
and click Open.
2. Enable only the following Datum
Display types:

3. Edit the definition of Curve 1.

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4. Click Equation from the


dashboard to review the
equation.

5. Click OK from the Equation


dialog box.
7. Click Complete Feature

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6. Edit the From range value to 0.


.

9. Click Equation.

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10. In the Equation dialog box, edit


the equation to:
y=100*sin(2*x)+10

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8. Edit the definition of Curve 1.

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11. Click OK.

12. Edit the To range value to 360.


.

13. Click Complete Feature

PT

14. Edit the definition of Curve 1.


15. Edit the Coordinate System type
to Cylindrical.

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16. Click Equation.


17. In the Equation dialog box, edit
the equation to:
r=1000
z=5*theta
18. Click OK.
19. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Module 3 | Page 48

2011 PTC

Creating Composite Curves


You can copy and paste selected edges or edge chains from a
solid or surface model to create a composite datum curve.

Figure 2 Creating an Approximate


Composite Curve

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Figure 1 Creating an Exact


Composite Curve

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Two types of composite curves:


Exact
Approximate

Creating Composite Curves

In

You can copy and paste selected edges or edge chains from a solid or
surface model to create a composite datum curve. There are two types of
composite curves that can be created:

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Exact Creates an exact copy of the selected edge(s).


Approximate Creates a datum curve that approximates a chain of
tangent (C1) curves by creating a single curvature continuous (C2) spline.
This is useful for surfacing applications, when a continuous curvature curve
is desired to create a surface, in cases where the original edges may only
be tangent. You can also use approximate curves to remove small surfaces
from the design, and create a single surface with continuous curvature,
instead of a surface with multiple patches.
Approximate curves cannot be created on joint angles greater then
5 degrees.
During curve creation, you can drag the handles at either endpoint of the
previewed curve to lengthen or shorten the resulting curve. You can also edit
the values directly. In Figure 1, you can view the drag handles. To shorten
the resulting composite curve you can type negative values. To lengthen or
extend the endpoints of the resulting composite curve you can type positive
values.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 49

PROCEDURE - Creating Composite Curves


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curve_Composite
Task 1:

COMPOSITE.PRT

Create an exact copy composite curve.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Select the boundary blend


surface.

5. Click Copy

and click Paste

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4. Click to select the pre-highlighted


edge.

3. Query-select the straight, front,


surface edge until the entire
edge length is pre-highlighted.

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6. Select Exact from the Curve type


drop-down list in the dashboard,
if necessary.
7. Click Complete Feature

Create an approximate copy composite curve.

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Task 2:

In

8. Notice the Copy 1 feature in the


model tree.

1. Select the boundary blend


surface.

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2. Query-select the rear tangent


chain of edges until the entire
edge length is pre-highlighted.
3. Click to select the pre-highlighted
edge.

Module 3 | Page 50

2011 PTC

4. Click Copy

and click Paste

.
5. Select Approximate from the
Curve type drop-down list in the
dashboard.
6. Click Complete Feature

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7. Notice the Copy 2 feature in the


model tree.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 51

Creating a Curve from Curve Intersections


With the Intersect tool you can create a 2-D or 3-D curve at the
intersection of two sketches.

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System extrudes theoretical


surfaces.
Curve created at the intersection
of these surfaces.

In

Figure 1 Viewing Theoretically


Extruded Surfaces

Figure 2 Creating a Curve from


Curve Intersections

Creating a Curve from Curve Intersections

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With the Intersect tool you can create a 2-D or 3-D curve at the intersection
of two sketches. The system theoretically extrudes surfaces towards each
other from the selected sketches, as shown Figure 1, and then creates the
curve at the intersection of the theoretical surfaces.
The Intersect feature automatically completes without opening the Intersect
dashboard if you preselect both references. You can, however, redefine the
intersect feature to change the selected sketch references. You can also
preselect one reference and start the Intersect tool. This opens the Intersect
dashboard and prompts you to select the second sketch.

Module 3 | Page 52

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating a Curve from Curve


Intersections
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curve_Isect-Curve
Task 1:

CURVE_INTERSECTION.PRT

Create a new curve from the intersection of two other curves.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Notice that there are two 2-D
datum curves.

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4. Click Intersect
from the
Editing group in the ribbon.

3. Press CTRL and select the two


datum curves.

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5. Notice the 3-D curve that is


created. Notice that the original
two curves are hidden.

6. Edit the definition of Intersect 1.

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7. Select the References tab in the


dashboard and view the selected
sketches.
.

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8. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 53

Creating a Curve at Surface Intersection


The Intersect tool enables you to create a 2-D or 3-D curve at the
intersection of two surfaces.

In

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Curve created at the intersection


of two surfaces.
Resulting curve can be 2-D or 3-D.

Figure 1 Creating a Curve from


Surface Intersection

Creating a Curve at Surface Intersection

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With the Intersect tool you can create a 2-D or 3-D curve at the intersection
of two surface quilts. The system creates the curve at the intersection of
the surfaces, as shown in Figure 1. The Intersect feature automatically
completes without opening the Intersect dashboard if you preselect both
references, since the Intersect process is fully defined. However, you can
redefine the intersect feature to change the selected quilt references. You
can also preselect one reference and start the Intersect tool. This opens the
Intersect dashboard and prompts you to select the second sketch.

Module 3 | Page 54

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating a Curve at Surface Intersection


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curve_Isect-Surface
Task 1:

CURVE_INTERSECT-SURF.PRT

Create a curve at the intersection of two surfaces.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Notice the two surfaces.

4. Click Intersect
from the
Editing group in the ribbon.

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3. Press CTRL and select the two


surfaces.

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5. Notice the 3-D curve that is


created.

In

6. Edit the definition of Intersect 1.

7. Select the References tab and


view the selected quilts.
.

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8. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 55

Projecting and Wrapping Curves


You can project or wrap curves onto a surface or set of surfaces.

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Projected Curves
Projected onto a surface or set of surfaces
Normal to reference plane
Length can increase or decrease from original
Wrapped Curves
Formed over a surface
Length does not change from original

Figure 1 Projecting a Curve

Figure 2 Wrapping a Curve

In

Creating Projected Curves

PT

You can project a selected curve onto a surface or set of surfaces, normal to
a reference plane. Depending on the shape of the surface and the angle of
the plane, the length of the projected curve can increase or decrease from
the original.

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When projecting a curve, the following options are available:


References Enables you to select the sketch or chain of curves to be
projected and the surface or surfaces to be projected onto. If desired,
you can define an internal sketch.
Direction Enables you to specify both the direction reference and the
direction. There are two different directions you can select:
Along direction Projects the selected chains or sketch in a specified
direction.
Normal to surface Projects the selected chains or sketch normal to the
target surface.
Flip Enables you to flip the direction of the projected datum curve.

Creating Wrap Curves


You can wrap (form) a sketched curve over a surface. The length of the
wrapped curve is not changed from the original. The surface the curve
Module 3 | Page 56

2011 PTC

is wrapped onto must be developable, meaning that it must be some type


of ruled surface.
When wrapping a curve, the following options are available:

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PT

In

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Select the sketch to be wrapped. If desired, you can define an internal


sketch.
Specify the destination surface onto which the curve is to be wrapped.
Define the wrap origin By default, the wrap origin is the sketch center.
You can also create a sketched coordinate system in the wrapped sketch
and define it as the wrap origin.
Ignore intersection surface Causes any intersecting surfaces to be
ignored when wrapping the curve.
Trim at boundary Trims the portion of a curve that cannot be wrapped at
the surface boundary.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 57

PROCEDURE - Projecting and Wrapping Curves


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curve_Project-Wrap
Task 1:

PROJECT_WRAP.PRT

Project a datum curve onto a surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Notice the two circular datum


curves.

6. Click Complete Feature

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7. The curve is projected onto the


surface.

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5. Select the surface.

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from the
4. Click Project
Editing group in the ribbon.

3. Select datum curve


PROJ_CURVE from the model
tree.

8. Edit the definition of Project 1.

PT

In

9. In the dashboard, click in the


Direction reference collector to
activate it.
Select datum plane DTM2
from the model tree as the
new datum reference.
.

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10. Click Complete Feature

Task 2:

Wrap a datum curve onto a surface.

1. Select datum curve


WRAP_CURVE.
2. Select the Editing drop-down
menu and click Wrap

3. Click Complete Feature

Module 3 | Page 58

2011 PTC

4. Edit the definition of datum curve


WRAP_CURVE.
5. Click Coordinate System
from the Sketching group.
Place a sketched coordinate
system on the sketch.
6. Click OK

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7. Orient to the WRAP view


orientation.
8. Edit the definition of Wrap 1.

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This completes the procedure.

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11. Click Complete Feature

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10. Notice the difference in the


wrapped curve location.

9. Edit the Wrap Origin from Center


to Sketcher CSYS.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 59

Trimming Curves

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Curve trimmed at Trimming object:


Datum Point
Datum Plane
Another curve
Blue side denotes the portion to
be removed.
You can flip which side to keep:
Keep side 1
Keep side 2
Keep both sides

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You can trim a curve at a selected point to either break it into


segments or specify which side to keep.

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Figure 1 Keeping Both Sides

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Figure 2 Selecting Trimming Object, Keeping a Side,


Viewing Completed Trim

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Trimming Curves

The Trim tool adapts to the object selected. It enables you to trim a curve or a
surface, whichever is selected. You can use the Trim tool to either remove a
portion of a curve or break it into multiple segments.
To trim a curve, you must select it as the Trimmed curve. You must then
select the Trimming object such as a datum point, datum plane, or point. The
curve is split at the Trimming object location. In Figure 2, a datum plane
is selected as the Trimming object.
The blue shading on the curve indicates the side that will be trimmed, or
removed. The yellow arrow points towards the side to be kept. In the lower
image of Figure 2, the right half of the curve is to be removed.
You can flip the side of the curve that is trimmed using the following order:
Curve split at Trimming object, keep side 1.
Curve split at Trimming object, keep side 2.
Module 3 | Page 60

2011 PTC

Curve split at Trimming object, keep both sides. No geometry is trimmed.


Rather, the curve is segmented. In Figure 1, both sides of the curve are
to be kept. Thus, both sides display an arrow.
You can flip the side by clicking the yellow arrow in the graphics window, by
right-clicking and selecting Flip, or by clicking Flip Trim Sides
dashboard.

from the

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You cannot access the option to keep both sides by clicking the
arrow in the graphics window.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 61

PROCEDURE - Trimming Curves


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curve_Trim
Task 1:

CURVE_TRIM.PRT

Trim a datum curve.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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2. Select Sketch 1.

3. Click Trim
from the Editing
group in the ribbon.

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to make the arrow


Sides
point to the left, leaving blue
geometry on the right.

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5. In the dashboard, click Flip Trim

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4. Select datum point PNT0.

6. Click Complete Feature

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7. The curve side that was blue has


been trimmed away.

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8. De-select all features.

Module 3 | Page 62

2011 PTC

9. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.
10. Enable Plane Display

11. Select the curve on its left side


as shown. Notice it is a trim
feature in the model tree.

13. Click Trim

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14. Select datum plane DTM1 from


the model tree.

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12. Also notice that only one piece


is available for subsequent
selection.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 63

15. In the dashboard, click Flip Trim


twice to keep both

16. Click Complete Feature

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Sides
sides.

17. De-select all features.

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18. Select the curve. Notice it is


another trim feature in the model
tree.

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19. Also notice that two pieces


are available for subsequent
selection.

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20. Select the lower half of the curve.

This completes the procedure.

Module 3 | Page 64

2011 PTC

Creating Offset Curves

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Figure 1 Offsetting a Curve


Along a Surface

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Curves offset along a surface:


Original reference can be a
curve or surface edge.
Define offset values:
Distance
Distance Type
Location
Curves offset normal to a surface:
Original reference must be a
curve.
Specify Scale.
Can specify datum graph.

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You can create curves that are offset either along a surface or
normal to a surface.

PT

Figure 2 Offsetting a Curve


Normal to a Surface

Figure 3 Offsetting a Curve


using a Datum Graph

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Creating Offset Curves Along a Surface


You can create a datum curve that is offset from a surface boundary edge,
a chain of edges, or another curve on that surface. The resulting curve lies
on the surface. By default, one offset value is provided. However, you can
create additional offset values and then locate those offset values along the
offset edge as desired. The offset value location is a ratio of the entire offset
line length. For example, if you want to locate an offset value at the midpoint
of the curve, you would specify a Location of 0.5. You can also locate the
offset values on the curve endpoints. In Figure 1, the curve has two offset
values defined, one at each endpoint.
For each offset value, you can specify the distance the curve is offset from
its original curve. In Figure 1, the curve is offset on one side by 2.00, and
on the other side by 1.00. This distance value can be measured using the
following distance types:
Normal to Edge Measures offset distance normal to the boundary edge.
2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 65

Along Edge Measures offset distance along the measurement edge.


To Vertex Starts offset curve at the vertex and parallel to the boundary
edge.

Creating Offset Curves Normal to a Surface


You can offset a curve on a surface, normal to a reference surface. The
resulting curve is raised off the surface by a distance, as shown in the Figure
2 and Figure 3.
You can specify this offset distance using the following methods:

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Offset value The distance the curve is offset from the surface.
Unit Datum Graph A datum graph with a constant X-length of 1.0 is used
to specify the curve offset. The resulting curve is offset at a constant value
as defined by the Scale value in the dashboard. In Figure 2, a unit datum
graph is used to offset the curve. As a result, the offset is the same along
the entire curve.
Optional Datum Graph The curve offset is determined by an optionally
specified datum graph. When an optional datum graph is defined, the
system uses the Offset value as a multiplier. In Figure 3, the optional
datum graph is specified. As a result, the offset varies along the curve
based on the datum graph.

Module 3 | Page 66

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Offset Curves


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Datum\Curves_Offset
Task 1:

CURVES_OFFSET.PRT

Create a curve offset along a surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Select the surface.

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3. Select the front edge.

from the Editing


4. Click Offset
group in the ribbon.

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6. In the dashboard, select the


Measurements tab.
Right-click in the tab and select
Add. A point is added.
Drag the point's dot to the
rightmost end.
Edit the Distance Type to
Along Edge.

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5. Edit the offset distance to 2.

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PT

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7. Right-click in the Measurements


tab and select Add. Another
point is added.
Edit the Location to 0.35.
Edit the Distance to 1.

8. In the Measurements tab,


right-click the third point and
select Delete.

9. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 67

Task 2:

Create a curve offset normal to a surface.

1. Edit the definition of GRAPH1.


In the menu manager, click
Done.
Press ENTER.
2. View the graph. Notice that it
slopes from 0.5 to 1.25.
.

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3. Click OK

4. Select curve Offset 1.


.

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6. The dashboard now has more


options. The first, and default,
option is Offset Along Surface

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5. Click Offset

. The first curve was this


type.

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7. Select Offset Normal To

PT

Surface
.
Edit the Scale to 1.0, if
necessary.

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8. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.

9. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Click in the Graph collector to
activate it.
Select GRAPH1.
Notice that the curve has
updated.

10. Click Complete Feature

Module 3 | Page 68

2011 PTC

11. Spin the model to notice the


difference in curve creation.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 69

Creating Cosmetic Sketches


Cosmetic sketches are used to sketch entities on the model for
purely visual purposes.

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Figure 1 Before and After


Cosmetic Features

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Purely visual
Do not add or remove material
Fully constrained or
Under-Constrained
Unique display on screen and in
model tree
Can be cross-hatched

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Figure 3 Cosmetic Sketched


Text Created

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Figure 2 Under-Constrained Mode

Creating Cosmetic Sketches

In

Cosmetic sketches are created very similar to a typical sketch feature


(sketched datum curve). Unlike sketch features, cosmetic features are not
used to add or remove material from the model, but instead are used to
sketch on the model for purely visual purposes, as shown in Figure 1.

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Cosmetic sketches are created using the Cosmetic Sketch option in the
Engineering group of the ribbon, and can contain any sketched geometry.
The sketch can be fully constrained, as with standard sketched features,
or can use the special Under-Constrained Mode of sketcher. This mode
enables you to snap the sketched geometry to references if desired, but
does not require dimensions to fully constrain the sketch, as shown in Figure
2. Under-Constrained Mode enables the import of large and complex 2-D
geometry.
By default, cosmetic sketches are created in a different color (orange) from
standard sketches (blue), and also have a unique icon in the model tree,
as shown in Figure 3.
Cosmetic sketches can contain cross-hatching that can be modified on a
drawing.
Several restrictions apply to cosmetic sketches:
They do not appear by default when rotating the model.
They cannot be used as a sketch reference for a sketch-based feature
(such as extrude).
They cannot be referenced by other features or sketches. For example,
you cannot select a cosmetic sketched curve for a sweep trajectory or for
a snapping reference in sketcher.
Module 3 | Page 70

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Cosmetic Sketches


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Cosmetic\Sketch
Task 1:

WRENCH.ASM

Create a constrained cosmetic sketch with text.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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5. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

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4. Select the main model surface


and click Sketch.

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3. Click the Engineering group


drop-down menu and select
Cosmetic Sketch.

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2. Select SIDE_PLATE_OFF.PRT
in the model tree, then right-click
and select Open.
Notice the existing standard
sketch features (blue).

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6. Click Text
and sketch a
reference line.

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7. In the Text dialog box:


Type 5mm.
Select Right for the Horizontal
Position.
Select Middle for the Vertical
Position.
Click OK.

8. Click One-by-One and edit the


dimensions as shown.
9. Click OK
sketch.

to complete the

10. Click the screen to de-select any


geometry.
Notice the difference in the
cosmetic appearance.

2011 PTC

Module 3 | Page 71

Task 2:

Create an unconstrained cosmetic sketch with hatching.

1. Press ALT and select the main


surface.
2. Click the Engineering group
drop-down menu and select
Cosmetic Sketch.

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3. Select Center Rectangle


from the Rectangle drop-down
list, and create the sketch shown.
Notice the lack of dimensions
in Under-Constrained Mode.

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from the Ellipse drop-down


list and sketch two ellipses.
Constrain the ellipse centers
coincident to the diagonal
construction line endpoints.

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5. Select Center and Axis Ellipse

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4. Click the Setup group


drop-down menu and enable
Under-Constrained Mode.

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6. Click Delete Segment


and
trim the sketch as shown.

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7. Click the Setup group


drop-down menu and disable
Under-constrained Mode.

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8. Now enable Under-constrained


Mode again.
9. Click Sketch Setup
Setup group.

from the

10. Select the Properties tab in the


Cosmetic Sketch dialog box.
Enable Add cross-hatching.
Edit the spacing to 5.
Click Sketch.
11. Click OK
sketch.

to complete the

This completes the procedure.

Module 3 | Page 72

2011 PTC

4
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Module

Advanced Sketching

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Module Overview

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Sketches can consist of simple entities, such as lines, arcs, and circles.
However, you can create more complex shapes by using advanced entities,
such as ellipses, conics, splines, and elliptical fillets. You can also create
sketched text entities by either manually typing in the text value, or by using
the value of a parameter that you have specified in the design model. You
can adjust the text as desired. You can use Sketcher diagnostic tools to aid
you while in Sketcher to be more efficient.

Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Understand sketched curves.
Sketch ellipses, elliptical fillets, and conics.
Sketch and modify splines, as well as import and export spline points.
Sketch and modify text.
Analyze Sketcher convert options including Strong, Spline, Reference,
Perimeter, and Tapered.
Analyze Sketcher dimension options, including creating reference and
baseline dimensions as well as locking dimensions.
Use Sketcher diagnostic tools including shading closed loops, highlighting
open ends, highlighting open geometry, and feature requirements check.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 1

Using Sketched Curves


Sketched curves can be used in a variety of different ways.

Figure 1 Sketched Curve


Used as a Section

Section
Boundary
Trajectory
Reference Geometry
Other curves
Other datum features
Surfaces or supporting
geometry

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Uses include:

In

Figure 2 Sketched Curves


Used as Boundaries

Figure 3 Sketched Curve


Used as a Trajectory

Using Sketched Curves

PT

Sketched curves are powerful because they can be used in so many different
ways. The following are common uses of sketched curves:

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Section In Figure 1, the sketched curve was used as one of the three
sections in a rotational blend feature.
Boundary In Figure 2, the two sketched curves are used as the first
direction boundaries in a boundary blend feature.
Trajectory In Figure 3, the two sketched curves were used as trajectories
in the variable section sweep feature.
As a reference for other geometry Sketched curves can be used in
general for reference geometry for other features. They can be used as a
reference for other curves, other datum features, or ultimately for surfaces
or supporting geometry.

Module 4 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Sketching Ellipses
You can sketch elliptical sections using two methods.

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Ellipse creation options:


Center and Axis
Axis Ends
Dimension options:
Length of Major/Minor Axes
Radius of Major/Minor Axes
Any custom scheme
Either Ellipse type can be created
or rotated to any angle.

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Figure 1 Center and Axis Ellipse,


Length Dimensions

Figure 3 Center and Axis Ellipse,


Created on an Angle

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Figure 2 Axis Ends Ellipse,


Radius Dimensions

Sketching Ellipses
You can create two different types of ellipses:

Center and Axis Ellipse


When using this type of ellipse, you select a center location for the
major axis and one endpoint of the major axis. (The major axis is
always created symmetric to the center location.) You then select a third
location that defines the length of the minor axis.
Axis Ends Ellipse
When using this type of ellipse, you select a location for one endpoint of
the major axis and the other endpoint of the major axis. You then select
a third location that defines the length of the minor axis.
Keep in mind the following when sketching ellipses:
2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 3

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The center point can be dimensioned or snapped to Sketcher references.


In the previous figures, the center point has been located using the
horizontal and/or vertical references.
Ellipses are created with construction lines for the major and minor axes.
These construction lines can be used to dimension or constrain the ellipse.
You can dimension an ellipse by its major and minor axes, even if the
ellipse is created on an angle. To create these dimensions, you can select
the axes construction lines and dimension them directly.
You can also dimension an ellipse using the major axis (Rx) and minor axis
(Ry) radius dimensions. These radius values are measured along the axes
from the ellipse to its center. The major axis is always the first axis placed,
regardless of size compared to the minor axis.
You can create an ellipse at any angle, based on the placement points for
the major axis. You can also rotate the ellipse to any angle after creating it.
You can use Tangent, Coincident, and Equal Radii constraints.

Module 4 | Page 4

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Sketching Ellipses


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Ellipse
Task 1:

ELLIPSE.PRT

Sketch an Axis Ends Ellipse and dimension it using radius


dimensions on the major and minor axes.

3. Select datum plane FRONT from


the model tree as the Sketch
Plane.
Click Sketch in the Sketch
dialog box.

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4. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

from the Datum

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2. Click Sketch
group.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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.
5. Click Sketch View
In Graphics toolbar.

from the

In

6. Click Axis Ends Ellipse


the Sketching group.

from

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7. Click the intersection of the


references as the first endpoint
of the major axis.
Move the cursor to the right
and click to define the second
endpoint for the major axis.
Move the cursor up and click
to define the length of the
minor axis.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 5

8. Middle-click to stop sketching.


Notice the default
dimensioning scheme.

Sketch a Center and Axis Ellipse and dimension it using length


dimensions on the major and minor axes.

from the Ellipse types


drop-down menu.

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1. Select Center and Axis Ellipse

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Task 2:

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9. Click Normal
.
Select the ellipse and then
middle-click. Click Major Axis
and click Accept. Type 120 as
the value and press ENTER.
Select the ellipse again and
then middle-click. Click Minor
Axis and click Accept. Type
75 as the value and press
ENTER.

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2. Click the center of the previous


ellipse.
Move the cursor up and to the
right, then click to define the
endpoint of the major axis.
Without permitting the ellipse
to snap to existing geometry,
move the cursor and click to
define the length of the minor
axis.

Module 4 | Page 6

2011 PTC

6. Click OK

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5. Middle-click and then select the


dimensions and drag them as
shown.

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4. Click Normal
.
Select the major axis and
middle-click to place the
dimension. Type 275 as the
value and press ENTER.
Select the minor axis and
middle-click to place the
dimension. Type 85 as the
value and press ENTER.
Select the major axis from
each ellipse and then
middle-click to place the
angle. Type 75 as the value
and press ENTER.

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3. Middle-click to stop sketching.


Notice the default
dimensioning scheme.

7. Press CTRL+D to orient to the standard orientation.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 7

Sketching Elliptical Fillets


You can sketch elliptical fillets between sketched entities.

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Sketching elliptical fillets:


Select two sketched entities.
Tangent at the endpoints.
Dimension schemes are the
same as ellipses.
Fillets can be rotated.

Sketching Elliptical Fillets

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Figure 1 Creating Elliptical Fillets

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Creating an elliptical fillet is very similar to creating a circular fillet; the


size of the fillet is initially based on pick point locations. However, using
elliptical fillets enables you to create an elliptical intersection between two
entities, rather than a rounded intersection. The elliptical fillet is tangent at its
endpoints to the adjacent geometry.

In

Elliptical fillets are similar to sketched ellipses in the following ways:

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Elliptical fillets are created with construction lines for the major and minor
axes. These construction lines can be used to dimension or constrain
the ellipse.
You can dimension an elliptical fillet by its major and minor axes, as shown
in the right elliptical fillet. To create these dimensions, you can select the
axes' construction lines and dimension them directly.
You can also dimension an elliptical fillet using the major axis (Rx) and
minor axis (Ry) dimensions, as shown in the upper-left elliptical fillet. These
radius values are measured along the axes from the elliptical fillet to its
center. The major axis is always the horizontal axis when the fillet is first
sketched, regardless of size compared to the minor axis.
You can also rotate the elliptical fillet after creating it, as shown in the right
elliptical fillet.
You can use Tangent, Coincident, and Equal Radii constraints.
You cannot select parallel lines as the entities for creating elliptical fillets.

Module 4 | Page 8

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Sketching Elliptical Fillets


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Fillet_Elliptical
Task 1:

ELLIPTICAL_FILLET.PRT

Sketch and dimension three elliptical fillets using different


dimensioning schemes.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Edit the definition of Sketch 1.

3. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:
4. Select Elliptical
from the
Fillet types drop-down menu in
the Sketching group.

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5. Click the vertical and horizontal


sketched entities at the locations
shown to create the elliptical
fillet.

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6. Click Vertical
from the
Constrain group and select the
vertical minor axis.

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7. Click Normal
.
Select the fillet and then
middle-click. Select Major
Axis and click Accept. Type
0.47 as the value and press
ENTER.
Select the fillet again and then
middle-click. Select Minor
Axis and click Accept. Type
0.25 as the value and press
ENTER.

8. Click Elliptical

9. Click the vertical and horizontal


sketched entities at the locations
shown to create the elliptical
fillet.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 9

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and select the


13. Click Vertical
vertical minor axis.

12. Click the vertical and horizontal


sketched entities at the locations
shown to create the elliptical
fillet.

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11. Click Elliptical

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10. Click Normal


.
Select the major axis and
middle-click to place the
dimension. Type 0.42 as the
value and press ENTER.
Select the minor axis and
middle-click to place the
dimension. Type 0.80 as the
value and press ENTER.

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PT

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14. Click Normal


.
Select the right fillet endpoint
and left vertical line.
Middle-click to place the
horizontal dimension and type
1 as the value.
Select the left fillet endpoint
and bottom horizontal line.
Middle-click to place the
vertical dimension and type
0.25 as the value.

15. Further constrain and dimension


the sketch as shown.
16. Click OK

This completes the procedure.

Module 4 | Page 10

2011 PTC

Sketching Splines
Splines are freeform curves that pass smoothly through two or
more points.

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Minimum two points required.


Can have any number of
intermediate points.
Dimensioning schemes include:
Dimensioning and constraining
spline points
Tangency Angle
Radius-of-Curvature

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Figure 1 Dimensioning a Spline

In

Figure 2 Dimensioning Points


Tangency Angle

Figure 3 Dimensioning Radii


of Curvature

Sketching Splines

PT

Splines are freeform curves that pass smoothly through two or more points. A
spline can also have any number of intermediate points. Each time you click
the mouse, you create an additional point through which the spline passes.
Note that a spline passing through only two points initially forms a straight line.

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Dimensioning Splines
You can dimension the endpoints of a spline, and you can also dimension
any of the intermediate points if desired. You do not have to dimension any
points of a spline if both endpoints snap to Sketcher references.
There are special dimensioning schemes for splines:
Tangency Angle Dimensions You can create tangency angle dimensions
for endpoints and intermediate points of a spline. Changing the angle value
alters the shape of the spline. To create this dimension, select the spline,
the spline endpoint, and a reference for tangency, then middle-click to place
the dimension in the desired location. Note that the placement location
dictates the quadrant for angle dimension measurement. In Figure 2, the
spline endpoints are dimensioned with tangency angles.
Radius-of-Curvature Dimensions After a Tangency Angle dimension
is created for a spline endpoint, you can create a Radius of Curvature
dimension for that endpoint. The Radius of Curvature dimension can be
2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 11

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used to control the radius of curvature at the endpoint of a spline; changing


its value changes the shape of the spline near the endpoint. Controlling
the Radius of Curvature dimension is useful in cases where a spline meets
up with other geometry (an arc for example), and a curvature continuity
is desired. To create this dimension, select the spline endpoint, then
middle-click to place the dimension. The dimension appears similar to a
radius dimension. In Figure 3, the spline endpoints are dimensioned for
radius of curvature.

Module 4 | Page 12

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Sketching Splines


Close Window

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Sketcher\Splines
Task 1:

SPLINE.PRT

Sketch a spline.

1. Enable only the following Datum

3. Select datum plane FRONT as


the Sketch Plane.
Click Sketch in the Sketch
dialog box.
4. Enable only the following
Sketcher Display types:

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from the Datum

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2. Click Sketch
group.

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Display types:

5. Click Spline
from the
Sketching group.

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6. Click the vertical and horizontal


reference intersection as the
spline starting point.

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7. Click four more times to create


additional points through which
the spline must pass. The first,
third, and fifth points should all
be on the horizontal reference.

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8. Middle-click to stop creating


points and complete the spline.
9. Click One-by-One and edit
the two dimensions to 5 and 12,
respectively.

10. Click OK

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 13

Task 2:

Edit the spline definition and dimension an intermediate point.

1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1.


2. Click Normal
and dimension
the lowest intermediate point to
the horizontal reference. Type
2.65 as the value and press
ENTER.

4. Click OK

Edit the spline definition and dimension tangency angles and


radii of curvature.

1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1.

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.
2. Click Normal
Click the spline, the left
endpoint, and the horizontal
reference, and middle-click
to place the tangency angle
dimension.
Type 65 and press ENTER.
Click the spline, right endpoint,
and horizontal reference,
then middle-click to place the
dimension.
Type 90 and press ENTER.

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Task 3:

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3. Click One-by-One and edit


the weak, horizontal dimension
to 9.30.

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When placing a tangency


angle dimension on a
spline, you must select the
spline body, a spline control
point, and a reference entity
to create the dimension.
However, it does not matter
in which order you make
the dimension reference
selections.

Module 4 | Page 14

2011 PTC

3. Click the left endpoint, then


middle-click to place the radius
of curvature dimension.
Type 7.5 and press ENTER.
Click the right endpoint, then
middle-click to place the
dimension.
Type 4.5 and press ENTER.
.

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4. Click OK

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 4 | Page 15

Modifying Splines Basic Operations

Figure 1 Moving a Point

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Moving points.
Spline Edit mode:
Move individual points
Move a range of points
Specify X-Y coordinate
location
Add points
Delete points
Extend spline

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There are a number of basic operations you can perform on a


spline in Sketcher.

Figure 2 Adding a Point

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Figure 3 Deleting a Point

Modifying Splines Basic Operations

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There are a number of basic operations you can perform on a spline in


Sketcher. You can select individual points that comprise the spline and drag
them to new locations to change the shape of the spline, as shown in Figure 1.

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You can also perform further basic operations within Spline Edit mode. To
access Spline Edit mode, you have two options: you can either double-click
the spline in the graphics window, or you can select it, then right-click and
select Modify. Upon accessing Spline Edit mode, the dashboard appears.
You must be in Spline Edit mode to perform the following basic spline
operations:
Moving Points You can move points using the following methods:
You can select individual points and drag them to new locations to
change the shape of the spline.
You can also select multiple points to move simultaneously. To do this,
you select a range of points to move by pressing SHIFT and selecting
two points to limit the range. For example, to move points 2, 3, and 4
in a spline that has 5 points you press SHIFT, select points 1 and 5,
then drag points 2-3-4 together. Note that the range of points cannot
contain constrained points.
You can move points to precise locations by selecting a point and then
using the Point tab in the dashboard. In the Point tab, you can specify
Module 4 | Page 16

2011 PTC

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a reference as the sketch origin or a selected sketched coordinate


system. Once the coordinate value's reference is selected, you can
specify precise X-Y location values. If the spline is placed in an internal
sketch for a sweep feature, and the spline is dimensioned to a Local
coordinate system, then you can edit the X, Y, and Z-coordinates to
create a 3-D spline.
Adding and Deleting Points You can add intermediate points to a spline
by right-clicking the spline and selecting Add Point, as shown in Figure
2. You must right-click over the spline for this menu to appear. You can
delete intermediate points from a spline by right-clicking the point you wish
to delete and selecting Delete Point, as shown in Figure 3. You must
right-click the top of the point for this menu option to appear.
Extending the spline You can also extend a spline by pressing CTRL+ALT
and clicking beyond a spline endpoint. This can only be done on an
endpoint without tangency or constraints defined.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 17

PROCEDURE - Modifying Splines Basic Operations


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Splines_Modify
Task 1:

MOD_SPLINE_BASIC.PRT

Move the points of a spline.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Sketch 3.
Sketcher Display types:

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3. Enable only the following


.

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4. Notice that the spline contains


five points.
5. Click the point second from the
left and drag it upward.

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6. Click the point third from the left


and drag it to the left.

Access Spline Edit mode, add three points, and move points as a
range.

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Task 2:

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7. Click the point fourth from the left


and drag it downwards and to
the left.

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1. Double-click the spline to access


Edit mode.

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2. Right-click the spline below the


horizontal reference and select
Add Point.
3. Add two more points to the spline
below the horizontal reference.
4. Select the point fourth from the
left.
5. Press SHIFT and select the point
seventh from the left.
6. Select the point fifth from the left
and drag it downward. Notice
that points five and six move
together as a range.

Module 4 | Page 18

2011 PTC

Task 3:

Edit the X-Y coordinate values of a point to specific values and


delete a point.

1. In the Spline ribbon, select the


Point tab.

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2. Select the point above the


horizontal reference. Notice that
the Point tab displays the X and
Y coordinate values of this point.
Edit the X and Y coordinate
values to 4 and 3, respectively.

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3. Select the point sixth from the


left, then right-click and select
Delete Point.

4. In the dashboard, click Complete


Spline .

5. Click OK

This completes the procedure.

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Module 4 | Page 19

Modifying Splines Advanced Operations


There are a number of advanced operations you can perform
on a spline in Sketcher.
Edit Spline mode enables you to
perform advanced operations:

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Fit Type
Sparse
Smooth
Spline Curvature
Scale
Density
Interpolation versus Control Points
Control Polygon mode

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Figure 1 Using the Smooth


Fit Type

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Figure 2 Viewing Curvature Analysis

Figure 3 Interpolation versus


Control Points

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Modifying Splines Advanced Operations


There are a number of advanced operations you can perform on a spline
in Sketcher. These operations are performed within Spline Edit mode.
To access Spline Edit mode, you can either double-click the spline in the
graphics window, or select it, then right-click and select Modify.

Using Fit Type


Fit type enables you to remove redundant data in the spline. You can use
either of the following methods:
Sparse Using the Sparse option, you can evenly decrease the number of
points on a spline. To use this option, you specify a sparsity deviation value.
Smooth Using the Smooth option, you can alter the shape of the spline
to make it flow more smoothly. To use this option, you specify a quantity of
spline points the system can use for averaging. In Figure 1, the Smooth
option was used to smooth the spline.
Module 4 | Page 20

2011 PTC

Displaying Spline Curvature


You can click Curvature Analysis
in the Spline ribbon to display the
spline curvature. The spline curvature is a porcupine-style spline curvature
plot. The length of the spikes are proportional to the amount of curvature at
that location along the spline. The curvature plot can be displayed while
dynamically dragging spline points, and you can adjust the scale and density
of the curvature plot as desired. Scale increases or decreases the length of
all spikes, and density increases or decreases the quantity of spikes in the
plot. The spline curvature is displayed in Figure 2.

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Interpolation Points Versus Control Points

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Control Polygon Mode

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By default, the system uses interpolation points to control the shape of the
spline. If desired, however, you can switch to viewing control points instead
in the Spline ribbon, as shown in the top
by clicking Control Points
image of Figure 3. When you have toggled to control points, you can then
drag the spline points by the control points, as shown in the bottom image
of Figure 3. You can add or delete control points to control the shape of the
spline. You cannot, however, dimension to the control points unless you
switch to Control Polygon mode.

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You can switch to Control Polygon mode to dimension to the control points
instead of the interpolation points. To access Control Polygon mode,

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click Control Polygon


in the Spline ribbon. You can also move the
interpolation points by dragging the control points. Plus, you can add or
delete control points to control the shape of the spline.

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Module 4 | Page 21

PROCEDURE - Modifying Splines Advanced


Operations
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Splines_Modify-Advanced
Task 1:

MOD_SPLINE_ADV.PRT

Display the spline's curvature and adjust the fit type.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Sketch 1.
3. Enable only the following
4. Double-click the spline to access
Edit mode.

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5. Click Curvature Analysis


in
the dashboard.
Drag the Scale slider to the
right to increase the scale.
Drag the Density slider to the
right to increase the density.
Drag one point upward to
simulate a non-ideal spline.
Notice that the curvature
becomes erratic.

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Sketcher Display types:

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6. In the dashboard, select the Fit


tab.
Select the Smooth Fit type.
Edit the number of Odd Points
to 5.
Edit the number of Odd Points
to 3. Click Yes, if necessary.
7. In the Fit tab, select the Sparse
Fit type.
Edit the Deviation to 0.01.
Close the Fit tab.

8. Click Curvature Analysis

Module 4 | Page 22

2011 PTC

Task 2:

Edit the spline control point locations.

1. In the dashboard, toggle the


spline modification to Control
.
Points
Drag the point second from
the right upward to the height
of the point third from the right.

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2. Enable Display Dimensions

from the In Graphics toolbar.


Notice the single dimension.

4. Drag the control points to


approximate a dome shape.

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5. In the ribbon, select the Sketch


tab.

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3. Click Control Polygon
access Control Polygon mode.

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6. In the Sketch tab, click Normal


as if to create a dimension.

8. Click OK

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7. Notice that the polygon control


points are dimensioned rather
than the spline.

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 4 | Page 23

Importing and Exporting Spline Points

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Requirements:
Sketched Coordinate System
Specify Coordinate System
Type
Cartesian
Polar
Coordinate File options:
Open a .pts text file.
Save current coordinate data to
a file.
Display current coordinate data.

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You can display, export, or import the coordinate values for each
point along a spline.

Figure 2 Importing Point


Coordinate File

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Figure 1 Viewing Spline Point


Coordinates

Importing and Exporting Spline Points

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You can display, export, or import the coordinate values for each point along
a spline. You must first select a sketched Coordinate System. You can then
specify the type of Coordinate System selected, whether Cartesian (X, Y, Z)
or Polar (R, Theta, Z).
Once the coordinate system is selected, you have three options available:
Open a text file (with a *.pts extension) of coordinate data by selecting
from the File tab.
Open Coordinates
Save the current coordinate data to a file by selecting Save Coordinates
from the File tab.

Display the current coordinate data by selecting Coordinate Info


the File tab.

Module 4 | Page 24

from

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Importing and Exporting Spline Points


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Spline_Points
Task 1:

SPLINE_PTS.PRT

Create a spline and import a file of point coordinates.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Sketch 1.
Sketcher Display types:

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3. Enable only the following

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5. The third spline point should lie


on the horizontal line.

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4. Click Spline
and sketch a
spline with 5 points. The spline
endpoints should snap to the line
endpoints.

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6. Click Coordinate System


from the Datum group in the
Sketch ribbon.

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7. Click the left line endpoint to


place the coordinate system.

8. Middle-click to stop sketching


coordinate systems.

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9. Double-click the spline to access


Edit mode.

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10. In the dashboard, select the File


tab.
Select the coordinate system.
Click Coordinate Info
to
view the current spline point
locations.
You could save this information
to a text file.
Click Close.

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Module 4 | Page 25

11. In the File tab of the dashboard,


click Open Coordinates
.
12. In the Modify Spline dialog box,
click Yes to delete the strong
dimensions.
13. In the Open dialog box, click
SPLINE_DATA.PTS and click
Open.

16. In the dashboard, click Complete


Spline .
.

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17. Click OK

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15. In the dashboard, click


Coordinate Info
to view
the current spline point locations.
Click Close.

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14. Click Yes in the Confirmation


dialog box.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 4 | Page 26

2011 PTC

Sketching Conics
You can create sketched shapes that are elliptical, parabolic, and
hyperbolic using conic arcs.

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The type of conic created depends


upon the value of RHO.
Dimensioning Conic Sections
Conic endpoints
Using RHO parameter
RHO = A/(A+B), where C=D
Using three points
Tangency angle dimensions

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Figure 1 Understanding the


RHO Parameter

Figure 3 Creating a Conic


using Three Points

Figure 2 Creating a Conic


using RHO

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Sketching Conics

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You can create sketched shapes that are elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic
using Conic arcs. To create a conic arc, select the endpoint locations and
then select an apex or shoulder location. A centerline is automatically created
connecting the endpoints of the conic.

Dimensioning Conic Endpoints


You can dimension the ends of the conic using dimensions or constraints.
You then further dimension conic sections by using the RHO parameter, by
using three points, or through tangency angle dimensions.

Using the RHO Parameter


You can specify the value for the RHO parameter of the conic, as shown in
Figure 2. This is a dimension that appears on the conic similar to a radius
dimension. As shown in Figure 1, the RHO value is the ratio of length A to
A+B (that is, A/(A+B)), where C=D. RHO can vary from 0.05 to 0.95. Higher
RHO values create a more peaked conic shape, and lower RHO values
create a more flat conic shape.
The following RHO values create specific conic section geometry:
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Module 4 | Page 27

0.05 to < 0.50 = Elliptical


0.5 = Parabolic
> 0.50 to 0.95 = Hyperbolic
2-1 = Quadrant of an Ellipse

Using Three Points


Instead of using a RHO parameter, you can locate a Sketcher point at the
apex of the conic to control the conic shape. The Sketcher point can then
be dimensioned or constrained accordingly. In Figure 3, the conic is created
using three points. Notice that a RHO parameter is not present.

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Using Tangency Angle Dimensions

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You can create tangency angle dimensions for endpoints of a conic. Changing
the angle value alters the shape of the conic. To create this dimension, select
the conic, the conic endpoint, a reference for tangency, and middle-click to
place the dimension in the desired location. Note that the placement location
dictates the quadrant for angle dimension measurement. In Figures 2 and
3, the endpoints have tangency angle dimensions defined.

Module 4 | Page 28

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Sketching Conics


Close Window

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Sketcher\Conic
Task 1:

CONIC.PRT

Sketch a conic and dimension it with a RHO parameter.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Click Sketch

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from the Datum group.

3. Select datum plane FRONT as the Sketch Plane.


Click Sketch in the Sketch dialog box.

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5. Select Conic
from the Arc
types drop-down menu in the
Sketching group.
Click the origin of the vertical
and horizontal references as
the left endpoint.
Click the horizontal reference
to the right of the vertical
reference as the right endpoint.
Move the cursor upward and
click to complete the conic.

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4. Enable only the following Sketcher Display types:

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6. Click Normal
.
Click the conic, the left
endpoint, and the horizontal
reference, and middle-click
to place the tangency angle
dimension.
Type 70 and press ENTER.
Click the conic, right endpoint,
and horizontal reference,
then middle-click to place the
dimension.
Type 50 and press ENTER.

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Module 4 | Page 29

7. Click One-by-One and edit


the width dimension to 10. If the
RHO dimension is already 0.5,
select it, right-click, and select
Strong, and press ENTER.
8. Click OK

from the Sketch tab.

9. In the model tree, right-click


Sketch 1 and select Hide.

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2. Click Conic
.
Click the origin of the vertical
and horizontal references as
the left endpoint.
Click the horizontal reference
to the right of the vertical
reference as the right endpoint.
Move the cursor upward and
click to complete the conic.

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1. Click Sketch
.
Click Use Previous in the Sketch dialog box.

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Sketch a conic and dimension it using three points.

Task 2:

3. Click Point
from the
Sketching group.

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4. Click the conic near the apex to


create the point.

5. Click Normal
and create the
two tangency angles, editing the
left and right values to 70 and
50, respectively.
6. Notice that the point is
constrained to the conic and is
linearly dimensioned.
7. Notice that there is no RHO
dimension.

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2011 PTC

8. Click One-by-One and edit the


remaining dimensions as shown,
starting with the width dimension.
9. Click OK

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 4 | Page 31

Sketching Text

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Figure 1 Sketching Text

Figure 2 Modifying Text Attributes

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Creating Text
Specify manually
Using existing parameters
Placing Text
Define start and end point
Modifying Text
Fonts
Horizontal and Vertical Position
Aspect ratio
Slant angle
Place along curve
Kerning
Open-Type Fonts
Multi-Language Support
Expanded Character Set
Advanced Control

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You can add text as a sketched entity.

Figure 3 Placing Text Along


a Curve

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Creating Sketched Text


You can add text in a sketch when creating extruded protrusions and cuts,
trimming surfaces, and creating cosmetic features. The sketched text can
be used by almost any solid or surface feature, as long as the rules for open
and closed sketches are followed.
You can either manually type the value for the text, or use existing parameters
in the design model. The system displays the value of the parameters as the
text value. You can also include text symbols, such as degree (), plus or
minus (), and omega ().

Placing Sketched Text


To add text, you must define a start point and an end point. The system
creates a construction line between the start point and end point. The
length of this line determines the height of the text, while the angle of the
line determines the text orientation.
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2011 PTC

To help you visualize the direction and the orientation of the text, a small
triangle symbol is presented at the text start position point.
You can select the start point of the construction line at the beginning of the
text flow, and drag it to increase or decrease the height of the text. You can
also select the end point of the construction line and drag it to change the
text orientation.
The construction line length is determined by a dimension, which
you can modify to change the overall text height.

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Modifying Sketched Text


You can perform the following types of modifications to sketched text entities:

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Fonts To modify the font of sketched text entities, select from a list of
standard fonts, such as cal_alf, cal_grek, filled, font, font3d, isofont, leroy,
norm_font. Creo Parametric enables you to read and place Open-Type
Font (OTF) characters into Sketcher.
Horizontal and Vertical Position You can modify the justification values
for the horizontal and vertical positions of the text, which updates the text
justification around the text start position point. You can constrain the
vertical position of the text to Top, Middle, or Bottom. You can constrain
the horizontal position of the text to Left, Center, or Right. The default
dimensioning scheme for the text is consistent, regardless of its orientation.
The resulting text boundary box is tight against the text, providing additional
control on its exact position in Sketcher.
Aspect ratio Using this option, you can modify the aspect ratio factor of
the text without changing its height or orientation.
Slant angle You can modify the slant angle of the text using this option.
The Slant angle option affects how the text is angled, with respect to the
sides of the rectangle in which it is contained.
Place along curve Using this option you can place text along a curve.
First, select the arc or circle on which you wish to place the text. Then,
select the direction in which you want the text to flow. You can always flip
the direction of the text flow. You can also control the justification of text
along a curve by using the horizontal and vertical position options. If you
change the horizontal position, the text moves along the curve, either to the
right or left side of the defined curve.
Kerning Enables font kerning for the text string. This controls the space
between certain pairs of characters, improving the appearance of the text
string. For example, in some font types an i and an m are allotted
the same amount of space. Kerning provides proportionate spacing for
narrow and wide letters. Kerning is a characteristic of the particular font.
Alternatively, set the sketcher_default_font_kerning configuration option to
automatically enable kerning for all the new text strings that you create.

Open-Type Fonts
OTF is becoming a global font standard, with added capabilities for advanced
typography. The font is based on Unicode, which enables the framework
for multi-language support. Open-Type Fonts offer an expanded character
set and layout features to provide better linguistic support and advanced
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Module 4 | Page 33

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typographic control. This enables you to read and place these custom fonts,
including symbols and logos that have been mapped, to specific functional
keys. In addition, you can select a custom font and place it, while still
maintaining proportions and ratios.

Module 4 | Page 34

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Sketching Text


Close Window

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Sketcher\Text
Task 1:

TEXT.PRT

Sketch text on a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

3. Click No Hidden

from the Sketching

6. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

from the

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5. Click Text
group.

4. Enable only the following Sketcher Display types:

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2. Edit the definition of feature TEXT_SKETCH.

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7. Click at the center of the model


and drag a line upwards to
approximately 75% of the total
model height. Click again to
create the overall text height.

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8. Move the Text dialog box to the


right.

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9. In the Text dialog box, type 123


as the text. Notice that it moves
to the right.
Edit the Horizontal Position to
Center.
Edit the Vertical Position to
Middle.
Click Text Symbol and click
the (degree) symbol.
Click Close in the Text Symbol
dialog box.

10. In the Text dialog box, edit the


Aspect ratio to 1.5.
Edit the Slant angle to 15.

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Module 4 | Page 35

11. In the Text dialog box, select the


Place along curve check box.
Select the arc.
Edit the Vertical Position to
Bottom.

15. Click One-by-One

17. Click OK

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16. Select the arc, then right-click


and select Construction.

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14. Click OK in the Text dialog box.

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13. In the Select Parameter dialog


box, select parameter VENDOR.
Click Insert Selected.
Notice that the numbers are
replaced by the parameter
value text.

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12. In the Text dialog box, select Use


parameter.

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18. Click Shading

19. Click the Model Intent group


drop-down menu and select

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Parameters

20. In the Parameters dialog box,


edit the VENDOR parameter
Value to PTC.
Click OK.
21. Click Regenerate

This completes the procedure.

Module 4 | Page 36

2011 PTC

Analyzing Sketcher Convert Options


Existing geometry and/or dimensions can be converted into
different formats in Sketcher without having to be re-created.

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The following conversions


can be performed:
Strong
Spline
Reference
Perimeter
Tapered
Arc Length/Arc Angle
Radius/Diameter/Linear

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Figure 1 Converting to a Reference


Dimension

Figure 2 Converting to a
Perimeter Dimension

Figure 3 Converting an Offset Line


to a Tapered Line

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Analyzing Sketcher Convert Options

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Existing geometry or dimensions can be converted into different formats


in Sketcher without having to be re-created. Conversions are handled by
selecting the item to be converted, then clicking the Operations group
drop-down menu and selecting Convert To, followed by the desired
conversion type. In many cases, you can also select the item, then right-click
and select the desired conversion type. The following types of conversions
can be performed:

Strong Enables you to convert a weak (light blue) dimension to strong.


You can also select the weak dimension, then right-click and select Strong.
Spline Enables you to select a chain of lines and arcs, and convert them
to a spline that closely approximates the selected chain. After conversion,
you can delete the old entities to view or manipulate the spline.
Reference Enables you to select an existing dimension and convert
it to a reference dimension. You can convert any dimension type
including linear, angular, and radial dimensions. You can also select the
dimension, right-click, and select Reference. Reference dimensions track
with geometry, but you cannot edit their value. Reference dimensions
do not factor into a sketch's regeneration, so they cannot cause
2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 37

over-dimensioning. Also, you can display reference dimensions on a 2-D


drawing. You can always convert a reference dimension back to a strong
dimension.
Perimeter Enables you to convert existing dimensions into a perimeter
dimension. To create a perimeter dimension, you select all dimensions
to be converted and the geometry that is to be included in the perimeter
measurement. You must then specify the dimension to be varied. This
dimension is driven by the perimeter dimension. That is, as the perimeter
value is updated, the sketch geometry updates by varying the dimension

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specified. You can also click Perimeter


from the Dimension group in
the Sketch tab.
Tapered Enables you to select a single offset edge and taper it. The
system achieves this by creating a second dimension for the offset edge.
You can then edit either dimension to create the taper. Note that you can
only taper single offset edges and not loops.
Arc Length/Arc Angle Enables you to convert an arc angle dimension
to an arc length dimension, or an arc length dimension to an arc angle
dimension.
Radius/Diameter/Linear Enables you to convert a radius, diameter, or
linear dimension to either of the other dimension types.

Module 4 | Page 38

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Sketcher Convert Options


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Convert
Task 1:

CONVERT.PRT

Convert a radius to a diameter and an arc angle to an arc length.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Sketch 1.

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3. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

Task 2:

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6. Click OK

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5. Select the 100 dimension, then


right-click and select Convert to
Length.

.
4. Select the 5 radius dimension,
then right-click and select
Convert to Diameter.

Convert a normal dimension to a reference dimension.

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1. Edit the definition of Sketch 2.


2. Click No Hidden

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3. Select the 8.38 dimension, then


right-click and select Reference.

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4. Notice the angle dimension is


created because the reference
dimension is no longer factored
into the sketch's regeneration.

5. Click Perpendicular
from the
Constrain group and select the
two angled lines.
Notice the angle dimension is
removed and the reference
dimension value has adjusted
to match the new geometry.
Middle-click to stop
constraining entities.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 39

Task 3:

Convert an existing dimension to a perimeter dimension.

1. Press CTRL, select the five lines


in the sketch, and click Perimeter
from the Dimension group.
2. Read the message area prompt
and select the 6.00 dimension as
the dimension to vary.
3. Edit the perimeter value to 40.

Convert a vertical line to a tapered line.

1. Click Offset

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Task 4:

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4. Notice the variable dimension


adjusts to compensate for the
new perimeter.

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2. Select the right, vertical edge of


the protrusion.
Type 4 as the offset and press
ENTER.
Click Close.

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and sketch
3. Click Line Chain
two horizontal lines.

4. Click One-by-One

5. Select the vertical offset line.


6. Click the Operations group
drop-down menu and select
Convert To > Tapered.
7. Notice the extra dimension that
is created.

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2011 PTC

8. Edit the top 4 dimension to 2.


.
.

10. Click Shading

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9. Click OK

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 4 | Page 41

Locking Sketcher Entities


You lock Sketcher dimensions and/or geometry to prevent
accidental modifications.

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Locking Geometry
Cyan lock icon
Geometry cannot be dragged
Will update to other edits
Locking Dimensions
Red color
Dimension cannot be dragged
Value can be edited

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Figure 1 No Entities Locked

Figure 2 Geometry Lines Locked

Figure 3 Dimensions Locked

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Locking Sketcher Entities

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In a sketch, you can lock either geometry or dimensions to help preserve


your design intent. By locking an entity, you prevent accidental modifications
from dragging to an undesired value. However, you can still make changes to
locked geometry or dimensions by editing the dimension value.
Keep in mind the following when locking Sketcher entities:
For geometry, a cyan lock symbol is shown when you highlight an entity
or Show entity locks.
For dimensions, the whole dimension displays in red.
The locked status of an entity is preserved when you complete and
redefine a sketch.
The locked status of an entity is preserved when using dynamic edit to drag
a section from Part mode.

Locking Sketcher Geometry


To lock sketcher geometry, select the geometry item (for example, a line or
arc) you want to lock and then either right-click and select Lock, or select
Toggle Lock from the Operations drop-down menu in the ribbon. To unlock
Module 4 | Page 42

2011 PTC

the selected geometry, select Toggle Lock from the Operations drop-down
menu in the ribbon, or right-click and select Unlock.
You can toggle the display of the lock icons by right-clicking, with nothing
selected in the sketch, and selecting Show entity locks or Hide entity locks
from the right-click pop-up menu.

Locking Sketcher Dimensions

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To lock dimensions, select the dimension or dimensions you want to lock


and then either right-click and select Lock, or select Toggle Lock from the
Operations drop-down menu in the ribbon. To unlock the selected dimension,
click Toggle Lock from the Operations drop-down menu in the ribbon, or
right-click and select Unlock.

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In addition, the Autolock option enables you to automatically lock


user-defined dimensions. You can specify whether you want to automatically
lock the dimension that you create or modify by setting the value of the
sketcher_dimension_autolock configuration option to yes. Alternatively, you
can click File > Options, select the Sketcher category in the Creo Parametric
Options dialog box, and select the Lock user defined dimension check box.
After you specify that the user-defined dimensions are to be locked, all
dimensions that you subsequently create or modify automatically appear
locked. The locked state of the user-defined dimension is maintained when
you quit or reenter Sketcher mode. The state of the dimensions that are
created before you specify to automatically lock the dimensions, do not
change.

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The locked state of a dimension is not retained if the dimension is


referenced in a relation; the relation takes priority over the locked
status of the dimension.

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Module 4 | Page 43

Analyzing Sketcher Dimension Options


In addition to normal dimensions, you can create other types
of dimensions within Sketcher and perform operations on
dimensions.

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Dimension options include:


Creating Reference
Dimensions
Driven dimension
Track with geometry
Not editable
REF suffix
Creating Baseline
Dimensions
Creates ordinate
dimension scheme

Figure 2 Creating a Baseline


Dimension and Ordinate Dimensions

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Figure 1 Creating a Reference


Dimension

Analyzing Sketcher Dimension Options


In addition to normal dimensions, you can create other types of dimensions
within Sketcher. You can also perform various operations on dimensions
within Sketcher.

Creating Reference Dimensions


A Reference dimension is a driven dimension that is created within Sketcher.
Reference dimensions track with geometry, but you cannot edit their value.
Reference dimensions are denoted within Sketcher with the suffix REF.
You can create a Reference dimension for linear, angular, and radial
dimensions. Reference dimensions do not factor into a sketch's regeneration,
so they cannot cause over-dimensioning. Also, you can display Reference
dimensions on a 2-D drawing. A Reference dimension has been created in
Figure 1. You can click the Reference
Module 4 | Page 44

icon from the Dimension group.


2011 PTC

Creating Ordinate Dimensions using a Baseline Dimension

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A baseline dimension creates an ordinate dimension scheme. When you


place the baseline dimension, switch to normal dimensioning, and dimension
the baseline to a reference; the resulting dimension is ordinate. In Figure
2, the baseline dimension is the 0.00 dimension, and the 5.00 and 15.00
dimensions were dimensioned to the baseline dimension, which resulted in
from the Dimension group to
an ordinate scheme. You click Baseline
create the ordinate scheme.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 45

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Sketcher Dimension Options


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Dimensions_Options
Task 1:

DIMENSIONS.PRT

Create a reference dimension and resolve a Sketcher conflict.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


3. Click No Hidden

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2. Edit the definition of Sketch 1.


.

4. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:
5. Click Reference
Dimension group.

from the

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6. Select the upper-right angled


line and middle-click to place the
dimension.

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7. Click Normal
and dimension
the adjacent angled line.

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8. Notice the over-dimensioned


condition.

Lock dimensions to restrict the sketch.

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Task 2:

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9. In the Resolve Sketch dialog


box, click Dim > Ref to resolve
the conflict.

1. Click One-by-One

2. Click the lower-right corner of the


sketch and drag it in a circular
motion.
3. Notice that the whole sketch
moves.
4. Click Undo

5. Press CTRL and select the 4.00


and 5.00 dimensions.
Right-click and select Lock.
Notice the red color.

Module 4 | Page 46

2011 PTC

6. Click the lower-right corner of the sketch and drag it in a circular


motion.
7. Notice the sketch motion is restricted.
8. Click Undo

9. Select the bottom sketched


entity, then right-click and select
Lock.

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10. Cursor over the entity and notice


the lock.
11. Click the lower-right corner of the
sketch and drag it.

Create ordinate dimensions.

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1. Click Baseline
from the
Dimension group.

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Task 3:

12. Notice the sketch motion is fully


restricted.

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2. Select the left vertical sketch line


and middle-click above it to place
the baseline dimension.

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3. Right-click and select


Dimension.
Select the 0.00 baseline
dimension.
Select the first peak and
middle-click above it to place
the dimension.
Select the perpendicular
(orthogonal) constraint below
the first peak.
Click Delete in the Resolve
Sketch dialog box and press
ENTER.

2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 47

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4. In the graphics window, select


the 0.00 baseline dimension.
Select the second peak and
middle-click above it to place
the dimension.
Select the perpendicular
(orthogonal) constraint below
the second peak.
Click Delete and press
ENTER.
.

6. Click Shading

5. Click OK

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This completes the procedure.

Module 4 | Page 48

2011 PTC

Sketcher Diagnostic Tools


Sketcher diagnostic tools enable you to analyze common
sketching problems.
Sketcher Diagnostic Capabilities
Shade closed loops.
Highlight overlapping geometry.
Highlight open ends.
Feature requirements check.

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Figure 2 Highlight
Overlapping Geometry

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Figure 1 Shade Closed Lopes

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Figure 3 Highlight Open Ends


Figure 4 Feature
Requirements Check

Sketcher Diagnostic Tools


Four diagnostic tools have been added to Sketcher to help find, analyze, and
solve common sketching problems. The following icon tools are available in
the Inspect group in the Sketch ribbon tab:
Shade Closed Loops
The area inside entities that form a closed
loop is shaded. The default shading color is a pale yellow.
The icon for this option stays depressed, enabling you to sketch and
manipulate the sketch to view the shading appear and disappear.
Sketched geometry that is overlapping is
Overlapping Geometry
highlighted in red. This includes sketched geometry that crosses other
geometry, or lies directly on other geometry.
2011 PTC

Module 4 | Page 49

The icon for this option does not remain depressed, meaning the
highlighting appears until the sketch view is changed or repainted, and
then you can click the icon again.
Highlight Open Ends
The endpoints of entities that are not common
to more than one entity are highlighted. For example, any open ends of
the sketch are highlighted. The highlight appears as a large green dot
on the open endpoints in question.
The icon for this option stays depressed, enabling you to sketch and
manipulate the sketch to view the open ends highlighting appear and
disappear.

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Feature Requirements
Provides a report indicating whether the
sketch meets the requirements for the feature being created. This option is
available in 3-D (Part mode) Sketcher only. Although this option works for
an external or internal sketch, to get the full benefit from the tool you should
be in an internal sketch. This ensures that the tool can compare the sketch
geometry with the specific requirements for that feature. For example, the
following features each have different sketch requirements:
Solid Extrude Must form a closed loop by itself or against adjacent
geometry.
Solid Revolve Sketched geometry must be on one side of the
centerline.
Rib Must have an open sketch.

Module 4 | Page 50

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Sketcher Diagnostic Tools


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sketcher\Diagnostics
Task 1:

DIAGNOSTICS.PRT

Utilize the diagnostic tools on a sketch with issues.

Click Sketch View

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Click No Hidden

2. Click Extrude
from the Shapes group.
Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch.
Select the front model surface.
Click Sketch.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

Enable only the following Sketcher Display types:

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3. Click Palette
.
Double-click the diagnostic
sketch.

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If you do not see the


diagnostic sketch,
make sure to set the
Working Directory
to Sketcher\
Diagnostics folder.

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Place the sketch anywhere on


the model.
Click Close from the Sketcher
palette.
Edit the Scale to 1.0 and press
ENTER.
Drag the sketch to snap to the
centerlines.
Click Accept Changes .

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Module 4 | Page 51

4. Click OK .
Notice the two warnings in the
message window.
Click No.
5. Click Feature Requirements
from the Inspect group.
Notice the various warnings.
Click Close.

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6. Notice that the sketch is not


shaded, indicating that the
section is open.
Closed sections should be
shaded when Shade Closed

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is enabled in the
Loops
Inspect group.
7. Click Overlapping Geometry

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.
Zoom in on the red highlighted
lines.
and trim the
.

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Click Refit

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8. Click Corner
lines.

9. Verify that Highlight Open Ends


is enabled in the Inspect
group.
Zoom in on the two green dots.

10. Click Corner


lines.

and trim the

.
Click Refit
Notice that the closed sketch
is now shaded.

Module 4 | Page 52

2011 PTC

11. Click Feature Requirements

13. Click Shading

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14. Right-click and select Remove


Material.
Right-click the depth handle
and select To Selected.
Select the rectangular surface
of Extrude 2.

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12. Orient to the 3D view orientation.

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.
Notice that the sketch has
no warnings and the section
is now shaded, indicating a
closed section.
Click Close.
Click OK .

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15. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

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Module 4 | Page 53

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Module 4 | Page 54

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5
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Module

Basic Surfacing Tools

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Module Overview

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Once you have learned how to create datum curves and advanced sketched
geometry, you can utilize them to create surface features. Basic surface
feature creation is similar to solids when using the Extrude and Revolve
dashboards. However, you can also create surfaces using the sweep, blend,
and fill tools.

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In this module, you will learn how to create surfaces using the Extrude,
Revolve, and Fill tools. You will also learn how to create surfaces using
Sweep, as well as Parallel, Rotational, and General Blends.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Create Extrude, Revolve, and Fill surfaces.
Create sweep surfaces with open and closed trajectories.
Create parallel blend surfaces and analyze their attributes.
Analyze parallel blend surface section tools.
Create rotational and general blend surfaces and analyze their attributes.
Define rotational and general blend surface tangency.
Select sections for rotational and general blends.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 1

Creating Surface Extrude Features


Create extruded surface features from 2-D sketches.

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Extrude surfaces perpendicular


to the sketching plane.
Extrude open section sketches.
Extrude closed section sketches.
Capped ends

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Figure 1 Extruded Open


Section Sketch

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Figure 2 Extruded Surface, Open


Ends, Closed Section Sketch

Figure 3 Extruded Surface, Capped


Ends, Closed Section Sketch

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Creating Surface Extrude Features


An extruded surface feature is based on a two-dimensional sketch. It linearly
extrudes a sketch perpendicular to the sketching plane. You can either select
the sketch first and then start the Extrude tool, or you can start the Extrude
tool and then select the sketch.
You can extrude surfaces from either open section sketches, as shown in
Figure 1, or from closed section sketches, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure
3.When extruding a surface from a closed section sketch, you have the option
of capping the ends of the extruded surface using the Capped ends option.
Although this result may appear solid, it actually creates end surfaces that
result in a closed-volume merged surface feature.

Module 5 | Page 2

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Surface Extrude Features


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Extrude\Surface
Task 1:

EXTRUDE_SURFACES.PRT

Extrude a surface from a closed section sketch.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, click Extrude


from the Shapes Group.

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4. In the dashboard, click Surface


.
Click Change Depth
.
Direction
Edit the depth to 300 and
press ENTER.

3. Select Sketch 1 from the model.


Notice this is a closed sketch.

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5. Click Preview Feature

6. Click Resume Feature

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7. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select the Capped ends
check box.

8. Click Complete Feature


the Extrude dashboard.

2011 PTC

from

Module 5 | Page 3

Task 2:

Extrude a surface from an open section sketch.

1. Select Sketch 2 from the model


tree. Notice this is an open
sketch.
2. Click Extrude

4. Edit the depth to 200 and press


ENTER.

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5. Click Complete Feature


the Extrude dashboard.

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3. In the dashboard, notice Surface


is selected by default,
because this is an open sketch.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 5 | Page 4

2011 PTC

Creating Surface Revolve Features


Create revolved surface features from 2-D sketches.

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Revolve a section about an axis of


revolution in a sketching plane.
Select different axes of revolution:
First sketched Geometry Axis
Existing Axis
Existing Straight Curve or Edge
Revolve open section sketches.
Revolve closed section sketches.
Capped ends

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Figure 1 Viewing a 2-D Sketch

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Figure 2 Same Revolved Sketch


using Different Axes of Revolution

Figure 3 Revolving a Closed


Section Sketch, Open versus
Capped Ends

Creating Surface Revolve Features

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A revolve surface feature is based on a two-dimensional sketch. You can


use a revolve feature to revolve a sketch about an axis of revolution (in the
sketching plane) to create a surface. You can either select the sketch first
and start the Revolve tool, or you can start the Revolve tool and then select
the sketch.
By default, when you select a sketch to be revolved, the feature uses the first
geometry centerline sketched within the section as the axis of revolution,
as shown in the left image in Figure 2. However, you can also select any
other geometry axis in the sketch, or any straight curve/edge, datum axis,
or coordinate system axis as the axis of revolution. If the sketch you are
revolving does not contain a sketched geometry centerline, you need to
select one of these other references as the axis of revolution. In the right
image in Figure 2, the axis of revolution has been changed to the CTR datum
axis. There are two rules for defining the axis of revolution:
1.
2.

Geometry must be sketched only on one side of the axis of revolution.


The axis of revolution must lie in the sketching plane of the section.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 5

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You can revolve surfaces either from open section sketches, as shown in
Figure 2, or from closed section sketches, as shown in Figure 3. When
revolving a surface from a closed section sketch, you have the option of
capping the ends of the revolved surface using the Capped ends option,
as shown in Figure 3.

Module 5 | Page 6

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Surface Revolve Features


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Revolve\Surface
Task 1:

REVOLVE_SURFACE.PRT

Create revolved surface features using different axes of revolution.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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2. In the ribbon, select the View


tab.

3. Enable Axis Tag Display

5. Select CURVE_1. Notice the


geometry axis created in the
sketch highlights with the sketch
feature.

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4. Select the Model tab.

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6. In the ribbon, click Revolve


from the Shapes group.

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7. In the dashboard, notice Surface


is selected automatically due
to the open sketch.

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8. By default, the feature revolves


about the sketch's geometry
centerline.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 7

9. In the dashboard, edit the angle


from 360 to 90 degrees.
Click Change Angle Side
10. Click Preview Feature

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11. Click Resume Feature

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12. In the dashboard, select the


Placement tab.
Right-click and select Axis of
revolution Collector.
Select datum axis CTR.

13. Edit the angle back to 360.

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14. Click Complete Feature


the Revolve dashboard.

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15. Disable Axis Tag Display

This completes the procedure.

Module 5 | Page 8

2011 PTC

Creating Fill Surfaces


You can fill a sketch to create a planar surface.
Sketch rules:

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Must use a sketched curve.


Can be internal or external.
Must be closed.
Can have multiple loops.
Can be any shape.
Can reference other geometry.

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Figure 1 Filling a Sketch

Figure 2 Fill Surface Containing


Multiple Loops

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Creating Fill Surfaces


You can fill a sketch to create a planar surface. You can either select the
sketch first and then start the Fill tool, or you can start the Fill tool and then
select the sketch. If you select the sketch first and then start the Fill tool, the
feature is automatically completed.
The following are important points about the sketches used by the Fill tool:
The sketch must be a sketched curve, and it can be either an internal or an
external sketch.
The sketch must be closed. However, the sketch can contain multiple loops.
The sketch can be any shape. That is, it can contain either tangent or
non-tangent entities.
The sketch may reference other geometry.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 9

PROCEDURE - Creating Fill Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Fill
Task 1:

FILL_SURFACE.PRT

Create fill surfaces in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

from

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4. Notice the tool automatically


completes the feature.

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3. In the ribbon, click Fill


the Surfaces group.

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2. Select sketch UPPER.

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5. Click in the background to


de-select the surface.

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6. Select datum plane DTM2.


from the Surfaces
7. Click Fill
group to start the Fill tool.
8. Enable only the following
Sketcher Display types:
.
9. Click Project .
Right-click to query and select
the bottom, circular intent
edge.
Click Close in the Type dialog
box.

Module 5 | Page 10

2011 PTC

10. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

from the

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13. Click Complete Feature

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12. Click OK

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and drag the


11. Click Palette
Pentagon into the graphics
window.
Click Close in the Sketcher
Palette dialog box.
Drag the section to the center
of the sketch.
In the Rotate Resize
dashboard, edit the angle
to 0, the scale to 20, and click
.
Accept Changes

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14. Press CTRL+D to orient to the


standard orientation.

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 11

Creating Sweep Surfaces with Open Trajectories

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Components of a sweep feature:


Trajectory
Select the trajectory.
Define the Start point.
Section
Placed at the trajectory
start point, denoted by the
crosshairs.
Closed or open
Enable or disable the Cap Ends
option.

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A sweep surface feature consists of a sketched section that


sweeps, or traverses, along a trajectory.

Figure 2 Cap Ends Disabled


and Enabled

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Figure 1 Sweeping a Section


Along an Open Trajectory

Creating Sweep Surfaces with Open Trajectories


You can create a sweep surface feature to create a constant cross-section
feature that follows a trajectory curve. A sweep surface feature can also
have a variable section, but this topic discusses the constant section only. A
sweep surface feature consists of both a trajectory and a section. To switch
in the Sweep
the sweep feature from a solid to a surface, click Surface
dashboard.
If your company has legacy data that contains Simple sweep
surface features, you get the classic menu manager interface when
redefining them.

Selecting the Trajectory


The trajectory is the path that a section sweeps along. The trajectory must
be selected, rather than sketched. The trajectory can be open, meaning
Module 5 | Page 12

2011 PTC

that it does not have to create a loop, as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. It
can have sharp or tangent corners.
When selecting a trajectory, the following selection methods are available:
Select a previously created external sketch.
Select individual curves or edges from existing geometry. To include
additional adjacent edges as the trajectory you can press SHIFT while
selecting them.
Select an intent chain.
and select

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Within the Sweep dashboard, you can click Datum

Sketch
at the right end; however, this does not make the sketch
internal to the sweep.

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Once the trajectory has been selected, you may decide that you do not
want the trajectory to traverse the entire length of your selected sketch or
geometry. You can drag the trajectory endpoint handles to lengthen or
shorten the overall trajectory. If you press SHIFT while dragging, you can
snap the endpoints to entities such as vertices, datum planes, or edge
endpoints. You can also directly specify a value.

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You must also select the start point for the section. The start point is the
location from which the section begins to sweep, and is displayed in the
graphics window with a yellow arrow. You can click the arrow to toggle the
start point to the opposite trajectory endpoint.

Defining the Section

PT

In

Once the trajectory and start point have been defined, you must sketch
the section that will be swept along the trajectory. The sketch plane for
the section is placed perpendicular to the trajectory at the start point. The
crosshairs seen in the sketching plane are the intersection of the trajectory
and sketch plane.

Fo
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The sketched section may be either open or closed. In Figure,1 and Figure 2,
the section is closed.

Toggling the Cap Ends Option


The swept surface feature has an option to edit its ends using the Cap ends
option. To use this option, the sketch must be a closed section. When the
option is enabled, the ends of the closed section are each capped, or closed
off, with a flat surface. In Figure 2, the Cap ends option is enabled in the
lower image. You cannot view the trajectory sketch because the ends of the
shape are capped with flat surfaces.

Causes of a Sweep Failure


A constant section sweep surface feature may fail if one of the following
three situations occur:
A trajectory crosses itself.
You align or dimension a section to fixed entities, but the orientation of the
section changes when it is swept along the 3-D trajectory.
2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 13

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PT

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A trajectory arc or spline radius is too small, relative to the section, and the
feature intersects itself while traversing around the arc.

Module 5 | Page 14

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces with Open


Trajectories
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Open-Trajectory_Surface
Task 1:

SWEEP_SURF_OPEN-TRAJ.PRT

Create an open trajectory sweep surface with a closed sketch.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

from the
2. Select Sweep
Sweep types drop-down menu in
the Shapes group.

4. Select the trajectory from the


graphics window.

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6. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

from

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5. Click Create Section


the dashboard.

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in the

3. Click Surface
dashboard.

In

7. Select Center and Point


from the Circle types drop-down
menu and sketch the circle.

PT

8. Click One-by-One
diameter to 5.

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9. Click OK

and edit the

10. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 15

11. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.


12. In the dashboard, select the
Options tab.
Select the Cap ends check
box.
13. Click Complete Feature

14. Click Undo


from the Quick
Access toolbar.

and click

1. Click Sweep
.
Surface

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Create an open trajectory sweep surface with an open sketch.

2. On the right side of the


dashboard, click Datum

, and click Use

In

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3. In the dashboard, click File


System
from the Get Data
group.
Select SPLINE.SEC and click
Open.

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select Sketch
Previous.

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Task 2:

4. Place the section in the graphics


window..

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5. Edit the Scaling factor to 1.


6. Locate the section on the
trajectory as shown.

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7. Click Accept Changes


the dashboard.
8. Click OK

Module 5 | Page 16

from

2011 PTC

9. In the dashboard, click Resume


Feature .
10. Click Create Section

12. Click OK

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11. Click Project


from the
Sketching group.
Zoom in on the left surface
end and select the lower edge.
Click Close.

PT

In

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14. Click Complete Feature

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13. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 17

Creating Sweep Surfaces with Closed Trajectories


A sweep surface feature consists of a sketched section that
sweeps, or traverses, along a trajectory.

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Components of a sweep
feature:
Trajectory
Select the trajectory.
Define the start point.
Section
Placed at the
trajectory start point,
denoted by the
crosshairs.
Closed or open.
If you sketch an open
section for the solid
feature type, the
system automatically
toggles to surface.

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Figure 1 Arc Section Sketch Swept


Along a Closed Trajectory

Figure 2 Arc Section Swept Along a


Closed Trajectory and Fill Surface Created

In

Creating Sweeps Surfaces with Closed Trajectories

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PT

You can create a sweep surface feature to create a constant cross-section


feature that follows a trajectory curve. A sweep surface feature can also
have a variable section, but this topic discusses the constant section only. A
sweep surface feature consists of both a trajectory and a section. To switch
in the Sweep
the sweep feature from a solid to a surface, click Surface
dashboard.
If your company has legacy data that contains Simple sweep
surface features, you get the classic menu manager interface when
redefining them.

Selecting the Trajectory


The trajectory is the path that a section sweeps along. The trajectory must
be selected, rather than sketched. The trajectory can be closed, meaning
that it creates a loop, as shown in Figure.1 and Figure 2. It can have sharp or
tangent corners.
When selecting a trajectory, the following selection methods are available:
Select a previously created external sketch.
Select individual curves or edges from existing geometry. To include
additional adjacent edges as the trajectory you can press SHIFT while
selecting them.
Module 5 | Page 18

2011 PTC

Select an intent chain.


Within the Sweep dashboard, you can click Datum

and select

Sketch
at the right end; however, this does not make the sketch
internal to the sweep.

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You must also select the start point for the section. The start point is the
location from which the section begins to sweep, and is displayed in the
graphics window with a yellow arrow. You can drag the start point along
the closed loop, or you can press SHIFT to snap the start point to one of
the entity endpoints.

Defining the Section

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Once the trajectory and start point have been defined, you must sketch
the section that will be swept along the trajectory. The sketch plane for
the section is placed perpendicular to the trajectory at the start point. The
crosshairs seen in the sketching plane are the intersection of the trajectory
and sketch plane.

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The sketched section may be either open or closed. If you try to sketch a
solid open section, the system automatically toggles the feature creation to
that of a surface. To create the type of surface feature shown in Figure 2, you
can sweep the perimeter shape first and then extrude the trajectory sketch
upward to fill in the middle.

Causes of a Sweep Failure

In

A constant section sweep surface feature may fail if one of the following
three situations occur:

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PT

A trajectory crosses itself.


You align or dimension a section to fixed entities, but the orientation of the
section changes when it is swept along the 3-D trajectory.
A trajectory arc or spline radius is too small relative to the section, and the
feature intersects itself while traversing around the arc.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 19

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces with Closed


Trajectories
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Closed-Trajectory_Surface
Task 1:

SWEEP-SURF_CLOSED-TRAJ.PRT

Create a sweep surface with a closed trajectory.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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3. In the Sweep dashboard, click


.
Surface

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4. Select the trajectory in the


graphics window.
5. Press CTRL+SHIFT and drag
the start point to snap to the arc
tangent endpoint as shown.

2. In the ribbon, select Sweep


from the Sweep types drop-down
menu in the Shapes group.

6. Right-click and select Sketch.

In

7. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

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PT

8. Select Center and Ends


from the Arc types drop-down
menu and sketch the 90 degree
arc.
9. Click One-by-One
radius to 4.

10. Click OK

Module 5 | Page 20

and edit the

2011 PTC

Create a Fill surface for the center of the sweep.

1. Select the trajectory sketch from


the model tree.
from the Surfaces

In

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2. Click Fill
group.

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Task 2:

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11. In the Sweep dashboard, click


Complete Feature .

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3. Click Shading With Edges


.

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4. Click Shading

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 21

Creating Parallel Blend Surfaces


A parallel blend surface feature blends sections along a
dimensioned, linear distance.
Components of a blend feature:

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Sections:
At least two required.
Toggle section.
Equal number of entities per
section.
Line up start points.
Direction.
Depth.

Figure 2 Blend Depths

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In

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Figure 1 Blend Sections

Creating Parallel Blend Surfaces

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You create blend surface features when you need to create models
that contain different transitional cross-sections. This means that you
can create a surface that starts as a circular cross-section, but as you
transition along the length of the feature, the surface changes to a square
cross-section. Therefore, blend features can create surfaces that use
different cross-sectional sketches. Parallel blends consist of sections,
direction of feature creation, and depth.

Defining the 2-D Sections


To create a parallel blend surface, there must be at least two sections on the
same sketching plane. Each section, like any sketch, is fully constrained and
dimensioned. When you are ready to create the second or any subsequent
section, you must toggle the section. In doing so, the existing sketches
become grayed out and temporarily inactive.
Each section has its own start point. The start points should correspond
between sections to avoid a twisting effect in the blend. You can move the
start point in a sketch by selecting the desired vertex, then right-clicking and
Module 5 | Page 22

2011 PTC

selecting Start Point. Figure 1 displays all three sections as having a start
point at the upper left.

Defining the Direction of Feature Creation

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Each section must contain the same number entities (or vertices) per section.
However, there are two exceptions to this rule. First, if the first or last blend
sections are of a single point, they do not need to contain the same number
of entities. Second, if a section does not contain the same number of entities
as the other sections, a number of blend vertex points can be added and
counted as entities, to make the same number of entities. For example, a
blend vertex placed on a triangular section enables the system to blend to
a square. The system essentially connects the points of each section to
create the blend feature.

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Defining the Depth of the 2-D Sections

You must specify the direction in which the blend sections are projected. You
can flip the direction of feature creation.

In

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Blind Specify a depth value between projected sections.


Thru Next The section is projected up to the next encountered surface.
Thru All The section is projected through all surfaces.
Thru Until The section is projected up to the specified surface.
From To The section is projected between two selected surfaces.

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The first section created in the parallel blend surface remains on the sketching
plane. Each subsequent section is projected normal to the sketching plane
at a specified distance in the direction of feature creation. The following
depth options are available:

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 23

PROCEDURE - Creating Parallel Blend Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\Parallel_Surface
Task 1:

BLEND.PRT

Create a parallel blend surface in a part model.

1. Enable only the following Datum Display types:

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2. In the ribbon, click the Shapes group drop-down menu and select
Blend > Surface.

from the

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4. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

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3. In the menu manager, accept the defaults by clicking Done.


Click Straight > Open Ends > Done.
Select datum plane FRONT.
Notice the direction of feature creation is opposite that of a
protrusion.
Click Okay > Default.

5. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

Fo
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PT

In

from the
6. Click Palette
Sketching group, and drag the
blend_section into the graphics
window.
Right-click the location handle
and drag it to the center of the
incoming section.
Drag the location handle to the
reference intersection.
In the Rotate Resize
dashboard, edit the Scale to 1
and click Accept Changes .

Module 5 | Page 24

2011 PTC

7. Click the background to clear the


selection, then right-click and
select Toggle Section.

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9. Click the background to clear the


selection, then right-click and
select Toggle Section.

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8. Drag the blend_section from


the Sketcher palette into the
graphics window again.
Right-click the location handle
and drag it to the center of the
incoming section.
Drag the location handle to the
reference intersection.
In the Rotate Resize
dashboard, edit the Scale
to 0.5 and click Accept
Changes .

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PT

In

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10. Drag the blend_section from


the Sketcher palette into the
graphics window a third time.
Right-click the location handle
and drag it to the center of the
incoming section.
Drag the location handle to the
reference intersection.
In the Rotate Resize
dashboard, edit the Scale
to 0.75 and click Accept
Changes .

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 25

11. Click Close in the Sketcher


Palette dialog box.
.

12. Click OK

13. Click Blind > Done from the


menu manager.
14. Type 30 as the depth for section
2 and press ENTER. Type 20 as
the depth for section 3 and press
ENTER.

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15. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

In

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18. Spin the model and notice that


the feature is hollow.

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17. Disable Plane Display

16. Click OK in the Surface dialog


box.

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PT

This completes the procedure.

Module 5 | Page 26

2011 PTC

Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface Attributes


You can edit the attributes for a parallel blend surface to achieve
different geometry results.

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Shape attributes:
Straight
Smooth
End attributes:
Open Ends
Capped Ends

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Figure 1 Straight Blend Attribute

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Figure 2 Smooth Blend Attribute

Figure 3 Capped Ends


Blend Attribute

Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface Attributes


When the sections of a parallel blend are projected normal to the sketching
plane, you can edit the following attributes to achieve different geometry
results.

Shape Attributes
You can define how the different blend sections are connected. The following
two methods are available:
Straight The blend sections are connected using straight lines, as shown
in Figure 1. This is the default option.
Smooth The blend sections are connected using smooth curves, as
shown in Figure 2.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 27

End Attributes
The ends of the blend surface feature can be defined in either of the following
ways:

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Open Ends Can be specified for either an open section or closed section.
The ends of the blend are left open, forming a hollow shape with no
additional surfaces. In Figure 1 and Figure 2, the ends are open.
Capped Ends Can only be specified for a closed section. The ends of the
blend are capped, forming a closed shape with additional surfaces created
at either end of the blend. In Figure 3, the ends are capped.

Module 5 | Page 28

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface


Attributes
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\Parallel-Attributes_Surface
Task 1:

BLEND_ATTRIBUTES.PRT

Edit the attributes of a parallel blend surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Surface id
232.

In

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5. In the Surface dialog box, click


Preview.

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4. In the menu manager, click


Smooth > Done.

3. In the Surface dialog box, select


Attributes and click Define.

6. In the Surface dialog box, select


Attributes and click Define.

PT

7. In the menu manager, click


Capped Ends > Done.
8. Click OK in the Surface dialog
box.

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9. Spin the model and notice the


ends of the blend surface are
capped.

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 29

Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface Section Tools


Blend section tools help you achieve the desired blend result.
Tools include:

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Blend vertex
Start point
Blending to a point

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Figure 2 Different Section Start


Points

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Figure 1 Blend using Blend Vertices

Figure 3 Blending to a Point

PT

Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface Section Tools

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The blend surface feature includes three different tools that are beneficial
when you create blend feature sections:
Blend vertex Each section of a blend surface must always contain the
same number of entities. For sections that do not have enough geometric
entities, you can add blend vertices. Blend vertices enable vertices to
converge or diverge. In Figure 1, the first blend section has six vertices,
while the second blend section has only four vertices. Consequently, two
blend vertices have been added to the section with only four vertices.
Start point As a general rule of thumb, the start points between sections
should correspond to the same vertex location. Typically, the start point is
created on the first location that is selected when creating a section. For
example, if sketching a rectangle, the start point is placed at the first corner
of rectangle creation, although it can be relocated. If the start points do not
line up between sections, the resulting blend surface feature will have
a twist in it, as shown in Figure 2.
Blending to a point A blend can start or end as a single point, as shown in
Figure 3. This is the one exception in which blend sections do not have to
contain the same number of entities.
Module 5 | Page 30

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Parallel Blend Surface Section


Tools
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\Parallel-Tools_Surface
Task 1:

BLEND_SECTION-TOOLS.PRT

Create a 3-section blend surface using a blend vertex and a


Sketcher point.

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1. Enable only the following Datum

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4. In the menu manager, click Flip


> Okay to flip the direction of
feature creation.

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3. Select datum plane FRONT as


the Sketch plane.

Display types:

2. Click the Shapes group


drop-down menu, select Blend >
Surface, and click Done > Done
in the menu manager.

In

5. In the menu manager, click Top


and select datum plane TOP.

from the

6. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

PT

7. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:
.

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8. From the In Graphics toolbar,


select Wireframe
from the
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

9. Disable Plane Display

10. Click Project


and select
Chain in the Type dialog box.
Select the bottom edge.
Select the left edge.
Click Accept.
Click Yes to convert the chain
to a loop.
Click Close.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 31

11. Select the lower-left vertex, then


right-click and select Start Point.

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12. Right-click and select Toggle


Section.

and sketch
13. Click Centerline
a vertical centerline at the
midpoint.

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14. Click Corner Rectangle


and sketch a rectangle, starting
at the upper-left and ending at
the lower-right. Dimension it as
shown.

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15. Select the lower-left vertex, then


right-click and select Start Point.

In

16. Select the upper-left vertex,


then right-click and select Blend
Vertex.

PT

17. Select the upper-right vertex,


then right-click and select Blend
Vertex.

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18. Right-click and select Toggle


Section.
19. Click Point
and create the
point, snapping to the midpoint
of the lower horizontal line.

Module 5 | Page 32

2011 PTC

20. Click OK
from the Sketch
dashboard and click Blind >
Done from the menu manager.
Type 150 as the first depth and
press ENTER.
Type 75 as the second depth
and press ENTER.
21. Orient to the Standard
Orientation and click OK.

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24. Notice that it is hollow.

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23. Spin the model to view it from


the rear.

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22. Click Shading

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In

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 33

Understanding Rotational and General Blend


Theory
In addition to creating a parallel blend feature, you can also
create a rotational blend or a general blend.

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Blend options:
Rotational Blend
General Blend
Blend types:
Protrusion
Thin Protrusion
Cut
Thin Cut
Surface
2-D Section:
Sketched
Selected

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Figure 1 General Blend Example

In

Figure 2 Rotational Blend Example

Figure 4 Blending to a Point


Section

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Figure 3 Using a Blend Vertex

Understanding Rotational and General Blend Theory


In addition to creating a parallel blend feature, the following two blend options
are also available:
Rotational Blend Enables you to rotate sections around the Y-axis of a
Sketcher coordinate system.
General Blend Enables you to translate sections along the Z-axis of a
Sketcher coordinate system, as well as rotate the sections about the X, Y,
and Z-axes.

Blend Types
The following blend types are available:
Protrusion Enables you to create a blend feature that adds geometry.
You can also create a Thin Protrusion.
Module 5 | Page 34

2011 PTC

Cut Enables you to create a blend feature that cuts away geometry. You
can also create a Thin Cut.
Surface Enables you to create a blend surface.
Once defined, you cannot toggle a protrusion to a cut, a cut to a surface,
and so on. Because these features are defined using the menu manager,
their blend type cannot be modified.

Defining the 2-D Sections


You can create the 2-D section to be used in the blend feature using either
method:

PT

In

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Sketched section Enables you to sketch geometry for the section. The
following are important characteristics of a sketched section in a rotational
or general blend:
Sketches are positioned relative to a Sketcher coordinate system, which
is required for each section.
Each section is sketched in a separate Sketcher window. This provides
an advantage over parallel blends, which are all sketched in the same
window, especially for blends that contain numerous sections.
You can add or remove sections.
You can insert new sections between existing sections.
The sections can utilize blend vertices, as shown in Figure 3.
Sections can be a single Sketcher point, along with the coordinate
system, as shown in Figure 4. When a single point is created for a
section and the Smooth blend attribute is used, you must specify the
Cap Type that is to be used. The following two options are available:
Sharp Cap Blends to the Sketcher point with lines straight to the
point.
Smooth Cap Blends to the Sketcher point with lines tangent at the
point.
Selected section Enables you to select from existing geometry curves
or edges.

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When defining sections for either rotational or general blends, the first section
displays an arrow to denote the start point, just like a parallel blend. However,
all subsequent section start points are denoted with a small circle, as shown
in the upper-left vertex of Figure 3.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 35

Creating Rotational Blend Surfaces


A rotational blend rotates sections about the Y-axis of a Sketcher
coordinate system.

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Section requirements:
Rotation angle about
Y-axis.
120 maximum
Sketched coordinate
system.
System lines up
coordinate systems.
Typically sketched
offset from section.

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Figure 1 Viewing the Rotational


Blend Sections

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Figure 2 Sketched Section

Creating Rotational Blend Surfaces

PT

In

A rotational blend rotates sections about the Y-axis of a Sketcher coordinate


system. As each new section is created, you must specify its rotation angle.
The rotation angle is defined with respect to the previously created section,
and has a maximum value of 120 degrees per section. When editing the
resultant blend surface, the angle value is displayed with the suffix of the axis
it rotates about. In Figure 1, the middle section is rotated 90 degrees about
the Y-axis, so the value is displayed as 90Y; the left section is rotated 60
degrees from the middle section, so its angle value is displayed as 60Y.

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Each section must contain a sketched coordinate system. You typically


sketch the section a distance away from the coordinate system. In Figure 2,
the section was offset from the coordinate system a distance of 5 in the X
direction. Creo Parametric then lines up the coordinate systems to place the
sections, and rotates them in the Y-axis by the specified angle value.

Module 5 | Page 36

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Rotational Blend Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\Rotational_Surface
Task 1:

ROTATIONAL_BLEND_SURF.PRT

Create a rotational blend surface in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Click the Shapes group drop-down menu and select Blend > Surface.

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3. In the menu manager, click Rotational > Regular Sec > Sketch Sec
> Done.

4. In the menu manager, click Smooth > Open > Done.

5. Select datum plane FRONT as the Sketch plane and click Okay.

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6. In the menu manager, click Top and select datum plane TOP.

from the

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8. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

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7. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

In

9. Click Coordinate System


from the Sketching group and
place a coordinate system at the
reference intersection.

PT

10. Click Corner Rectangle


from
the Sketching group and sketch
the rectangle.

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11. Click One-by-One and edit the


dimensions as shown.

12. If necessary, select the lower-left


vertex, then right-click and select
Start Point.
13. Click OK

14. Type 90 as the y_axis rotation angle for section 2 and press ENTER.
15. Notice the new Sketcher window.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 37

16. Click Coordinate System


and click to place a coordinate
system.
17. Click Centerline
from the
Sketching group and create a
vertical and horizontal centerline.

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18. Click Corner Rectangle


from
the Sketching group and sketch
the rectangle.

21. Click OK

22. Click Yes to add another section.

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20. If necessary, select the lower-left


vertex, then right-click and select
Start Point.

19. Click One-by-One and edit the


dimensions as shown.

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23. Type 60 as the y_axis rotation angle for section 3 and press ENTER.

In

24. Click Coordinate System


and click to place a coordinate
system.

25. Click Centerline


and create a
vertical and horizontal centerline.
and

PT

26. Click Corner Rectangle


sketch the rectangle.

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27. Click One-by-One and edit the


dimensions as shown.
28. If necessary, select the lower-left
vertex, then right-click and select
Start Point.
29. Click OK

30. Click No to stop sketching


sections.
31. Click OK in the Surface dialog
box.
32. Orient to the Standard
Orientation.

Module 5 | Page 38

2011 PTC

33. In the model tree, right-click


Surface id 68 and select Edit.
34. Notice the locations of the three
sections.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 39

Analyzing Rotational Blend Surface Attributes


You can edit the attributes for a rotational blend surface to
achieve different geometry results.

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Shape attributes:
Straight
Smooth
Type attributes:
Open
Closed
End attributes:
Open Ends
Capped Ends

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Figure 1 Smooth, Closed, Open


Ends Blend Attributes

Figure 3 Straight, Open, Open


Ends Blend Attributes

In

Figure 2 Smooth, Open, Capped


Ends Blend Attributes

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Analyzing Rotational Blend Surface Attributes


When the sections of a rotational blend are rotated about the Y-axis, you can
edit the following attributes to achieve different geometry results.

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Shape Attributes
You can define how the different blend sections are connected. The following
two methods are available:
Straight The blend sections are connected using straight lines, as shown
in Figure 3. The edges of the sections form ruled surfaces. This is the
default option.
Smooth The blend sections are connected using smooth curves, as
shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. The edges of the sections form splined
surfaces.

Type Attributes
You can define the type of rotational blend surface that is created. The
following two types are available:
Open The first and last section of the blend are not connected, as shown
in Figure 2 and Figure 3.
Module 5 | Page 40

2011 PTC

Closed The last section of the blend is connected to the first section,
as shown in the Figure 1.

End Attributes
The ends of the blend surface feature can be defined in either of the following
ways:

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Open Ends The ends of the blend are left open, forming a hollow shape
without additional surfaces, as shown in Figure 3.
Capped Ends The ends of the blend are capped, forming a closed shape
with additional surfaces created at either end of the blend, as shown in
Figure 2.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 41

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Rotational Blend Surface


Attributes
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\Rotational-Attributes_Surface
Task 1:

ROT_BLEND_SURF_ATTRIB.PRT

Edit the attributes of a rotational blend surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Surface id
39.

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4. In the menu manager, click


Straight > Open > Open Ends
> Done.

3. In the Surface dialog box, select


Attributes and click Define.

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5. In the Surface dialog box, click


Preview.

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6. In the Surface dialog box, select


Attributes and click Define.

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7. In the menu manager, click


Smooth > Closed > Open Ends
> Done.

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8. In the Surface dialog box, click


Preview.

9. In the Surface dialog box, select


Attributes and click Define.

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10. In the menu manager, click


Smooth > Open > Capped
Ends > Done.
11. In the Surface dialog box, click
OK.

This completes the procedure.

Module 5 | Page 42

2011 PTC

Creating General Blend Surfaces


A general blend rotates sections about the X, Y, and Z-axes of a
Sketcher coordinate system and translates sections along the
Z-axis.

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Section requirements:
System lines up
coordinate systems:
Typically sketched at
center of section.

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Figure 1 Viewing the General


Blend Sections

Figure 2 Sketched Section

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Creating General Blend Surfaces

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A general blend translates sections along the Z-axis of a Sketcher coordinate


system. The distance between each section can be different. The blend
also rotates sections about the X, Y, and Z-axes of the Sketcher coordinate
system. As each new section is created, you must specify its X, Y, and Z
rotation angles. The rotation angles are defined with respect to the previously
created section, and each angle has a maximum value of 120 degrees per
axis per section. When editing the resultant blend surface, the angle values
are displayed with the suffix of the axes they rotate about. For example,
in Figure 1, the middle section is rotated 20 degrees about the X-axis, 0
degrees about the Y-axis, and 0 degrees about the Z-axis. Therefore, the
values displayed are 20X, 0Y, and 0Z.
Each section must contain a sketched coordinate system. You typically
sketch the section with the coordinate system located at the center. In Figure
2, the section was sketched symmetrical about the centerline that passes
vertically through the sketched coordinate system. Creo Parametric then
lines up the coordinate systems to place the sections, rotates them in the X,
Y, and Z-axes, and translates them along the Z-axis.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 43

PROCEDURE - Creating General Blend Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\General_Surface
Task 1:

GENERAL_BLEND_SURF.PRT

Create a general blend surface in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Click the Shapes group drop-down menu and select Blend > Surface.

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3. In the menu manager, click General > Regular Sec > Sketch Sec
> Done.

4. In the menu manager, click Smooth > Open Ends > Done.

5. Select datum plane FRONT as the Sketch plane and click Okay.

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6. In the menu manager, click Top and select datum plane TOP.
7. Enable only the following
Sketcher Display types:

from the

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8. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

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9. Click Coordinate System


from the Sketching group and
place the coordinate system.

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10. Click Centerline


from the
Sketching group and sketch a
vertical centerline.

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11. Click Corner Rectangle


from
the Sketching group and sketch
a rectangle symmetric about the
centerline.

12. Click One-by-One and edit the


dimensions as shown.

13. If necessary, select the lower-left


vertex, then right-click and select
Start Point.
14. Click OK

Module 5 | Page 44

2011 PTC

15. Type 20 as the x_axis angle and


press ENTER. Type 0 as the
y_axis angle and press ENTER.
Type 0 as the z_axis angle and
press ENTER.
16. Click Coordinate System
and click to place a coordinate
system in the new Sketcher
window.

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20. Click OK

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19. Click One-by-One and edit the


dimensions as shown.

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18. Click Corner Rectangle


and sketch a rectangle that is
symmetric about the vertical
centerline by starting at the lower
left.

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and sketch
17. Click Centerline
both a vertical and horizontal
centerline.

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21. Click Yes to continue.

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22. Type 0 as the x_axis angle and


press ENTER. Type 20 as the
y_axis angle and press ENTER.
Type 10 as the z_axis angle and
press ENTER.

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23. Click Coordinate System


and place a coordinate system.

24. Click Centerline


and create
both a vertical and horizontal
centerline.
25. Click Corner Rectangle
and sketch a rectangle that is
symmetric about the vertical
centerline by starting at the lower
left.
26. Click One-by-One and edit the
dimensions as shown.

27. Click OK

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 45

28. Click No to stop sketching


sections.
29. Type 10 for the section 2 depth
and press ENTER. Type 7 for
the section 3 depth and press
ENTER.
30. Click OK in the Surface dialog
box.

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This completes the procedure.

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31. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

Module 5 | Page 46

2011 PTC

Analyzing General Blend Surface Attributes


You can edit the attributes for a general blend surface to achieve
different geometry results.

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Shape attributes:
Straight
Smooth
End attributes:
Open Ends
Capped Ends

Figure 1 Straight, Open


Ends Blend Attributes

Figure 2 Smooth, Capped Ends


Blend Attributes

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Analyzing General Blend Surface Attributes

When the sections of a general blend are connected, you can edit the
following attributes to achieve different geometry results.

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Shape Attributes

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You can define how the different blend sections are connected. The following
two methods are available:
Straight The blend sections are connected using straight lines, as shown
in Figure 1. The edges of the sections form ruled surfaces. This is the
default option.
Smooth The blend sections are connected using smooth curves, as
shown in Figure 2. The edges of the sections form splined surfaces.

End Attributes
The ends of the blend surface feature can be defined in either of the following
ways:
Open Ends The ends of the blend are left open, forming a hollow shape
without additional surfaces, as shown in Figure 1.
Capped Ends The ends of the blend are capped, forming a closed shape
with additional surfaces created at either end of the blend, as shown in
Figure 2.
2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 47

PROCEDURE - Analyzing General Blend Surface


Attributes
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\General-Attributes_Surface
Task 1:

GEN_BLEND_SURF_ATTRIB.PRT

Edit the attributes of a general blend surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Surface id
39.

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4. In the menu manager, click


Straight > Open Ends > Done.

3. In the Surface dialog box, select


Attributes and click Define.

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5. In the Surface dialog box, click


Preview.

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6. In the Surface dialog box, select


Attributes and click Define.

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7. In the menu manager, click


Smooth > Capped Ends >
Done.

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8. In the Surface dialog box, click


OK.

This completes the procedure.

Module 5 | Page 48

2011 PTC

Defining Rotational and General Blend Surface


Tangency
The tangency option creates a tangent transition between the
surfaces of the blend feature and the surfaces of another feature.

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For smooth blends only.


Can specify tangency for the first
and/or last blend sections.
You must specify a tangent surface
for each section segment.

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Figure 1 Specifying Adjacent


Tangent Surface

Figure 2 Blends Before Tangency

Figure 3 Blends After Tangency

Defining Rotational and General Blend Surface Tangency


The tangency option creates a tangent transition between the surfaces of the
blend feature and the surfaces of another feature. You can define tangency
only for blends created using the Smooth blend attribute.
You can define tangency for the first and/or last section of a blend. When
defining tangency, each segment of the section highlights, as shown in Figure
1. You must then select the adjacent surface.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 49

PROCEDURE - Defining Rotational and General Blend


Surface Tangency
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\Tangency_Surface
Task 1:

ROT-GEN_BLEND-TAN_SURF.PRT

Define tangency at one end of a rotational blend surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Edit the definition of


ROT_BLEND.

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5. Select the bottom, adjacent


surface to the edge entity.

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4. In the Confirmation dialog box,


click Yes to define tangency at
the first end.

3. In the Surface dialog box, select


Tangency and click Define.

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6. Select the right, adjacent surface


to the edge entity.

7. Select the top, adjacent surface


to the edge entity.

8. Select the left, adjacent surface


to the edge entity.

Module 5 | Page 50

2011 PTC

9. In the Confirmation dialog box,


click No to not define tangency
at the other end.
10. In the Surface dialog box, click
OK.

Task 2:

Define tangency at one end of a general blend surface.

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1. Edit the definition of


GEN_BLEND.

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4. Select the bottom, adjacent


surface to the edge entity.

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3. In the Confirmation dialog box,


click Yes to define tangency at
the first end.

2. In the Surface dialog box, select


Tangency and click Define.

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5. Select the right, adjacent surface


to the edge entity.

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6. Select the top, adjacent surface


to the edge entity.

7. Select the left, adjacent surface


to the edge entity.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 51

8. In the Confirmation dialog box,


click No to not define tangency
at the other end.
9. In the Surface dialog box, click
OK.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 5 | Page 52

2011 PTC

Selecting Sections for Rotational and General


Blend Surfaces

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Figure 1 Completed Blend


Feature

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No Sketcher coordinate system


required
Pick Curve options:
Curve/Edge
Loop
Chain
Blend Vertex
Start Point
Section Info
Delete
Undo/Redo

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In addition to sketching sections, you can also select geometry


for the sections of rotational and general blend surface features.

Figure 2 Modifying the Start Point

Figure 3 Selecting Entities

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Selecting Sections for Rotational and General Blend Surfaces


In addition to sketching sections, you can also select geometry for the
sections of rotational and general blend surface features. Unlike sketching
the geometry for a section, a Sketcher coordinate system is not required.
Selecting geometry for blend sections is similar to using the Project
functionality because it enables you to pick geometry from existing curves or
edges using the following options:
Curve/Edge Enables you to select geometry edges one at a time.
Loop Enables you to select a loop of edges or entities. You can select a
surface or face and the edges or entities that form the loop are selected. If
more than one loop exists, you must select the desired one.
Chain Enables you to select entities from a chain of edges or entities.
When two edges from the same surface or face are selected, you must
specify which chain of geometry you wish to be created. Figure 3 displays
one possible chain selection from the selected entities.
2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 53

Additional options available when selecting geometry for blend sections


include:

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Blend Vertex Enables you to specify a blend vertex to add blend vertices
where needed.
Start Point Enables you to change the start point location in the section.
Sec Info Enables you to get information for selected entities. Options
include:
Entity Get information about an entity.
Intersection Point Get information about the intersection of two entities.
Tangent Point Get information about an entity at the point of tangency.
References Get reference information about the section.
Angle Measures the angle between selected entities.
Distance Measures the distance between two parallel lines, two points,
or a point and line.
Curvature Display Displays curvature of splines in the section.
Delete Enables you to delete selected entities from the section.
Undo/Redo Enables you to undo or redo Sketcher commands.

Module 5 | Page 54

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Selecting Sections for Rotational and


General Blend Surfaces
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Blend\Select-Section_Surface
Task 1:

SEL-SEC_BLEND_SURF.PRT

Create a general blend surface by selecting the blend sections.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Click the Shapes group drop-down menu and select Blend > Surface.

3. In the menu manager, click General > Regular Sec > Select Sec
> Done.

5. In the menu manager, click Pick


Curve > Sel Chain.

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6. Select the front, left vertical edge


of the large U shape.

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4. In the menu manager, click Smooth > Open Ends > Done.

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7. Press CTRL and select the front,


right vertical edge of the large
U shape.

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8. Click Accept > Done/Return


from the menu manager.

9. Notice the start point is at the


upper-left vertex.

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10. Click Done from the menu


manager.

11. In the menu manager, click Pick


Curve > Sel Chain.

12. Select the rear, right vertical


edge of the small U shape.
13. Press CTRL and select the rear,
left vertical edge of the small U
shape.
14. Click Accept from the menu
manager.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 55

15. Click Start Point from the menu


manager and select the rear,
upper-left vertex as the new start
point.

16. Click Done from the menu


manager.

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17. Click No to stop selecting


sections.

18. In the Surface dialog box, click


Preview.

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19. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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20. Notice that the resulting blend


surface is non-tangent.

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21. In the Surface dialog box, select


Tangency and click Define.

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22. In the Confirmation dialog box,


click Yes to specify tangency at
the first end.

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23. Select the five surfaces adjacent


to the corresponding highlighted
edges on the large U surface.

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24. In the Confirmation dialog box,


click Yes to specify tangency at
the other end.
25. Select the five surfaces adjacent
to the corresponding highlighted
edges on the small U surface.

Module 5 | Page 56

2011 PTC

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This completes the procedure.

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26. Click OK in the Surface dialog


box.

2011 PTC

Module 5 | Page 57

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Module 5 | Page 58

2011 PTC

6
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Module

Boundary Blend Surfaces

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Module Overview

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Surfaces by boundaries are among the most powerful and flexible surfaces
to capture design intent. You use them while creating continuous surface
features. As the name suggests, the surfaces are created with the boundary
edges defined with curves or edges. You can apply edge boundary conditions
for aligning the shape of the surface with the adjoining geometry. You can
modify the structure of surfaces by modifying constraint options that define
the shape of the surfaces or the surfaces directly.

Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Understand boundary curve concepts.
Create boundary blends in one and two directions.
Analyze blended surface boundary conditions.
Analyze blended surface constraint options.
Analyze blended surface control points.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 1

Understanding Boundary Curve Concepts


You can create a surface by defining its boundaries.

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Select combinations of:


Datum curves.
Datum points.
Model edges.
Select multiple boundaries:
Press CTRL to select multiple
boundaries.
Press SHIFT to select
multiple curves/edges within a
boundary.

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Figure 1 Set of Datum Curves

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Figure 2 Selecting Curves


for Surface

Figure 3 Previewing Completed


Surface

Understanding Boundary Curve Concepts


You can create a surface by defining its boundaries. You can select
combinations of the following as boundaries:
Datum curves
Datum points
Model edges, both of surfaces and solids
In the figures, both datum curves and the surface edges have been selected
to create the resultant boundary surface.
Consider that any resulting surface by boundaries is only as good as the
underlying curves that define it. Therefore, if the curves are not tangent, the
resulting boundary surface will likely not be able to be created tangent, either.

Module 6 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Selecting Multiple Boundaries


Press CTRL to select multiple boundaries or to start selecting the next
boundary. Use SHIFT to select multiple curves or edges within a boundary.

Best Practices

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When both are in a coincident location, it is preferable to select an edge of a


surface versus a curve for a boundary when possible. This enables you to
set up boundary conditions to the adjacent surface.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 3

Creating Boundary Blends in One Direction

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Figure 1 Selecting the First Curve

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The curves need not form a closed


loop.
Curves are connected in the order
selected.
First and last define boundaries
Intermediate provide additional
shape control
Curves tab.
Select/Delete curves
Reorder curves
Close Bend

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You can create a boundary blend surface by selecting two or


more curves flowing in the same direction.

Figure 2 Selecting a Second Curve

Figure 3 Selecting the Third Curve

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Creating Boundary Blends in One Direction

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You can create a boundary blend surface by selecting two or more curves
flowing in the same direction. The curves do not have to form a closed loop.
By default, the curves are connected in the order selected, and you can
select datum curves or model edges. The order of curve selection is denoted
in the graphics window with the numbers 1, 2, 3, and so on.
The first and last curves selected define the boundaries of the resulting
surface. Any intermediate curves provide additional shape control for the
surface.

Curves Tab Options and Operations


Within the Boundary Blend tool, you can select the Curves tab in the
dashboard. The following options and operations are available:
Select or delete curves You can select a curve to highlight it in the
graphics window, or right-click to remove it from the list of selected curves.
Reorder curves You can connect the curves in a different order than how
they were selected.
Close Blend Connects the last curve back to the first curve. Essentially,
this check box option forms a closed loop surface by blending the last curve
Module 6 | Page 4

2011 PTC

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back to the first curve. This option is only applicable to single direction
curves where the other collector is empty.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 5

PROCEDURE - Creating Boundary Blends in One


Direction
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Boundary-Blend_1-Direction
Task 1:

BOUNDARY_1_DIR.PRT

Create a boundary blend in one direction.

from

2. Click Boundary Blend


the Surfaces group.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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3. Select the front curve.

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4. Press CTRL and select the


middle curve.

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5. Press CTRL and select the left


portion of the rear curve.

6. Press SHIFT to continue building


the curve and select the right
portion of the rear curve.

Module 6 | Page 6

2011 PTC

7. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Curves
tab.
8. Notice the options that are
available.

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This completes the procedure.

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9. Click Complete Feature


Boundary Blend dashboard.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 7

Creating Boundary Blends in Two Directions


A boundary blend created in two directions typically consists of
four or more curves, with two or more curves in one direction
and two or more curves in a second direction.

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The curves must form a closed


loop.
You can create a triangle surface:
Two curves in first direction.
One curve in second direction.
You can use a datum point or
vertex in place of first or last chain.
Curves tab:
Select/Delete curves
Reorder curves

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Figure 1 Selecting Curves in


the First Direction

PT

Figure 2 Selecting Curves in


the Second Direction

Figure 3 Previewing the


Complete Surface

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Creating Boundary Blends in Two Directions


A boundary blend created in two directions typically consists of four or more
curves, with two or more curves in one direction and two or more curves in a
second direction. The curves must form a closed loop. However, they can
extend past each other and do not have to be trimmed.
You can also create a boundary blend in the shape of a triangle. This is
done by selecting two curves in the first direction, and one curve in the
second direction.
If desired, you can select a datum point or vertex as a curve in place of the
first or last selected curve chain in each direction.

Curves Tab Options and Operations


Within the Boundary Blend tool, you can select the Curves tab in the
dashboard. The following options and operations are available:
Select or delete curves You can select a curve to highlight it in the
graphics window, or right-click to remove it from the list of selected curves.
Module 6 | Page 8

2011 PTC

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Reorder curves You can connect the curves in a different order than how
they were selected.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 9

PROCEDURE - Creating Boundary Blends in Two


Directions
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Boundary-Blend_2-Direction
Task 1:

BOUNDARY_2_DIR.PRT

Create a boundary blend in two directions.

from

2. Click Boundary Blend


the Surfaces group.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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3. Select the front curve.

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4. Press CTRL and select the


middle curve.

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5. Press CTRL and select the left


portion of the rear curve.

6. Press SHIFT to continue building


the curve and select the right
portion of the rear curve.

Module 6 | Page 10

2011 PTC

7. Right-click and select Second


Direction Curves.
8. Select the Curves tab from
the dashboard and notice the
options.
9. Select the left curve.

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10. Press CTRL and select the


middle curve.

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11. Press CTRL and select the right


curve.

from

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12. Click Complete Feature


the dashboard.

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 11

Analyzing Blended Surface Boundary Conditions


You can control the alignment of the boundary blend edges with
adjacent geometry.

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Figure 2 Free Boundary Condition

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Figure 1 Curvature Boundary


Condition

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Boundary conditions include:


Free
Tangent
Curvature
Normal

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Figure 3 Normal Boundary


Condition

Figure 4 Tangent Boundary


Condition

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Analyzing Blended Surface Boundary Conditions


You can control the alignment of the boundary blend edges with adjacent
geometry. Changing the boundary condition can affect the shape of the
resulting surface. The following boundary conditions are available:
Free There are no implied conditions along the surface boundary. The
symbol displays as a dashed line.
Tangent The boundary surface changes shape to be tangent along the
surface boundary. The symbol displays as a solid line.
Curvature The boundary surface changes shape to be
curvature-continuous along the surface boundary. The symbol displays
as a double line.
Normal The boundary surface changes shape to be normal
(perpendicular) to the surface boundary or datum plane reference. The
symbol displays as a right angle.

Module 6 | Page 12

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Blended Surface Boundary


Conditions
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Boundary_Conditions
Task 1:

BOUND_CONDITIONS.PRT

Analyze the boundary conditions of a boundary blend surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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4. Notice that both boundary


handles are dashes, which
indicates the Free tangent
condition.

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3. Notice the top curve is number 1


and the bottom curve is number
2.

2. Edit the definition of Boundary


Blend 2.

In

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5. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the
Constraints tab.
Edit the Condition for the
first boundary from Free to
Tangent.

PT

6. Notice that the symbol shape in


the boundary handle updates to
a line.

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7. Notice that the surface shape


changes.
8. Right-click the tangent boundary
handle and select Normal.
9. Notice that the symbol shape in
the boundary handle updates to
a right angle.

10. Notice that the surface shape


changes.
11. Notice that the Condition in the
dashboard updates to Normal.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 13

12. Right-click the normal boundary


handle and select Curvature.
13. Notice that the symbol shape in
the boundary handle updates to
a double line.
14. Notice that the surface shape
changes.

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15. Notice that the Condition in the


dashboard updates to Curvature.

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17. Spin the model and observe the


surface.

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16. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend Dashboard.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 6 | Page 14

2011 PTC

Analyzing Blended Surface Constraint Options


When creating a boundary blend surface, there are multiple
constraint options available.

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Constraint options include:


Boundary length handles
Tangency handles
Add inner edge tangency
Add side curve influence

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Figure 2 Adjusting Boundary


Length Handles

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Figure 1 Adjusting Tangency Handles

Figure 3 Adding Side Curve Influence

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Analyzing Blended Surface Constraint Options

When creating a boundary blend surface, there are multiple constraint


options available, including the following:

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Boundary Length Handles

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The boundary length handles are used to adjust how much of the boundary
to use. You can drag the handles or type a value, and the value can be either
positive or negative. Positive values cause the boundary to be extended
beyond the end of the adjacent boundary. In Figure 2, the left boundary
length handle has been modified to a negative value, while the right boundary
length handle has been modified to a positive value.

Tangency Handles
You can display drag handles to control the boundary stretch factor for
boundaries set to tangent or curvature-continuous. You can specify a different
boundary stretch factor for each qualifying boundary. Figure 1 displays how
modifying the tangency handle stretch factor influences the surface shape.

Adding Inner Edge Tangency


Adding inner edge tangency sets the tangent inner edge condition for one or
both directions of a blended surface. This condition applies only to surfaces
with multi-segment boundaries. You can create a blended surface with
2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 15

patches that are tangent across inner edges. In some cases, when geometry
is complex, dihedral angles at inner edges may deviate from zero.

Adding Side Curve Influence

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In a one-directional blended surface, for boundary conditions specified as


Tangent or Curvature, adding side curve influence makes the side edges
of the blended surface tangent to the side edges of the references. You
can add side curve influence independently for each qualifying boundary
condition. In Figure 3, the side curve influence has been added for both
boundary conditions.

Module 6 | Page 16

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Blended Surface Constraint


Options
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Boundary_Constraints
Task 1:

CONSTRAINT_OPTIONS.PRT

Analyze the constraint options of a boundary blend surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

2. Edit the definition of Boundary


Blend 1.

4. Double-click each -10 value and


edit it to 0.

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5. Right-click the boundary


condition handle and select
Tangent.

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3. Drag each of the handles of the


upper boundary to -10.

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6. Select the Constraints tab from


the Boundary Blend dashboard.
Select the Display drag
handles check box.
Select the Direction 1-First
chain Boundary.

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7. Drag the first chain handle from


1 to 1.80.

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8. Notice the difference in the


shape of the surface.
You can drag or edit the
value to a negative value.
This causes the surface to
be tangent coming from the
opposite direction.

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Module 6 | Page 17

9. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Direction
1-Last chain boundary.

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12. Notice the difference in the


surface shape.

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11. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Direction
1-First chain boundary again.
Select the Add side curve
influence check box.

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10. Drag the last chain handle from


1 to 1.80.

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13. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Direction
1-Last chain boundary again.
Select the Add side curve
influence check box.

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14. Notice the difference in the


surface shape.

Module 6 | Page 18

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This completes the procedure.

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15. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend dashboard.

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Module 6 | Page 19

Analyzing Blended Surface Control Points


You can add control points to help shape a surface by mapping
locations on input curves.

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Control point fit options:


Natural
Arclength
Piece to piece
Point to point
Developable

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Figure 1 Selecting Control Points

Figure 3 Alternate Resultant


Surface Geometry

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Figure 2 Resultant Surface


Geometry

Analyzing Blended Surface Control Points


You can add control point sets to help shape a surface by mapping locations
on input curves. Each set contains selected control points which are then
connected to help influence the resulting surface shape. Joining different
control points causes the resultant surface geometry to differ. For example,
different control points were joined to create the two different surface
geometry results shown in the lower figures. You can add new sets of control
points in the Sets column of the Control Points tab in the dashboard.

Control Point Fit Options


The following types of fit options are available for joining the control points:
Natural Blends the surface using the general blending routine and resets
the parameters for input curves using the same routine to obtain the best
approximation for the surface.
Module 6 | Page 20

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Arclength Minimal adjustments are made to the original curves. Curves


are blended using the general blending routine except that curves are
divided into equal pieces and blended piece-by-piece.
Piece to piece Blends the surface piece-by-piece. Curve chains or
composite curves are connected.
Point to point Blends the surface point-by-point. Point 1 in the first curve
is connected to point 1 in the second curve, and so forth.
Developable If two tangent curves in one direction are selected, you can
toggle to determine whether you want the developable option.

2011 PTC

Module 6 | Page 21

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Blended Surface Control


Points
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Control_Points
Task 1:

CONTROL_POINTS.PRT

Add control points to a boundary blend surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Select Boundary Blend 1 from
the model tree.

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4. Edit the definition of Boundary


Blend 1.

3. Notice the groups of double lines


in the surface; four vertical pairs
and one horizontal pair.

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5. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Control
Points tab.
Verify that First Direction is
specified.
Verify that the Fit is Natural.
Select Undefined for Chain 1.

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6. Notice the Green Xs.

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7. Select the X for the first vertical


double line, second from the left.

Module 6 | Page 22

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8. Select the corresponding X at


the top of the first double line.

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11. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Second
option for Direction.
Verify that the Fit is Natural.
Select Undefined for Chain 1.

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10. Notice that each double line


is replaced with a single line
connecting the selected Xs.

9. Repeat this procedure for the


other three vertical double line
pairs.

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12. Again, notice the Green Xs.

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13. Select the left X for the horizontal


double line.

14. Select the corresponding Xs for


the other two locations. Notice
that the double line is replaced
with a single line connecting the
selected Xs.

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Module 6 | Page 23

15. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend dashboard.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 6 | Page 24

2011 PTC

7
O

Additional Boundary Surfaces

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Module

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Module Overview

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In this module, you will learn how to create additional types of surfaces that
utilize boundaries, as well as additional options within the boundary blend
tool. Some of these options use solids or surfaces as boundaries in place of
edges or curves, and in turn can be used to create solid or surface features.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Create conic surfaces from boundaries.
Create approximate blended surfaces.
Analyze the options available for approximate blended surfaces.
Create N-Sided surfaces.
Create a blend tangent to surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 1

Creating Conic Surfaces from Boundaries


Conics are useful for creating smooth transitions between
surfaces. You can create a conic surface using boundary curves.

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Figure 1 Conics with Shoulder


Curves, RHO = 0.35 and 0.75

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Boundaries
Reference curve
Shoulder curve
Tangent curve
RHO parameter
0.05 to < 0.50 = Elliptical
0.5 = Parabolic
> 0.50 to 0.95 = Hyperbolic
2-1 = Quadrant of an Ellipse

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Elements of a conic surface:

Figure 2 Conics with Tangent


Curves, RHO = 0.5 and 0.8

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Creating Conic Surfaces from Boundaries


Conics are useful for creating smooth transitions between surfaces. Three
basic methods can be used to create a conic surface:
You can sketch a conic and use it for a surface feature.
You can create a round with a conic profile option.
You can create a conic surface using boundary curves. This topic covers
this method.
You can create a conic surface by selecting boundaries, a reference curve,
and specifying a RHO value. The reference curve is specified as either a
shoulder curve or a tangent curve.
For a shoulder curve, the curve defines the apex location of the conic
shape. The surface passes through a shoulder curve, as shown in Figure 1.
For a tangent curve, the curve defines the location for the conic's tangents
to pass through. The surface does not pass through a tangent curve, as
shown in Figure 2.
Module 7 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Using the RHO Parameter


You can specify the value for the RHO parameter of the conic to create
elliptical, parabolic, or hyperbolic shapes. Higher RHO values create a more
peaked conic shape, and lower RHO values create a more flat conic shape.
The following RHO values create specific conic section geometry:
0.05 to < 0.50 = Elliptical
0.5 = Parabolic
> 0.50 to 0.95 = Hyperbolic
2-1 = Quadrant of an Ellipse

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Module 7 | Page 3

PROCEDURE - Creating Conic Surfaces from Boundaries


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Conic
Task 1:

CONIC.PRT

Create a conic surface that passes through a shoulder curve.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


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2. Click Command Search


enable it.

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6. In the menu manager, click


Shouldr Crv.

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5. Select the left and right curves.

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4. In the menu manager, click


Conic Surf > Shouldr Crv >
Done.

3. In the field, type conic.


Click Conic Surface and
N-sided Patch from the
Command Search.

7. Select the middle curve.

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8. Click Done Curves from the


menu manager.

9. Type 0.35 for the rho value and


press ENTER.

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10. Click OK in the Surface dialog


box.

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11. Notice that the surface passes


through the middle curve.

12. Right-click the Surface id 56


and select Edit.
13. Type 0.75 for the rho value and
press ENTER.
14. Click Regenerate
from the
Quick Access toolbar.

15. Right-click the Surface id 56


and select Hide.

Module 7 | Page 4

2011 PTC

Task 2:

Create a conic surface using a tangent curve.

1. In the Command Search field,


type conic.
Click Conic Surface and
N-sided Patch from the
Command Search.

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2. In the menu manager, click


Conic Surf > Tangent Crv >
Done.
3. Select the left and right curves.

4. In the menu manager, click


Tangent Crv.
6. Click Done Curves from the
menu manager.

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7. Type 0.50 for the rho value and


press ENTER.

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5. Select the middle curve.

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8. Click OK in the Surface dialog


box.

9. Notice that the surface does not


pass through the middle curve.

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10. Right-click the Surface id 64


and select Edit.

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11. Type 0.80 for the rho value and


press ENTER.

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12. Click Regenerate


from the
Quick Access toolbar.
13. Click Command Search
disable it.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 5

Creating Approximate Blended Surfaces


You can specify additional curves that influence the shape of a
boundary blend surface.

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Influencing curves:
You can select any number.
Need not connect with
boundary curves.
Can be a distance away.
Resulting surface does not
pass through them.

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Figure 1 Original Surface, No


Influencing Curves

Figure 3 Surface with Influence

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Figure 2 Selecting Influencing


Curves

Creating Approximate Blended Surfaces


You can specify additional curves that influence the shape of a boundary
blend surface. This option enables you to alter the shape of a boundary
surface based on visual requirements using influencing curves. You can
select any number of influencing curves. In Figure 2, three curves are
being selected as influencing curves. The influencing curves do not have to
connect with other boundary curves, and can be some distance away. The
resulting surface then approximates the shape of the influencing curves, but
the surface does not pass through them. You can view how the influencing
curves have altered the resultant surface between figure 1 and figure 3.

Module 7 | Page 6

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Approximate Blended Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Approximate
Task 1:

APPROX_BLEND.PRT

Create a boundary blend that contains influencing curves.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


from

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2. Click Boundary Blend


the Surfaces Group.

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4. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Options
tab.
Click in the Influencing curves
collector.
Press CTRL and select the
three horizontal curves,
starting from the bottom.

3. Press CTRL and select the three


vertical curves, starting from
the left.

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5. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend dashboard.
6. Notice that the surface passes
through the first three curves.
7. Notice that the approximate
curves have influenced the
shape of the surface without
touching.

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 7

Analyzing Approximate Blended Surface Options


For a boundary blend surface using influencing curves, you can
specify a smoothness parameter and the number of surface
patches.

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Smoothness
1 = Flattest
0 = Most curved
Patches in direction
Vary first and second directions
independently.

Figure 2 Varying Patches in


Direction Option

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Figure 1 Varying Smoothness


Option

Analyzing Approximate Blended Surface Options


For a boundary blend surface using influencing curves, you can specify a
smoothness parameter and the number of surface patches.

The Smoothness Parameter Option


The smoothness parameter option controls the surface roughness,
irregularities, or projections. Smoothness values can vary from 0 to 1, where
1 is the smoothest, or flattest, and 0 is the roughest, or most curved. In
Figure 1, the surface in the top image has a higher smoothness value (close
to 1), whereas the surface in the bottom image has a low smoothness value
(close to 0).

Module 7 | Page 8

2011 PTC

The Patches in Direction Option

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The Patches in direction option controls the number of patches along the U
and V-directions used to form the resultant surface. You can specify both first
and second direction independently. The higher the U and V values, the
more UV lines are created on the surface, and therefore the more detailed
the surface can be. In Figure 2, the surface in the top image has a lower
number of patches defined in both directions, whereas the bottom image has
a higher number of patches defined in both directions.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 9

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Approximate Blended Surface


Options
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Approximate_Options

Modify the Smoothness and Patches in direction options for a


boundary blend.

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Task 1:

APPROX_OPTIONS.PRT

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

5. Click Preview Feature


6. Click Resume Feature

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7. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Options
tab.
Edit the Smoothness to 0.8.

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4. Select the spline curve.

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3. Right-click and select


Influencing Curves.

2. Edit the definition of Boundary


Blend 1.

8. Click Preview Feature

9. Click Resume Feature

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10. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Options
tab.
Edit the Smoothness to 0.2.
.

11. Click Preview Feature

12. Click Resume Feature

13. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Options
tab.
Edit the number of Patches
in both the First and Second
direction to 10.
14. Click Preview Feature

Module 7 | Page 10

2011 PTC

15. Click Resume Feature

16. In the Boundary Blend


dashboard, select the Options
tab.
Edit the number of Patches
in both the First and Second
direction to 20.

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17. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend dashboard.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 11

Creating N-Sided Surfaces


The N-Sided surface option enables you to create a boundary
surface from more than four boundaries.

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Shape is dependent upon the


boundaries.
Boundary conditions:
Free
Tangent
Normal

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Figure 1 Original Curve


Boundaries

Figure 2 Selecting Boundaries

Figure 3 Completed N-Sided


Surface

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Creating N-Sided Surfaces

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The N-Sided surface option enables you to create a boundary surface from
more than four boundaries. In the figures, a total of five boundaries are
specified for the resulting surface. You can specify the following boundary
conditions:
Free Contains no tangent conditions.
Tangent Surface is tangent to the reference surface.
Normal Surface is perpendicular to the reference surface.
The shape of the n-sided surface is dependent upon the boundaries to be
patched. The n-sided patch may not produce a smooth surface if any of
the following three conditions exists:
The boundaries have inflections.
The angles between the boundaries are very large or very small.
The boundaries consist of alternating long and short segments.
If the n-sided patch does not produce a smooth surface, you can construct
additional curves enabling you to create four-sided boundary blends or a
series of n-sided patches on a smaller number of boundary curves.
Module 7 | Page 12

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating N-Sided Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\N-Sided
Task 1:

N-SIDED.PRT

Create an N-sided boundary blend surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Click Command Search


enable it.

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5. Select the edge of the surface.

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4. In the menu manager, click


N-Sided Surf > Done.

3. In the field, type conic.


Click Conic Surface and
N-sided Patch from the
Command Search.

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6. Press CTRL and select the


other four curves, moving in a
counter-clockwise direction.

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7. In the menu manager, click


Done.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 13

8. In the Surface dialog box, select


Bndry Conds and click Define.
9. In the menu manager, cursor
over each of the Boundary #.
Locate the Boundary # of the
surface edge and select it.

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Cursor over each Boundary


# in the menu manager.
This causes each curve to
become whited out. You can
then cursor back over each
Boundary # to locate the
correct one.

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10. In the menu manager, click


Tangent as the boundary
condition and click Done.

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11. Click OK in the Boundary #


dialog box.

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12. Locate the Boundary # for the


lower-right curve, and select it
from the menu manager.
Click Normal as the boundary
condition and click Done.
Click OK in the Boundary #
dialog box.

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13. Click Done from the menu


manager.

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14. Click OK in the Surface: N-sided


dialog box.
15. Click Command Search
disable it.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 7 | Page 14

2011 PTC

Creating a Blend Tangent to Surfaces


The blend tangent to surfaces option enables you to create a
surface blending from an edge or curve to tangent surfaces.

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Three basic tangent draft options:


Curve-driven
Constant-angle outside a draft
surface
Constant-angle inside a draft surface
References
Draft Line
Reference Surfaces
Draft Parameters
Additional Options
Closing Surfaces
Spine Curves
Cap Angle

Figure 2 Constant Angle


Tangent Draft Surface

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Figure 1 Curve-Driven
Tangent Drafts

Creating a Blend Tangent to Surfaces

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The blend tangent to surfaces option enables you to create a surface blending
from an edge or curve to tangent surfaces. This option is useful for either of
the following circumstances:
Creating drafts on models that are already rounded, a case in which draft
features often are not able to be created.
Joining surfaces on a model with complex shapes.
You may need to create a parting surface and a reference curve such as a
draft line, before using the Blend Tangent to Surfaces functionality.

Understanding the Blend Tangent to Surfaces Options


There are three basic options available when create a blend tangent to
surface:

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 15

Constant-angle tangent draft outside a draft surface


Creates a surface by following the trajectory of the
reference curve and creating surfaces at a specified
constant angle to the pull direction. Use this feature to
add tangent draft to surfaces that cannot be drafted with
the regular Draft feature. You can also use this feature
to add tangent drafts to a rib with rounded edges and
preserve tangency to the reference part.

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Curve-driven tangent draft surface Creates a surface


on one or both sides of a parting surface between a
reference curve (such as a parting curve or a sketched
curve) and selected surfaces of the reference part,
tangent to these surfaces. The reference curve must lie
outside the reference part.

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Constant-angle tangent draft inside a draft surface


Creates a surface with a constant draft angle inside the
draft surface. This surface is created on one or both
sides of a reference curve (such as a draft curve or a
silhouette curve) at a specified angle to the reference
part surfaces, and provides a rounded transition between
the draft surfaces and the adjacent surfaces of the
reference part.

For these options, you can define the direction as one-sided or two-sided,
and you must also specify the pull direction reference.

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References

You can also define the following references:

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Draft Line You select the draft line for the feature.
Reference Surfaces You can specify the tangent surfaces manually or
let the system do it automatically. Optionally, you can also specify the
parting surface reference.
Draft Parameters You can specify both the Draft Angle and the Draft
Radius where the draft meets the model.

Additional Options
You can also specify the following additional options:
Closing Surfaces Enables you to trim or, in some cases, extend the
tangent draft up to selected surfaces. Use this element when adjacent
surfaces are located at an angle to the surface being drafted. Note that a
closing surface must always be a solid surface. A datum plane or a surface
geometry cannot be a closing surface.
Spine Curves Enables you to specify an additional curve that controls the
orientation of normals to the sectioning plane. Use this element if using the
reference curve alone results in the geometry intersecting itself.
Cap Angle Available for one-sided curve-driven tangent drafts only. This
element controls the draft angle for additional planes that are automatically
Module 7 | Page 16

2011 PTC

created when a draft line does not extend to the surface borders and you
have not specified the closing surfaces. If you do not specify a value, Creo
Parametric uses a zero angle.

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You can also edit the reference curve by using the Curves tabbed page in the
Tangent Surface dialog box. Select the reference curve segments to include
in the draft line or exclude from the draft line. Use this functionality when
Creo Parametric has trouble creating the tangent draft, for example, when
the reference curve intersects itself.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 17

PROCEDURE - Creating a Blend Tangent to Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Boundary Surfaces\Blend_Tangent-Surfaces
Task 1:

TANGENT-TO-SURF.PRT

Create blends tangent to surfaces.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Click the Surfaces drop-down


menu and select Blend Tangent
To Surfaces.
3. Select the top surface.

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5. In the Tangent Surface dialog


box, select One Sided for
Direction.
Under the Basic Options
section, select the middle
graphic to create a constant
draft angle tangent draft.
Select the References tab.

4. In the menu manager, click Flip


> Okay to flip the arrow down.

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6. Click Tangnt Chain in the menu


manager.
Select the lower edge of the
uppermost round.
Click Done.

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7. In the Tangent Surface dialog


box, edit the Draft Angle to 5.
Edit the Draft Radius to 8.
.
Click Apply Changes

8. Click the Surfaces drop-down


menu and select Blend Tangent
To Surfaces.
9. Select the lower main surface.
10. Flip the arrow up if necessary,
and click Okay from the menu
manager.

Module 7 | Page 18

2011 PTC

11. In the Tangent Surface dialog


box, select One Sided.
Select the left graphic to create
a curve-driven tangent draft.
Select the References tab.

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14. Click Apply Changes

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13. In the References tab, click


to define
Select Surfaces
Tangent To references.
Press CTRL and select the
two halves of the round on the
large cylinder.
Click OK in the Select dialog
box.

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12. Click Curve Chain in the menu


manager.
Select a segment of the circle
curve.
Click Select All > Done.

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15. Click the Surfaces drop-down menu and select Blend Tangent To
Surfaces.

16. Select the lower main surface.


17. Flip the arrow up if necessary, and click Okay from the menu manager.

2011 PTC

Module 7 | Page 19

18. In the Tangent Surface dialog


box, select One Sided.
Select the left graphic to create
a curve-driven tangent draft.
Select the References tab.

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21. With the surface still selected,


select Pattern
from the
Pattern types drop-down menu
in the Editing Group.

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20. Click Apply Changes

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19. Click Curve Chain in the menu


manager.
Select a segment of the rib
curve.
Click Select All > Done.

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22. Click Complete Feature


to
complete the reference pattern.

This completes the procedure.

Module 7 | Page 20

2011 PTC

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Module

Sweep Surfaces with Variable Sections

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Module Overview

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A sweep with a variable section is one of the most powerful features in Creo
Parametric, considering the variety and complexity of geometry it can be
used to create. A sweep utilizes a single section that can be constant or
variable, which is swept along one or more trajectories. The section can vary
its shape and orientation as it gets pulled in different directions along different
trajectories. In addition, section dimensions can be varied along the length of
the sweep by using relations and a datum graph if desired.

Objectives

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In this module, you will learn how to use sweeps with variable sections to
create surface geometry, as well as the many options to control the section
orientation and tangency.

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Understand the theory behind sweeps.
Create sweeps using a constant section.
Create sweeps using normal to trajectory section plane control.
Create sweeps using constant normal direction section plane control.
Create sweeps using normal to projection section plane control.
Analyze horizontal and vertical control in a sweep.
Create sweeps using multiple trajectories.
Create sweeps using tangent trajectories.
Analyze the different options and rules for a sweep.
Use trajpar and evalgraph in the creation of sweeps.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 1

Understanding Sweeps with Variable Sections

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Figure 1 Creating a Sweep


with a Variable Section

Figure 2 Completed Feature

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Create a solid or a surface feature.


Add or remove material.
Main components:
Section
Constant or variable.
Sits on an x-y-z frame.
Trajectories
Use one or more.
Section attached to Origin
trajectory.
Section sweeps along Origin
trajectory length.

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A sweep uses one or more trajectories and a single section that


can change shape and orientation along the feature.

Understanding Sweeps with Variable Sections


A sweep uses one or more trajectories and a single section that can change
shape and orientation along the feature. With the Sweep feature, you can
create a solid or surface feature. You add or remove material while sweeping
a section along one or more selected trajectories, by controlling the sections
orientation, rotation, and geometry. You can create a sweep using a constant
section or a variable section.
The main components of the sweep tool are the section and trajectories. The
sketched section sits on an x-y-z frame that is attached to the Origin trajectory
and moves along its length to create geometry. The Origin trajectory is the
first selected trajectory. The Origin trajectory, along with the other trajectories
and other references such as the planes, axes, edges, or an axis of the
coordinate system define the orientation of the section along the sweep. In
Figure 1 and Figure 2, the curved datum curve is the Origin trajectory that the
rectangular section sweeps along.
Module 8 | Page 2

2011 PTC

The frame is essentially a coordinate system that slides along the origin
trajectory and carries with itself the section to be swept. Axes of the
coordinate system are defined by auxiliary trajectories and other references.
The frame is important because it determines the orientation of the sketch as it
is being moved along the origin trajectory. The frame is oriented by additional
constraints and references. The system places the sketched section in a
specified orientation with respect to these references and attaches it to a
frame that moves along the origin trajectory and sweeps the section.

Best Practices

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A good way to understand sweeps with variable sections is to think of yourself


on a roller coaster holding a picture frame. The Origin trajectory is the track
of the roller coaster. The frame you are holding is the frame referred to in this
topic. While you ride the roller coaster, you are moving along on the track, but
you can point and reorient the frame to a different direction while doing so.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 3

Creating Sweep Surfaces using a Constant


Section

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Figure 1 Constant Section Sketch

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The orientation of the frame can


change.
Cap ends.
Closed sections only.
Sketch placement point.
Specify a different point on
Origin trajectory.
Does not affect the start point
of sweep.

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A sweep surface with a constant section does not change its


shape as it is being swept along the trajectories.

Figure 3 Constant Section


with Ends Capped

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Figure 2 Constant Section


without Ends Capped

Creating Sweep Surfaces using a Constant Section

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When a sketched section sweeps along the Origin trajectory, the section
geometry can vary and change shape based on how the sketch is
constrained, dimensioned, and so on. The references to which the sketch is
constrained can even change the shape of the section. The section shape
can be variable because the sketch regenerates at points along the trajectory
and updates its shape accordingly.
You can, however, create a sweep that uses a constant section. A constant
section sweep does not change its shape as it is being swept along the
trajectories; only the orientation of the frame on which the section lies
changes. If the Origin trajectory contains entities that are non-tangent, you
must use a constant section.
When creating a sweep surface, you can decide whether to cap the ends of
the surface using the Cap ends option. The Cap ends option, when enabled,
creates planar surfaces at the end of the sweep, merging them with the
surface. In Figure 2, the ends of the resultant surface are not capped, so you
can see inside the surface. In Figure 3, the ends of the surface have been
capped. The Cap ends option is only available for closed sections.
Module 8 | Page 4

2011 PTC

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You can also specify a different Sketch placement point. The Sketch
placement point option enables you to specify the point on the Origin
trajectory where you want to sketch the section. The start point of the sweep
is not affected. The start point of the sweep is used as the default location
where you sketch the section if the Sketch placement point is empty.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 5

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces using a


Constant Section
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Constant-Section_Surface
Task 1:

CONSTANT_SECTION_SURF.PRT

Create a variable section sweep surface using a constant section.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

from the
2. Select Sweep
Sweep types drop-down menu in
the Shapes group.

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4. In the Sweep tab of the ribbon,


notice that Constant Section

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3. Select the curve.

is already selected.

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5. Notice that the default feature


to be created is a solid. In the
Sweep tab, click Surface
to
create the sweep as a surface.
6. Click Create Section

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7. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

from the

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8. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:
.

9. Select Center and Point


from the Circle types drop-down
menu and sketch a circle at the
references intersection.
10. Click One-by-One and edit the
circle diameter to 2.

Module 8 | Page 6

2011 PTC

11. Click OK

12. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.
13. Notice the surface ends are not
capped.

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14. Select the Options tab.


15. Select the Cap ends check box.
.

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This completes the procedure.

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16. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 7

Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal to


Trajectory

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Figure 1 Section Normal to


Origin Trajectory

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Normal To Trajectory
Frame is normal to the Origin
trajectory by default.
Frame can be normal to any
additional trajectory.
Select N check box for that
trajectory.
X direction reference at start.
Sets initial X-orientation of
frame.

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The moving frame of a variable section sweep surface is always


normal to a specified trajectory when the Normal To Trajectory
option is specified.

Figure 2 Section Normal to


Chain 1 Trajectory

Figure 3 Section Normal to Origin


Trajectory, Different X Direction

Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal to Trajectory


When the Normal to Trajectory Section plane control is used, the moving
frame is always normal to the specified trajectory. As shown in Figure 1,
the frame is created normal to the Origin trajectory by default, but it can be
normal to any additional trajectory. To switch the trajectory the frame is
normal to, simply select the N check box in the dashboard for that trajectory.
In Figure 1, the frame is normal to the Origin trajectory. In Figure 2, the frame
is normal to the Chain 1 trajectory, and the geometry changes as a result.

Specifying the X Direction Reference at Start


Specifying the X direction reference at start sets the initial X-orientation of
the frame the sketch is created on. The reference specifies the positive X
for the sketch view. Specifying the X direction reference at start is similar to
Module 8 | Page 8

2011 PTC

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specifying the Sketch Orientation Reference for a Sketch Orientation direction


that is always set to Right. In Figure 1, the X direction reference is the right
model surface highlighted in cyan. In Figure 3, the X direction reference
has been changed to the right chamfer surface. As a result, the frame has
rotated slightly to face the new reference, as has the sketched geometry.
Note that if you do not assign an X direction reference at start, the system
assigns a default direction.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 9

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal


to Trajectory
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Normal-to-Trajectory_Surface
Task 1:

NORM_TRAJ_SURF.PRT

Create a variable section sweep surface normal to trajectory.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

4. Select the left curve as the origin


trajectory.

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5. Notice the highlighted trajectory


where the yellow arrow indicates
the start.

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3. In the dashboard, click Surface


, if necessary.

2. Select Sweep
from the
Sweep types drop-down menu in
the Shapes group.

6. In the dashboard, click Create


.

Section

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7. Click Sketch View


from the
In Graphics toolbar. Notice the
default sketch orientation.

PT

and click Yes


8. Click Cancel
to quit Sketcher.

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9. Press CTRL+D to orient to the


Standard Orientation.

10. In the dashboard, select the


References tab.
Click in the X direction
reference at start collector
and select the right side of the
model.
11. In the dashboard, click Create
Section

12. Click Sketch View


. Notice
both the orientation and the
crosshairs at the sweep origin.

Module 8 | Page 10

2011 PTC

13. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:
.
14. Select Center and Ends
from the Arc types drop-down
menu and sketch the 180 degree
arc to the left of the vertical
reference.
15. Select 3-Point / Tangent End

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17. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.

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16. Click One-by-One and edit the


180 degree arc radius to 14 and
the tangent arc radius to 32.

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from the Arc types drop-down


menu and sketch an arc tangent
to the previous arc, snapping to
the horizontal reference.

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18. Notice the sweep shape.

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19. In the dashboard, select the


References tab, press CTRL,
and select the curve on the right
as a second trajectory.
Select the N check box to set
Chain 1 normal.

20. Click Create Section

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21. Click Sketch View


and
notice that the Sketch is the
same except that the Sketch
plane is reoriented.

22. Click Cancel


, click Yes,
and orient to the Standard
Orientation.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 11

23. Select the References tab and


select the N check box to set
Origin back to normal.
Click in the X direction
reference at start collector
and select the right side
chamfer surface.

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24. Notice the sweep shape and


click Complete Feature .

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This completes the procedure.

Module 8 | Page 12

2011 PTC

Creating Sweep Surfaces using Constant Normal


Direction
When the Constant Normal Direction Section plane control is
used, the Z-axis of the moving frame is parallel to a specified
direction.

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The section becomes parallel


to the specified reference.
Geometry updates if the
reference is modified.

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Figure 1 Section Normal to Trajectory

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Figure 2 Constant Normal


Direction Reference Modified

Figure 3 Constant Normal Direction


Set to Datum Plane

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Creating Sweep Surfaces using Constant Normal Direction


When the Constant Normal Direction Section plane control is used, the
Z-axis, or section normal, of the moving frame is parallel to a specified
direction. This means the section becomes parallel to the specified reference.
The direction reference collector enables you to add or delete references.
In Figure 1, the Normal to Trajectory Section plane control is used, so the
geometry and sketch plane are normal to the Origin trajectory. In Figure 3, the
Constant Normal Direction Section plane control has been specified, and the
datum plane has been specified as the reference. Consequently, the Z-axis
of the frame has become normal to the datum plane, and thus the geometry
has updated. In Figure 2, the datum plane angle has been flipped, and you
can view that the variable section sweep geometry has updated as well.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 13

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces using Constant


Normal Direction
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Constant-Normal-Direction_Surface
Task 1:

CONSTANT_NORMAL_SURF.PRT

Create a variable section sweep surface using constant normal


direction section plane control.

Display types:

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1. Enable only the following Datum


.

2. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.

Section

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5. Click Sketch View

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4. In the dashboard, click Create

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3. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

6. Click Refit
, if necessary, and
notice the sketch orientation.

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7. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.

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8. In the dashboard, select the


References tab.
Edit the Section plane control
to Constant Normal Direction
and select datum plane
NORM.

9. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.
10. Notice that the geometry has
updated and the section is now
parallel to the datum plane
NORM.

Module 8 | Page 14

2011 PTC

11. In the dashboard, click Create


Section

12. Click Sketch View

13. Click Refit


, if necessary, and
notice the sketch orientation.
14. Click OK

17. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

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18. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.

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16. Select datum plane NORM, then


right-click and select Edit.
Edit the angle value to 35 and
click twice in the background.

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15. Click Complete Feature


and orient to the Standard
Orientation.

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19. Notice that the geometry has


updated.
20. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 15

Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal to


Projection
When the Normal to Projection Section plane control is used,
there are two levels of control provided for the moving frame.

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Y-axis of the moving frame is


normal to specified direction.
Z-axis is normal to the projection
of the Origin trajectory along the
specified direction.
You must specify the direction.

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Figure 1 Normal to Projection


Diagram

Figure 3 Z-axis Normal to


Projection of Origin Trajectory

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Figure 2 Y-axis of Moving Frame


Normal to Direction Reference

Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal to Projection


When the Normal to Projection Section plane control is used, the Y-axis of
the moving frame is parallel to a specified direction, and the Z-axis is normal
to the projection of the Origin trajectory along the specified direction. The
direction reference collector enables you to add or delete references.
In Figure 2, the Direction reference specified is the datum plane. The Y-axis
of the frame is normal to the datum plane. If the datum plane were rotated,
the Y-axis of the frame would also rotate, to remain normal. The resulting
geometry would rotate as well.
In Figure 3, the Direction reference is still the same datum plane. In this
particular view, the projection of the Origin trajectory onto this datum plane
is directly on top of the Origin trajectory. You can view that the Z-axis of the
frame remains tangent to this projection along the entire sweep length.

Module 8 | Page 16

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces using Normal


to Projection
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Normal-to-Projection_Surface
Task 1:

NORM_PROJ_SURF.PRT

Create a variable section sweep surface normal to projection.

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1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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Curve PROJECT_SAMPLE
is shown in the plane for
visual reference only.

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3. Right-click PROJECT_SAMPLE
and select Unhide.

2. In the model tree, select


ORIGIN_TRAJ to view it.

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4. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

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5. In the dashboard, select the


References tab.
Notice the available options.
Edit the Section plane control
to Normal To Projection and
select datum plane DTM1.

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6. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.

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7. Notice the sweep curves in this


view.
8. Orient to the RIGHT view
orientation.
9. Notice that the sweep's Z-axis is
tangent to the projection of the
origin trajectory in this view.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 17

10. In the dashboard, click Create


.

Section

11. Click Sketch View


and
notice the sketch orientation.

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and orient to the


12. Click OK
Standard Orientation.

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15. Click Sketch View


and
notice the sketch orientation.

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14. Click Create Section

13. Select the References tab and


click Flip to flip the direction.

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16. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.
.

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17. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Module 8 | Page 18

2011 PTC

Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control in a


Sweep Surface
Horizontal and vertical control determines how the frame
rotation around the sketch plane's normal is controlled along
the sweep surface.

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Automatic
Section plane automatically
oriented in XY direction.
Normal To Surface
Y-axis of section plane normal to
surface on which Origin trajectory
lies.
X-Trajectory
X-axis of section plane points to
specified X-Trajectory.

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Figure 1 Automatic Control

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Figure 2 Normal to Surface Control

Figure 3 X-Trajectory Control

Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control in a Sweep Surface


Horizontal and vertical control determines how the frame rotation around the
sketch plane's normal is controlled along the variable section sweep surface.
There are three types of Horizontal and Vertical control:
Automatic The section plane is automatically oriented in the XY direction.
Creo Parametric calculates the direction of the x-vector such that the
swept geometry is minimally twisted. Automatic is the default for an
Origin trajectory without any referenced surfaces. The direction reference
collector enables you to define the initial section or frame X-axis orientation
at the start of the sweep. Sometimes it is necessary to specify the X-axis
direction, for example, for straight line trajectories or trajectories that have
a straight segment at the start. In Figure 1, the X direction reference at
start is the right surface of the base feature. Consequently, the X-axis of
the frame faces this X direction reference at start along the entire sweep.
2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 19

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Normal To Surface The Y-axis of the section plane is normal to the


surface on which the Origin trajectory lies. This is the default option when
the Origin trajectory reference is a curve on surface, one-sided edge of a
surface, two-sided edge of a surface or solid edge, curve created though
intersection of surfaces, or two projection curves. The Next option enables
you to move to the next normal surface. In Figure 2, the four different
options are displayed.
X-Trajectory The X-axis of the section plane passes through the
intersection point of the specified X-trajectory and the section plane along
the sweep. In Figure 3, the Horizontal/Vertical control is specified as
X-Trajectory. The X-axis of the section plane passes through the specified
X-Trajectory, where the Chain 1 trajectory is the X-Trajectory, along the
entire sweep. Notice that the geometry twists according to the Chain
1 trajectory.

Module 8 | Page 20

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control


in a Sweep Surface
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Horizontal-Vertical-Control_Surface

Specify the horizontal and vertical control in a variable section


sweep surface.

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Task 1:

HORIZ_VERT_SURF.PRT

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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4. Notice the two trajectories


selected.

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3. In the dashboard, select the


References tab and view the
current settings.

2. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

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5. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.

6. Orient to the RIGHT view


orientation.
7. Orient to the Standard
Orientation.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 21

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8. In the References tab, right-click


the X direction reference at start
and select Remove.

9. Edit the Horizontal/Vertical


control to Normal To Surface.

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10. Click Next four times to view the


possibilities.

11. In the References tab, select the


X check box for Chain 1.
.

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12. Click Complete Feature

Module 8 | Page 22

2011 PTC

13. Select START from the model


tree, press CTRL, and select
END.

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14. Notice that the X-direction of the


Sketch follows the X-trajectory to
reorient the sketch.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 23

Creating Sweep Surfaces Utilizing Multiple


Trajectories
You can create variable section sweep surfaces using multiple
trajectories.

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Each additional trajectory creates


a reference point in Sketcher.
Reference points move along the
trajectories.
Different geometry effects
are possible depending on
dimensioning scheme.

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Figure 1 Section Dimensioned


to One Trajectory

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Figure 2 Section Dimensioned


to Two Trajectories

Figure 3 Section Constrained


to Second Trajectory

Creating Sweep Surfaces Utilizing Multiple Trajectories


You can create variable section sweep surfaces using multiple trajectories.
Each additional trajectory defined creates a reference point in Sketcher for
the section. The reference points move along each of the trajectories as
the sweep is created. If the sketch is constrained or dimensioned to these
trajectory reference points, the section gets stretched or pulled by these
trajectories to change its shape. Depending on exactly how the section is
constrained or dimensioned to the reference points, different geometry effects
are possible from the same section and trajectory.
In Figure 1, the section is constrained and dimensioned only to one of the
two trajectories and results in the geometry shown. In Figure 2, the section
is constrained and dimensioned to both trajectories. The arc endpoint is
dimensioned along the X-axis to the additional trajectory reference. The
resulting geometry is pulled only in the X-axis by the additional trajectory. In
Module 8 | Page 24

2011 PTC

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Figure 3, the arc endpoint is constrained coincident to the additional trajectory


reference. Hence, the resulting geometry is pulled in both the X and Y axes.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 25

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces Utilizing


Multiple Trajectories
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Multiple-Trajectory_Surface
Task 1:

MULT_TRAJ_SURF.PRT

Create a variable section sweep surface using multiple trajectories.

3. Notice that there are two trajectories selected.


4. In the dashboard, click Create Section

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5. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

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6. Click Sketch View

2. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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7. Click Normal
and dimension
the right arc endpoint to the
additional trajectory point.

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8. Select the 32.00 dimension


and click Delete in the Resolve
Sketch dialog box. Type 8 as the
value and press ENTER.

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9. Click OK
and orient to the
RIGHT view. Notice that the
additional trajectory does not pull
the Sketch to the right.
10. Orient to the FRONT view
orientation and notice that the
additional trajectory does pull the
Sketch in this view.

Module 8 | Page 26

2011 PTC

11. Click Create Section


12. Click Sketch View

.
.

13. Press CTRL, select the right


arc endpoint and the additional
trajectory point, and then
right-click and select Coincident.

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16. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation and notice that the
additional trajectory also pulls
the Sketch in this view.

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15. Click OK
and orient to the
RIGHT view. Notice that the
additional trajectory pulls the
Sketch to the right.

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14. Click Delete in the Resolve


Sketch dialog box twice to delete
the 8.00 dimension and Point On
Entity constraint.

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17. Click Create Section

click Sketch View

, then

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18. Click Point


and place a
Sketcher point on the left arc
midpoint.

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and dimension
19. Click Normal
from the left midpoint to the
additional trajectory point.

20. Select the 16.00 dimension


and click Delete in the Resolve
Sketch dialog box. Type 72 as
the value and press ENTER.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 27

21. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.
22. Click Complete Feature

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23. Right-click Sweep 1 and select


Suppress.
Click OK.

24. Right-click TRAJ_1 and select


Hide.

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27. Select Sweep


from the
Sweep types drop-down menu,
, and select the
click Surface
middle curve as the Origin.

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26. De-select all geometry.

25. Press CTRL, select TRAJ_2 and


TRAJ_3, then right-click and
select Unhide.

28. Press CTRL and select the left


and right curves.

, then

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29. Click Create Section

click Sketch View

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30. Click Corner Rectangle


and
sketch a rectangle using the
reference points as three of four
vertices.
31. Click Delete Segment
and
delete the bottom line segment.

32. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.
33. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Module 8 | Page 28

2011 PTC

Creating Sweep Surfaces using Tangent


Trajectories
You can specify trajectories to be Tangent Trajectories.

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Enable tangency for a trajectory:


Select the T check box.
Use the Tangency tab.
Centerline appears in Sketcher
for each tangent trajectory.
Available options:
None
Side 1/Side 2
Selected

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Figure 1 References and


Tangency Tabs

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Figure 2 Viewing Tangent


Centerlines

Figure 3 Resultant Tangent


Geometry

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Creating Sweep Surfaces using Tangent Trajectories


You can specify trajectories to be Tangent Trajectories, which are useful for
cases in which you want the surfaces of the sweep to be tangent with existing
geometry. You can specify a trajectory to be tangent either by selecting the T
check box in the References tab, or by using the Tangency tab.
For each tangent trajectory specified, a centerline appears in Sketcher. This
centerline pivots as necessary along the trajectory to maintain the tangency.
Therefore, any geometry constrained to the centerline remains tangent as
well along the sweep. In Figure 2, there is a tangent centerline at each
tangent trajectory.
You can specify a tangent trajectory to be tangent to a surface or to the
surfaces of solid geometry. If you specify a solid geometry edge as the
tangent trajectory, the system enables you to specify to which of the adjacent
surfaces the resulting geometry will be tangent. The following tangent options
are available in the dashboard's Tangency tab:
None Removes the tangency from the trajectory.
2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 29

Side 1 Sweep section contains a centerline tangent to surfaces on side


1 of the trajectory. The resulting tangent surface is specified within the
Tangency tab.
Side 2 Sweep section contains a centerline tangent to surfaces on side
2 of the trajectory. The resulting tangent surface is specified within the
Tangency tab.
Selected Enables you to manually specify surfaces for the tangent
centerlines in the sweep section.

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In the References tab there are two different T check boxes for each tangent
trajectory. Toggling the selected check box switches the tangency from Side
1 to Side 2, and vice versa. De-selecting the T check box in the References
tab is the same as selecting None from the References drop-down list in
the Tangency tab.

Module 8 | Page 30

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Sweep Surfaces using Tangent


Trajectories
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Tangent-Trajectory_Surface
Task 1:

TANGENT_TRAJ_SURF.PRT

Create variable section sweep surfaces with tangent trajectories.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

4. Click Complete Feature

3. Notice the Origin trajectory and


two additional trajectories.

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5. Select Sweep
from the
Sweep types drop-down menu,
.
then click Surface
6. Select the curve as the Origin.

In

7. Press CTRL and select the


upper-right and upper-left
surface edges.

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PT

You are selecting edges,


not curves, so you can set
up tangency to the adjacent
surfaces.

8. In the dashboard, select the


References tab.
Select the T check box for both
Chain 1 and Chain 2.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 31

In

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10. Select the References tab.


Edit the Section plane control
to Constant Normal Direction
and select datum plane
FRONT.

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9. Select the Tangency tab.


Select Chain 1 and Chain
2, to ensure they reference
the RIGHT_SURF and
LEFT_SURF, respectively.

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11. Click Create Section

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12. Notice the angled centerlines.


These change in angle to remain
tangent as the section is swept.

Module 8 | Page 32

2011 PTC

13. Select Conic


from the Arc
types drop-down menu and
sketch the conic, tangent to both
the left and right edges.
14. Edit the RHO dimension to 0.35.
.

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16. Click Complete Feature

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15. Click OK

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 33

Analyzing Sweep Surface Trajectory Options and


Rules

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Trajectory options:
Flip trajectory direction
Trajectory handles
Dragging
Extend To
Trim At
Rules
Tangency
Trajectory requirements

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A sweep surface has several trajectory options and rules.

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Figure 1 Trajectory Start


Point on Left

Figure 2 Trajectory Start


Point on Right

Figure 3 Trajectory Both


Trimmed and Extended

Analyzing Sweep Surface Trajectory Options and Rules


The following trajectory options are available when creating a variable section
sweep surface:
Flip trajectory direction You can click the arrow on the trajectory to flip
the start point of the sweep to the opposite end. The section is sketched
at the indicated start point on the trajectory. In Figure 1, the start point
is located on the left end of the trajectory. Consequently, the section is
sketched from the left side. Conversely, in Figure 2, the start point is
located on the right end of the trajectory, resulting in the section being
sketched from the right side.
Module 8 | Page 34

2011 PTC

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Analyzing Sweep Surface Rules

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Trajectory handles You can perform several operations on the trajectory


handles to cause different resultant geometry. The following three options
are available:
Dragging You can drag the trajectory end handles to shorten or
lengthen the trajectory. When you shorten the trajectory, the T value at
the end becomes a negative value, and if you lengthen the trajectory,
the T value at the end becomes positive.
Extend To Extends the sweep along the current trajectory to a selected
reference. In Figure 3, the right endpoint of the trajectory has been
extended to datum plane OFFSET.
Trim At Trims the trajectory at a selected reference location. In Figure
3, the left endpoint of the trajectory has been trimmed at datum point
PNT0.
To reset the trajectory back to the original curve length you can simply
re-select the curve.

The following are rules regarding tangency for variable section sweep
surfaces:
, all entities

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When using the Variable section option Variable Section


within the trajectory must be tangent.

In

You can use the Constant section option Constant Section


for
non-tangent trajectories.
When using the Normal To Projection Section plane control, the projection
of entities on the reference must be tangent as viewed in the reference
direction.

The following are rules regarding trajectory requirements for sweep surfaces:

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An X-Trajectory cannot intersect the origin trajectory, except at the


endpoints.
All trajectories must intersect the moving frame of the sweep, at least for
the desired length of the sweep.
When using trajectories of different lengths, the shortest trajectory sets the
length of the sweep.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 35

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Sweep Surface Trajectory


Options and Rules
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Options-Rules_Surface
Task 1:

OPTIONS_RULES_SURF.PRT

Experiment with the various trajectory options and rules for a


variable section sweep surface.

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1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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2. Select Sweep
from the
Sweep types drop-down menu
.
and click Surface

4. Notice that the start point is on


the left.

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5. Click the arrow to flip the start


point to the right.

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3. Select the center curve as the


Origin.

6. Right-click and select Sketch.

PT

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7. Notice the crosshairs on the


right.

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8. Select Center and Point


from the Circle types drop-down
menu and sketch a circle with
center at the crosshairs.
9. Click One-by-One
diameter to 40.

10. Click OK

and edit the

11. In the graphics window, click the


arrow to flip the start point to the
left.
12. Right-click and select Sketch.
13. Notice that the Sketch and
crosshairs are now on the left.
14. Click OK

Module 8 | Page 36

2011 PTC

15. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.
16. Drag the left handle to -15.

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17. Right-click the left handle and


select Trim At.

19. Right-click the right handle and


select Extend To.

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18. Select datum point PNT0.

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20. Select datum plane OFFSET.

21. Re-select the center curve as the


Origin.

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22. Notice that it returns to the


default length.
23. Press CTRL and select the upper
curve.

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24. Select the References tab and


select the N check box for Chain
1.
25. Notice the section is normal to
this Chain 1 trajectory.
26. Press CTRL and select the lower
curve as an additional trajectory.
27. Notice that the sweep is limited
to the shortened trajectory.
28. Click Complete Feature

29. Disable all Datum Display types.


This completes the procedure.
2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 37

Using Trajpar with Sweep Surface Features


Trajpar stands for trajectory parameter.
Value ranges from 0 to 1.
Used in Section relations.
Make dimensions increase/
decrease along a length according
to a formula.

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Figure 1 Sweep with No Relations

Figure 2 Using Trajpar to


Vary Slope

Figure 3 Using Trajpar with


a Sine Wave

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Using Trajpar with Surface Features

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Trajpar stands for trajectory parameter. Its value ranges from 0 to 1 and can
be used with sweeps with variable sections, helical sweeps, and composite
curves.

PT

In

In the context of a sweep, trajpar is a percentage along the sweep. At the


start point of the sweep, its value is 0. At the midpoint of the sweep, its value
is 0.5, and at the end of the sweep its value is 1. You can reference the
trajpar variable in section relations for a sweep to control section dimensions
along the sweep length. For example, you can make dimensions increase
or decrease along the length according to a formula. Dimensions can even
be driven to zero.

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Consider the figures:

Figure 1 displays a default variable section sweep feature that contains


no relations. The section is constant along the entire sweep length.
Figure 2 displays a variable section sweep feature that contains a Section
relation for slope using trajpar in the following equation:
sd3 = trajpar * 20 + 10, where sd3 is the section's width.
Because trajpar varies from 0 to 1, the section's width varies from 0 to 20,
plus 10, or therefore varies from 10 to 30 along the sweep length.
Figure 3 displays a variable section sweep feature that contains a Sketcher
relation for a sine wave using trajpar in the following equation:
sd3 = 20 + (5 * sin(trajpar * 360 * 4)), where sd3 is the section's width.
Because trajpar varies from 0 to 1, the sine wave starts at 0 and has a
magnitude of 5 with 4 cycles, plus 20.

Module 8 | Page 38

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Using Trajpar with Sweep Surface


Features
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Trajpar_Surface
Task 1:

TRAJPAR_SURF.PRT

Use trajpar to vary the section of a variable section sweep surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Notice the sweep section does
not vary.

5. Right-click and select Sketch.


from the

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6. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

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4. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

3. There are currently no relations


in this model.

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In

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7. In the ribbon, select the Tools


tab, then click Relations
from the Model Intent group.
Notice that dimensions display
is an sd# syntax.
Identify the length dimension
number as sd3.
In the Relations dialog box,
type /* Relation for Slope and
press ENTER.
Type sd3=trajpar*20+10.
The length dimension varies
from 0-20, plus 10, or
therefore 10-30.

8. Click OK in the Relations dialog


box.
9. In the ribbon, select the Sketch
tab and click OK .
10. Click Complete Feature

11. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 39

Task 2:

Use trajpar to make a sine wave section for a variable section


sweep surface.

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PT

In

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In this equation, the value


of 20 represents the starting
value of the dimension. The
value of 5 represents the
amplitude of the sine wave.
The value of 360 evaluates
the full length of the sine
wave. Multiplying trajpar by
the value of 4 then yields
4 sine waves through the
length of the sweep.

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2. In the Relations dialog box,


select Section from the Look In
drop-down list.
Select the sweep feature.
Comment out the previous
relation by preceding the
equation with /*.
Create a new line, type /*
Relation for Sine wave, and
press ENTER.
Type sd3=20+(5*sin(trajpar*
360*4)).

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1. In the ribbon, select the Tools


tab and click Relations
from
the Model Intent group.

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3. Click OK in the Relations dialog


box.
4. In the ribbon, select the Model
tab.

5. Click Regenerate
Operations group.

from the

This completes the procedure.

Module 8 | Page 40

2011 PTC

Using Trajpar and Datum Graphs with Sweep


Surface Features
The EVALGRAPH function returns the Y-value of the datum
graph, given the graph name and an x-value.

Figure 1 Original Sketch Swept


Along Trajectory

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EVALGRAPH returns Y-value.


Trajpar provides the X-value.
Syntax example:
sd# = EVALGRAPH("GRAPH1",
trajpar*100)/2

Figure 3 Updated Geometry


using Datum Graph and Trajpar

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Figure 2 Datum Graph

Using Trajpar and Datum Graphs with Sweep Surface Features


In addition to the trajpar variable, you can also use the EVALGRAPH function
in a relation. The EVALGRAPH function returns the Y-value of the datum
graph, given the graph name and an x-value. You can combine usage of
the EVALGRAPH function with the trajpar percentage variable to effectively
move along the x-axis of the graph and return the associated y values. In
Figure 1, a section is swept along a trajectory. The section height is then
governed by a relation that uses trajpar and the graph in Figure 2 to produce
the result in Figure 3.
The following syntax should be used in a relation when you want to use the
EVALGRAPH function:
sd# = EVALGRAPH ("graphname", trajpar*width_of_graph)*vert_scale
The variables are defined as follows:
sd# The Sketcher dimension you wish to vary based on the graph.
2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 41

graphname The name of the graph feature as it displays in the model


tree.
width_of_graph The total X-distance in the graph feature. In Figure 2, the
width of the graph is 100.
vert_scale An additional scaling factor that can be applied to increase the
Y-value of the graph feature.
The following are examples of relations created using trajpar with
EVALGRAPH:

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sd# = EVALGRAPH ("GRAPH1", trajpar * 100) / 2


In this example, the graph feature in the model tree is GRAPH1, the width
of the graph is 100, and the scaling factor for the Y-axis of the graph is
such that it halves the resultant value.
sd# = EVALGRAPH ("GRAPH1", trajpar *360) / 10
In this example, the graph feature in the model tree is GRAPH1, the width
of the graph is 360 degrees, and the scaling factor for the Y-axis of the
graph is such that it divides the resultant value by 10.

Module 8 | Page 42

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Using Trajpar and Datum Graphs with


Sweep Surface Features
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Trajpar-Graphs_Surface
Task 1:

TRAJPAR_GRAPH_SURF.PRT

Use datum graphs and trajpar to modify the geometry of a variable


section sweep surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

4. Observe the Sketch.


.

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5. Click OK

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3. Press ENTER to accept the


name for the feature.

2. Edit the definition of GRAPH1


and click Done from the menu
manager.

6. Edit the definition of Sweep 1.

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7. Notice the section is swept along


a single trajectory.

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8. Right-click and select Sketch.

from the

9. Click Sketch View


In Graphics toolbar.

PT

10. Notice that the section is


controlled by two dimensions
only.

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11. Select the 25 dimension, then


right-click and select Modify.

12. In the Modify Dimensions dialog


box, drag the Sensitivity handle
all the way to the right.
Drag the dimension from
approximately 0 to 30.
This range is what the trajpar
relation will be doing.
Click Quit Modification .

2011 PTC

Module 8 | Page 43

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13. In the ribbon, select the Tools


tab and click Relations
from
the Model Intent group.
Notice the height dimension
number as sd9.
Type /* Relation to govern
height according to graph
and press ENTER.
Type sd9 = EVALGRAPH
("GRAPH1", trajpar * 100) / 2.

14. Click OK in the Relations dialog


box and notice that the Sketch
updates.

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15. Also notice the message in the


Message Log.

16. In the ribbon, select the Sketch


tab and click OK .
.

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17. Click Complete Feature

18. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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19. Notice that the relation has


driven surfaces to zero.

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20. Edit the definition of GRAPH1


and click Done from the menu
manager.
21. Press ENTER to accept the
name for the feature.
22. Modify the horizontal dimensions
to 30, 40, 90, and 100.

23. Click OK

24. Notice that the geometry has


updated.

This completes the procedure.


Module 8 | Page 44

2011 PTC

9
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Module

Helical Sweeps

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Module Overview

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The helical sweep feature enables you to create geometry by sweeping a


section along a helix, based on a pitch value. These sweeps are commonly
used to create solid springs or threads; however, they can also be used to
create helical swept surfaces, which may be used as construction or reference
geometry for other surfaces, or used in the creation of datum curves.

Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Understand the theory behind helical sweeps.
Utilize helical sweeps for surfaces.
Analyze helical sweep surface profile and pitch variations.
Utilize variable sections in helical sweep surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 9 | Page 1

Understanding Helical Sweeps Theory

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Figure 1 Threads Cut Into


a Part Model

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Can be protrusions, cuts, or


surfaces.
Helical sweep components:
Sketch profile
Sketch section
Pitch values
Helical sweep options:
Pitch points
Section orientation
Variable section
Helix direction

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Helical sweeps can be used to create springs, threads, or other


helical geometry.

Figure 2 Spring

Figure 3 Helical Surface


Geometry

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Understanding Helical Sweeps Theory


Helical sweeps can be used to create springs, threads, or other helical
geometry. The dashboard interface enables helical sweeps to be created by
adding or removing material, or as surfaces. In Figure 1, the threads were
created by removing material, in Figure 2, the spring was created by adding
material, and in Figure 3, the helical geometry was created with surfaces.

Components of a Helical Sweep


The helical sweep feature uses each of the following components to generate
a helical shape:
Sketch profile Defines the shape and diameter of the helix. For example,
the sketched profile for a typical spring is a straight line parallel to the
center axis.
Sketch section Defines the shape to be swept along the helix. For
example, the section for a typical spring is a circular section.
Module 9 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Pitch values The distance between the spring coils. The pitch value can
also be defined by a relation, for example, the profile length divided by
the number of coils.

Helical Sweep Options


The following options are available in the dashboard when defining a helical
sweep feature:

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Section orientation Defines how


the cross-section is oriented as
it sweeps along the trajectory.
For Normal to trajectory, the
cross-section is oriented normal
to the trajectory, as shown in
the upper image of Figure 4.
For Through axis of revolution,
the cross-section lies in a plane
that passes through the axis of
revolution, as shown in the lower
image of Figure 4.

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Pitch points Adding a single pitch value causes the pitch to remain
constant along the entire sweep profile, whereas adding multiple pitch
values enables you to define a graph that specifies the pitch values at
specific points.

Figure 4 - Cross-section Angle

PT

In

Variable section Defines the behavior of the cross-section as it travels


along the trajectory of the sweep. Vary section enables the cross-section
to change size and shape, based on its position along the sweep
trajectory.

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Helix direction Defines which direction the trajectory is wrapped about


the helix. For Use Right Handed, the trajectory is defined using the
right-hand rule, and for Use Left Handed the trajectory is defined using
the left-hand rule.

Using Trajpar with a Helical Sweep


Helical Sweeps, like variable section sweeps, can utilize the trajpar
parameter. Trajpar can reference a datum graph using the EVALGRAPH
function if desired. Trajpar can also be used in section relations to control
dimensions as the section is swept along the helix. For example, trajpar
enables you to vary the spring section size along the swept helix length, or it
enables you to taper the end of a worm gear helix to blend into the shaft.

2011 PTC

Module 9 | Page 3

Utilizing Helical Sweeps for Surfaces


Helical sweep surfaces are typically used to create datum curves
and other construction geometry.
Uses include:

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Construction geometry
Typically used to create other
geometry
Trim/Merge with other surfaces
Datum curve construction
Create helical or spiral curves

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Figure 1 Helical Surface

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Figure 2 Helical Curve

Figure 3 Spiral Curve

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Utilizing Helical Sweeps for Surfaces


Helical sweep surfaces are typically used to create construction surfaces
and datum curves. These construction surfaces are then often used to
create other solid geometry or datum curves. For example, in Figure 1,
a ribbon surface was created by sweeping a line about a cylinder. This
surface can now be used to create other geometry by trimming or merging
it with other surfaces.
Helical sweep surfaces can also be used for the construction of datum
curves. The helical surface can be intersected with other surfaces to create
various helical or spiral datum curves. In Figure 2, the helical datum curve
was created by intersecting a helical sweep surface with the cylindrical tube
surface. In Figure 3, a helical sweep surface was intersected with a drafted
tube surface to create a cone-shaped helical datum curve. The helical datum
curve was then projected onto the flat, disc surface to create the resulting
spiral surface.

Module 9 | Page 4

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Utilizing Helical Sweeps for Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Helical_Surface
Task 1:

HELICAL_SURF.PRT

Use a helical surface to create a helical curve.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


from the Sweep types drop-down list in

from the dashboard.

3. Click Surface

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2. Select Helical Sweep


the Shapes group.

4. Select the References tab in the dashboard and click Define.

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5. Select datum plane FRONT from the model tree as the Sketch plane.
Click Sketch in the Sketch dialog box.
6. Enable only the following
Sketcher Display types:

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from the
7. Click Sketch View
Setup group in the ribbon.

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8. Click Centerline
from the
Sketching group and sketch
a centerline on the vertical
reference.

PT

then
9. Click One-by-One
right-click and select Axis of
Revolution.

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10. Click Project


and select the
left vertical edge.
Click Close in the Type dialog
box.
11. Click OK

12. Edit the Pitch value to 4.


13. Right-click and select Helix
Cross section.
14. Click Line Chain
and
sketch a horizontal line from the
bottom-left vertical reference.
15. Click One-by-One
length to 5.
16. Click OK

2011 PTC

and edit the

Module 9 | Page 5

17. Click Complete Feature

18. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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19. De-select all geometry.

22. Click Intersect


Editing group.

from the

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23. Edit the selection filter to Smart.

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21. Press CTRL and select both the


helix and the cylindrical tube
surfaces.

20. Edit the selection filter to Quilts.

Task 2:

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24. In the model tree, right-click


Helical Sweep 1 and select Hide.

Use a helical surface to create a spiral curve.

In

1. In the model tree, right-click


Draft 1 and select Edit.

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2. Edit the draft angle to 20 degrees


and click in the graphics area
twice.

3. Select the curve and click


.
Project
4. Select the flat, disc surface.
5. Right-click and select Select
Direction Reference.
6. Select datum plane TOP from
the model tree.
7. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.


Module 9 | Page 6

2011 PTC

Analyzing Helical Sweep Surface Profile and


Pitch Variations

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Figure 1 Constant Profile, Constant


and Variable Pitch

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Controlling pitch values along


length:
Added via Pitch tab in
dashboard
First added value is the
endpoint pitch.
Additional points are added
along length.
Locate pitch value drag
handles using:
By value
By Ratio
By Reference
Controlling profile shape:
Profile must be tangent to use
Normal to trajectory option.
Example shapes:
Straight line = Cylinder
Angled line = Cone

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You can control pitch values along the length of the profile and
you can control the profile shape.

Figure 2 Variable Profile, Constant


and Variable Pitch

Analyzing Helical Sweep Profile and Pitch Variations


You can control pitch values along the length of the profile and you can
control the profile shape.

Controlling Pitch Values Along the Profile Length


You control the pitch along the profile by adding pitch points at the locations
you want the pitch to be different. The first value added is the endpoint
pitch. If no others are specified, then the pitch is constant as shown in the
left image of Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Additional pitch points are added along the sweep axis either through the
Pitch tab in the dashboard, or by right-clicking and selecting Add Pitch Point.
When a point is added, a drag handle is available for it. The location of each
point can be defined by the following options:
2011 PTC

Module 9 | Page 7

By value Distance along sweep axis measured from the start point.
By reference Point can snap to a datum point, datum plane, geometry
reference, and so on.
By ratio Measured as a length ratio along sweep axis.
As you specify the pitch at the various points, the system displays them on the
sweep axis so that you can view the pitch specified at each point. In the right
image of Figure 1 and Figure 2, the pitch begins at a value of 1, increases to
4, and then decreases back to 1. This is in contrast to the left image of Figure
1 and Figure 2, where the pitch is a constant value of 1 along the entire profile.

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Controlling Profile Shape


You can control the profile shape based on how you sketch it. The following
are examples of the resulting spring shape for a given sketched section:

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Straight line Creates a cylindrical shaped spring, as shown in Figure 1.


Angled line Creates a cone-shaped spring.
Multiple lines/arcs Enables you to create a custom profile. For example,
in Figure 2, the profile was created with three vertical lines and two diagonal
lines connecting them. The resulting spring bows out in the center. You
can even use splines and conics.

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To use the Normal to trajectory option, the profile entities must be tangent to
each other.

Module 9 | Page 8

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Helical Sweep Surface Profile


and Pitch Variations
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Helical_Profile-Pitch_Surface
Task 1:

PROFILE-PITCH_SURFACE.PRT

Edit the shape of a spring by modifying its profile and pitch.

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1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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3. Select Sketch 1, then right-click


and select Edit.
Notice the profile sketch
consists of multiple line
segments.
Notice the vertical centerline
and datum points on the
sweep axis (the centerline).

2. In the model tree, expand Helical


Sweep 1.

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4. Drag or edit the center dimension


to 6.
Click twice in the background
to regenerate the model.
Notice the changed spring
profile.

5. Click Undo
from the Quick
Access toolbar.

2011 PTC

Module 9 | Page 9

6. Select Helical Sweep 1 in the model tree, then right-click and select
Edit Definition.

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7. In the dashboard, select the Pitch tab.


Edit the existing pitch point to 1.00 and press ENTER.
Click Add Pitch to create a pitch value at the end point, edit it to 1,
and press ENTER.
Click Add Pitch, specify By reference, and select the first datum
point from the bottom.
Click Add Pitch, specify By reference, and select the second
datum point from the bottom.
Click Add Pitch, specify By reference, and select the third datum
point from the bottom.
Click Add Pitch, specify By reference, and select the fourth datum
point from the bottom.

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8. Edit the pitch values as shown.


Press ENTER after typing each
value.

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9. Click Complete Feature

10. Select Sketch 1, right-click, and


select Edit.
Edit the center dimension to 6
and press ENTER.
Click twice in the background
to regenerate the model.
11. Select the Sketch 1 feature in
the model tree, then right-click
and select Hide.

This completes the procedure.


Module 9 | Page 10

2011 PTC

Utilizing Variable Sections in Helical Sweep


Surfaces
You can define a section for a helical sweep surface to be
variable along the length of the sweep.

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Along Trajectory options include:


Keep constant section
Vary section
Constrain the section to other
geometry with Vary section.

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Figure 1 Viewing the Original


Constant Section Helical
Sweep Surface

Figure 3 Viewing the Variable


Section Helical Sweep Surface

Figure 2 Redefining the Section

PT

Utilizing Variable Sections in Helical Sweep Surfaces

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You can define a section for a helical sweep surface to be variable along the
length of the sweep. This is accomplished by selecting the desired Along
Trajectory option in the dashboard. Along Trajectory can be set to either
of the following:
Keep Constant Section
Vary Section
By setting the Vary Section option, you are able to constrain the section to
other geometry, as long as the system can regenerate the section along
the entire helical path. For example, a surface that followed the range of
the helical sweep can be utilized as a reference, whereas a datum plane
referenced in the sketch plane is not valid.

2011 PTC

Module 9 | Page 11

PROCEDURE - Utilizing Variable Sections in Helical


Sweep Surfaces
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Sweep\Helical_Variable-Section_Surface
Task 1:

HELICAL_VAR-SURFACE.PRT

Redefine a helical sweep to use the Vary section option.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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3. In the model tree, right-click


Extrude 1 and select Unhide.
Edit the definition of Extrude 1
and notice it is a surface.
Click Complete Feature .

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2. Notice the constant section in the


helical sweep surface feature.

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4. In the model tree, right-click


Helical Sweep 1 and select Edit
Definition.

drop-down list.

PT

Views

5. From the In Graphics toolbar,


select FRONT from the Named
6. Notice the current sweep profile
raises the center of the section.

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7. In the dashboard, click Create


.

9. Click OK

Section

8. Click Coincident
from
Constrain group in the ribbon
and constrain the vertex to be
collinear with the cylindrical
surface.
Click Delete in the Resolve
Sketch dialog box to delete the
dimension.

Module 9 | Page 12

2011 PTC

10. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select Vary section.
11. Click Complete Feature

12. In the model tree, right-click


Extrude 1 and select Hide.

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13. Notice that the current sweep


profile still raises the center
of the section, but the section
is constrained to the cylinder,
resulting in a smaller line.

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PT

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 9 | Page 13

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Module 9 | Page 14

2011 PTC

10
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Module

Swept Blends

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Module Overview

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The swept blend feature utilizes multiple sections, placed along a main
trajectory. The system creates geometry by blending between the sections,
while sweeping along the trajectory path. The sections can vary in shape and
size along the swept blend. An additional trajectory can also be used to orient
the sections along the main trajectory.

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In this module, you will learn how to use the swept blend to create surface
geometry, as well as the many options to control the orientation and tangency
of the sections.

In

Objectives

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PT

After completing this module, you will be able to:


Understand the theory behind swept blends.
Create swept blends by selecting sections.
Create swept blends by sketching sections.
Analyze the section options for a swept blend.
Analyze swept blend section plane control.
Analyze horizontal and vertical control in a swept blend.
Analyze swept blend tangency.
Analyze swept blend options.
Analyze swept blend rules.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 1

Understanding Swept Blend Theory


A swept blend enables you to simultaneously sweep and blend
multiple sections along a main trajectory.

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Create a solid or surface feature.


Add or remove material.
Main components:
Trajectories
Use one or two
Sections
Two sections minimum
Each must have same
number of entities
Select or sketch sections

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Figure 1 Swept Blend Feature

Figure 3 Sections Highlighted


in Green

In

Figure 2 Trajectories Highlighted


in Green

Understanding Swept Blend Theory

PT

A swept blend enables you to simultaneously sweep and blend multiple


sections along a main trajectory. With the Swept Blend feature, you can
create a solid or surface feature. You can add or remove material, and the
sections can be open or closed.

Fo
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Trajectory Information
A swept blend can have two trajectories: an Origin trajectory (required) and
a Secondary trajectory (optional). The swept blend in the figures uses both
an Origin trajectory and a Secondary trajectory. To define a trajectory of the
swept blend, you can select a sketched curve, a chain of datum curves, or
edges. Each selected trajectory has end handles that you can dynamically
drag if you want the feature to not follow the entire trajectory. You can specify
a length from the end of the trajectory, or you can use the Trim At and Extend
To options. Plus, you can use SHIFT to snap the trajectory endpoint onto
other existing geometry.

Section Information
Each Swept Blend feature must have at least two sections, and additional
sections may be added between these two sections. While the sections may
change shape, they must each contain the same number of entities. The one
exception to this rule is that you can blend sections to a point. You can also
Module 10 | Page 2

2011 PTC

add blend vertices to sections that need additional entities to equal those of
other sections. Each blend vertex counts as one entity.
You can sketch the sections to be blended at specified segment vertices
or datum points on the Origin Trajectory. To orient a section, you specify
the direction of the sketch plane (the Z-axis) and the horizontal and vertical
direction to that plane (the X or Y axis).

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You can use the Selected Sections option to select existing sketches, or edge
and curve references and use them as sections for a swept blend.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 3

Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by Selecting


Sections

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Figure 1 Selecting Sections

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Insert
Enables you to select the next
section
Section inserted after currently
selected section
# entities in section displayed
Remove
Removes currently selected
section
Details
Enables advanced selection

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You can select existing sketches to become sections for a swept


blend surface.

Figure 2 Inserting a Section

Figure 3 Start Point Moved

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Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by Selecting Sections

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After selecting an Origin trajectory, you can select existing sketches or edge
and curve references to become sections for the swept blend surface.
Options for selecting sections include:
Insert Used to insert the next section, after the currently selected section.
If two sections are already selected, you can insert a new section between
these existing sections by selecting the first section and clicking Insert. In
Figure 1, two sections are selected, one at the trajectory start and another
at the trajectory end. In Figure 2 and Figure 3, a new section was inserted.
Selected sections are displayed in the Sections tab of the dashboard. The
system lists the number of entities in the reference sketch next to each
section. If the sections contain an unequal number of sides, you can use
the divide tool to maintain an equal number of entities. For example, you
can blend a triangle into a circle if the circle is divided, or broken, into three
arcs. In the figures, a circle is blended into a rectangle.
Remove Removes the currently selected section.
Details Opens the Chain dialog box for advanced selection tools for
selecting series of chains for sections.
Module 10 | Page 4

2011 PTC

Manipulating Selected Sections

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The start point is displayed on the selected section. The system lines up the
start points from each section. A twisting effect occurs if the start points for
each of the sections are not in same relative position, as shown in Figure 2.
You can select the start points and drag them to a different vertex to remove
or change the twisting effect, as shown in Figure 3.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 5

PROCEDURE - Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by


Selecting Sections
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed


SELECT_SECTIONS_SURF. PRT

Swept_Blend\Select_Sections
Task 1:

Create a swept blend surface by selecting sections.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. In the model tree, select SEC_1.

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3. Notice that the feature is a


rectangle.

4. Edit the definition of SEC_2.

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5. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:
.

7. Click OK

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6. Notice that this section is a circle


divided into four entities.

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8. Edit the definition of SEC_3.

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10. Click OK

9. Notice that this section consists


of four arcs.

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11. De-select all geometry.

12. Click Swept Blend


from the
Shapes group in the ribbon.
from the
13. Click Surface
dashboard, if necessary.
14. Select the trajectory.

Module 10 | Page 6

2011 PTC

15. In the dashboard, select the


Sections tab.
Select the Selected Sections
option.
16. Select the right circle as Section
1.

18. In the Section tab, select Section


1 and click Insert.

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19. Notice that a new section is


inserted, making Section 2 now
Section 3.

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17. In the Sections tab, click Insert


and select the rectangle as
Section 2.

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20. Select the left circle as Section 2.


21. Notice the twisting effect in the
geometry.

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PT

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22. Drag the start point up to the


next entity endpoint to remove
the twisting effect.

23. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 7

24. In the model tree, right-click


SEC_1 and select Edit.
25. Edit the angle from 0 to 20 and
click Regenerate

26. Spin the model, and notice that


the sections do not have to all be
the same angle.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 10 | Page 8

2011 PTC

Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by Sketching


Sections

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Figure 1 Sketching Sections

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Select trajectory
You can flip the trajectory
direction.
Select section location
Default locations
Optional locations
Sketch the section
Start point
Manage Sketched Sections
# entities in section
displayed
Insert
Remove

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You can create all the sections within the swept blend surface
feature if desired.

Figure 2 Changed Section Location

In

Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by Sketching Sections

PT

You can create all the sections within the swept blend surface feature if
desired. Use the following procedure to create swept blend surfaces by
sketching the sections.

Selecting the Trajectory

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First, you must select the Origin trajectory. The direction of the sweep along
the trajectory is displayed with an arrow. You can flip the direction of the
arrow, which reverses the direction of the swept blend.

Selecting the Section Location


Next, you can select where to place a section along the trajectory. The
default locations are the trajectory start and trajectory end, both denoted by a
green X symbol, as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Optionally, you can also
select vertices or datum points as the location to place a section. In Figure
1, Section 2 is placed at the vertex of the arc and line. When you select the
location of the section, it is specified in the Section Location collector. You can
relocate a section after sketching it with this option by selecting the section,
activating the Section Location collector, and selecting a different chain end,
vertex, or datum point as the section location. In Figure 2, the section location
for Section 2 has been relocated to the right trajectory endpoint.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 9

Sketching the Sections


Once the location for a section is specified, you can sketch that section.
When sketching the section in Sketcher, a start point appears on the first
entity sketched. The system lines up the start points from each section when
they are swept along the trajectory. A twisting effect occurs if the start points
are not in the same relative position. You can change the location of the
start point within Sketcher by selecting the desired vertex, right-clicking, and
selecting Start Point. Unlike selecting sections for creating swept blends, you
cannot move the start point except within Sketcher.

Managing Sketched Sections

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The sketched sections are displayed in the Sections tab of the dashboard.
The system lists the number of entities in the reference sketch next to each
section. If the sections contain an unequal number of sides, you can use the
divide tool to maintain an equal number or entities. For example, you can
blend a triangle into a circle if the circle is divided, or broken, into three arcs.

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Within the Section tab of the dashboard, the following two options are
available for managing sketched sections:

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Insert Used to insert the next section, after the currently selected section.
If two sections are already selected, you can insert a new section between
these existing sections by selecting the first section and clicking Insert.
Remove Removes the currently selected section.

Module 10 | Page 10

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Swept Blend Surfaces by


Sketching Sections
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed


SKETCH_SECTIONS_SURF. PRT

Swept_Blend\Sketch_Sections

Create a swept blend surface by sketching a section.

1. Enable only the following Datum Display types:

from the Shapes group in the ribbon.

2. Click Swept Blend

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Task 1:

from the dashboard, if necessary.

3. Click Surface

5. In the dashboard, select the


Sections tab.

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6. Notice that the ends are available


points for sketching sections.

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4. Select the curve as the trajectory.

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7. Select the left endpoint and click


Sketch.

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8. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

PT

and,
9. Click Corner Rectangle
starting in the upper-left corner,
sketch a symmetrical rectangle.

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10. Click One-by-One and edit the


width and height to 150 and 100,
respectively.
11. Click OK

12. In the Sections tab, click Insert.


13. Select the vertex between the
line and arc and click Sketch.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 11

14. Click Sketch View

and
15. Click Center and Point
sketch a 100 diameter circle.
from the
16. Click Centerline
Sketching group and sketch two
centerlines at angles of 45.

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from the Editing


17. Click Divide
group and divide the circle
at each of the four centerline
intersections.

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20. Select the far right trajectory


endpoint, and notice that the
section relocates.

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19. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.

18. Select the upper-left corner, then


right-click and select Start Point.

21. In the Sections tab, select


Section 1 and click Insert.

In

22. Select datum point PNT0 from


the model tree and click Sketch.
.

23. Click Sketch View

PT

24. Click Corner Rectangle


and,
starting in the upper-left corner,
sketch a symmetrical rectangle.

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25. Click One-by-One and edit the


width and height to 75.

26. Click OK

27. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.
28. Right-click and select Trajectory.
29. Click the trajectory direction
arrow to flip the blend.
30. Notice that the sections maintain
the same reference numbers.
31. Click Complete Feature

Module 10 | Page 12

2011 PTC

32. Select datum point PNT0 in the


model tree, then right-click and
select Edit.
33. Edit the point ratio value from 0.5
to 0.7 and click Regenerate

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 13

Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section Options

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Figure 1 Blend Vertices

PT

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Z-Rotation
Each section independent
Range: +/-120 degrees
Section X-axis Directions
Sets X-axis direction for active
section
Only available with Automatic
Horiz/Vert control
Blend vertices
Sketched sections:
Managed in section
Selected sections:
Managed using Sections tab
and drag handles

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There are numerous section options available when creating


a swept blend surface.

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Figure 2 Modified Section


X-axis Directions

Figure 3 Z-Rotation Modified

Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section Options


Consider the following section options that are available when creating a
swept blend surface:

Adding Blend Vertices


For a sketched section, blend vertices are created and managed in the
section itself, within Sketcher. This means that you add blend vertices within
Sketcher, while sketching the section.
For selected sections, blend vertices are added using the Add Blend Vertex
option in the Sections tab of the dashboard. Each blend vertex displays in the
graphics window as a drag handle. You can move the blend vertex locations

Module 10 | Page 14

2011 PTC

by dragging their handles. In Figure 1, two blend vertices were added to the
rear section and dragged to the top corners.
You cannot add a blend vertex at the start point of a section.
You can add blend vertices only to start and end sections which
are located at trajectory vertices. You cannot add blend vertices
to intermediate sections.

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Modifying the Section X-axis Directions

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Modifying the Z-Rotation

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The Section X-axis directions option enables you to set the X-axis direction
for the active section. When Horizontal/Vertical control in the References tab
is specified as Automatic, the Section X-axis directions in the Sections tab
is synchronized with the X direction reference at the start in the References
tab. This option is available only when Automatic is specified as the
Horizontal/Vertical control. In Figure 2, the X-axis direction was modified
from one datum plane to another datum plane. Notice how the section has
been reoriented.

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You can specify the sections rotation angle about the Z-axis for each location
where a sketched section is defined. Rotation angles can range in value
between 120 and +120 degrees. In Figure 3, the Z-rotation was modified for
each section individually to create different geometry.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 15

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section


Options
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Swept_Blend\Section_Options
Task 1:

OPTIONS_SURF.PRT

Edit the swept blend Z rotation and section X-axis direction.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Edit the definition of Swept
Blend 1.

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3. Select the Sections tab and


select Section 2.
Edit the Rotation angle to 20.

5. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

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4. Select Section 3 and click


Sketch.

from the
6. Click Sketch View
Setup group in the ribbon.

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7. Notice the default X-direction in


the Sketch view.

PT

8. Press CTRL, select both


construction lines, right-click,
and select Geometry.

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9. Click Delete Segment


and
delete all of the top, right, and
bottom line segments.

10. Click One-by-One , select the


right triangle point, and then
right-click and select Blend
Vertex.
11. Notice the triangle faces in the
X-direction.

Module 10 | Page 16

2011 PTC

12. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.
13. In the Sections tab, click in
the Section X-axis directions
collector and select datum plane
DTM1 from the model tree.
14. Notice the change in geometry
orientation.

1. Click Swept Blend


from the
shapes tab in the ribbon.
from the
2. Click Surface
dashboard, if necessary.

In

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3. Select TRAJ_2 as the trajectory.

Create a swept blend surface and add blend vertices to a section.

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Task 2:

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15. Click Complete Feature

PT

4. In the dashboard, select the


Sections tab.
Select the Selected Sections
option.

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5. Select the rectangle as Section


1.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 17

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6. In the Sections tab, click Insert


and select the front sketch as
Section 2.
Notice that the # column in
the Sections tab has 4 and 6
entities, respectively.

7. Select Section 1 and drag the


start point to the lower-left.

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9. Click Add Blend Vertex again


and drag it to the upper-left
corner, if necessary.

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8. Click Add Blend Vertex and


drag it to the upper-right corner.

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10. Notice the # column is now 6 and


6, respectively.
.

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11. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

Module 10 | Page 18

2011 PTC

Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section Plane


Control

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Figure 1 Section Normal


to Trajectory

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Section plane control options:


Normal To Trajectory
Normal to Origin trajectory
by default
Constant Normal Direction
Section Z-axis parallel to
specified reference direction
Normal To Projection
Origin trajectory projected
onto specified reference

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You can modify the swept blend surface's moving section frame
orientation to create different geometry.

PT

Figure 2 Section Constant


Normal Direction

Figure 3 Section Normal


to Projection

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Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section Plane Control


Each sketched or selected section is placed on a moving section frame. You
can adjust the orientation of this moving section frame using section plane
control settings in the References tab of the dashboard.
The following three section plane control options are available:
Normal To Trajectory The moving section frame is always normal to a
specified trajectory. By default, the section frame is normal to the Origin
trajectory. If you have specified a Secondary trajectory, you can make the
section frame normal to it by selecting the N check box in the References
tab for the Secondary trajectory. In Figure 1, the section frame has been
specified normal to the Secondary trajectory. Notice that the section is
perpendicular to this Secondary trajectory.
Constant Normal Direction The Z-axis (or section normal) of the moving
frame is parallel to a specified direction. In the case of a datum plane, the
Z-axis is parallel to the plane normal direction, so the section becomes
parallel to the plane. The Direction reference collector enables you to add
2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 19

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or delete the reference to which the Z-axis is parallel. In Figure 2, the


section plane control has been set to Constant Normal Direction, with the
direction reference set to a datum plane. Notice that the section is parallel
to the datum plane.
Normal To Projection The section frame remains normal to the Origin
trajectory as it is viewed along the projection direction. The Z-axis is
tangent to the projection of the Origin trajectory at the direction specified.
In Figure 3, the section plane control has been set to Normal To Projection.
The Origin trajectory is projected onto Direction reference TOP. The
resulting section frame is normal to this projected Origin trajectory.

Module 10 | Page 20

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Section


Plane Control
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Swept_Blend\Section-Plane_Surface
Task 1:

SECTION_PLANE_ SURF.PRT

Analyze the section plane control options available for a swept


blend surface.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Select TRAJ_1.

3. Orient to the RIGHT view


orientation.

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4. Notice that the trajectory is


curved in this view.

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5. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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6. Edit the definition of Swept


Blend 1.

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7. In the dashboard, select the


References tab.
Notice that the Section plane
control is Normal To Trajectory.
Press CTRL and select the
additional trajectory.

PT

8. Orient to the TOP view


orientation.

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9. In the References tab, select the


N check box for the Secondary
trajectory.

10. Notice that the section is normal


to the Secondary trajectory.

11. In the References tab, select


the N check box for the Origin
trajectory.
Right-click Secondary and
select Remove.
12. Reorient the model and notice
the section is normal to the
Origin trajectory.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 21

13. Edit the Section plane control


from Normal To Trajectory to
Constant Normal Direction.
14. Enable Plane Display

15. Select datum plane DTM1 from


the model tree, orient to the
TOP view orientation, and notice
that the section is parallel to the
datum plane.

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17. Edit the Section plane control


from Constant Normal Direction
to Normal To Projection.
Select the References tab to
close it and select datum plane
TOP from the model tree.
Select the References tab
and click Flip.

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16. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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18. Orient to the RIGHT view


orientation.

19. Notice that the section is normal


to datum plane TOP.
.

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20. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

Module 10 | Page 22

2011 PTC

Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control in a


Swept Blend Surface

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Figure 1 Automatic Control

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Automatic
Section plane automatically
oriented in XY direction
Normal To Surface
Y-axis points normal to
selected surface
X-Trajectory
Only available with two
trajectories
X-axis of section plane points
to Secondary trajectory

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Horizontal and vertical control determines how the section frame


rotation around the sketch plane's normal is controlled along
the swept blend surface.

Figure 2 Normal to Surface Control

Figure 3 X-Trajectory Control

Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control in a Swept Blend


Surface
Horizontal and vertical control determines how the section frame rotation
around the sketch plane's normal is controlled along the swept blend surface.
There are three types of Horizontal and Vertical control:
Automatic The section plane is automatically oriented in the XY direction.
Creo Parametric calculates the direction of the x-vector such that the
swept geometry is minimally twisted. Automatic is the default for an
Origin trajectory without any referenced surfaces. The direction reference
collector enables you to define the initial section or frame X-axis orientation
at the start of the swept blend. Sometimes it is necessary to specify the
X-axis direction, for example, for straight line trajectories or trajectories that
have a straight segment at the start.
2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 23

When the Horizontal/Vertical control is specified as Automatic, you can


specify the X-Direction reference at the start. The X-Direction reference at
the start sets the initial X-orientation of the section frame. The X-orientation
is the positive X direction in the sketch view for the section. You can either
specify this reference or leave it at Default, in which the system specifies
a default orientation. In Figure 1, the Horizontal/Vertical control is set to
Automatic. In turn, the X-Direction reference at start is a datum plane.

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Normal To Surface The Y-axis of the section frame points in the direction
of the surface selected, normal to any surface associated with the Origin
trajectory. This is the default selection when the Origin trajectory has
at least one associated surface. Click Next to toggle through possible
surfaces, as shown in Figure 2.
X-Trajectory This option becomes available when there is both an Origin
and Secondary trajectory specified. The X-trajectory is the Secondary
trajectory, and it must be at least as long as the Origin trajectory. For this
option, the X-axis of the section plane passes through the intersection
point of the specified X-trajectory and the section plane along the sweep,
as shown in Figure 3.

Module 10 | Page 24

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Horizontal and Vertical Control


in a Swept Blend Surface
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Swept_Blend\Horizontal-Vertical_Surface
Task 1:

HORIZ-VERT_SURF. PRT

Specify the horizontal and vertical control in a swept blend surface.

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1. Enable only the following Datum

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Display types:

2. View the geometry:


Orient to the TOP view
orientation.
Orient to the RIGHT view
orientation.

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3. Press CRTL+D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

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4. Edit the definition of Swept


Blend 1.

5. In the dashboard, select the


References tab and view the
current settings.

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6. Notice that the current


Horizontal/Vertical control is
specified as Normal To Surface
in the drop-down list.
Click Next four times to view
the different possibilities.

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7. Select Automatic from the


Horizontal/Vertical control
drop-down list.

8. Notice that the sections


reoriented.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 25

9. Click in the X direction reference


at start collector, select the
References tab to close it, and
select datum plane RIGHT from
the model tree.
Select the References tab to
open it and click Flip.

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10. In the graphics window, select


Section 2, then right-click and
select Sketch.
.

from the
12. Click Sketch View
Setup group in the ribbon.
14. Click OK

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15. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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13. Notice the current X direction.

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Sketcher Display types:

11. Enable only the following

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16. Right-click and select Trajectory


if necessary.

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17. Press CTRL and select the


Secondary trajectory.

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18. Select the References tab.


Edit the Horizontal/Vertical
control from Automatic to
X-Trajectory.
Notice the X check box is now
selected for the Secondary
trajectory.

19. Notice that the sections


reoriented.

Module 10 | Page 26

2011 PTC

20. Right-click and select Sketch.


21. Click Sketch View

22. Notice the new X-direction.


23. Click OK

24. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 10 | Page 27

Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Tangency


You can manipulate the tangency of the geometry at either end
of the swept blend surface.

Free

Tangent

Figure 1 Geometry Before


Tangency

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Normal

Sketcher point conditions:


Sharp
Smooth

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Tangency conditions:

Figure 2 Geometry After Tangency

Figure 3 Smooth and Sharp


Conditions

Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Tangency

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You can manipulate the tangency of the geometry at either end of the swept
blend surface. You can change tangency condition settings either in the
Tangency tab of the dashboard or by right-clicking the tangency condition
icons in the graphics window and selecting the desired condition.
The three tangency conditions available are:

Free The start or end section is a free end, which means that no
tangency is defined.

Tangent The specified end is to be tangent to the selected adjacent


surfaces. You must specify the adjacent surface that each edge is to be
tangent to. The Entities collector advances automatically to the next entity.

Normal The start or end of the swept blend is normal to the section
plane. The Entities collectors are not available and no references are
required.

If a Sketcher point is used at the start or end of the swept blend feature, you
can define the condition for the geometry as Sharp or Smooth.

Module 10 | Page 28

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Tangency


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Swept_Blend\Tangency
Task 1:

TANGENCY_SURF.PRT

Add tangency constraints to the End Sections of a swept blend


surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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3. In the dashboard, select the


Tangency tab.
Edit the Boundary Condition
for the Start Section from Free
to Tangent.
Select the surface adjacent to
the highlighted edge.

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2. Edit the definition of Swept


Blend 2.

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4. Continue selecting the remaining


three adjacent surfaces. Notice
that the first surface highlights
after all four surfaces have been
selected.

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5. In the graphics window,


right-click the icon for the
End Section and select Tangent.
Select the surface adjacent to
the highlighted edge.

6. Continue selecting the remaining


three adjacent surfaces.
7. Notice the change in the
geometry shape.
8. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 29

Task 2:

Edit the tangency for a Sketcher point condition of a swept blend


surface.

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1. Edit the definition of Swept


Blend 1.

2. Select Section 2, if necessary.

3. Right-click and select Sketch.


Sketcher Display types:

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4. Enable only the following


.

7. Click OK

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6. Click Point
and place a
sketch point at the crosshairs.

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5. Drag a window around the


existing rectangle sketch and
delete it.

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8. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.
9. Click Preview Feature

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10. Notice the sharp cap that has


formed at the end.

11. Click Resume Feature

12. In the dashboard, select the


Tangency tab.
Edit the Boundary Condition
for the End Section from Sharp
to Smooth.

13. Click Complete Feature

Module 10 | Page 30

2011 PTC

14. Right-click Draft 1 and select


Edit.
15. Edit the draft angle from 10 to
-10 and click Regenerate

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 10 | Page 31

Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Options

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Figure 1 No Blend Control

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Cap ends
Available for surfaces with
closed sections
Blend control
No blend control
Set perimeter control
Create curve through center
of blend.
Set cross-section area control
Predefined cross-sections
cannot be edited.

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You can cap the ends of a swept blend surface and specify blend
control.

Figure 2 Options Tab

Figure 3 Cross-section
Area Control

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Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Options


The two options available when creating a swept blend surface include:
Cap ends The system creates planar surfaces at the ends of the swept
blend, and merges them with the swept blend surface. This option is only
available for surfaces with closed sections.
Blend control You can control swept blend geometry by controlling
cross-sectional area between defined sections and by controlling how the
perimeter varies between the sections. The following options are available:
No blend control No blend control is specified for the swept blend. In
Figure 1, no blend control is specified.
Set perimeter control Forces the perimeter of the blend to vary linearly
between sections. You can also have the system create a curve through
the center of the blend. This curve becomes a part of the swept blend
feature.
Set cross-section area control Enables you to specify the cross-section
area at designated locations of the swept blend. A table displays each
Module 10 | Page 32

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specified location and the cross-sectional area at that location. The


predefined cross-sections display in the table but the area cannot
be edited in this table. To add additional locations, click in the table
to activate it, then select points on the trajectory and edit the desired
cross-section area. In Figure 2, the Options tab displays the four
locations where the cross-section's area is controlled. For Sections 1
and 2 the Area cell is grayed out, as these sections are predefined.
The resulting geometry for the specified cross-section control is shown
in Figure 3.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 33

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Swept Blend Surface Options


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed


SW-BL_OPTIONS_SURF. PRT

Swept_Blend\Swept_Blend_Options
Task 1:

Analyze swept blend surface options.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

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Display types:

2. Edit the definition of Swept


Blend 1.

.
.

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5. Click Resume Feature

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4. Click Preview Feature

3. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select the Cap ends check
box.

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6. Select the Options tab.


Select Set perimeter control.
Notice that the preview
geometry updated.
Select the Create curve
through center of blend
check box.
.

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7. Click Preview Feature

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8. From the In Graphics toolbar,


select Wireframe
from the
Model Display types drop-down
menu.
9. Notice the new center curve
close to the original trajectory.

Module 10 | Page 34

2011 PTC

10. Select Shading


from the
Model Display types drop-down
menu.
11. Click Resume Feature

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12. Select the Options tab.


Select Set cross-section
area control.
Notice the defined Area for
Section 1 and Section 2.

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14. In the Options tab, edit the Area


from approximately 9750 to
12000.

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13. Select the vertex between the


arc and line.

These areas are defined


by the sketch or selected
section and cannot be
modified in this table.

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15. Press CTRL and select datum


point PNT0.

16. Edit the Area to 8500.

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17. Click Complete Feature

18. Select datum point PNT0,


right-click, and select Edit.

19. Edit the ratio from 0.3 to 0.7.

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 35

Analyzing Swept Blend Rules

Figure 2 Creating a Swept Blend


Over Non-Tangent Trajectory

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Figure 1 A Swept Blend Cannot


Intersect Itself

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There are rules and restrictions to consider when creating a


swept blend feature.

Figure 3 Start Points Not Lining Up

Figure 4 Using Blend Vertices

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Analyzing Swept Blend Rules


Consider the following rules and restrictions when creating a swept blend
feature:
For a closed trajectory profile, one section must be located at the start point
and at least one other section at another location.
A swept blend cannot intersect itself. Common causes of intersection are:
The trajectory intersects itself.
A section that is too wide is swept around too sharp of a corner, resulting
in intersecting geometry.
In Figure 1, the circular section is swept along the curved trajectory,
resulting in the cane-shaped geometry. In the middle image, the red
cross-section lines in the front view display that the geometry does not
overlap. In the right image, however, the section is too wide for the corner
radius, resulting in intersection, and therefore failing, geometry.
Module 10 | Page 36

2011 PTC

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Creating a swept blend over a non-tangent trajectory results in a mitered


effect in the geometry. In Figure 2, notice the sharp corner due to the
non-tangent trajectory.
Section references at the chain start and end points of the trajectory are
dynamic and update if the trajectory is trimmed.
When using the Normal To Trajectory section plane control option, the
secondary trajectory must consist of entities that are tangent to one
another.
Section locations can be referenced to model geometry, but modifying the
trajectory may invalidate the references and cause the swept blend to fail.
If the start points do not line up between sections, a twisting effect is
created, and this twisting effect can cause a feature to fail. In Figure 3, the
swept blend start points are mismatched, resulting in the twisted geometry.
You can also view the resulting geometry when the start points of the same
sections are properly aligned.
If there are unequal quantities of entities between sections, you must divide
them or use blend vertices to create an equal number. In Figure 4, one
section of the swept blend has four entities, while the other has six. It
was necessary to add two blend vertices to the section containing fewer
entities, and the resulting preview geometry can be seen.

2011 PTC

Module 10 | Page 37

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Module 10 | Page 38

2011 PTC

11
O

Analyzing Surface Curvature

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Module

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Module Overview

When designing products using surface features, the transitions between


surfaces play an important role. Curvature continuity conditions at the edges
of the surfaces determine how smooth these transitions are.

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In this module, you will learn how to analyze the curvature of a surface
and determine whether the surface has curvature continuity using
porcupine-based and shaded curvature plots. In addition, you will learn
techniques for creating curvature continuous surfaces.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Analyze surfaces theory.
Define curvature and curvature continuity.
Analyze the curvature of curves.
Analyze the curvature of surfaces.
Analyze curvature using sections.
Analyze curvature using normals.
Use shaded curvature for surfaces.
Use shaded section curvature.
Create curvature continuous surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 1

Analyzing Surfaces Theory

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Figure 1 Viewing Shaded


Curvature

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The goal is to create high quality


surfaces.
Reasons for analyzing surfaces:
Intended smoothness and
continuity
Intended curvature
No distortions or kinks
Suitable for manufacturing
Common analysis options:
Quick
Saved
Feature

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You can use specific tools to analyze surface models, such as


for continuity, distortions, and visual characteristics.

Figure 2 Saved Analysis Dialog Box

Figure 3 Sections Analysis

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Analyzing Surfaces Theory


Creo Parametric offers many different tools to suit different modeling
requirements. Depending on the objective, you can use specific tools
to analyze surface models, such as for continuity, distortions, and visual
characteristics.

Reasons for Analyzing Surfaces


When creating surfaces, the goal is that they be created of high quality.
Consider the following reasons for analyzing surfaces:
Creating surfaces with intended smoothness and continuity. You can use
analysis tools to verify tangent and curvature continuity.
Creating surfaces with intended curvature. You can check that there are
no unwanted high curvature zones, which would signify that there is a
problem in the surfaces. For example, a kink in the surface would display
a very sharp rise in curvature and could be easily located using Creo
Parametric's analysis tools.
Module 11 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Creating surfaces without distortions. Kinks or small patches are common


problems in surface models. These may cause problems in adding
thickness while creating a solid part or while creating manufacturing
sequences.
Creating surfaces suitable for manufacturing. Many operations, such as
creating machining sequences, take the surface side into account. The
quilts in your surface model should have corresponding positive normal
sides.

Common Analysis Options

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There are three options available when using Creo Parametric's analysis
tools on models:

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Quick Enables you to compute measurements without saving the


analysis or creating a feature in the model tree. The analysis disappears
after closing the dialog box.
Saved Enables you to save the measurement for future use. The analysis
remains after closing the dialog box. You can specify a unique name for
the analysis so it means something to you at a later time. You can enable,
disable, or edit the display of the saved analyses by clicking Analysis >
Saved Analysis. A saved analysis updates to model geometry changes.
The Saved Analysis dialog box is shown in Figure 2.
Feature Enables you to save the analysis as a feature in the model tree.
The analysis updates to model geometry changes.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 3

Defining Curvature

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Curvature:
1/R
Smaller radii = higher degree
curvature
Larger radii = lower degree
curvature
Common curvature values:
Straight line: 0
Arc: Constant
Spline: Constantly changing
Some exceptions

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The curvature of a surface is defined as being proportional to


1/R, where R is the radius of the surface at a specific location.

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Figure 1 Viewing Surface


Curvature

Figure 2 Viewing a Surface


Curvature Plot

Defining Curvature
It is often desired to create surfaces with curvature continuity so the resulting
model appears as a continuous flowing shape, even if is made up of several
surface patches.
Before we can analyze curvature continuity, we must define curvature. The
curvature of a surface is defined as being proportional to 1/R, where R is the
radius of the surface at a specific location. Therefore:
The smaller the radius, the larger the curvature is.
The larger the radius, the smaller the curvature is.
A surface is shown in Figure 1.
The portion of the curve with a radius of 20 results in a higher degree of
curvature on the surface.
Module 11 | Page 4

2011 PTC

The portion of the curve with a radius of 35 results in a lower degree of


curvature on the surface.
A surface curvature plot is shown on the curve in the Figure 2.

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The portions of the curve with a higher degree of curvature have longer
curvature spikes.
The portions of the curve with a lower degree of curvature have shorter
curvature spikes.
The location near the middle of the curve where the curvature plot changes
direction is an inflection point. An inflection point is the point where
curvature changes direction. You can think of an inflection point as the
location where the curvature changes from positive to negative curvature.

Common Curvature Values

Consider the curvature values for the following example geometry:

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A straight line has a curvature of zero.


An arc has constant curvature based on 1/R.
A spline has constantly changing curvature, except for splines through only
two points that form a straight line. You can control the curvature of a spline
by manipulating its internal points. The curvature at the spline ends can be
controlled using endpoint curvature dimensions.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 5

Defining Curvature Continuity

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Figure 1 Free (C0) Continuity

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C0 continuity:
The geometry shares a common
boundary.
It is discontinuous in both
tangency (slope) and curvature
(change in slope).
C1 continuity:
The geometry is both joined and
tangent (continuous in slope).
It is discontinuous in curvature.
C2 continuity:
The geometry is joined, tangent,
and continuous in curvature.

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When curve or surface geometry meets at a common point or


boundary, there are different levels of curvature continuity:

Figure 3 Curvature (C2)


Continuity

Figure 2 Tangent (C1) Continuity

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Defining Curvature Continuity

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When curve or surface geometry meets at a common point or boundary,


there are different levels of curvature continuity:
C0 Also known as Free, C0 continuity has the following characteristics:
The geometry shares a common boundary.
The geometry is discontinuous in tangency (slope).
The geometry is discontinuous in curvature (change in slope).
C1 Also known as Tangent, C1 continuity has the following characteristics:
The geometry shares a common boundary.
The geometry is continuous in tangency (slope).
The geometry is discontinuous in curvature (change in slope).
C2 Also known as Curvature, C2 continuity has the following
characteristics:
The geometry shares a common boundary.
The geometry is continuous in tangency (slope).
The geometry is continuous in curvature (change in slope).
Module 11 | Page 6

2011 PTC

Curvature plots are shown for each of the three cases on the slide. Notice the
geometry and resulting plot:

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Free or C0 continuity is displayed in Figure 1. Consider the curvature at


the following geometry areas:
For the spline, the curvature plot varies according to the curvature.
For the straight line, the curvature is zero.
For the arc, the curvature is constant.
Tangent or C1 continuity is displayed in Figure 2. Consider the curvature at
the following geometry areas:
For the spline, the curvature plot varies according to the curvature.
The second spline curvature is in the opposite direction, attached with
an inflection point.
For the arc, the curvature is constant.
Notice that the spline and arc curvature are not the same, which creates a
step in the curvature plot.
Curvature or C2 continuity is displayed in Figure 3. Consider the curvature
at the following geometry areas:
For the spline, the curvature plot varies according to the curvature.
The second spline curvature is in the opposite direction, attached with
an inflection point.
For the arc, the curvature is constant.
Notice that the spline and arc curvature now meet up and flow evenly in
the curvature plot.

In

Depending on the design task, different levels of curvature continuity may


be required. Curvature continuous continuity is often required for various
purposes, including these examples:

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Aesthetic purpose, such as for exterior surfaces of products, especially


those that are glossy or shiny. These surfaces are often referred to as
class A surfaces.
Engineering purpose, such as improved fluid flow.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 7

Analyzing Curvature of Curves


You can use the Curvature tool to display the curvature for
selected curves or edges.

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Curvature displayed as a
porcupine plot.
Length of spikes indicate the
degree of curvature.
Curvature tool uses:
Determine level of curvature
continuity.
Display curvature
discontinuities.

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Figure 1 Curvature Plot for


Free Continuity

Figure 3 Curvature Plot for


Curvature Continuity

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Figure 2 Curvature Plot for


Tangent Continuity

Analyzing Curvature of Curves


You can use the Curvature tool to display the curvature for selected curves or
edges. The curvature is displayed as a porcupine plot, with the length of the
spikes indicating the degree of curvature at that location. The curvature plot
can be used to analyze a curve or edge to determine its level of curvature
continuity, whether free, tangent, or curvature, and to display discontinuities
in curvature before a surface is created.
The following parts of the curvature plot can be controlled:
Quality Controls the density of spikes in the plot.
Scale Controls the height of the spikes in the plot.
Style of plot Controls how the spikes are displayed and connected.
You can display and connect the spikes smoothly, linearly, or spikes only,
meaning that there is no line connection between spikes.
Module 11 | Page 8

2011 PTC

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In Figure 1, the curvature plot has a gap in its center. This curve has Free
continuity. In Figure 2, the curvature plot contains no gaps, but there is a
discontinuity near the center. The discontinuity displays in the plot as a step.
This curve has Tangent continuity. In Figure 3, the curvature plot contains no
gaps or discontinuities and has an inflection point. This curve has Curvature
continuity.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 9

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Curvature of Curves


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Curvature_Curve
Task 1:

CURVATURE_CURVE.PRT

Analyze the three types of curvature conditions in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Select CURVE_1, CURVE_2, and CURVE_3 from the model tree to


locate them on the model.
3. De-select all geometry.

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5. Select Curvature
from the
Curvature types drop-down
menu in the Inspect Geometry
group.
6. Query and select the entire
CURVE_3 from the model.

4. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

7. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Quality to 20, if necessary.

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8. Drag the Scale upward to


approximately 100.

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9. Notice the gap in the center of


the curvature plot. This curve
has a free condition.

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10. Select Quick as the analysis


type in the Curvature dialog box,
if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .

Module 11 | Page 10

2011 PTC

11. In the ribbon, click Curvature


from the Inspect Geometry
group.
12. Query and select the entire
CURVE_2 from the model.
13. Drag the scale upward to
approximately 100.

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14. Notice the discontinuity in the


center of the curvature plot. This
curve has a tangency condition.

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17. Select CURVE_1 from the


model.

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from the Inspect Geometry


group.

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16. In the ribbon, click Curvature

15. Select Quick as the analysis


type in the Curvature dialog box,
if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .

18. Drag the scale downward to


approximately 100.

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19. Notice the flow and inflection


point in the center of the
curvature plot. This curve has a
curvature continuity condition.

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20. Select Quick as the analysis


type in the Curvature dialog box,
if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .
This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 11

Analyzing Curvature of Surfaces


You can use the Curvature tool to display the curvature for
selected surfaces.

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Curvature displayed as a
porcupine plot:
Plots displayed independently
in two directions.
Length of spikes indicates the
degree of curvature.
Curvature tool uses:
Determine level of curvature
continuity.
Display surface curvature
discontinuities.

In

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Figure 1 Curvature Plots for


Free Continuity

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Figure 2 Curvature Plots for


Tangent Continuity

Figure 3 Curvature Plots for


Curvature Continuity

Analyzing Curvature of Surfaces

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You can use the Curvature tool to display the curvature for selected surfaces.
The curvature is displayed as a porcupine plot, with the length of the spikes
indicating the degree of curvature at that location. The curvature plot can
be used to analyze a surface to determine its level of curvature continuity,
whether free, tangent, or curvature, and to display discontinuities in surface
curvature.
When analyzing the curvature of a surface, two curvature plots are created,
one in each direction of the surface. The following parts of the curvature
plot can be controlled:

Number Controls the number of plots created. You can edit the number
of plots created in each direction independently.
Quality Controls the density of spikes in the plots in the first direction.
2nd Quality Controls the density of spikes in the plots in the second
direction.
Scale Controls the height of the spikes in the plots in the first direction.
Module 11 | Page 12

2011 PTC

2nd Scale Controls the height of the spikes in the plots in the second
direction.
Style of plot Controls how the spikes are displayed and connected.
You can display and connect the spikes smoothly, linearly, or spikes only,
meaning that there is no line connection between spikes.

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In Figure 1, the curvature plots contain no gaps or discontinuities in the first


direction, but there is a gap in the plots in the second direction near the center.
This surface has Free continuity. In Figure 2, the curvature plots contain no
gaps or discontinuities in the first direction, but there is a discontinuity near
the center of the surface in the plots in the second direction. The discontinuity
displays in the plots as a step. This surface has Tangent continuity. In Figure
3, the curvature plots contains no gaps or discontinuities in either direction
and have inflection points. This surface has Curvature continuity.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 13

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Curvature of Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Curvature_Surfaces
Task 1:

CURVATURE_SURF_FREE.PRT

Run a curvature analysis for a free condition between surfaces.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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5. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Number of plots in the first
and second directions to 3 and
5, respectively.
Edit the Quality and 2nd
Quality to 25.
Edit the Scale and 2nd Scale
to 2 and 0, respectively.

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3. Select Curvature
from the
Curvature types drop-down
menu in the Inspect Geometry
group.

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6. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Scale and 2nd Scale to 0 and
10, respectively.
Select Quick as the analysis
type, if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .
7. Click Close

Module 11 | Page 14

2011 PTC

Task 2:

Run a curvature analysis for a tangent condition between surfaces.

1. Click Open
and double-click
CURVATURE_SURF_
TANGENT.PRT.
2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis
tab.

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3. Click Curvature
from the
Inspect Geometry group.

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5. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Number of plots in the first
and second directions to 3 and
5, respectively.
Edit the Quality and 2nd
Quality to 25.
Edit the Scale and 2nd Scale
to 2 and 0, respectively.

4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

In

6. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Scale and 2nd Scale to 0 and
10, respectively.
Select Quick as the analysis
type, if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .
.

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7. Click Close

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 15

Task 3:

Run a curvature analysis for a curvature condition between


surfaces.

1. Click Open
and double-click
CURVATURE_SURF_
CURVATURE.PRT.
2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis
tab.

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3. Click Curvature
from the
Inspect Geometry group.

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5. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Number of plots in the first
and second direction to 3 and 5,
respectively.
Edit the Quality and 2nd
Quality to 25.
Edit the Scale and 2nd Scale
to 2 and 0, respectively.

4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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6. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Scale and 2nd Scale to 0 and
10, respectively.
Select Quick as the analysis
type, if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .

This completes the procedure.

Module 11 | Page 16

2011 PTC

Analyzing Curvature using Sections


You can use the Curvature tool to display the curvature along
sections for selected surfaces.

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Curvature displayed as porcupine


plot.
Length of spikes indicates the
degree of curvature.
Porcupine plots are created
parallel to direction reference.
Curvature tool uses:
Determine level of curvature
continuity.
Display surface curvature
discontinuities.

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Figure 1 Curvature Plots


for a Surface

Figure 2 Curvature Plots for


Surface Parallel to Different
Reference

Analyzing Curvature using Sections


You can use the Curvature tool to display the curvature along sections for
selected surfaces. When you specify a direction reference, the system
creates a series of porcupine plots, parallel to the direction reference, with
the length of the spikes indicating the degree of curvature at that location.
The curvature plot can be used to analyze a surface to determine its level
of curvature continuity, whether free, tangent, or curvature, and to display
discontinuities in surface curvature.
The following parts of the curvature plot can be controlled:
Number Controls the number of sections, and therefore, the number
of plots created.
Spacing Controls the spacing between each section.
2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 17

Start location Controls the starting location for the sections.


Quality Controls the density of spikes in the plots.
Scale Controls the height of the spikes in the plots.
Style of plot Controls how the spikes are displayed and connected.
You can display and connect the spikes smoothly, linearly, or spikes only,
meaning that there is no line connection between spikes.

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Module 11 | Page 18

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Curvature using Sections


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Curvature_Sections
Task 1:

CURVATURE_SECTIONS.PRT

Run a curvature analysis using sections in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

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5. Right-click and select Direction


Collector.
Select the front surface.

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4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

3. Select Sections
from
the Geometry Report types
drop-down menu in the Inspect
Geometry group.

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6. In the Sections dialog box,


edit the Number of sections to
compute to 5.
Edit Spacing to 24.
Edit Start to 98.
Edit Scale to 150.

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7. In the graphics window,


right-click and select Direction
Collector.
Select the side surface.
8. In the Sections dialog box, edit
Number to 5.
Edit Spacing to 22.
Edit Start to 95.
Edit Scale to 20.
Select Quick as the analysis
type, if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 19

Analyzing Curvature using Normals


You can use the Curvature tool to display the normal vectors for
selected surfaces.

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Normals are displayed as arrows.


Arrows point normal to the
surface.
Surface normal display uses:
Detect surface distortions.
Detect if adjacent surfaces have
different positive directions.
Normals can be flipped.
Flip Normal feature created.

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Figure 1 Displaying Curvature


using Normals

Figure 2 Normals Flipped

Analyzing Curvature using Normals


You can use the Curvature tool to display the normal vectors for selected
surfaces. Surface normals are displayed as arrows pointing normal to the
surface at that location.
When analyzing the curvature of a surface using normals, two directions of
normal arrows are created, one in each direction of the surface. The following
parts of the normals plots can be controlled:

Number Controls the number of plots created. You can edit the number
of plots created in each direction independently.
Quality Controls the density of normals arrows in the first direction.
2nd Quality Controls the density of normals arrows in the second
direction.
Scale Controls the height of the normals in the plots in the first direction.
Module 11 | Page 20

2011 PTC

2nd Scale Controls the height of the normals in the plots in the second
direction.
The surface normal display has the following uses:
Detect surface distortions.
Detect if adjacent surfaces have different positive directions. Different
positive directions can lead to downstream modeling or manufacturing
problems.

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You can also change the positive direction of selected surfaces by selecting
the surface and in the Model tab, clicking the Editing group drop-down menu,
and selecting Flip Normal. When the normals are flipped, a Flip Normal
feature appears in the model tree.

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Module 11 | Page 21

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Curvature using Normals


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Curvature_Normals
Task 1:

CURVATURE_NORMALS.PRT

Run a normals curvature analysis on surfaces in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

4. Press CTRL and select the right


half of the upper surface, the
round surface, and the vertical
right surface.

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3. Select Curvature
from the
Curvature types drop-down
menu in the Inspect Geometry
group.

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5. In the Curvature dialog box, edit


the Plot type from Curvature to
Normal.
Edit the Number of plots in the
first and second direction to 4
and 3, respectively.
Edit Quality and 2nd Quality to
3 and 5, respectively.
Edit Scale and 2nd Scale to
1.
6. Select Saved as the analysis
type, if necessary.

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7. Click Complete Analysis

8. Edit the selection filter to Quilts.


9. Select the main upper quilt
surface.

Module 11 | Page 22

2011 PTC

10. In the ribbon, select the Model


tab.
11. Click the Editing group
drop-down menu and select
Flip Normal.
from the In
12. Click Repaint
Graphics toolbar.

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13. Notice the feature in the model


tree.

14. Notice that the arrow direction


updated.

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 11 | Page 23

Using Shaded Curvature Analysis for Surfaces

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Gaussian curvature values are


plotted for all points on the selected
surface(s).
Color fringe plot created.
Warm values indicate higher
curvature.
Cool values indicate lower
curvature.
Color Scale dialog box displays
curvature values for the color
spectrum.

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You can use the Curvature tool to display the shaded (Gaussian)
curvature for selected surfaces.

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Figure 1 C0 Continuity Shaded


Curvature Analysis

Figure 2 C1 Continuity Shaded


Curvature Analysis

Figure 3 C2 Continuity Shaded


Curvature Analysis

Using Shaded Curvature Analysis for Surfaces


You can use the Curvature tool to display the shaded (or Gaussian) curvature
for selected surfaces. The Gaussian curvature is defined as the product of
the smallest and largest normal curvature for every point on the surface.
The shaded curvature display plots the Gaussian curvature values for all
points on the selected surfaces. The following types of curvature values can
be can be achieved:
Positive values Examples include ridges.
Negative values Examples include saddles.
Zero values Examples include planes and ruled surfaces.
Module 11 | Page 24

2011 PTC

Understanding the Shaded Curvature Display


The Shaded Curvature display results in a color fringe plot on the model.
A thermometer-type color scale appears in the Color Scale dialog box,
displaying the values for the varying color spectrum. Warm values indicate
areas of higher curvature, while cool values indicate areas of lower curvature.
You can drag the upper, middle, and lower arrows that determine the range of
the scale. There is also an option to reset the color scale to its default values.
You can also change the Style type that is displayed. There are two options:

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Rainbow Displays a rainbow type of color plot for the selected surface
or surfaces.
Three-color Displays a three-color type of color plot for the selected
surface or surfaces.

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The Continuous Display option causes an infinite number of color gradients


throughout the range of the scale. You can toggle to the Non-continuous
Display option and specify the number of colors for the color scale. You can
also change the base and peak values of the logarithm scale used for the
analysis.

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Finally, by toggling the Tool Tip Display on, you are able to drag the mouse
over the surface to view the exact curvature value at any point.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 25

PROCEDURE - Using Shaded Curvature Analysis for


Surfaces
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Curvature-Shaded

Run a shaded curvature analysis for a free condition between


surfaces.

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Task 1:

SHADED_CURVATURE_FREE.PRT

If necessary to view the analysis clearly, select No Hidden from


the Display Style drop-down list in the In Graphics toolbar.

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3. Select Shaded Curvature


from the Curvature types
drop-down menu in the Inspect
Geometry group.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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5. In the Shaded Curvature dialog


box, edit the Plot type to
Gaussian, if necessary.
Edit the Quality to 25.

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6. Notice how the colors flow,


especially along the mid line of
the surface.
Notice the color scale for the
fringe plot, which indicates the
degree of curvature.
Notice how the colors do not
flow across the surface.
This surface has a free (C0)
condition.

7. Select Quick as the analysis type, if necessary, and click Complete


Analysis .
8. Click Close

Module 11 | Page 26

2011 PTC

Task 2:

Run a shaded curvature analysis for a tangent condition between


surfaces.

1. Click Open
PRT.

and double-click SHADED_CURVATURE_TANGENT.

2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis tab.


3. Select Shaded Curvature
menu.

from the Curvature types drop-down

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4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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6. Notice how the colors flow,


especially along the mid line of
the surface.
Notice how the colors
somewhat flow across
the surface.
This surface has a tangent
(C1) condition.

5. In the Shaded Curvature dialog


box, edit the Quality to 25.

Run a shaded curvature analysis for a curvature condition


between surfaces.

PT

Task 3:

8. Click Close

In

7. Select Quick as the analysis type, if necessary, and click Complete


Analysis .

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1. Click Open
and double-click SHADED_CURVATURE_
CURVATURE.PRT.

2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis tab.


3. Select Shaded Curvature
menu.

2011 PTC

from the Curvature types drop-down

Module 11 | Page 27

4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.
5. In the Shaded Curvature dialog
box, edit the Quality to 25.

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6. Notice how the colors flow,


especially along the mid line of
the surface.
Notice how the colors smoothly
flow across the surface.
This surface has a curvature
(C2) condition.

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This completes the procedure.

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7. Select Quick as the analysis type, if necessary, and click Complete


Analysis .

Module 11 | Page 28

2011 PTC

Using Shaded Section Curvature Analysis

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Figure 1 Section Curvature


Analysis using Front Surface
as Direction

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Curvature values are plotted for all


points on the selected surface(s),
parallel to a selected reference.
Color fringe plot created.
Warm values indicate higher
curvature.
Cool values indicate lower
curvature.
Color Scale dialog box displays
curvature values for the color
spectrum.

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You can use the shaded curvature tool to display the sectional
curvature for selected surfaces, given a reference plane
direction.

Figure 2 Section Curvature


Analysis using Right Surface
as Direction

Using Shaded Section Curvature Analysis


You can use the shaded curvature tool to display the sectional curvature for
selected surfaces, given a reference plane direction. Similar to the Gaussian
curvature display, which depicts the surface curvature in two directions, the
section curvature displays surface curvature for one direction at a time,
based on the reference direction. The surface curvature is calculated parallel
to the selected reference direction. The following types of curvature values
can be achieved:
Positive values Examples include ridges.
Negative values Examples include saddles.
Zero values Examples include planes and ruled surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 29

Understanding the Shaded Curvature Display


The Shaded Curvature display results in a color fringe plot on the model.
A thermometer-type color scale appears in the Color Scale dialog box,
displaying the values for the varying color spectrum. Warm values indicate
areas of higher curvature, while cool values indicate areas of lower curvature.
You can drag the upper, middle, and lower arrows that determine the range of
the scale. There is also an option to reset the color scale to its default values.
You can also change the Style type that is displayed. There are two options:

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Rainbow Displays a rainbow type of color plot for the selected surface
or surfaces.
Three-color Displays a three-color type of color plot for the selected
surface or surfaces.

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The Continuous Display option causes an infinite number of color gradients


throughout the range of the scale. You can toggle to the Non-continuous
Display option and specify the number of colors for the color scale. You can
also change the base and peak values of the logarithm scale used for the
analysis.

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Finally, by toggling the Tool Tip Display on, you are able to drag the mouse
over the surface to view the exact curvature value at any point.

Module 11 | Page 30

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Using Shaded Section Curvature


Analysis
Close Window
Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Curvature-Shaded_Sections

SHADED_CURV_SECT.PRT
Run a shaded section curvature analysis for surfaces in a part
model.

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Task 1:

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis
tab.

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3. Select Shaded Curvature


from the Curvature types
drop-down menu in the Inspect
Geometry group.

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If necessary to view the analysis clearly, select No Hidden from


the Display Style drop-down list in the In Graphics toolbar.

In

4. In the Shaded Curvature dialog


box, edit the Plot type to Section.
Edit the Quality to 25.

5. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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6. Right-click and select Plane


Collector.
Select the front surface.

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7. Select Quick as the analysis


type, if necessary, and click
Complete Analysis .

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Module 11 | Page 31

8. Select Shaded Curvature


from the Curvature types
drop-down menu.
9. Edit the Plot type to Section.
Edit the Quality to 25.
10. Press CTRL and select both
upper surfaces.

12. Click Complete Analysis

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11. Right-click and select Plane


Collector.
Select the right side surface.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 11 | Page 32

2011 PTC

Creating Curvature Continuous Surfaces


To create curvature continuous surfaces, references such as
curves or edges should have curvature continuity themselves.

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The shape-defining curves need to


be curvature continuous to create
surfaces with C2 continuity.
Boundary blended surfaces can
be made C2 in only one direction.
Style surfaces can be made C2 on
all four sides.
Round features have a C2 profile
option.

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Figure 1 Shaded Plot of


Boundary Surface

PT

Figure 2 C2 Continuity Condition


of Boundary Surface Edges

Figure 3 C2 Continuity Condition


of Boundary Surface Edges

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Creating Curvature Continuous Surfaces


To create curvature continuous surfaces, references such as curves or edges
should have curvature continuity themselves. Boundary surfaces can be
curvature continuous along one direction, while Style, or freeform, surfaces,
can be curvature continuous in both directions.
The following are techniques for creating curvature continuous surfaces for a
given geometry type:
Sketcher splines You can use radius of curvature dimensions. After
a Tangency Angle dimension is created for a spline endpoint, you can
create a Radius of Curvature dimension for that endpoint. The Radius of
Curvature dimension can be used to control the radius of curvature at the
endpoint of a spline, and changing its value changes the shape of the spline
near the endpoint. Controlling the Radius of Curvature dimension is useful
in cases where a spline meets up with other geometry (an arc for example),
and a curvature continuity is desired. To create this dimension, select the
spline, the spline endpoint, and middle-click to place the dimension. The
dimension appears similar to a radius dimension.
2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 33

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Curve Thru Points The tangency for a curve thru points can be set to
Curvature.
Boundary blend You can set boundary conditions. In Figure 2, the two
boundary blend edges in the first direction have tangency defined. In
Figure 3, the two boundary blend edges in the second direction have
curvature defined.
Style, or freeform, surfaces This technique is covered in the Freeform
Surface Modeling course.
Round features You can define a round that uses a curvature continuous
spline as a round profile. This option is particularly useful on models where
maintaining a curvature continuity is important across rounded surfaces.
The system calculates the round then applies the spline profile. You use
the curvature continuous round profile (C2) with single or variable radius
rounds. In addition, the round feature can be used to create rounds as
solids or surfaces.

Module 11 | Page 34

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Curvature Continuous Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed


CREATING_CURVE_CONT. PRT

Analysis\Curvature_Continuous
Task 1:

Create a curvature continuous surface in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

4. In the dashboard, select the


Ends Condition tab.

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5. In the Ends Condition tab, select


Start Point as the Curve side.
Select Tangent from the End
condition drop-down menu.
Select the lower edge below
the start point.

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3. Select the bottom vertex, then


the top vertex near the gap on
the left of the model.

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2. In the ribbon, click the Datum


group drop-down menu and
select Curve > Curve through
Points.

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6. In the Ends Condition tab, select


End Point as the Curve side.
Select Tangent from the End
condition drop-down menu.
Select the upper edge above
the end point.
7. In the Ends Condition tab, select
Start Point as the Curve side.
Select Curvature Continuous
from the End condition
drop-down menu.
8. In the Ends Condition tab, select
End Point as the Curve side.
Select Curvature Continuous
from the End condition
drop-down menu.
9. Click Complete Feature
the dashboard.

2011 PTC

from

Module 11 | Page 35

10. Repeat the procedure to create


another curve through points that
spans the gap on the right of the
model.

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14. Right-click and select Second


Direction Curves.

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13. Press CTRL and select the two


horizontal surface edges.

12. Click Boundary Blend


the Surfaces Group.

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11. Click in the background to


de-select all geometry.

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15. Press CTRL and select the two


curves you created.

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16. Set both horizontal boundaries


tangent to their adjacent
surfaces.

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17. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend Dashboard.

Module 11 | Page 36

2011 PTC

18. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.
19. Select Shaded Curvature
from the Curvature types
drop-down menu.
20. In the Shaded Curvature dialog
box, edit the Plot type to
Gaussian, if necessary.

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23. Select Saved as the analysis


type and click Complete
Analysis .

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22. Notice how the color flow stops


abruptly along the blended
surface.

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21. Press CTRL and select the


central boundary surface you
just created, followed by the
outer main surfaces.

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24. Edit the definition of Boundary


Blend 1.
25. Right-click both tangent
horizontal boundaries and
select Curvature.

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26. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend Dashboard.

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and notice
27. Click No Hidden
that the analysis has updated.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 11 | Page 37

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Module 11 | Page 38

2011 PTC

12
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Module

Additional Surface Analysis Tools

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Module Overview

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To create aesthetically pleasing surface models, you need to analyze the


quality of edges and surfaces using various analysis tools to check the curve
and the surface quality. After utilizing the surface analysis tools, you gain
insight into how you can improve the overall quality of surfaces in models,
and/or ensure they are fit for manufacturing.

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In this module, you will learn how to use several additional surface analysis
tools.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Use the Point analysis option.
Use the Radius analysis option.
Use the Dihedral Angle analysis option.
Use the Offset analysis option.
Use the Draft analysis option.
Use the Slope analysis option.
Use the Reflection analysis option.
Use the Shadow analysis option.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 1

Using the Point Analysis Option

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Figure 1 Selected Point


on Surface

Figure 2 Point Dialog Box

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Specify references:
Point on surface
Coordinate system reference
Available results:
Plot of normal, tangent, and
radius vectors
Point coordinates
Unit normal lengths
Min./Max. Curvature
Radius of curvature
Gaussian curvature
Options:
Scale

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With the Point analysis option, you can gain surface information
about a selected location on a surface.

Using the Point Analysis Option

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With the Point analysis option, you can gain surface information about a
selected location on a surface.
When performing a Point analysis, the following references must be specified:
Point on a surface.
Coordinate system reference The system uses the default coordinate
system for all calculations unless a different coordinate system reference
is specified.
When a Point analysis is performed, the following results information can
be obtained:
A plot of the normal, tangent, and radius vectors at the selected point.
Point coordinates Specifies the coordinates of the point based on the
specified coordinate system.
Unit normal lengths.
Min./Max. Curvature values, Radius of curvature, and Direction of greatest
curvature.
Module 12 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Gaussian curvature value at the selected point.


When performing a Point analysis, the following options are available:

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Scale Enables you to adjust the scale of the vectors in the plot.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 3

PROCEDURE - Using the Point Analysis Option


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Point
Task 1:

POINT.PRT

Use the Point Analysis Option for points on the surface of a part
model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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3. Select Point
from the
Geometry Report types
drop-down menu in the Inspect
Geometry group.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

4. Select a convex location on the


upper-left surface.

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5. Edit the Scale to 2.

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6. Notice the following:


The default coordinate system
is used for the calculations.
The coordinates of the
selected point and its normal
are displayed.
The Min. and Max. Curvature
values are displayed.

7. Select a concave location on the


upper-right surface.
8. Notice that the data updates in
the Point dialog box.

Module 12 | Page 4

2011 PTC

9. In the Point dialog box, click Info


to receive more information
about the selection.
10. Click Close in the Information
Window dialog box.
11. In the Point dialog box, select
Quick as the analysis type, if
necessary.
.

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12. Click Complete Analysis

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 12 | Page 5

Using the Radius Analysis Option

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Figure 1 Radius Analysis


Option Result

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Radius analysis option:


Determine the maximum tool
radius.
Specify references:
Geometry
Available results:
Minimum inside and
outside radii values
Options:
Plot type
Scale
Curvature analysis option:
Detect abrupt radii changes
Specify references
Geometry
Available results:
Porcupine plot changing
radius values
Options:
Quality
Scale

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The Radius analysis option is useful to determine the maximum


tool radius for a manufacturing operation.

Figure 2 Curvature Analysis


Radius Plot Result

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Using the Radius Analysis Option


With the Radius analysis option, you can obtain radius information from a
surface, or a curve or edge. The Radius analysis option is useful to determine
the maximum tool radius for a manufacturing operation.
When performing a Radius analysis, the following references must be
specified:
Geometry Enables you to specify surfaces, or curves or edges.
When a Radius analysis is performed, the following results information can
be obtained:
Minimum inside and outside radii values and their locations.
When performing a Radius analysis, the following options are available:
Plot type Enables you to specify the plot type that is displayed in the
graphics window. Options include Inside & Outside, Inside, and Outside.
Scale Enables you to adjust the scale of the plot.
Module 12 | Page 6

2011 PTC

Using the Curvature Tool Radius Option


You can also obtain radius information along a curve or edge by using the
Curvature tool with the Radius plot option. This option is useful to detect
abrupt radii changes along a model, and to detect whether the curve travels
in 2-D or 3-D.
When creating a Radius plot for the Curvature tool, the following references
must be specified:
Geometry Enables you to specify a curve or edge.

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When creating a Radius plot for the Curvature tool, the following results
information can be obtained:
A porcupine plot displaying the radius values along the selected curve.

When creating a Radius plot for the Curvature tool, the following options
are available:

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Quality Enables you to adjust the quality of the radius analysis.


Scale Enables you to adjust the scale of the plot.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 7

PROCEDURE - Using the Radius Analysis Option


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Analysis\Radius
Task 1:

RADIUS.PRT

Use the Radius Analysis Option for surfaces of a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

from the
3. Click Radius
Measure group.

5. Edit the Scale to 5.

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6. Notice the Min. inside and Min.


outside radius locations and
values.

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4. Select the upper-left surface.

PT

7. Select the upper-right surface.


8. Notice that the data updates in
the Radius dialog box.

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9. In the Radius dialog box, select


Quick as the analysis type, if
necessary.

10. Click Complete Analysis

Module 12 | Page 8

2011 PTC

Task 2:

Use the Radius Plot type for curves and edges of a part model.

1. Select Curvature
from the
Curvature types drop-down
menu in the Inspect Geometry
group.
2. Press CTRL and select both
upper front edges above the text.

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3. Edit the Plot type to Radius.


4. Edit the Quality to 20.
5. Edit the Scale to 0.15.

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7. Also notice that the radius


approaches infinity on the left
portion, which is normal for an
inflection point in a curve.

6. Notice the radius changing over


the length of the curve.

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8. Select the ridge on the top of the


model.
9. Edit the Scale to 0.50.

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10. Notice the changing radius and


changing direction of spikes.
They are produced normal to the
curve direction and flow in 3-D
for a 3-D curve.

PT

11. In the Curvature dialog box,


select Quick as the analysis
type, if necessary.
.

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12. Click Complete Analysis


This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 9

Using the Dihedral Angle Analysis Option


With the Dihedral Angle analysis, you can determine the extent
of tangency for the surfaces along an edge.

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Specify references:
Edge
Available results:
Porcupine plot of dihedral angle
Min./Max. Dihedral
Options:
Quality
Scale

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Figure 1 Porcupine Plot of


Dihedral Angle

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Using the Dihedral Angle Analysis Option

In

With the Dihedral Angle analysis, you can determine the extent of tangency
for the surfaces along an edge. The system plots the value of the angle
between the tangents of adjoining surfaces along the selected curve or edge.

A dihedral angle of zero occurs when the two adjoining surfaces are tangent
at a given location. The amount of dihedral angle is the amount the surfaces
deviate from tangency to one another.

PT

When performing a Dihedral Angle analysis, the following references must


be specified:

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Edge Specifies the edge between surfaces for which to measure the
dihedral angle.
When a Dihedral Angle analysis is performed, the following results
information can be obtained:
Porcupine plot of the dihedral angle along the selected edge.
Min./Max. Dihedral angles Specifies the minimum and maximum dihedral
angle along the selected edge.
When performing a Dihedral Angle analysis, the following options are
available:
Quality Enables you to adjust the quality of the dihedral angle porcupine
plot.
Scale Enables you to adjust the scale of the porcupine plot.

Module 12 | Page 10

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Using the Dihedral Angle Analysis Option


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Analysis\Dihedral
Task 1:

DIHEDRAL.PRT

Use the Dihedral Angle Analysis Option for an edge of a part


model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

from
3. Click Dihedral Angle
the Inspect Geometry group.

5. Edit the Quality to 15.

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6. Drag the Scale upward to


approximately 20.

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4. Select the edge as shown.

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7. Notice the shape of the plot:


The edge is more tangent at
the ends and less tangent
at the center, where the plot
spikes are taller.

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8. Notice the Min. and Max.


Dihedral angles.

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9. In the Dihedral Angle dialog box,


select Quick as the analysis
type, if necessary.

10. Click Complete Analysis

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 11

Using the Offset Analysis Option


With the Offset surface analysis, you are able to create a surface
mesh at an adjustable offset value from the selected surfaces.

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Specify references:
Geometry
Plane (Optional)
Available results:
Offset surface mesh
Options:
Offset distance
Number of mesh lines
Quality

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Figure 1 Offset Surface Mesh

Figure 2 Offset Surface Mesh


with Overlapping Geometry

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Using the Offset Analysis Option


With the Offset surface analysis, you are able to create a surface mesh at
an adjustable offset value from the selected surfaces. This is useful for
exaggerating any slight changes in the quality of a surface. Overlapping
of the surface mesh reveals locations which could cause problems when
offsetting surfaces or shelling a model, and can be used to diagnose failures
in these situations.
When performing an Offset analysis, the following references must be
specified:
Geometry Specifies the surfaces to be offset.
Plane Specifies the reference plane for the offset direction. This
reference is optional.
When an Offset analysis is performed, the following results information can
be obtained:
Offset surface mesh Displays a surface mesh at the offset specified.
Module 12 | Page 12

2011 PTC

When performing an Offset analysis, the following options are available:


Offset distance Specifies the distance the surface mesh is to be offset
from the specified surfaces. You can specify both a positive and negative
offset distance.
Number of mesh lines in two directions Specifies the number, or density,
of mesh lines displayed in the offset surface. You can specify a different
number of mesh lines in each direction.
Quality Enables you to adjust the quality of the surface mesh in each
direction.

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You can also create a surface mesh directly on a surface without


any offset. In the ribbon, select the Analysis tab. Click Mesh
from the Inspect Geometry group, and then select

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Surface
surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 13

PROCEDURE - Using the Offset Analysis Option


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Analysis\Offset
Task 1:

OFFSET.PRT

Use the Offset Analysis Option for surfaces of a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

select Offset

3. Click the Inspect Geometry


group drop-down menu and
.

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4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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6. Notice that the mesh is


exaggerating surface contours,
with convex patches becoming
larger and concave patches
becoming smaller.

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5. Drag the Offset handle to 12.

7. Edit the Offset to 36 in the Offset


dialog box.

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8. Edit the Number of mesh lines in


each direction to 20.

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9. Notice that the mesh starts


to overlap in the rear.
Consequently, a surface offset
would likely fail with an offset of
this value.

10. Rotate the model to view the


offset.
11. In the Offset dialog box, select
Quick as the analysis type, if
necessary.
12. Click Complete Analysis

This completes the procedure.

Module 12 | Page 14

2011 PTC

Using the Draft Analysis Option


Visually display draft angles on model surfaces.
Specify:
Surfaces/Model
Direction reference
Acceptable draft angle
Available results:
Color scale shading draft
angles

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Figure 1 Surfaces to be Analyzed

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Figure 2 Color Scale Dialog Box

Figure 3 Draft Analysis Display


(Viewing Underside of Model)

Using the Draft Analysis Option

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The Draft analysis option enables you to ultimately determine whether a


model is suitable for a mold or casting operation. You can select surfaces,
specify a pull direction, and input a draft angle to check for. The system then
produces a color plot of the draft angles. Based on the color scale applied
to the model, you can identify areas that have or do not have sufficient draft
angles.

The examples shown illustrate a draft gradient for both sides, where the
draft angle to check for is set to 3 degrees. The color plot is set to display
positive and negative draft angles respectively. The default colors in the
color scale are:
Blue (Positive Draft) Surfaces that are above the specified draft angle for
the upper half of the model.
Light Blue (Positive Values) Surfaces that are between the specified
draft angle and zero draft for the upper half of the model.
White (Verticals) Surfaces with zero draft angle. Also known as verticals
in terms of draft angles.
2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 15

Pink (Negative Values) Surfaces that are between the specified draft
angle and zero draft for the lower half of the model.
Red (Negative Draft) Surfaces that are above the specified draft angle for
the lower half of the model.
When performing a Draft analysis, the following references must be specified:
Surface Specifies the surfaces for which the draft analysis is to be run.
You can also select the model node from the model tree, or query to the
solid geometry of the model. This enables you to analyze the whole model.
Direction reference Specifies the pull direction to be used for the draft
analysis.

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The following options are available in the Draft dialog box:


Draft angle Enables you to specify the desired draft angle to check for.
One direction/Both directions Enables you to specify whether the draft
analysis is run on one or both sides of the direction reference.

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When a Draft analysis is performed, a default color scale is applied to the


model surface with a five-color display. The following options and settings
are available in the Color Scale dialog box:
Model display can be set to only display Positive Draft, Positive Values,
Verticals, Negative Values, or Negative Draft.
You can toggle between displaying a continuous gradient and a specified
number of color bands.
You can toggle between displaying a rainbow plot and a plot based on
shades of three colors.
You can customize the color of each color band.
You can save and retrieve color schemes and settings for the Color Scale
dialog box.
You can reset the color scale to its default values.

Module 12 | Page 16

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Using the Draft Analysis Option


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Analysis\Draft
Task 1:

DRAFT.PRT

Use the Draft Analysis option for surfaces of a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

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5. Right-click and select Direction


Collector.
Select datum plane TOP.

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4. Right-click to query over the


model until all solid geometry is
highlighted, then select it.

from the Inspect


3. Click Draft
Geometry group.

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6. Edit the Draft angle to 10 and


press ENTER.
and

In

7. Click Named Views


select 4.

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8. Notice the colors in the resulting


plot:
Blue and light blue shades
are positive draft and positive
values respectively.
Red and pink shades are
negative draft and negative
values respectively.
White shaded surfaces are
verticals with zero draft.
Based on the 10 degree draft angle, only the darker blue and red
areas meet or exceed this criteria. All other areas do not have
the required draft angle, or are verticals.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 17

9. In the Draft dialog box, type 3 for


the Draft angle value and press
ENTER.
10. In the Color Scale dialog box,
click Enable Tool Tips

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12. Place the cursor over other


shaded areas of the model.
Notice the varying draft angles
and the arrow indicator in the
Color Scale dialog box.

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11. Place the cursor over the light


blue shaded area of the model.
Notice the indicated draft
angle is 1.5, which is less than
the set value of 3 degrees.

in the Color Scale dialog box.

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14. Click Color Scale Options

from the Display

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13. From the In Graphics toolbar, select No Hidden


Style types drop-down menu.

15. Select Verticals as the Model Display option.

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16. Click the middle color box as shown in the image and type 0, 180, 0
for the RGB values.
Notice the other options available.

Module 12 | Page 18

2011 PTC

17. Click Close from the Color Editor.


Notice that only the vertical surfaces with zero draft angle are
displayed in green.
18. Select Quick as the analysis type in the Draft dialog box, if necessary.
19. Click Complete Analysis

.
from the Display

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This completes the procedure.

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20. From the In Graphics toolbar, select Shading


Style types drop-down menu.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 19

Using the Slope Analysis Option


With the Slope analysis option, you can easily visualize the
direction and amount of slope on a surface.

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Specify references:
Surface
Direction reference
Available results:
Color plot of slope values
Min./Max. slope
Options:
Quality
Flip direction

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Figure 1 Slope Analysis using


Front Surface Direction Reference

PT

Figure 2 Slope Analysis with


Flipped Direction

Figure 3 Slope Analysis using


Side Surface Direction Reference

Using the Slope Analysis Option

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With the Slope analysis option, you can easily visualize the direction and
amount of slope on a surface, given a reference plane and direction. The
system creates a color plot to illustrate the positive and negative slope
values. When moving across the surface in the specified direction, warm
colors indicate positive (downhill) slope, and cool colors indicate negative
(uphill) slope.
When performing a Slope analysis, the following references must be
specified:
Surface Specifies the surfaces for which the slope analysis is to be run.
Direction reference The slope plot indicates how the surface slopes away
from the selected direction reference.
When a Slope analysis is performed, the following results information can
be obtained:
Color plot of slope values on the surfaces with respect to the selected
direction reference.
Module 12 | Page 20

2011 PTC

Min. and Max. slope values on the surfaces.


When performing a Slope analysis, the following options are available:

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Quality Enables you to adjust the quality of the slope plot.


Flip direction You can flip the direction for how the slope is calculated
from the direction reference by clicking the arrow in the graphics window.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 21

PROCEDURE - Using the Slope Analysis Option


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Analysis\Slope
Task 1:

SLOPE.PRT

Use the Slope Analysis Option for surfaces of a part model.

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If necessary to view the analysis clearly, select No Hidden from


the Display Style drop-down list in the In Graphics toolbar.
1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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select Slope

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3. Click the Inspect Geometry


group drop-down menu and

2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

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5. Right-click and select Direction


Collector.
Select the front surface with
the text.

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6. Notice the varying degrees of


positive and negative slope from
the direction normal to this plane.

7. Click the on-screen arrow to flip


the direction.

Module 12 | Page 22

2011 PTC

8. In the graphics window,


right-click and select Clear.
Right-click again and select
Direction Collector.
Select the right side surface.
9. In the Slope dialog box, select
Quick as the analysis type, if
necessary.
.

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10. Click Complete Analysis

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 23

Using the Reflection Analysis Option

Figure 1 Viewing a Reflection plot

Figure 2 Viewing a Reflection


Plot with Different Settings

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Specify references:
Surface
Available results:
Reflection plot on the surfaces
Options:
Number of Lights
Light Angle
Light Spacing
Light Width

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With the Reflection analysis option, you can simulate the


reflection of light on shiny or glossy surfaces.

Using the Reflection Analysis Option

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With the Reflection analysis option, you can simulate the reflection of light
on shiny or glossy surfaces. Surface imperfections, such as curvature
discontinuities, become obvious when rotating the model and viewing the
reflection curves. Breaks or interruptions in a reflection indicate a surface
discontinuity.
When performing a Reflection analysis, the following references must be
specified:
Surface Specifies the surfaces to be made reflective.
When a Reflection analysis is performed, the following results information
can be obtained:
Reflection plot on the specified surfaces.
When performing a Reflection analysis, the following options are available:
Number of Lights Specifies the number of light bands used for the
Reflection analysis.
Light Angle Adjusts the angle of the light bands.
Module 12 | Page 24

2011 PTC

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Light Spacing Adjusts the spacing of the light bands. When viewing the
reflection plot, the Spacing value controls the black band width.
Light Width Adjusts the width of the light bands. When viewing the
reflection plot, the Width value controls the gray band width.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 25

PROCEDURE - Using the Reflection Analysis Option


Close Window

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Analysis\Reflection
Task 1:

REFLECTION.PRT

Use the Reflection Analysis Option for surfaces of a part model.

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If necessary to view the analysis clearly, select No Hidden from


the Display Style drop-down list in the In Graphics toolbar.
1. Disable all Datum Display types.

select Reflection

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3. Click the Inspect Geometry


group drop-down menu and

2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

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4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

In

5. Rotate the model and notice the


reflection pattern changing on
the surfaces.

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6. Notice the breaks in reflection


around the center of the model.
The surfaces are not curvature
continuous.

7. In the Reflection dialog box, edit


the number of Lights to 20.
Edit the Angle to 45.
8. Rotate the model to view the
reflections.
9. In the Reflection dialog box,
select Quick as the analysis
type, if necessary.

10. Click Complete Analysis

This completes the procedure.

Module 12 | Page 26

2011 PTC

Using the Shadow Analysis Option

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Figure 1 Original Geometry

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Specify references:
Surface
Model
Direction
Available results:
Color plot of light and shadow
areas
Shadow area
Shadow ratio
Options:
Quality
Flip direction

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With the Shadow analysis option, you can simulate the effects
of casting shadows on selected surfaces.

PT

Figure 2 Viewing Sphere


Shadow on Surface

Figure 3 Viewing Shadow


with Different Light Angle and
Sphere Location

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Using the Shadow Analysis Option


With the Shadow analysis option, you can simulate the effects of casting
shadows on selected surfaces. A set of surfaces (or a model in an assembly)
is selected to cast the shadow, and a light direction is specified. The system
then produces a color plot indicating lit and shadowed areas, as well as
providing shadow area data.
When performing a Shadow analysis, the following references must be
specified:
Surface Specifies the surfaces on which to cast the shadow.
Model Specifies the surfaces or part model that is casting the shadow.
Direction Specifies the direction in which the shadow is projected.
When a Shadow analysis is performed, the following results information can
be obtained:
Color plot of light and shadow areas on the surfaces.
Shadow area Specifies the shadow area in the model units.
2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 27

Shadow ratio Specifies the ratio of shadow area to surface area in the
plot.
When performing a Shadow analysis, the following options are available:

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Quality Enables you to adjust the quality of the cast shadow.


Flip direction You can flip the direction so the shadow is projected from
the reference by clicking the arrow in the graphics window.

Module 12 | Page 28

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Using the Shadow Analysis Option


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Analysis\Shadow
Task 1:

SHADOW.PRT

Use the Shadow Analysis Option for surfaces of a part model.

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If necessary to view the analysis clearly, select No Hidden from


the Display Style drop-down list in the In Graphics toolbar.
1. Enable only the following Datum

select Shadow

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3. Click the Inspect Geometry


group drop-down menu and

Display types:

2. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

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4. Press CTRL and select both


upper surfaces.

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5. Right-click and select Model


Collector.
Press CTRL and select both
surfaces on the sphere.

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Model selection could be


another component in an
assembly, or surfaces within
the current model.

2011 PTC

Module 12 | Page 29

6. Right-click and select Direction


Collector.
Prehighlight datum plane
LIGHT and then select it.
7. Flip the light direction.
8. Notice the shadow pattern on the
surface.

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12. In the model tree, select datum


plane LIGHT.

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11. Edit the rear distance from 12 to


64.

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10. In the model tree, right-click


Revolve 1 and select Edit.

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9. In the Shadow dialog box, notice


the Shadow area and ratio
values.
Select Saved as the analysis
type, if necessary.
Click Complete Analysis .

13. Edit the angle to 45 and click


.

In

Regenerate

14. Click Saved Analysis

from the Manage group.

PT

15. In the Saved Analysis dialog box, click the eyeball to disable the
analysis display, and close the dialog box.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 12 | Page 30

2011 PTC

13
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Module

Extending and Trimming Surfaces

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Module Overview

When working with surfaces, it is often useful to manipulate quilts to achieve


your design intent quickly.

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In this module, you will learn how to extend and trim surfaces using a variety
of techniques.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Extend surfaces.
Extend surfaces using measurements.
Analyze extend surface options.
Create a surface trim.
Trim surfaces with geometry.
Trim surfaces with quilts.
Trim surfaces using the silhouette trim option.
Trim surfaces using the vertex round option.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 1

Extending Surfaces
The Extend tool enables you to extend a quilt by a specified
distance or up to a plane.

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Extend Original Surface


Extends edge chain along
surface.
Options:
Same
Tangent
Approximate
Extend Surface To Plane
Extends edge chain to plane

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Figure 1 Surface Extended


using Same Option

PT

Figure 2 Surface Extended


using Tangent Option

Figure 3 Extending a Surface to Plane

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Extending Surfaces

The Extend tool enables you to extend a quilt by a specified distance or up to


a plane. To start the Extend tool, first select the surface boundary edges to
be extended, and then click Extend from the Editing group.
You cannot select multiple edges using CTRL. Multiple edges must
be selected as a chain, such as One by One chain, or intent edges.
You specify the desired extend method by clicking the appropriate icon from
the Extend dashboard:
Extend Original Surface
Extends the surface boundary edge chain
along the original surface. This option has three additional options that
determine how the extension is created:
Same Creates the extension of the same type as the original surface
(for example, plane, cylinder, cone, or spline surface). The original
surface is extended past its selected boundary edge chain, and does
not create an additional surface patch. This is the default extend option.
Module 13 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Tangent Creates the extension as a ruled surface that is tangent to the


original surface. With this option an additional surface patch is created.
Approximate Creates the extension as a boundary blend between the
boundary edges of the original surface and the edges of the extension.
This method is useful when extending the surface up to a vertex that
does not lie along a straight edge. With this option an additional surface
patch is created.

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Extends the boundary edge chain up to


Extend Surface To Plane
a specified plane in the direction normal to this plane. With this option an
additional surface patch is created.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 3

PROCEDURE - Extending Surfaces


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Surface_Operations\Extend
Task 1:

EXTEND.PRT

Extend the edges of a surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Select the quilt and select the


right edge.
3. In the ribbon, click Extend
from the Editing group.

from

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6. Click Resume Feature


the Extend dashboard.

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5. Click Preview Feature


from
the Extend dashboard. Notice
the surface is trimmed.

4. Drag the handle to the left to 20.

In

7. Drag the handle to the right to 20


and click Complete Feature
from the dashboard.

PT

8. In the In Graphics toolbar, select


No Hidden
from the Display
Style types drop-down menu and
notice that the extended surface
portion is the same surface.

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9. Select Shading
from the
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

10. Select the quilt and select one of


the back edges.
11. Press SHIFT and select the other
back edge.
and drag the
12. Click Extend
handle back to 20.

13. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Edit the Method to Tangent.
14. Click Complete Feature
de-select all geometry.
Module 13 | Page 4

and

2011 PTC

15. Select No Hidden


from the
Display Style types drop-down
menu and notice the tangent line.
from the
16. Select Shading
Display Style types drop-down
menu.
17. Select the bottom quilt and select
the lower-left edge.

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18. Press SHIFT and select the


upper-left edge.

21. Click Complete Feature


de-select all geometry.

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and

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20. Select the Options tab from the


dashboard and edit the Method
to Approximate.

and drag the


19. Click Extend
handle left to 20.

from the Editing

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23. Click Extend


group.

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22. Select the bottom quilt and


query-select the entire front
intent edge.

24. Enable Plane Display

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25. In the dashboard, select Extend


Surface To Plane
and
select datum plane TOP.

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26. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 5

Extending Surfaces using Measurements

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Figure 1 Adding Points to the Extension

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Perform the following


operations on each added
point:
Delete the point.
Edit the offset Distance.
Change the Distance
Type.
Change the Reference:
Vertex or datum point
Change the Location:
Snap to reference
Length ratio

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You can use the Measurements tab to add multiple measurement


locations for the extend feature.

Figure 2 Measurements Dialog Box

PT

Extending Surfaces using Measurements

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You can use the Measurements tab to add multiple measurement locations
for the extend feature. You can add new location points either by right-clicking
in the Measurements tab and selecting Add, or by right-clicking existing
location points in the graphics window and selecting Add.
For each location point, you can perform the following operations:
Delete the point Right-click the point in either the Measurements tab or
graphics window and select Delete to delete the point.
Edit the Distance You can specify a different offset distance from each
added point.
Change the Distance Type Several options are available controlling how
the distance is measured.
Change the Reference You can select a vertex or datum point along
the extension edge.
Change the Location The Location is specified as a length ratio. If you
want the point to be at the midpoint of the extension edge, you would
specify the Location as 0.5. When points are snapped to a specific
Reference, the Location field becomes grayed out. If you snap a point to
Module 13 | Page 6

2011 PTC

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either extension edge endpoint, the Location field displays as either End
1 or End 2.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 7

PROCEDURE - Extending Surfaces using Measurements


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Surface_Operations\Extend_Measure
Task 1:

EXTEND_MEASURE.PRT

Extend the edges of a surface using measurements.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Select the quilt and select the


right edge.

3. In the ribbon, click Extend


from the Editing group.

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4. Drag the handle to the right to


20.

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5. In the ribbon, select the View tab and enable Point Tag Display
Select the Extend tab.

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6. In the dashboard, select the


Measurements tab.
Right-click in the tab and
select Add.
Drag the point downward to an
approximate Location of 0.20.
Type 0.25 in the Location
column for point 2.
Drag the point inward to an
offset Distance of 15.

Module 13 | Page 8

2011 PTC

7. In the graphics window,


right-click on the new point
and select Add.
In the Measurements tab,
select in the Reference
column for point 3.

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8. In the Measurements tab,


right-click and select Add.
Drag the new point to the rear
endpoint (End 2).
Notice that the Location value
becomes grayed out.
Notice that the Distance is
initially 25.
Type 20 in the Distance
column for point 4.

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.
Enable Point Display
Select datum point PNT0.
Notice that the Location value
becomes grayed out in the
Measurements tab.
Type 25 in the Distance
column for point 3.

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9. Click Complete Feature


from the Extend dashboard and
de-select all geometry.
10. Select the Extend feature by
selecting the right quilt edge.

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You must select the new


edge if selecting the extend
feature from the model.
Otherwise the boundary
blend feature is selected.

11. Right-click and select Edit.


12. Edit the 25 dimension to 30 and
click twice in the background.
13. Disable Point Tag Display

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 9

Analyzing Extend Surface Options


You can specify options for how the sides of surface geometry
are extended and measured.

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Measure options:
Changes how extension is
measured when viewed from
the side.
Distance Type options:
Changes how extension is
measured when viewed from
straight on.
Extension side options:
Changes how the surface
geometry is created for both
side 1 and side 2.

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Figure 1 Measure Options

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Figure 2 Extension Side Options

Figure 3 Distance Type Options

Analyzing Extend Surface Options


You can specify options for how the sides of surface geometry are extended
and measured.

Measurement Options
Within the Measurements tab of the Extend dashboard, the following options
are available:
Measure options Changes how the surface extension is measured when
viewed from the side. The following measurement options are available:

Measure in Surface
Measures the extension distance in the
reference surface. In Figure 1, the extension distance is measured
along the reference surface in the top image.

Module 13 | Page 10

2011 PTC

Extension Side Options

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Measure in Plane
Measures the extension distance in the
selected plane. You must specify the plane. In the upper-right figure,
the extension distance is measured along the selected plane in the
bottom image.
Distance Type Changes how the surface extension is measured when
viewed straight on. The following Distance Type options are available:
Normal To Edge Measures extension distance normal to the boundary
edge. In Figure 3, the extension distance is measured normal to the
boundary edge in the bottom image.
Along Edge Measures extension distance along the measurement
edge. In Figure 3, the extension distance is measured along the edge in
the top image.
To Vertex Parallel Starts extension edge at the vertex and parallel to
the boundary edge.
To Vertex Tangent Starts extension edge at the vertex and tangent
with the next one-sided edge.

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Within the Options tab of the Extend dashboard, you can specify how the
side surface geometry of the extend is created. You can specify how the
side surface geometry is created independently for side 1 and side 2. The
following extension side options are available:

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Along Creates the extension side along the selected side edge. In the
lower-left figure, the extension sides are created along the side edge
in the top image.
Normal To Creates the extension side normal to the boundary edge.
In the lower-left figure, the extension sides are created normal to the
boundary edge in the bottom image.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 11

PROCEDURE - Analyzing Extend Surface Options


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Extend_Options
Task 1:

EXTEND_OPTIONS.PRT

Analyze the options available for extending the edges of a surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Select the quilt and select one of


the front edges.

3. Press SHIFT and select the other


front edge.

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6. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation and notice the side
edges of the extended surface.

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5. Drag the handle downward to 10.

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4. In the ribbon, click Extend


from the Editing group.

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7. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Edit the drop-down lists to
Normal To for both Extension
sides.

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8. Notice the surface geometry


updates in this view.

Module 13 | Page 12

2011 PTC

9. Orient to the RIGHT view


orientation.
10. In the dashboard, select the
Measurements tab.
Notice that the measurement
type is set to Measure in
.

11. Enable Plane Display

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Surface

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12. In the Measurements tab,


edit the measurement type to

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In

.
Measure in Plane
Select datum plane DTM1.

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13. Notice the dimension orientation updates in this view.


14. Set the measurement type back to Measure in Surface

15. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.
16. In the Measurements tab, notice
the Distance Type is set to
Normal to Edge.
This measurement type
measures normal to the
extension edge.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 13

17. Edit the Distance Type to Along


Edge.
18. This measurement type
measures along the side
edge.
19. Notice the dimension orientation
updates in this view.

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from

21. Orient to the BACK view orientation.

24. Drag the handle down to 10.

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25. Select the Measurements tab


from the dashboard and notice
that the Distance Type is set to
Normal to Edge.

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23. With the Fill feature still selected,


select the horizontal edge and
from the Editing
click Extend
group.

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22. Unhide Fill 1 and disable Plane Display

20. Click Complete Feature


the Extend dashboard.

26. Edit the Distance Type to To


Vertex Parallel.

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27. Edit the Distance Type to To


Vertex Tangent.

28. In the Measurements tab,


right-click and select Add.

29. Drag the new point to End 2


and edit its Distance Type to To
Vertex Tangent.
30. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Module 13 | Page 14

2011 PTC

Creating a Surface Trim


A surface trim is analogous to a solid cut, except that it trims
away a portion of a surface.

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Create the surface trim feature.


Specify the Trim Quilt.
Flip Options:
Keep one side
Keep other side
Keep both sides
Thicken Options.

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Figure 1 Outside of Surface


Trim Kept

Figure 3 Both Sides of


Surface Trim Kept

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Figure 2 Inside of Surface Trim Kept

Creating a Surface Trim


When creating solids, you can add material by creating protrusions and then
remove material by creating cuts. With surfaces, you can create surfaces and
also create surface trims. A surface trim is analogous to a solid cut, except
that it trims away a portion of a surface.
You can create a surface trim as an extrude, revolve, sweep, blend, variable
section sweep, swept blend, and so on. You initiate a surface trim differently,
depending upon the tool type:
Menu manager tool When you want to create a surface trim as a feature
that uses the menu manager, you can start the tool as either a Surface
trim or Thin Surface trim. You then select the quilt to trim, and create the
desired feature as usual. Finally, you can flip the trim side.
Dashboard tool When you want to create a surface trim as a feature
that uses the dashboard, you start the desired feature tool and click the
2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 15

surface icon in the dashboard. Next, you click the Remove Material icon,
which you can think of as removing material from a surface in the form of a
trim. You then create the feature as usual, using the thin option if desired.
Finally, you can flip the trim side.
You must also specify the Trim Quilt, which is the quilt that is to be trimmed
by the surface feature you have created.

Flip Options
After selecting the trim quilt, you can flip the side to keep between three
options:

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Keep one side The surface portion is removed within the surface, as
shown in Figure 1.
Keep other side The surface portion is removed outside the surface,
as shown in Figure 2.
Keep both sides The surface portion is trimmed, but both sides are kept.
When both sides are kept, a new option appears called the Identity Side
option. This option is displayed with an additional arrow in the graphics
window and a flip option in the dashboard. The flip option enables you to
select which side maintains the original quilt ID. In Figure 3, the Identity
arrow points inward, so the new feature becomes the original quilt ID.

Thicken Options

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Like most solid features, you can use the Thicken option for dashboard
features and the Thin option for menu manager feature tools. Using the
Thicken option, you can flip the thicken side using one of three options:

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One side The Surface Trim is thickened within the surface.


Other side The Surface Trim is thickened outside the surface.
Both sides Both sides of the Surface Trim are thickened.

Module 13 | Page 16

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating a Surface Trim


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Trim
Task 1:

CREATE_SURF_TRIM.PRT

Trim a surface with another surface.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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3. In the dashboard, click Surface


and click Remove Material
.
Select the rounded quilt.
Select the Options tab from
the dashboard.
Edit the depths for Side 1 and
.
Side 2 to Through All

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2. Select Sketch 1 from the model


from
tree and click Extrude
the Shapes group.

4. Click Preview Feature

In

5. Click Resume Feature

so both
6. Click Flip Trim Sides
sides are being trimmed.

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7. Notice the additional flip identity


icon that appears in the graphics
window.

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8. Notice the additional flip


identity icon that appears in the
dashboard.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 17

9. Click Complete Feature


de-select all geometry.

and

10. Select the rectangular trim area


so the quilt highlights.

12. Edit the definition of Extrude 1.

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so the
13. Click Flip Trim Sides
material is removed outside the
sketch.

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11. Notice that the part is two quilts


now.

14. Click Preview Feature

Module 13 | Page 18

2011 PTC

15. Click Resume Feature

so the
16. Click Flip Trim Sides
material is removed inside the
sketch.

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This completes the procedure.

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18. Click Complete Feature

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17. Click Thicken Sketch


and
edit the thickness value to 20.
Click Change Thickness Side
three times to view the
options.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 19

Trimming Surfaces with Geometry


You can trim a selected surface quilt using other geometry
including datum planes, quilts, or curves or edges.

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Trimming geometry includes:


Datum plane
Other quilts
Curves or edges
Flip the side to keep:
One side
Other side
Both sides

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Figure 1 Trimming a Surface


using a Datum Plane

Figure 2 Trimming a Surface


using a Curve

Figure 3 Trimming a Surface


using Another Surface

Trimming Surfaces with Geometry


You can trim a selected surface quilt using other geometry including datum
planes, quilts, or curves or edges. In Figure 1, the quilt is trimmed using a
datum plane. In Figure 2, the quilt is trimmed using a curve, and in Figure
3, the surface quilt is trimmed with another quilt.
After selecting the trimming object, you can flip the side to keep between
three options:
One side Surface is removed within trimming object.
Other side Surface is removed outside the trimming object.
Both sides Surface is trimmed, but both sides are kept.

Module 13 | Page 20

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Trimming Surfaces with Geometry


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Trim_Geometry
Task 1:

TRIM_WTH_GEOM.PRT

Trim surfaces using existing geometry.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

3. Click Trim
group.

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2. Select the orange quilt.

from the Editing

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5. Click Flip Trim Sides


three
times to view the trim options
available.

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4. Select datum plane DTM1.

6. Click Complete Feature


to
keep the large quilt portion.
.

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7. Disable Plane Display

8. Select the orange quilt again and

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click Trim
group.

from the Editing

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9. Select the datum curve.

10. Click Flip Trim Sides


four
times to view the trim options
available.
11. Click Complete Feature
to
keep the inside oval portion.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 21

12. Select the orange quilt again and


click Trim

to

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15. Click Complete Feature


keep the outside portion.

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14. Click Flip Trim Sides


three
times to view the trim options
available.

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13. Select the transparent surface


quilt.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 13 | Page 22

2011 PTC

Trimming Surfaces with Quilts Options


When trimming a surface with another quilt, there are numerous
options available.

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Options include:
Keep trimming surface
Thin trim
Specify thickness value
Thin side options
Trimming method
Excluded surfaces
Silhouette

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Figure 1 Trimming a Surface

Figure 2 Trimming Surface Not Kept

Figure 3 Thin Trim with


Excluded Surface

Trimming Surfaces with Quilts Options


When trimming a surface with another quilt, the following options are
available:
Keep trimming surface If enabled, the quilt selected as the trimming
object is left intact when the trim is completed. If disabled, the quilt selected
as the trimming object is consumed by the trim feature when completed.
In Figure 1, the trimming surface has been kept. In Figure 2, the trimming
surface has not been kept.
Thin trim When enabled, creates a trim based on a thickness value from
the trimming quilt. With the Thin trim, you can specify the following options:
Thickness value Specifies the thickness of the trim.
2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 23

Thin side options Enables you to further control how the Thin trim is

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made using the Flip Trim Sides


option in the dashboard. Options
include:
One side Thicken is applied to the inside of the sketch.
Other side Thicken is applied to the outside of the sketch.
Both sides Thicken is applied symmetrically to both sides of the
sketch.
Method Enables you to specify the method of Thin trim. Methods
include Normal to surface, Automatic fit, and Controlled fit.
Excluded surfaces You can select surfaces from the quilt selected as
the trimming object to exclude them from the trim operation. In Figure 3,
the left surface of the rectangular trimming object has been excluded
from the Thin trim. The Auto select option automatically excludes
surfaces for successful completion of the feature.
Silhouette trim Trims using the Silhouette Trim option.

Module 13 | Page 24

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Trimming Surfaces with Quilts Options


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Trim_Geometry_Options
TRIM_GEOM_ OPTIONS.PRT
Task 1:

Trim a surface using different quilts options.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


Trim

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2. Select the orange quilt and click


from the Editing group.

4. Click Preview Feature

3. Select the transparent quilt.

5. Click Resume Feature

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6. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Clear the Keep trimming
surface check box.
.

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7. Click Preview Feature

8. Click Resume Feature

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9. Select the Options tab.


Select the Thin trim check
box.
Edit the Thin trim to 10.

three
10. Click Flip Trim Sides
times to view the trim options
available.
11. Click Preview Feature

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 25

12. Click Resume Feature

14. Click Complete Feature

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13. Select the Options tab.


Click in the Exclude surfaces
collector.
Select the left surface of the
rectangular extrude feature.

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16. Notice that the quilt became part


of the trim feature.

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15. Right-click Trim 1 and select


Hide.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 13 | Page 26

2011 PTC

Trimming Surfaces with the Silhouette Trim


Option
The Silhouette Trim option enables you to trim a surface quilt
based on the outline of the quilt shape as viewed from a view
direction reference.

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Available when a plane is selected


as the trimming object.
The surface is trimmed as it falls
over the horizon based on the
view direction plane.
Keep one, other, or both sides.

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Figure 1 Silhouette Trim,


One Side Kept

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Figure 2 Silhouette Trim,


Other Side Kept

Figure 3 Silhouette Trim,


Both Sides Kept

Trimming Surfaces with the Silhouette Trim Option


The Silhouette Trim option enables you to trim a surface quilt based on the
outline of the quilt shape as viewed from a view direction reference. The
Silhouette Trim option is available within the Trim tool when the trim quilt
is selected and a plane is selected as the trimming object. The surface is
trimmed as it falls over the horizon based on the view direction plane. You
can keep either side of the surface, or both sides. In Figure 1, one side of
the surface is kept. In Figure 2, the other side is kept, and in Figure 3, both
sides are kept.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 27

PROCEDURE - Trimming Surfaces with the Silhouette


Trim Option
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Trim_Silhouette
Task 1:

SILHOUETTE.PRT

Trim a surface using the Silhouette trim option.

Display types:

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1. Enable only the following Datum


.

2. Orient to the 3D view orientation.

4. Click Trim
group.

3. Select the quilt.

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from the Editing

5. Select datum plane VIEW.


.

Silhouette Trim

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7. Notice that as viewed from the


VIEW datum plane, the surface
is trimmed at the horizon
location. In this case, there are
two silhouette lines, and the
central portion is kept.

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6. In the dashboard, click

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8. In the graphics window, click the


arrow to flip the direction.

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9. Notice that the surface is trimmed


at the same silhouette location,
but the opposite sides are kept.

10. In the dashboard, click Flip Trim


Sides

11. Notice that the surface is trimmed


at the same silhouette location,
but that both sides are kept.

Module 13 | Page 28

2011 PTC

12. Right-click and select Flip.


13. Click Complete Feature

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14. Select datum plane VIEW, then


right-click and select Edit.

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This completes the procedure.

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16. Notice that the silhouette trim


updates to reflect the new
horizon from the updated view
direction.

15. Edit the angle from 0 to -20 and


twice in the background.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 29

Trimming Surfaces with the Vertex Round Option


You can trim the vertices of a quilt using the Vertex Round
option.

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Create Vertex Rounds on


convex or concave corners
of a quilt.
Vertex Rounds can be
applied to 2-D or 3-D
surfaces.

Figure 2 Surface Model with


Vertex Rounds

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Figure 1 Original Surface Model

Trimming Surfaces with the Vertex Round Option


You can trim the vertices of a quilt using the Vertex Round option. This
feature applies a fillet to a concave or convex corner of a quilt. The vertex
round can be applied to 2-D or 3-D surfaces. In Figure 2, vertex round trims
have been applied to three different corners of the surface. Vertex round radii
can be modified similar to a round radius.

Module 13 | Page 30

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Trimming Surfaces with the Vertex


Round Option
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Vertex_Round
Task 1:

VERTEX_ROUND.PRT

Trim a surface using the Vertex Round option.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

2. Click the Surfaces group


drop-down menu and select
Vertex Round.

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4. Edit the value to 20 and press


ENTER.

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3. Select the uppermost right corner


of the quilt.

from

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5. Click Complete Feature


the dashboard.

6. Click the Surfaces group


drop-down menu and select
Vertex Round.
7. Select the concave corner below
the previous corner.
8. Edit the value to 14 and press
ENTER.

2011 PTC

Module 13 | Page 31

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9. Click Complete Feature

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12. Edit the value to 20 and press


ENTER.

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11. Select the front-right corner of


the quilt.

10. Click the Surfaces group


drop-down menu and select
Vertex Round.

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13. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Module 13 | Page 32

2011 PTC

14
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Module

Manipulating Surfaces

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Module Overview

When working with surfaces, it is often useful to manipulate quilts to achieve


your design intent quickly.

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In this module, you will learn how to copy and offset surfaces, as well as how
to move, mirror, and merge surfaces using a variety of techniques.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Copy and paste surfaces.
Offset surfaces.
Offset and expand surfaces.
Offset surfaces and add draft.
Move and rotate quilts.
Mirror quilts.
Merge surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 14 | Page 1

Copying and Pasting Surfaces


Copying and Pasting a surface creates an overlay copy of the
surface.

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You can then manipulate the


copied surface.
You can exclude surfaces from the
copy.
Options:
Copy all surfaces as is
Exclude surfaces and Fill holes
Copy Inside boundary

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Figure 1 Copied Surface with


Excluded Surface Portion

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Figure 2 Copied Surface


with Filled Holes

Figure 3 Surface Copied Inside


Boundary Only

Copying and Pasting Surfaces

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Copying and Pasting a surface creates an overlay copy of the surface. You
can then manipulate the copied surface.

Copy and Paste Selections

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You can select any surface or surface set (quilt or solid) to copy and paste.
Surface set types include the following:

Single You can press CTRL to select multiple surfaces.


Solid surfaces
Intent surfaces
Surface/boundary
Loop
Exclude You can exclude individual surfaces from sets by pressing CTRL
and de-selecting them. In Figure 1, the center rectangular square has
been excluded from the surface copy.
You can select surfaces using either of the following methods:
Select surfaces directly using the mouse.
Use the Chain dialog box. You can use the Chain dialog box in the context
of the tool only.
Module 14 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Copy and Paste Methods


When copying and pasting surfaces, you can use any of the following
methods, or a combination:
and Paste
icons from the Operations
In the ribbon, click Copy
group.
Press CTRL+C and CTRL+V shortcut keys.

Copy and Paste Surface Options

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The following options are available when copying and pasting surfaces:

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Copy all surfaces as is Creates an exact duplicate of the original surface.


Exclude surfaces and Fill holes Copies some of the surfaces with an
option to fill holes or other voids in the surface. In Figure 2, the square cut
and round hole have both been filled.
Copy Inside boundary Copies the selected surfaces, and trims them to a
selected closed boundary curve. In Figure 3, the surface has been copied
and trimmed to the curve.

2011 PTC

Module 14 | Page 3

PROCEDURE - Copying and Pasting Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Copy_Paste
Task 1:

COPY_PASTE.PRT

Copy and paste surfaces in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the model tree, select Extrude


3.

4. In the ribbon, click Copy


from
the from the Operations group.

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6. In the Surface Copy dashboard,


select the Options tab.
Select the Copy all surfaces
as is option, if necessary.

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5. In the ribbon, select Paste


from the Paste types drop-down
menu in the Operations group.

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3. Query select the entire top


surface.

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7. Click Complete Feature

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8. Right-click and select Hide to


hide Copy 1.
9. In the model tree, select Extrude
3.

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10. Query select the entire top


surface.

11. Click Copy

12. Click Paste

13. Press CTRL and select the


center rectangle to exclude it.
14. Click Complete Feature

15. Right-click and select Hide to


hide Copy 2.

Module 14 | Page 4

2011 PTC

16. In the model tree, select Extrude 3.


17. Query select the entire top surface.
18. Press CTRL+C to copy.
19. Press CTRL+V to paste.

22. Right-click and select Hide to


hide Copy 3.

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21. Click Complete Feature

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20. Select the Options tab.


Select Exclude surfaces and
Fill holes.
Press CTRL and select the
edges of the square cut and
round hole.

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23. In the model tree, right-click Project 1 and select Unhide.

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24. In the model tree, select Extrude 3.


25. Query-select the entire top surface.

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26. Press CTRL+C to copy and


press CTRL+V to paste.

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27. Select the Options tab.


Select Copy Inside
boundary.
Query select the entire
projected curve.
28. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 14 | Page 5

Offsetting Surfaces

Figure 1 Offsetting a Surface

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The offset surface remains


dependent on the original surface.
Fit types:
Normal to Surface
Automatic Fit
Controlled Fit
Other options:
Create side surface
Special handling

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You can create a surface quilt by offsetting a value from another


quilt or a solid surface.

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Figure 2 Side Surfaces Versus


No Side Surfaces Created

Figure 3 Automatic Fit Versus


Controlled Fit

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Offsetting Surfaces

You can create a surface quilt by offsetting a value from another quilt or a
solid surface, as shown in Figure 1. The offset surface remains dependent
on the original surface. In addition to specifying the offset distance, you can
flip the direction the surface is offset.
When offsetting surfaces, the following options are available:
Fit type Enables you to specify how the surface is offset. Options include:
Normal to Surface Offsets the surface normal to the reference surface
or quilt.
Automatic Fit Automatically determines a coordinate system and
offsets the surface along its axes as necessary to create the offset
approximately in shape to the original. This fit type is useful in cases
where the Normal to Surface fit type fails.
Controlled Fit Enables you to select a coordinate system, and manually
control whether the surface is translated in the X, Y, and Z axes.
Module 14 | Page 6

2011 PTC

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Create side surface Creates additional surfaces between the offset


surface and the original surface. Note that these surfaces are not merged
with the other offset surfaces. Figure 2 displays a surface offset with and
without side surfaces created.
Special handling The Special Handling dialog box can appear if the offset
fails; this typically occurs when the offset exceeds the radius value of the
surface. The Special Handling dialog box provides you with the option of
excluding failing surfaces from the offset operation. There is also an option
for Approximate Offset within the special handling dialog box. This option
enables the system to offset what it can, and approximate the surface
for areas it cannot offset. In addition, you have the option to leave the
approximate offset surface attached or unattached from the original.

2011 PTC

Module 14 | Page 7

PROCEDURE - Offsetting Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Offset
Task 1:

OFFSET.PRT

Offset a surface using different offset types.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Select the quilt.


3. In the ribbon, click Offset
from the Editing group.

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5. Drag the offset handle to 25.

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6. Orient to the FRONT view


orientation.
7. In the Offset dashboard, select
the Options tab.
Notice the offset type is
Normal to Surface.
Edit the offset to 35.
Notice the preview geometry
fails.
Edit the offset type to
Automatic Fit.

4. Click the arrow in the graphics


window to flip the offset direction.

8. Click the arrow to flip the offset


downward.

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9. Edit the offset type to Controlled


Fit.

10. Enable Csys Display

11. In the Options tab, clear the X


check box to prevent translation
in that direction.
12. Drag the offset to 45 to notice
the difference.
13. Notice the offset surface does not change shape in the X direction.
Module 14 | Page 8

2011 PTC

14. Click Complete Feature

15. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

1. In the model tree, press CTRL


and select Offset 1 and Extrude
1.
Right-click and select Hide.

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2. Right-click Extrude 2 and select


Unhide.

Offset a surface with side surfaces.

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Task 2:

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16. Disable Csys Display

3. Select the quilt and click Offset


from the Editing group.

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4. Click the arrow in the graphics


window to flip the offset inward.

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5. Edit the offset to 20.

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6. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select the Create side
surface check box.
7. Click Complete Feature
de-select all geometry.

2011 PTC

and

Module 14 | Page 9

8. From the In Graphics toolbar,


from the
select No Hidden
Display Style types drop-down
menu.
9. Notice the surfaces are not
merged, as indicated by the
orange one-sided edges.

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from the
10. Select Shading
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 14 | Page 10

2011 PTC

Offsetting Surfaces with the Expand Option


You can offset a surface by expanding it based on a sketch,
creating an embossed surface.

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An expansion is seen on one side


whereas a depression is seen on
the other side.
Options:
Flip the directions of:
Material side
Offset direction
Side surface normal to:
Surface
Sketch

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Figure 1 Flipping Material Side

Figure 3 Offset Normal to


Sketch Versus Surface

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Figure 2 Flipping Offset Direction

Offsetting Surfaces with the Expand Option

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You can offset a surface by expanding it based on a sketch, creating an


embossed surface. The original surface is literally offset, so an expansion is
seen on one side, and a depression is created on the other side.
When creating the offset surface with the expand option, you must specify
the surface quilt to be offset and the sketch that is to be expanded.

Flip Direction Options


You can flip the directions of the following two items:
Material side In Figure 1, you can view the differences between the
resultant geometry when the material side is flipped.
Offset direction In Figure 2, you can view the differences between the
resultant geometry when the offset direction is flipped.

Side Surface Normal To Option


The Side surface normal to option controls which entity the side surface is
normal to. You can specify either of the following:
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Module 14 | Page 11

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Surface The surface is offset normal to itself. In the right image of figure
3, the side surface normal to is the surface.
Sketch The surface is offset normal to the sketching plane of the
reference sketch. In the left image of Figure 3, the side surface normal
to is the sketch.

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PROCEDURE - Offsetting Surfaces with the Expand


Option
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Offset_Expand
Task 1:

OFFSET_EXPAND.PRT

Offset the surfaces in a part model using the Expand option.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Select the quilt.

3. In the ribbon, click Offset


from the Editing group.

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4. In the dashboard, click Expand


.

Offset

5. Select the sketch.

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6. Edit the offset to 20.


.

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7. Click Preview Feature


8. Orient to the 3D2 view
orientation.

9. Notice the emboss effect.

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10. Orient to the 3D1 view


orientation.

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11. Click Resume Feature

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12. Click Change Material Direction


.
13. Click Preview Feature

14. Click Resume Feature

.
.

15. Click Change Material Direction


.

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Module 14 | Page 13

16. Click Change Offset Direction


.
17. Click Preview Feature
18. Click Resume Feature

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21. Click Complete Feature

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20. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select Surface for the Side
surface normal to option.

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19. Click Change Offset Direction


.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 14 | Page 14

2011 PTC

Offsetting Surfaces with Draft


You can offset a surface and create draft angles by expanding it
based on a sketch, creating an embossed surface.

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Similar to Offset Expand, except it


adds a draft.
Options:
Side surface normal to:
Surface
Sketch
Side surface profile:
Straight
Tangent

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Figure 1 Side Surface Normal


to Surface

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Figure 2 Side Surface Normal


to Sketch

Figure 3 Side Surface


Tangent Profile

Offsetting Surfaces with Draft


You can offset a surface and create draft angles by expanding it based on
a sketch, creating an embossed surface. This option is similar to Offset
Expand, except it adds in the capability of a draft angle. The original surface
is literally offset, so an expansion is seen on one side, and a depression
is created on the other side.
When creating the offset surface with draft, you must specify the surface quilt
and the sketch that is to be expanded. You can flip the offset direction and
also specify a draft angle for the expanded surface.

Offset with Draft Options


The following options are available when offsetting a surface with draft:
Side surface normal to Controls which entity the side surface is normal
to. You can specify either of the following:
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Module 14 | Page 15

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Surface The surface is offset normal to itself. In Figure 1, the side


surface normal to is the surface.
Sketch The surface is offset normal to the sketching plane of the
reference sketch. In Figure 2, the side surface normal to is the sketch.
Side surface profile Controls the profile of the side surface. You can
specify either of the following:
Straight Side surfaces are created with sharp edges. Both Figures 1
and 2 are created using the Straight side surface profile.
Tangent Rounded surfaces are created between the offset surface
and the parent surface. In Figure 3, the side surface profile is specified
as Tangent.

Module 14 | Page 16

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Offsetting Surfaces with Draft


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Offset_Draft
Task 1:

OFFSET_DRAFT.PRT

Offset the surfaces in a part model with draft.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Select the quilt.


3. In the ribbon, click Offset
from the Editing group.

4. In the Offset dashboard, click

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With Draft

5. Select the sketch.


6. Edit the offset to 20.
7. Edit the draft angle to 10.
8. Click Preview Feature

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9. Click Resume Feature

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10. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select Sketch for the Side
surface normal to option.
.

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11. Click Preview Feature

12. Click Resume Feature

13. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select Tangent for the Side
surface profile option.
14. Click Complete Feature

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Module 14 | Page 17

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15. Orient to the 3D2 view


orientation.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 14 | Page 18

2011 PTC

Moving and Rotating Quilts


You can transform a surface quilt by translating or rotating it.

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Differences from copying/pasting


features:
You must select the quilt.
Transform is always dependent
on the original.
You have the option to hide the
original.
Hide original geometry option.
Transform operations:
Move
Rotate

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Figure 1 Original Geometry

Figure 2 Transformed Quilt,


Original Geometry Retained

Figure 3 Transformed Quilt,


Original Geometry Hidden

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Moving and Rotating Quilts

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You can transform a surface quilt by translating or rotating it. To transform a


quilt, select the quilt and use the Copy and Paste Special functions. A new
surface feature is created, leaving the original intact in the model tree.
The quilt transform functionality is fundamentally different than copying and
pasting features in the following three ways:
You must select the quilt, not the surface feature. This is important
because if you select the feature you simply create a feature copy, not
a surface transform.
The surface transform is always dependent on the original quilt.
By default, the original quilt is hidden upon completion, but you have the
option to leave the original quilt displayed.
When transforming a quilt, the following option is available:
Hide original geometry Hides the original quilt. You can disable this
option to leave the original quilt visible. In Figure 2, the quilt is transformed
and the original quilt is not hidden. In Figure 3, the quilt is transformed and
the original quilt is hidden.
2011 PTC

Module 14 | Page 19

Transform Operations
You can control transform operations using the Transformations tab in the
dashboard. The following transform operations are available:

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Move Enables you to select a translation reference such as a plane, axis,


or edge, and specify a translation value. You can also drag the handle to
move the quilt.
Rotate Enables you to select a rotation reference such as an axis or
edge, and specify an angle value. You can also drag the handle to change
the angle for the quilt.
New Move Enables you to add another move or rotate transformation
within the feature. You can have several move and rotate operations within
a single feature.

Module 14 | Page 20

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Moving and Rotating Quilts


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Move_Rotate
Task 1:

MOVE_ROTATE.PRT

Transform a surface by moving and rotating it.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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2. In the model tree, select Extrude


2.

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You must select the quilt


rather than the feature;
otherwise, you will actually
create a feature copy, not a
surface transform.

3. In the graphics window, select


Extrude 2 again to select the
quilt.

4. In the Operations group, click


Copy

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and select Paste

from the Paste


Special
types drop-down menu.

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5. In the dashboard, click Rotate


, prehighlight datum axis CTR,
and then select it.

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6. Edit the angle to 90.

7. In the dashboard, select the


Transformations tab.
Click New Move and select
datum plane DTM1 as the
Direction Reference.
Drag the translation handle
down to 3.

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Module 14 | Page 21

8. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Clear the Hide original
geometry check box.
9. Click Complete Feature

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10. Select Extrude 2.

11. Select Extrude 2 again to select


the quilt.

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You must select the quilt


rather than the feature;
otherwise you will actually
create a feature copy, not a
surface transform.

and select Paste

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12. Click Copy

from the Paste


Special
types drop-down menu.

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13. In the dashboard, click Translate


, if necessary, and select the
front, horizontal edge of the base
feature.

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14. Drag the translation handle to


the right to 3.

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15. Right-click and select New


Move.
16. Right-click and select Rotate.
Prehighlight datum axis A_1
and then select it.
Edit the angle to 270.

Module 14 | Page 22

2011 PTC

17. Click Complete Feature

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18. Right-click Extrude 2 and select


Edit.

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This completes the procedure.

19. Zoom in, edit the height from


1 to 1.5, and click twice in the
background.

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Module 14 | Page 23

Mirroring Quilts
You can transform a surface quilt by mirroring it.

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Specify a reference plane.


Differences from mirroring
features:
You must select the quilt.
Transform is always dependent
on the original.
You have the option to hide the
original.
Hide original geometry option.

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Figure 1 Original Geometry

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Figure 2 Mirrored Quilt, Original


Geometry Hidden

Figure 3 Mirrored Quilt, Original


Geometry Retained

Mirroring Quilts

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You can transform a surface quilt by mirroring it. To mirror a quilt, select
the quilt and click Mirror
from the Editing group. You must specify a
reference plane for the mirror. A new surface feature is created, leaving the
original feature intact in the model tree.
The quilt mirror functionality is fundamentally different than mirroring features
in the following three ways:
You must select the quilt, not the surface feature. This is important
because if you select the feature you simply create a feature mirror, not
a surface transform.
The surface transform is always dependent on the original quilt. Unlike a
conventional mirror feature, you cannot make the transform independent
on the original feature.
By default, the original quilt is displayed upon completion, but you have
the option to hide the original quilt.
When mirroring a quilt, the following option is available:
Module 14 | Page 24

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Hide original geometry Hides the original quilt. You can enable this option
to hide the original quilt. In Figure 2, the quilt is mirrored about datum plane
TOP, and the original quilt is hidden. In Figure 3, the quilt is mirrored about
datum plane RIGHT, and the original quilt is not hidden.

2011 PTC

Module 14 | Page 25

PROCEDURE - Mirroring Quilts


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Mirror
Task 1:

MIRROR.PRT

Transform a surface by mirroring it.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the model tree, select Revolve


1.

3. In the graphics window, select


Revolve 1 again to select the
quilt.

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You must select the quilt


rather than the feature;
otherwise you will get a
feature mirror, not surface
transform.

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4. Click Mirror
from the Editing
group, and select datum plane
TOP from the model tree.

5. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select the Hide original
geometry check box.

6. Click Complete Feature

Module 14 | Page 26

2011 PTC

7. Select Mirror 1.
8. Select Mirror 1 again to select
the quilt.

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You must select the quilt


rather than the feature;
otherwise you will get a
feature mirror, not surface
transform.

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9. Click Mirror
and select
datum plane RIGHT from the
model tree.

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10. Click Complete Feature

11. Right-click Revolve 1 and select


Edit.

12. Zoom in, edit the offset value


from 150 to 100, and click twice
in the background.

This completes the procedure.


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Module 14 | Page 27

Merging Surfaces
Merging a quilt is required for operations such as creating solids
from quilts.

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Colors:
Orange = one-sided
edges.
Purple = two-sided
edges.
Merge makes one-sided
edges two-sided.
Merge options:
Intersect
Join

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Figure 1 Surface Merge Keep Options

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Figure 2 Surfaces Edge


Display of Separate Quilts

Figure 3 Surface Edge Display


of Merged Quilts

Merging Surfaces
You can merge two or more intersecting or adjacent quilts. Merging a quilt
makes it selectable as a single entity for other operations, and is required for
operations such as creating solids from quilts.
Remember the following:
Surfaces are shown using orange and purple highlighting on the edges.
Orange denotes outer or one-sided edges.
Purple denotes inner or two-sided edges because they border two surface
patches.
Therefore:
Merging a surface results in the creation of two-sided edges from one-sided
edges. In Figure 2, the adjacent quilt surface edges are separate,
Module 14 | Page 28

2011 PTC

one-sided edges, as they display in orange. In Figure 3, the quilts have


been merged to form two-sided, purple edges.
Merged surface edges appear in purple.

Merge Options
There are two types of merge operations, used for different surface geometry:

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Intersect Primarily used for intersecting quilts, when a trimming effect is


desired, although it can be used on adjacent quilts. The Intersect option
provides up to two flip arrows, enabling four possible geometry outcomes,
as shown in Figure 1. Intersect is the default merge option.
Join Recommended for use on adjacent quilts. Join can also be used to
join surfaces when no trimming effect is desired. For example, you could
join two surfaces that meet in a T, without having to decide which sides
to keep.

2011 PTC

Module 14 | Page 29

PROCEDURE - Merging Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Merge
Task 1:

MERGE.PRT

Merge surfaces in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. Select the oval surface.

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3. Press CTRL and select the


boundary surface.

5. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select Intersect, if necessary.

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7. Click Resume Feature

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6. Click Preview Feature

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4. In the ribbon, click Merge


from the Editing group.

8. In the Merge dashboard, click


Change Second Quilt Side
9. Click Preview Feature

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10. Click Resume Feature

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11. In the graphics window, click


both arrows to flip them.

12. Click Preview Feature

Module 14 | Page 30

2011 PTC

13. Click Resume Feature

14. In the dashboard, click Change


.

Task 2:

and

Join surfaces in a part model.

1. Press CTRL and select JOIN1,


JOIN2, and JOIN3.

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4. From the In Graphics toolbar,


select No Hidden
from the
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

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2. Right-click and select Unhide.


3. De-select all geometry.

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Second Quilt Side

15. Click Complete Feature


de-select all geometry.

5. Notice the one-sided orange


edges between the main surface
and the three joined surfaces.

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6. Press CTRL and select the main


center quilt and right quilt.

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7. In the ribbon, click Merge


from the Editing group.

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8. In the dashboard, select the


Options tab.
Select Join.

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Module 14 | Page 31

9. Press CTRL and drag a window


around all quilts to select them.
10. Click Complete Feature
de-select all geometry.

and

11. Notice that the edges between


the main surface and three
joined surfaces are two-sided
purple edges.

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from the
12. Select Shading
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 14 | Page 32

2011 PTC

15
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Module

Creating and Editing Solids using Quilts

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Module Overview

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Surfaces are primarily used to define complex shapes that are difficult to
define using solid modeling tools. Once the surfaces are created however,
the creation of a solid model is typically the goal. Also, adding or removing
material from solid models using surfaces is a powerful editing technique.

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In this module, you will learn to use a variety of tools to add and remove
material when working with solid and surface models.

Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Thicken quilts.
Solidify quilts to add and remove material, as well as patch material.
Offset surfaces using the Replace option.
Create rounds on surfaces.
Converting solid rounds to surfaces.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 1

Thickening Surface Quilts


With the Thicken tool, you can offset a selected quilt to create or
remove material.

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Basic controls:
Add material
Remove material
Thickness value
Flip direction
Thickening options:
Thicken type
Normal to surface
Automatic fit
Controlled fit
Excluded Surfaces

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Figure 1 Thickening a Surface

Figure 2 Adding or Removing


Material

Figure 3 Thickening a Bottle

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Thickening Surface Quilts

With the Thicken tool, you can offset a selected quilt to create or remove
material. The following basic controls are available:

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Add material Fills the thickened quilt with solid material. Use the Solid
option to add material.
Remove material Removes material from inside the thickened quilt. Use
the Remove Material
option to remove material. In Figure 2, the quilt
was used to add material in the left image, while it was used to remove
material in the right image.
Thickness value Specifies how much the surface is thickened.
Similar to offsetting a surface, the maximum thickness value is a
function of the minimum radius of the surface.
Flip direction Enables you to flip the thickness direction to be on either
side of the quilt, or centered around both sides of the quilt. Use the Change
option to flip the direction.
Thickness Direction

Thickening Options
The following options are available within the Options tab of the Thicken tool:
Thicken type Enables you to specify how the quilt is thickened. The
three available options are:
Module 15 | Page 2

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Normal to surface Offsets the surface normal to the reference surface


or quilt.
Automatic fit Automatically determines a coordinate system and
offsets the surface along its axes as necessary, to create the offset
approximate in shape to the original. This option is useful in cases in
which the Normal to surface thicken type fails.
Controlled fit Enables you to select a coordinate system and manually
control it, if the surface is translated in the X, Y, and Z axes. This
option is useful in cases in which the Normal to surface option fails, and
Automatic fit does not yield suitable geometry.
Excluded Surfaces Enables you to select surfaces to remove them from
the thicken operation.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 3

PROCEDURE - Thickening Surface Quilts


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Thicken
Task 1:

THICKEN_1.PRT

Thicken a surface quilt to add material.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Examine the surfaces in the


model.

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4. In the ribbon, click Thicken


from the Editing group.
Edit the thickness value to 5.

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3. Select the quilt.

from

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5. Click Complete Feature


the Thicken dashboard.
.

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6. Click Close

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2011 PTC

Task 2:

Thicken a surface quilt to remove material.

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1. Click Open
and double-click
THICKEN_2.PRT to open it.

4. Click Preview Feature

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3. In the ribbon, click Thicken


.
Edit the thickness value to 3.
Click Change Thickness
three times to
Direction
view the options.

2. Select the quilt.

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5. Click Resume Feature

7. Click Complete Feature

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8. Click Close

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6. Click Remove Material

Thicken a surface quilt to add material.

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Task 3:

1. Click Open
and double-click
THICKEN_3.PRT to open it.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 5

2. Select the quilt.


3. In the ribbon, click Thicken
.
Edit the thickness value to 10.
Click Change Thickness
to flip the
Direction
material to the inside.
4. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

Module 15 | Page 6

2011 PTC

Solidifying Quilts to Add Material


You can use the Solidify tool to add solid material to a model,
based on a surface quilt.

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To be solidified for adding material,


a quilt must define a closed
volume.
An enclosed quilt.
An open quilt surrounded by
existing solid material.

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Figure 1 Original Surface Quilt

Figure 2 Solidified Surface Quilt

Figure 3 Adding Material by


Solidifying a Quilt

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Solidifying Quilts to Add Material

You can use the Solidify tool to add solid material to a model, based on a
option in the dashboard. To solidify a
surface quilt. Select the Solid
surface quilt to add material, it must define an enclosed volume, for example:
An enclosed quit. In Figure 1, the enclosed quilt has been solidified into a
solid model shown in Figure 2.
An open quilt bounded by existing solid material. In Figure 3, the open
quilt is bounded by existing solid material at its open end. Consequently,
the open quilt is solidified to add solid material to the model, as shown in
the lower image.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 7

PROCEDURE - Solidifying Quilts to Add Material


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Surface_Operations\Solidify_Add
Task 1:

SOLIDIFY_ADD.PRT

Solidify quilts in a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

3. Edit the selection filter to Quilts.

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4. Select the quilt.

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from the
2. Select Hidden Line
Display Style types drop-down
menu and notice the closed quilt
with no orange edges.

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5. In the ribbon, click Solidify


from the Editing group.

from

6. Click Complete Feature


the Solidify dashboard.

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7. Notice that the lines are now the


color of the model because the
feature is solid.

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from the
8. Select Shading
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

9. In the model tree, right-click


Group QUILT2 and select
Unhide.

10. De-select all geometry.


from the
11. Select Hidden Line
Display Style types drop-down
menu and notice the open quilt
with orange edges on the bottom.

Module 15 | Page 8

2011 PTC

12. Select the quilt.

14. Click Complete Feature

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13. Click Solidify

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17. Select Shading


from the
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

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16. Notice that the lines are now the


color of the model because the
feature is solid.

15. De-select all geometry.

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PT

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 9

Solidifying Quilts to Remove Material

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Figure 1 Removing Material


using a Quilt

PT

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To be solidified for removing


material, a quilt must define a
volume to remove from the model:
An enclosed quilt.
An open quilt bounded by
existing solid material.
An open quilt overlapping the
model:
Must pass completely
through.
A datum plane.

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You can use the Solidify tool to remove solid material from a
model, based on a surface quilt.

Figure 3 Removing Material


using an Enclosed Quilt

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Figure 2 Removing Material


using a Datum Plane

Solidifying Quilts to Remove Material


You can use the Solidify tool to remove solid material from a model, based on

option in the dashboard. You


a surface quilt. Select the Remove Material
can remove material from either side of the quilt using the Change Thickness
option. To solidify a surface quilt to remove material from the
Direction
model, it must define a volume to remove from the model, for example:
An open quilt bounded by existing solid material. In the Figure 1, an
enclosed quilt is solidified to remove material from the model.
An enclosed quilt. In Figure 3, an enclosed quilt is solidified to remove
material from the model.
An open quilt overlapping, passing completely through the model.
A datum plane can also be selected since their boundaries are infinite. In
Figure 2, the material was removed by selecting the datum plane.

Module 15 | Page 10

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Solidifying Quilts to Remove Material


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Solidify_Remove
Task 1:

SOLIDIFY_REMOVE.PRT

Solidify quilts to remove material in a part model.

1. Enable only the following Datum

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Display types:
2. Select QUILT1.

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4. In the ribbon, click Solidify


from the Editing group.

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3. Notice that the quilt is bounded


by the solid.

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5. Click Remove Material


6. Click Preview Feature

7. Click Resume Feature

PT

8. Click Change Thickness


.
Direction
9. Click Complete Feature
the Solidify dashboard.

from

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10. Orient to the 3D1 view


orientation.
11. In the model tree, right-click
QUILT2 and select Unhide.

12. Notice the open overlapping


quilt.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 11

13. Click Solidify

14. Click Remove Material

15. Click Change Thickness


.
Direction
16. Click Preview Feature

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17. Click Resume Feature

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19. Click Complete Feature

18. Click Change Thickness


.
Direction

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20. In the model tree, right-click


datum plane CUT and select
Unhide.

Module 15 | Page 12

2011 PTC

21. Click Solidify

22. Click Change Thickness


twice and notice
Direction
the difference in the model
display.
.

24. Disable Plane Display

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23. Click Complete Feature

25. Orient to the 3D2 view


orientation.

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26. In the model tree, right-click


Group QUILT3 and select
Unhide.

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27. Edit the selection filter to Quilts


and select the quilt.

28. Click Solidify

.
.

30. Click Complete Feature

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29. Click Remove Material

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 13

Solidifying Quilts to Replace Material


You can use the Solidify tool to add and remove solid material
simultaneously, based on a surface quilt.

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Commonly referred to as Patch.


Keep material on either side.
Add and remove material
simultaneously from multiple
surfaces.
Quilt boundaries must lie on the
surfaces.

Figure 2 Replaced Material

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Figure 1 Viewing the Quilt

Solidifying Quilts to Replace Material

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You can use the Solidify tool to add and remove solid material simultaneously,
based on a surface quilt. You must select the Replace Portion With Quilt
option from the dashboard.
This option is commonly referred to as Patch.

You can keep material on either side of the quilt using the Change Direction
option in the dashboard.
The advantage of using the Replace Portion With Quilt option is that you
can add and remove material simultaneously from multiple surfaces. The
only rule is that the quilt boundaries must lie on the surfaces. In the figures,
the surface quilt is used to patch the model. The operation both adds and
removes material from the model. Notice that the edges of the quilt lie on the
surrounding model surfaces.

Module 15 | Page 14

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Solidifying Quilts to Replace Material


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Solidify_Replace
Task 1:

PATCH.PRT

Solidify a quilt and use it to add and remove material in a part


model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Edit the definition of Merge 1.

from

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5. Edit the selection filter to Quilts.

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4. Click Complete Feature


the Merge dashboard.

3. Notice the quilt bounded by solid


edges.

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6. Select the quilt.

7. In the ribbon, click Solidify


from the Editing group.

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8. In the dashboard, click Replace


Portion With Quilt
necessary.

2011 PTC

, if

Module 15 | Page 15

9. Click Complete Feature


de-select all geometry.

and

10. Notice that the feature has both


added and removed material
from multiple surfaces.

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11. Press CTRL and select


Boundary Blend 1, Boundary
Blend 2, and Merge 1 from the
model tree.
Right-click and select Hide.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 15 | Page 16

2011 PTC

Offsetting Surfaces using the Replace Option


Using the Replace option in the Offset tool, you can replace a
single solid surface with a quilt.

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Uses:
Add material.
Remove material.
Simultaneously add and
remove material.
By default, the quilt is
consumed by the replace
feature.
Keep replace quilt.

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Figure 1 Offset using Replace


that Adds Material

PT

Figure 2 Offset using Replace


that Removes Material

Figure 3 Offset using Replace that


Adds and Removes Material

Offsetting Surfaces using the Replace Option

Fo
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Using the Replace option in the Offset tool, you can replace a single solid
surface with a quilt. You can use the Replace option to:
Add material. In Figure 1, the Replace option is adding material.
Remove material. In Figure 2, the Replace option is removing material.
Add and remove material simultaneously. In Figure 3, the Replace option
is both adding and removing material simultaneously.
By default, the quilt is consumed by the replace feature. That is, the quilt is
not visible, but still exists previously in the model tree.
When using the Replace option, there is one option available in the Options
tab of the dashboard:
Keep replace quilt Enables the quilt selected for the replace to remain
visible after the replace is created.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 17

PROCEDURE - Offsetting Surfaces using the Replace


Option
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Offset_Replace
Task 1:

REPLACE1.PRT

Use the Replace Surface offset option to add material.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. Press ALT and select the


top, solid surface of feature
EXTRUDE.

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3. In the ribbon, click Offset


from the Editing group.

4. In the dashboard, click Replace


.

Surface

PT

5. Select the quilt and click


Complete Feature
from the
Offset dashboard.

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6. Notice that the feature has added


material.
7. Click Close

Module 15 | Page 18

2011 PTC

Task 2:

Use the Replace Surface offset option to remove material.

1. Click Open
and double-click
REPLACE2.PRT to open it.

3. Click Offset

4. In the dashboard, click Replace


.

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5. Select the quilt and click


Complete Feature .

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Surface

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2. Press ALT and select the


top, solid surface of feature
EXTRUDE.

6. Notice that the feature has


removed material.
.

Use the Replace Surface offset option to add and remove material.

PT

Task 3:

In

7. Click Close

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1. Click Open
and double-click
REPLACE3.PRT to open it.
2. Press ALT and select the
top, solid surface of feature
EXTRUDE.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 19

3. Click Offset

4. Right-click and select Replace.


5. Select the quilt and click
Complete Feature .

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6. Notice that the feature has


added and removed material
simultaneously.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 15 | Page 20

2011 PTC

Creating Rounds on Surfaces

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Figure 1 Original Surface Model

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You can only create rounds on


two-sided, merged edges.
Additional profiles:
Conic
D1 x D2 Conic
Curvature Continuous
D1 x D2 Curvature Continuous
RHO parameter
0.05 to < 0.50 = Elliptical
0.5 = Parabolic
> 0.50 to 0.95 = Hyperbolic
2-1 = Quadrant of an Ellipse

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You can create rounds directly on surface quilts.

PT

Figure 2 Rounds Created


on Surfaces

Figure 3 Understanding the


RHO Parameter

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Creating Rounds on Surfaces


You can create rounds directly on surface quilts. You can only create rounds
on two-sided, merged edges. The resulting created rounds are surfaces. In
the figures, the rounds are created on the merged edges, which results in
surface rounds.
You can also create chamfers on surface quilts.

Analyzing Surface Round Profile


You can create surface rounds that have profiles other than that of a circular
arc. You can create Conic, D1 x D2 Conic, as well as Curvature Continuous
round profiles. Creating surface rounds with a conic or curvature continuous
profile can be useful for surface modeling. The conic round profiles maintain
tangency like that of the circular arc round, but can be used to create sharper
or shallower rounds by varying the RHO parameter. The curvature continuous
round can be used in situations where curvature continuity is desired.
2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 21

Using the RHO Parameter


You can specify the value for the RHO parameter of the conic. This is a
dimension that appears on the conic similar to a radius dimension. As shown
in Figure 3, the RHO value is the ratio of length A to A+B (i.e. A/(A+B)), in
which C=D. RHO can vary from 0.05 to 0.95. Higher RHO values create a
more peaked conic shape, and lower RHO values create a more flat conic
shape.
The following RHO values create specific conic section geometry:

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0.05 to < 0.50 = Elliptical


0.5 = Parabolic
> 0.50 to 0.95 = Hyperbolic
2-1 = Quadrant of an Ellipse

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Module 15 | Page 22

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Rounds on Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Round\On-Surfaces
Task 1:

CREATE_ROUNDS.PRT

Create rounds on surfaces of a part model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

In

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3. Select No Hidden
from the
Display Style types drop-down
menu, and notice the three
merged surfaces with purple
edges.

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2. Examine the part model.

PT

4. Select Round
from the
Round types drop-down menu in
the Engineering group and select
the front, right vertical edge.
Edit the radius to 10.

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5. Click Complete Feature


from the Round dashboard and
de-select all geometry.
6. Select Round
from the
Round types drop-down menu
and select the top, front edge.
Edit the radius to 5.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 23

7. In the dashboard, select the Sets


tab.
Edit the shape from Circular to
Conic.
Edit Rho to 0.70.
8. Click Complete Feature
de-select all geometry.

and

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from the
9. Select Shading
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 15 | Page 24

2011 PTC

Converting Solid Rounds to Surfaces


You can convert solid rounds to surfaces to aid in difficult
modeling situations.

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Reasons for round


conversion:
Create a custom shape.
Resolve a failing round.
Attachment type:
Solid
Surface
Create end surfaces

In

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Figure 1 Original Model with


Undesired Round Result

Figure 3 Round Manipulated,


Merged, and Solidified

Figure 2 Round Converted


to Surface and Trimmed

PT

Converting Solid Rounds to Surfaces

Fo
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You can convert solid rounds to surfaces to aid in difficult modeling situations.
You can then manipulate the surfaces manually to create a custom round
shape or resolve a failing round. Within the Round tool's Options tab, you
have the ability to modify the round Attachment type. The following two types
are available:
Solid The default round type that is created when the Round tool is
started. In Figure 1, the round that has been created is a solid round.
Surface Enables you to convert the Solid round type to a Surface. When
Surface is specified as the round Attachment type, you also have the ability
to use the Create end surfaces option. The Create end surfaces option
caps the ends of the converted surface round. In Figure 2, the round has
been converted to a surface, and end surfaces have been created.

A Typical Solid Round Conversion Procedure


A typical solid round conversion procedure begins with redefining the round
on the solid part. The round is then converted to surfaces, which has been
done between Figure 1 and Figure 2.
2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 25

Once the round has been converted to a surface, the undesired portion is
typically trimmed away. In Figure 2, the middle, undesired round portion of
the surface was trimmed at the datum planes. Additional surfaces are then
created and merged to the remaining round surface. In Figure 3, a boundary
blend surface was created and then merged with the remaining round surface.

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Finally, the merged surfaces are solidified with the model to add or remove
material. In Figure 3, the merged round surfaces were solidified with the rest
of the model to add material.

Module 15 | Page 26

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Converting Solid Rounds to Surfaces


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Round\Convert-Surfaces
Task 1:

CONVERT_ROUNDS.PRT

Convert solid rounds to surfaces in a part model.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

Display types:

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from

al

4. Click Complete Feature


the Round dashboard.

3. Select the Options tab.


Select Surface as the
Attachment.
Select the Create end
surfaces check box.

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2. Edit the definition of Round 1.

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5. With the round still selected,


select it again to select the round
quilt.

In

from
6. In the ribbon, click Trim
the Editing group and select
datum plane DTM1.

PT

7. Click Flip Trim Sides


two
times to keep both sides.
8. Click Complete Feature

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9. Select the front round quilt and


click Trim

10. Select datum plane DTM2.


11. Verify that only the front is kept
and click Complete Feature .

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 27

12. Disable Plane Display

from the
13. Select No Hidden
Display Style types drop-down
menu and notice the two open
round quilts with orange edges.

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from the
14. Select Shading
Display Style types drop-down
menu.

15. In the model tree, select


CURVE1, press CTRL, and
select CURVE2.
16. Right-click and select Unhide.

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from

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18. Click Boundary Blend


the Surfaces group.

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17. De-select all geometry.

19. Press CTRL and select the


edges of the two round quilts.

In

20. Right-click and select Second


Direction Curves.

21. Press CTRL and select the two


unhidden curves.

PT

22. Right-click each of the


constraints and select Tangent.

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23. Click Complete Feature

24. Hide CURVE1 and CURVE2.

Module 15 | Page 28

2011 PTC

25. Select Trim 1 and select it again


to select the quilt.
26. Press CTRL and select the newly
created quilt.
27. Click Merge
group.

from the Editing

28. Press CTRL and select the other


quilt.
.

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29. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

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32. Click Complete Feature

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31. In the dashboard, click Solid

30. With the merge feature still


from
selected, click Solidify
the Editing group.

2011 PTC

Module 15 | Page 29

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Module 15 | Page 30

2011 PTC

16
O

Master Model Technique

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Module

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Module Overview

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The Master Model technique is a powerful way to combine surface modeling


with top-down-design methodology. You can use the master model technique
to design products that use multiple interlocking body components to form an
enclosure with an overall styled shape.

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In this module, you will examine each of the steps in the master model
technique to create body components.

Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Understand the theory behind the master model technique.
Create a master model.
Create framework in the master model.
Create surfaces in the master model.
Refine and complete the master model.
Share geometry from the master model.
Complete body components.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 1

Master Model Technique Theory


The Master Model technique is often used to design surface
models; particularly on products that use multiple interlocking
body components to form an enclosure with an overall styled
shape.

5.

Figure 1 Creating a Surface


Design Framework

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PT

In

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6.

4.

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3.

Creating the Master Model


Creating a Surface Design
Framework in the master
model
Creating Surfaces in the Master
Model
Refining and completing the
Master Model
Sharing Geometry from the
Master Model to the Body
Components
Completing the Body
Components

al

1.
2.

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Steps in the Master Model technique:

Figure 2 Creating Surfaces in


the Master Model

Figure 3 Completing the


Body Components

Master Model Technique Theory


The Master Model technique is often used to design surface models;
particularly on products that use multiple interlocking body components to
form an enclosure with an overall styled shape. Common examples include a
computer mouse, cell phone, and laptop computer.
This technique enables you to develop the overall styled shape as a single
component (the master model), and then transfer geometry to each of the
individual body components. By modifying the master model, you can make
changes to a number of interlocking body components simultaneously.

Module 16 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Definition of Terms
The following are common terms using the Master Model technique:

Master Model Steps

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Creating the Master Model


Creating a Surface Design Framework in the master model
Creating Surfaces in the Master Model
Refining and completing the Master Model
Sharing Geometry from the Master Model to the Body Components
Completing the Body Components

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The Master Model technique has six basic steps:

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Internal components Existing solid parts that lie inside the to-be-created
enclosure. These components may mate with or protrude through the
enclosure.
Master Model A non-solid part in which you design the enclosure shape.
Similar to a skeleton, this component does not exist in real-life.
Body components Solid parts that form the enclosure. The shape of each
body component is derived from the master model.

Selecting Tools and Techniques

In

Consider the surface modeling tools and techniques you may use before
starting a project:

Fo
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PT

First, consider your design intent and select an appropriate surface


modeling paradigm, whether Parametric surface modeling, Freeform
surface modeling, or a combination of both.
Second, consider the input to the design:
Section and Trajectory data Variable Section Sweeps or Swept Blends
Section and Boundary data Boundary Blends
Sketches and/or physical mockups Style tool (Freeform Surface
Modeling)
When working with a mixture of Sections and Trajectories, keep in mind
these techniques:
Exact Boundaries Use a network of curves and edges to create exact
boundaries for surfaces.
Overbuilding Create overlapping surfaces using various methods, and
then trim and merge surfaces accordingly.
A combination of the above.
Finally, as a general guideline:
Use the simplest tool you anticipate can satisfy your design intent.
Use more advanced tools as necessary.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 3

Creating a Master Model

Figure 1 Evaluating the Existing


Product Structure

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Use the following steps:


Evaluate the existing product
structure.
Create the master model.
Transfer reference geometry
into the master model.
Techniques:
Publish Geometry
Copy Geometry

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Remember that the master model is a non-solid part in which


you design the enclosure shape.

In

Figure 2 Locating the Master Model


in the Model Tree Structure

Figure 3 Transferring Reference


Geometry into Master Model

Evaluating the Existing Product Structure

PT

Before creating and developing a Master Model, first evaluate the existing
product structure in the model tree:

Fo
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Is there an existing skeleton? If so, you may be able to transfer some


references from the skeleton to your master model.
Are there enough internal components created to be able to design the
surface enclosure around? You likely design the body with references
to the internal components. You may also refer to other components to
which the body touches or is tangent. Not all internal components may be
completed yet; consider if they would come in contact with the body.
Do the actual body components already exist as empty components in the
model tree? If not, they need to be created.
Should the Master Model be created at the top level, or at a sub-assembly
level? Typically, the Master model should be created at the same level as
the body components that would reference it.
Should the master model be a skeleton model, or standard part model? If
all of the body components will be organized in a sub-assembly, consider
creating the master model as a skeleton model in that sub-assembly
instead of a conventional part model. Remember, skeletons will be created
as the first models in an assembly. The typical master model needs
Module 16 | Page 4

2011 PTC

to reference previous solid models, as well as pass references to solid


models downstream, and as a result need to be positioned accordingly in
the model tree.

Creating the Master Model


When you create the master model, remember that it is a component, and
you must therefore locate it in the assembly. You can either assemble it using
the Default constraint or by using constraints as dictated by the design intent.

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Once the master model is assembled, you must locate it in the model tree
structure accordingly. The master model must be placed after the internal
components that it will reference. It must also be placed before the empty
body components that will be derived from the master model.

Transferring Reference Geometry into the Master Model

al

Techniques for Sharing Geometry

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After the master model is created, you can transfer reference geometry into
it, either from an assembly skeleton, or through its internal components.
Select those references that you would need to reference during the creation
of the framework and surfaces in the master model.

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The primary techniques for sharing geometry are through the Publish and
Copy Geometry Features:

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PT

In

Publish Geometry (Optional) Created upstream of the Master Model, in


the assembly skeleton, or internal components. The Publish Geometry
feature organizes and saves a set of selections to a feature that are
destined to be used in the master model. The set of selections can
include Surface references, Chain references, and Datum references. The
published geometry can be selected when creating a Copy Geometry
from the Model
feature. It is created by clicking Publish Geometry
Intent Group.
Copy Geometry Created in the Master Model. You can select the
following entities from an assembly skeleton or internal components to
copy to the Master Model: a Publish Geometry feature, Surface references,
Chain references, and Datum references.
from
A Copy Geometry feature is created by clicking Copy Geometry
the Get Data group. The following options are available:
Dependent Enables or disables dependency with the referenced
models.
Reference context You can specify the reference as either Assembly or
External. For Assembly, the copy geometry is created in the context of
the assembly; for External, the Copy Geometry feature is not dependent
on the assembly.
When using the Copy Geometry feature, you can only copy from
one component at a time. As a result, it is not uncommon to
create several copy geometry features.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 5

PROCEDURE - Creating a Master Model


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Master-Model_Create
Task 1:

SHARPENER.ASM

Create a master model for an assembly and assemble it.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

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Display types:

2. In the ribbon, select the View


tab.
.

3. Enable Plane Tag Display


5. Review the tree structure.

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4. Select the Model tab.

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6. In the ribbon, click Create


from the Component group.
Edit the Name to MASTER and click OK.

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7. Accept the defaults in the Creation Options dialog box and click OK.

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PT

In

8. Assemble datum plane RIGHT


of MASTER.PRT Coincident to
the flat, oval-shaped surface.

Module 16 | Page 6

2011 PTC

9. Assemble datum plane TOP


from MASTER.PRT Coincident
to datum plane TOP from
BASE.PRT.
10. Assemble datum plane FRONT
from MASTER.PRT Coincident
to datum plane FRONT from
BASE.PRT.

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11. Click Complete Component


from the Component Placement
dashboard.

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Create a copy geometry feature within the master model.

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Task 2:

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13. Disable Plane Display

12. In the model tree, drag


MASTER.PRT to directly before
COVER_A.PRT to reorder it.

1. In the model tree, right-click


MASTER.PRT and select
Activate.

from the Get Data

Geometry
group.

In

2. In the ribbon, click Copy

PT

3. Click Publish Geometry Only


to de-select it.

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4. Press CTRL and select the two


main large oval halves.
5. Click Complete Feature
from
the Copy Geometry dashboard.
6. In the model tree, right-click
SHARPENER.ASM and select
Activate.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 7

7. In the model tree, right-click


MASTER.PRT and select Open.
.

9. Disable Plane Tag Display

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8. Enable Plane Display

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This completes the procedure.

Module 16 | Page 8

2011 PTC

Creating Framework in the Master

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Consider the following when


capturing design intent:
Flexibility
Symmetry
Dependency
Use the following to create the
framework:
Datum features
Sketches
Surfaces

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In this step, you create the framework in the master model


that will support the enclosure surfaces, referencing the copy
geometry features created previously.

Figure 2 Sketches Created


for Framework

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Figure 1 Creating a Datum Plane

Creating Framework in the Master


In this step, you create the framework in the master model that will support
the enclosure surfaces, referencing the copy geometry features created
previously. Before you can begin the creation of the framework, however,
consider the following:
Flexibility A robust surface model begins with a robust framework.
Design your framework to easily update with model changes to the internal
components.
Symmetry Determine lines of symmetry in the model, and have datum
planes at these locations. You can mirror the following:
Curves
Datum features
Surfaces
2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 9

Entire part models You can create as a mirror type when creating
components initially in model tree. You can also mirror components
after creation of one side.
Dependency Make the framework reference the Copy Geometry features
where dependency is desired. Remember that you can toggle dependency
in the Copy Geometry feature.

Creating the Framework


You can create the framework in the master model using the following:

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Datum features Examples include datum planes, datum points, datum


axes, datum coordinate systems, and datum curves.
Sketches You can sketch curves forming the framework.
Surfaces Can be used as construction geometry for the framework (for
example to project a curve onto). Surfaces that represent the enclosure
should not be created at this stage.

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Boundary curves
Sections
Trajectories
Controlling Skeleton type geometry, for example, Offset planes
Major parting or split lines for the body components

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You can create the framework for the following uses:

Module 16 | Page 10

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Framework in the Master


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Master-Model_Framework
Task 1:

SHARPENER.ASM

Create framework sketches in the master model.

1. Enable only the following Datum

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Display types:

2. In the model tree, right-click


MASTER.PRT and select Open.

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5. De-select all geometry.

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4. Drag the offset handle to the


right 250 and click OK.

from the Datum


3. Click Plane
group and select datum plane
RIGHT.

6. Select datum plane TOP and


.

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click Sketch

Click Sketch View


from
the In Graphics toolbar.

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7. Enable only the following


Sketcher Display types:

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and select
8. Click References
datum plane DTM1.
Click X sec and query-select
the quilt.
Click Close.

from the
9. Click Spline
Sketching group and sketch two
splines, selecting the endpoints
on the references.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 11

10. Middle-click to stop sketching


splines, then de-select all
geometry.
11. Right-click and select
Dimension.
12. Dimension the four endpoint
angles and type 90 for each of
the angle values.

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13. Click OK
and orient to the
Standard Orientation.

Click Sketch View

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15. Click References


and select
datum plane DTM1.
Click X sec and query-select
the quilt.
Click Close.

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click Sketch

14. Select datum plane FRONT and

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and sketch a
16. Click Spline
spline, selecting the endpoints
on the references.

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17. Middle-click to stop sketching


the spline, then de-select all
geometry.
18. Right-click and select
Dimension.

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19. Dimension the two endpoint


angles and type 90 for both of
the angle values.
20. Click OK

Module 16 | Page 12

2011 PTC

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21. Orient to the Standard


Orientation.

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This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 13

Creating Surfaces in the Master


In this stage, you create the overall surface model of a body,
shell, or enclosure that defines the shape of the product.

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Include major surfacing details


common to multiple components.
Do not include minor details used
by a single component.

Figure 2 Completed Surface

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Figure 1 Creating Surfaces

Creating Surfaces in the Master

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In this stage, you create the overall surface model of a body, shell, or
enclosure that defines the shape of the product:
This would include major surfacing details common to multiple components.
In the figures, the surface is to be used in both the front and back cover.
This would not include minor details used by a single component.
Design the surfaces in the master model with each of the body components
in mind, because they will be created from this quilt.

Module 16 | Page 14

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Creating Surfaces in the Master


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Master-Model_Surfaces
Task 1:

SHARPENER.ASM

Create surfaces in the master model.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

4. Query-select the front half of


Sketch 1.
5. Press CTRL and select Sketch
2.

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6. Press CTRL and query-select


the back half of Sketch 1.

from

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3. Click Boundary Blend


the Surfaces group.

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2. In the model tree, right-click


MASTER.PRT and select Open.

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7. Right-click and select Second


Direction Curves.

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8. Select the edge of the copy


geometry surface.

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9. Right-click the boundary


constraints in the first direction
and select Normal.

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10. Right-click the boundary


constraint in the second direction
and select Tangent.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 15

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11. Click Complete Feature


from
the Boundary Blend dashboard
and de-select all geometry.

12. Press CTRL and select Copy


Geometry, datum plane DTM1,
Sketch 1, and Sketch 2.
14. In the ribbon, select the View
tab.

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from the
15. Select Save Status
Status types drop-down menu in
the Visibility group.

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13. Right-click and select Hide.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 16 | Page 16

2011 PTC

Refining and Completing the Master Model


This stage of the Master Model process consists of further
refining the master model and completing it.

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Refinements include:
Analysis
Split/Parting lines
Create additional details
Complete the master model:
Mirror geometry, for example

Figure 2 Completing the Master


Model by Mirroring Quilts

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Figure 1 Analyzing the


Master Model

Refining and Completing the Master Model


This stage of the Master Model process consists of further refining the master
model and completing it.
Each of the items in this stage are optional, depending on your
design intent.
You can perform the following refinements:
Analysis Perform surface analysis on your master model surfaces to
ensure they meet design requirements. Analyses can be for visual or
aesthetic purposes, checking curvature, or verifying manufacturability. In
Figure 1, a reflection analysis is being performed to verify that the surface
is aesthetically pleasing.
Split/Parting lines If not already created as part of the framework,
create parting/split lines that can be used to separate the individual body
components. You can split the body components using:
2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 17

Curves lying in the surface


Intersecting surfaces
Datum planes
Details Create additional details such as a recess, scoop, bulge, tear, or
blister that will affect multiple body components. You can create these
details using additional curves and surfaces and then merging them into
the main quilt.

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After all refinements have been done, you can complete the master model.
For example, if you have symmetry in your model, you can mirror the
appropriate quilts, and then merge the mirrored quilts as necessary. In
Figure 2, the surface quilt has been mirrored about its line of symmetry and
is being merged.

Module 16 | Page 18

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Refining and Completing the Master


Model
Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Master-Model_Complete
Task 1:

SHARPENER.ASM

Refine and complete the master model.

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1. Disable all Datum Display types.


2. In the model tree, right-click
MASTER.PRT and select Open.

select Reflection

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4. Click the Inspect Geometry


group drop-down menu and

3. In the ribbon, select the Analysis


tab.

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5. Select the surface.

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6. The surface looks good based


on the reflection analysis.
7. Click Complete Analysis

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8. In the ribbon, select the Model


tab.
9. Select the boundary blend.

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10. Select the quilt.


11. Click Mirror
group.

from the Editing

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12. Select datum plane TOP.


13. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 19

14. With the mirrored surface still


selected, select it again to select
the quilt.
15. Press CTRL and select the top
quilt.
16. Click Merge
group.

from the Editing

and

18. Click Complete Feature


de-select all geometry.

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17. In the Merge dashboard, select


the Options tab.
Select Join.

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This completes the procedure.

Module 16 | Page 20

2011 PTC

Sharing Geometry from the Master Model

Figure 1 Selecting References to


Be Shared from Master Model

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Activate each component and


share geometry from the master
model as required.
Techniques for sharing data:
Publish Geometry
Copy Geometry
Merge
Transfers the entire master
model into the body
component.

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In this stage, you are sharing geometry (typically surface quilts)


from the master model to each of the body components.

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Figure 2 References Copied into


Body Component COVER_A.PRT

Figure 3 Same References


Copied into Body Component
COVER_B.PRT

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Sharing Geometry from the Master Model


In this stage, you are sharing geometry (typically surface quilts) from the
master model to each of the body components. Since each of the body
components exists, you can activate them one at a time and share geometry
from the master model to them as required. You can share geometry either
by copying surface quilts or by copying any relevant geometry for trimming
the quilt to form that individual body component. In Figure 2 and Figure 3, the
same quilt is shared into both covers of the sharpener assembly. Within each
cover, the geometry can be trimmed appropriately to leave what is needed.

Techniques for Sharing Geometry


The primary techniques for sharing geometry to body components are similar
to those used to create the master model, however the merge option can
also be used:
Publish Geometry (Optional) Created upstream of the Master Model, in
the assembly skeleton, or internal components. The Publish Geometry
feature organizes and saves a set of selections to a feature that are
2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 21

destined to be used in the master model. The set of selections can


include Surface references, Chain references, and Datum references. The
published geometry can be selected when creating a Copy Geometry
feature. It is created by clicking the Model Intent group drop-down menu
.
and selecting Publish Geometry
Copy Geometry Created in the Master Model. You can select the
following entities from an assembly skeleton or internal components to
copy to the Master Model: a Publish Geometry feature, Surface references,
Chain references, and Datum references. In Figure 1, the quilt is selected
as the geometry to be copied.

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from
A Copy Geometry feature is created by clicking Copy Geometry
the Get Data group. The following options are available:
Dependent Enables or disables dependency with the referenced
models.
Reference context You can specify the reference as either Assembly
or External. For Assembly, the copy geometry is created in the context
of the assembly, and for External, the Copy Geometry feature is not
dependent on the assembly.
Merge Used to add geometry from the master model into the current
body component. Merge is a simple way to transfer the entire master
model into each of the body components, enabling you to then trim away
unnecessary geometry.
Create a merge feature by clicking the Get Data group drop-down menu
and selecting Merge/Inheritance. To use a merge feature, insert the merge
from the current model to which you wish to add material or remove
material (the target model), then open or select the source model. Next,
assemble the source model into the target model using assembly-type

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icon, if necessary, to
constraints. Finally, toggle the Remove Material
disable it before completing the feature.
When creating the merge feature, you must select whether to copy each of
the following from the source model:
Annotations
Copy Datums If the datums are copied into the target model from the
source model, the copied datums have a _1 suffix appended to their
names.
There are also two different options available when creating the merge
feature:
Dependent Controls whether the merge feature is dependent on the
source model.
Refit Datums Enables you to adjust the size of the copied datums.
This option is only available when you decide to copy the datums from
the source model.
Copying geometry in separate Copy Geometry features gives you
additional control for hiding and unhiding copied geometry.

Module 16 | Page 22

2011 PTC

PROCEDURE - Sharing Geometry from the Master Model


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed

Surface_Operations\Master-Model_Share
Task 1:

SHARPENER.ASM

Create a copy geometry feature in COVER_A.PRT.

1. Disable all Datum Display types.

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2. In the model tree, right-click


COVER_A.PRT and select
Activate.

from

3. Click Copy Geometry


the Get Data group.
to de-select it.

5. Query-select the whole quilt.


6. Click Complete Feature

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4. Click Publish Geometry Only

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7. In the model tree, right-click


COVER_A.PRT and select
Open.

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8. Notice the Copy Geometry


feature in the model tree.

9. Notice the geometry in the


graphics window.

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10. Click Close


to return to
SHARPENER.ASM.

Task 2:

Create a copy geometry feature in COVER_B.PRT.

1. In the model tree, right-click


COVER_B.PRT and select
Activate, if necessary.
2. Click Copy Geometry

3. Click Publish Geometry Only


to de-select it.
4. Query-select the whole quilt from
MASTER.PRT.
5. Click Complete Feature

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 23

6. In the model tree, right-click


COVER_B.PRT and select
Open.
7. Notice the Copy Geometry
feature in the model tree.
8. Notice the geometry in the
graphics window.

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9. Click Close
to return to
SHARPENER.ASM.

11. In the ribbon, select the View


tab.

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This completes the procedure.

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from the
12. Select Save Status
Status types drop-down menu in
the Visibility group.

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10. In the model tree, right-click


MASTER.PRT and select Hide.

Module 16 | Page 24

2011 PTC

Completing Body Components


In this stage, you complete the body components.

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Use the following steps:


Trimming quilts
Adding material
Creating additional features

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Figure 1 Completed Assembly

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Figure 2 Completed Body


Component COVER_A.PRT

Figure 3 Completed Body


Component COVER_B.PRT

Completing Body Components

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In this stage, you complete each of the body components using the following
steps:

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Trimming quilts Trim the quilt copied from the master model, using the
copied trimming references. You could use any tool that enables you to
trim or cut a surface (trim, merge, surface trim/cut).
Adding material Add material to the model, such as with the thicken
and/or solidify tools. In Figure 2 and Figure 3, each of the body components
had its trimmed surface thickened.
In some cases, you may find it easier to add material to the model
first, and then cut away the unwanted solid material using the
solidify tool, or other features.
Creating additional features Create additional solid detailing features to
complete the model as necessary, such as:
Screw bosses
Structural ribs
Access holes or cuts
Interlocking slots or tabs
Rounds and chamfers
2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 25

PROCEDURE - Completing Body Components


Close Window

Erase Not Displayed


SHARPENER.ASM

Surface_Operations\Master-Model_Components
Task 1:

Trim the quilt in COVER_A.PRT and thicken it.

1. Enable only the following Datum


.

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Display types:

2. In the model tree, right-click


COVER_A.PRT and select
Open.

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3. Select the Copy Geometry


feature.
4. Select the quilt and click Trim

Sides

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6. Verify that the front side of the


quilt is kept, using Flip Trim

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from the Editing Group.


5. Select datum plane FRONT as
the trimming entity.

as necessary.

8. Select the quilt.

from the

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9. Click Thicken
Editing Group.

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7. Click Complete Feature

10. Edit the thickness to 10.

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11. Verify the quilt is thickened to the


inside, using Change Thickness
as necessary.
Direction

12. Click Complete Feature

13. Click Close


to return to
SHARPENER.ASM.

Module 16 | Page 26

2011 PTC

Task 2:

Trim the quilt in COVER_B.PRT and thicken it.

1. In the model tree, right-click


COVER_B.PRT and select
Open.
2. Select the Copy Geometry
feature.
3. Select the quilt and click Trim
.

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4. Select datum plane FRONT as


the trimming entity.

7. Select the quilt.


8. Click Thicken

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9. Edit the thickness to 10.

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6. Click Complete Feature

5. Click Flip Trim Sides


to keep
the back side of the quilt.

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10. Verify the quilt is thickened to the


inside, using Change Thickness
as necessary.
Direction
.

12. Disable Plane Display

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11. Click Complete Feature

13. Click Close


to return to
SHARPENER.ASM.

This completes the procedure.

2011 PTC

Module 16 | Page 27

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Module 16 | Page 28

2011 PTC

17
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Module

Project

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Module Overview

Using Creo Parametric and the skills learned in this course, complete the
following project design tasks.

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Objectives

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After completing this module, you will be able to:


Create a master model.
Create framework in a master model.
Create surfaces in a master model.
Refine and complete the master model.
Share geometry from the master model.
Complete a body component.

2011 PTC

Module 17 | Page 1

The Shaver

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Figure 1 Shaver

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Master Model Technique:


Creating a Master Model
Creating Framework in a Master
Model
Creating Surfaces in a Master
Model
Refining and Completing the
Master Model
Sharing Geometry from the
Master Model
Completing the Body
Components
Create from scratch:
Master model
Upper body component
Minimal instructions
Completed models for reference

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In this project, you will follow the Master Model technique to


create the master model and a body component of the Shaver.

Figure 2 Shaver

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Project Scenario

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Smoothcut Inc. designs and manufactures electric shavers. They currently


manufacture a range of cordless, battery-powered shavers. Due to the
increasing demand for rechargeable shavers, they are designing a new
model to cater to the changing market scenario. You are assigned to create
the design for the new shaver.

Minimal Instructions
Because all tasks in this project are based on topics that you have learned up
to this point in the course, instructions for each project step will be minimal.
There will be no step-by-step "picks and clicks" given. This provides you with
a chance to test your knowledge of the materials as you proceed through
the project.

Completed Models for Reference


Be sure to save all project models within the Surface_working sub-folder
of the Projects lab files folder structure. The Projects folder also contains
a sub-folder named Surface_completed. Here you can find a completed
version of each model in the project. These completed models can be used
as references, if required.
Module 17 | Page 2

2011 PTC

Creating the Master Model


In this step of the project, you create the master model.

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Review the existing structure.


Create the master model.
Copy surfaces into the master
model.

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Figure 1 Surfaces Copied into


the Master Model

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Figure 2 Product Structure Before


Master Model Created

Figure 3 Product Structure After


Master Model Created

Creating the Master Model

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In this step of the project, you first examine the shaver's product structure.
You then create the master model and locate it properly in the structure.
Finally, you copy surfaces from the existing geometry to help you in the
creation of the contents for the master model.

2011 PTC

Module 17 | Page 3

Creating Framework in the Master Model


In this step of the project, you create the framework for the
master model.
Trim surfaces as needed.
Create datum points.
Create parting surface.
Create body curves.

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Figure 1 Master Model Framework

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Figure 2 Master Model Framework


Front View

Creating Framework in the Master Model

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In this step of the project, you create the framework in the master model that
is to be used downstream. First, you trim the copied surfaces as needed.
Next, you create datum points that will serve as references for the body
curves. Then, you create the parting surface for the shaver body. Finally, you
create the curves that will be used to create the shaver's body.

Module 17 | Page 4

2011 PTC

Creating Surfaces in the Master Model


In this step of the project, you create the surfaces within the
master model.

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Create the surface.


Create an additional curve that
better shapes the surface.

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Figure 1 Shaver Body Surface

Figure 2 Shaver Body Surface

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Creating Surfaces in the Master Model

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In the previous step, you created the framework for the master model. In
this step of the project, you use the framework to create the surfaces that
ultimately become the shaver's body.

2011 PTC

Module 17 | Page 5

Refining and Completing the Master Model


In this step of the project, you refine the master model and
complete it.

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Run analyses on the surface.


Make improvements to the
surface quality.
Re-run the analyses to verify
your improvements.
Create trim curves.

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Figure 1 Refined and Completed


Master Model

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Figure 2 Shaded Curvature


Analysis

Figure 3 Reflection Analysis

Refining and Completing the Master Model

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In this step of the project, you examine the shape of the surface by running
analyses to determine its quality. Based on the results of the analyses, you
modify the surface shape to improve its quality. You then re-run the analyses
to verify the improvements. Finally, you create the curves that will be used to
trim the surface for the different shaver body components.

Module 17 | Page 6

2011 PTC

Sharing Geometry from the Master Model


In this step of the project, you share geometry from the master
model.

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Copy geometry into the upper


body component.
Trim the upper body surface to its
final shape.

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Figure 1 Trimmed Upper


Body Surface

Figure 2 Trimmed Upper


Body Surface

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Sharing Geometry from the Master Model

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In this step of the project, you copy the surfaces and trim curves from the
master model into the upper body component that you will need. You then
trim the copied surface to its final shape.

2011 PTC

Module 17 | Page 7

Creating a Body Component


In this step of the project, you create one of the shaver's upper
body components.

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Mirror the trimmed upper body


surface.
Merge the halves.
Thicken the surface.
Apply an appearance.

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Figure 1 Completed Upper


Body Component

Figure 2 Completed Upper


Body Component

Creating a Body Component

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In this step of the project, you mirror the upper body component's final trim
surface and thicken it. You then apply an appearance to the completed upper
body component.

Module 17 | Page 8

2011 PTC

Copyright
Surfacing using Creo Parametric

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Copyright 2011 Parametric Technology Corporation. All Rights Reserved.


User and training guides and related documentation from Parametric Technology Corporation and its
subsidiary companies (collectively PTC) is subject to the copyright laws of the United States and
other countries and is provided under a license agreement that restricts copying, disclosure, and use
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copy made shall include the PTC copyright notice and any other proprietary notice provided by PTC.
Training materials may not be copied without the express written consent of PTC. This documentation
may not be disclosed, transferred, modified, or reduced to any form, including electronic media, or
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Information described herein is furnished for general information only, is subject to change without
notice, and should not be construed as a warranty or commitment by PTC. PTC assumes no
responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this document.
The software described in this document is provided under written license agreement, contains
valuable trade secrets and proprietary information, and is protected by the copyright laws of the
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Arbortext CSDB for S1000D, Arbortext IETP Viewer for S1000D, Arbortext Reviewer for
S1000D, Arbortext Authoring Interface for S1000D, Arbortext Editor for S1000D, Arbortext
Publisher for S1000D, Arbortext Provisioning Manager, Arbortext Provisioning Reviewer, Arbortext
Provisioning Transaction Manager, Arbortext Parts Catalog Manager for S1000D, Arbortext
Learning Content Manager for S1000D, Arbortext Learning Management System, Arbortext
Reviewer for EAGLE, Arbortext LSA Interface, Associative Topology Bus, AutobuildZ, Auto
Round, CDRS, CoCreate Modeling, CoCreate Drafting, CoCreate Model Manager, CoCreate
Drawing Manager, CV, CVact, CVaec, CVdesign, CV DORS, CVMAC, CVNC, CVToolmaker,
Create Collaborate Control Communicate, ECAD Compare, EDAcompare, EDAconduit,
DataDoctor, DesignSuite, DIMENSION III, Distributed Services Manager, DIVISION, e/ENGINEER,
eNC Explorer, Expert Framework, Expert MoldBase, Expert Toolmaker, FlexPDM, FlexPLM,
Harmony, Import Data Doctor, InSight, InterComm Expert, InterComm EDAcompare, InterComm

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EDAconduit, collective creativity, ISSM, KDiP, Knowledge Discipline in Practice, Knowledge System
Driver, ModelCHECK, MoldShop, NC Builder, PDS Workbench, POLYCAPP, Pro/ANIMATE,
Pro/ASSEMBLY, Pro/CABLING, Pro/CASTING, Pro/CDT, Pro/CMM, Pro/COLLABORATE,
Pro/COMPOSITE, Pro/CONCEPT, Pro/CONVERT, Pro/DATA for PDGS, Pro/DESIGNER,
Pro/DETAIL, Pro/DIAGRAM, Pro/DIEFACE, Pro/DRAW, Pro/ECAD, Pro/ENGINE, Pro/FEATURE,
Pro/FEM POST, Pro/FICIENCY, Pro/FLY THROUGH, Pro/HARNESS, Pro/INTERFACE,
Pro/LANGUAGE, Pro/LEGACY, Pro/LIBRARYACCESS, Pro/Manikin, Pro/MESH, Pro/Model.View,
Pro/MOLDESIGN, Pro/NC ADVANCED, Pro/NC CHECK, Pro/NC MILL, Pro/NC POST, Pro/NC
SHEETMETAL, Pro/NC TURN, Pro/NC WEDM, Pro/NC Wire EDM, Pro/NETWORK ANIMATOR,
Pro/NOTEBOOK, Pro/PDM, Pro/PHOTORENDER, Pro/PIPING, Pro/PLASTIC ADVISOR,
Pro/PLOT, Pro/POWER DESIGN, Pro/PROCESS, Pro/REPORT, Pro/REVIEW, Pro/SCAN TOOLS,
Pro/SHEETMETAL, Pro/SURFACE, Pro/TABLE, Pro/TOOLMAKER, Pro/VERIFY, Pro/Web.Link,
Pro/Web.Publish, Pro/WELDING, ProductView, ProductView ECAD Compare, ProductView
Validate, PTC Precision, PTC DesignQuest, PTC Channel Advantage, Realized Value Platform,
Routed Systems Designer, Shrinkwrap, Validation Manager, Warp, Windchill ProjectLink, Windchill
SupplyLink, Windchill RequirementsLink, and Windchill Supplier Management..
Patents of Parametric Technology Corporation or a Subsidiary
Registration numbers and issue dates follow. Additionally, equivalent patents may be issued or
pending outside of the United States. Contact PTC for further information. 5,771,392/23-June-1998;
(EP)0240557/02-October-1986;
5,423,023/05-June-1990;
4,956,771/11-September-1990;
5,058,000/15-October-1991; 5,140,321/18-August-1992; 5,297,053/22-March-1994; 5,428,772/
27-June-1995; 5,469,538/21-Nov-1995; 5,469,538/21-November-1995; 5,506,950/09-April-1996;
4,310,614/30-April-1996; 5,513,316/30-April-1996; 5,526,475/11-June-1996; 5,561,747/01-October1996; 5,526,475/6-November-1996; 5,557,176/09-November-1996; 5,680,523/21-October-1997;
5,689,711/18-November-1997;
5,771,392/23-June-1998;
5,838,331/17-November-1998;
5,844,555/01-Dec-1998; 5,844,555/1-December-1998; 5,850,535/15-December-1998; 4,310,615/
21-December-1998; 4,310,614/22-April-1999; 6,275,866/14-Aug-2001; 6,275,866/14-August-2001;
6,308,144/23-October-2001; 6,447,223B1/10-Sept-2002; 6,473,673B1/29-October-2002; PCT
03/05061/13-Feb-2003; 6,545,671B1/08-April-2003; GB2354683B/04-June-2003; GB2354683B/04June-2003; 6,580,428B1/17-June-2003; GB2354685B/18-June-2003; GB2354684B/02-July-2003;
6,608,623B1/19-August-2003; 6,608,623B1/19-August-2003; 6,625,607B1/23-September-2003;
GB2354924/24-September-2003; GB2384125/15-October-2003; GB2354686/15-October-2003;
GB2353376/05-November-2003; GB2354096/12-November-2003; GB2353115/10-December2003; 6,665,569B1/16-December-2003; (KO)415475/6-January-2004; GB2388003B/21-January2004; GB2365567/10-March-2004; EU0812447/26-May-2004; GB2363208/25-August-2004;
GB2366639B/13-October-2004;
7,006,956/28-February-2006;
7,013,246B1/14-March-2006;
7,013,468/14-March-2006; (JP)3,962,109/25-May-2007; 7,464,007B2/09-December-2008.
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Inc, a Logitech International S.A. company. Larson CGM Engine 9.4, Copyright 1992-2006 Larson
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Microsoft Jet, Microsoft XML, Technology "Powered by Groove", Microsoft SQL Server 2005, Visual
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of Microsoft Corporation. Pro/PLASTIC ADVISOR is powered by Moldflow technology. Fatigue
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Oracle 8i run time, Oracle 9i run time, and Oracle 10g run time are Copyright 20022004
Oracle Corporation. Oracle programs provided herein are subject to a restricted use license
and can only be used in conjunction with the PTC software they are provided with. PDFlib
software is copyright 1997-2005 PDFlib GmbH. All rights reserved. Proximity Linguistic
Technology provides Spelling Check/Thesaurus portions of certain software products, including:
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Verlag. Copyright 1997, All Rights Reserved, Proximity Technology, Inc.; The Proximity/C.A.
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Reserved, Proximity Technology, Inc.; The Proximity/Editions Fernand Nathan Database. Copyright
1984 Editions Fernand Nathan. Copyright 1989, All Rights Reserved, Proximity Technology,
Inc.; The Proximity/Espasa-Calpe Database. Copyright 1990 Espasa-Calpe. Copyright
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Database. Copyright 1994 Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc. Copyright 1994, All Rights
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Merriam-Webster, Inc. Copyright 1984, 1990, All Rights Reserved, Proximity Technology, Inc.;
The Proximity/Merriam-Webster, Inc./Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc. Database. Copyright
1990 Merriam-Webster Inc. Copyright 1994 Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc. Copyright 1994,
All Rights Reserved, Proximity Technology, Inc.; The Proximity/Munksgaard International Publishers
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1983 S. Fischer Verlag. Copyright 1997, All Rights Reserved, Proximity Technology, Inc.; The
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KG. TetMesh GHS3D provided by Simulog Technologies, a business unit of Simulog S.A. HOOPS
graphics system is a proprietary software product of, and is copyrighted by, Tech Soft America,
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consequential damages of any kind, or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data
or profits, whether or not advised of the possibility of damage, or on any theory of liability, arising
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Icon: Copyright, 1987, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sentry Spelling-Checker Engine
copyright 1994-2003 Wintertree Software, Inc. Portions of software documentation are used
with the permission of the World Wide Web Consortium. Copyright 19942006 World Wide Web
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Such portions are indicated at their points of use. Copyright and ownership of certain software
components is with YARD SOFTWARE SYSTEMS LIMITED, unauthorized use and copying of
which is hereby prohibited. YARD SOFTWARE SYSTEMS LIMITED 1987. (Lic. #YSS:SC:9107001)
KCL (Kyoto Common Lisp) (C) Taiichi Yuasa and Masami Hagiya, 1984. 2D DCM, 3D DCM, CDM,
AEM Copyright D-Cubed Ltd. 2006. BCGControlBar library (C) BCGSoft. Portions of this software
copyright Geometric Software Solutions Company Limited, 2004-2005. PDFNet SDK is copyright
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and Bai, Z. and Bischof, C. and Blackford, S. and Demmel, J. and Dongarra, J. and Du Croz, J.
and Greenbaum, A. and Hammarling, S. and McKenney, A. and Sorensen, D.). Certain software

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components licensed in connection with the Apache Software Foundation and/or pursuant to the
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domain: cam.ac.uk, University of Cambridge Computing Service, Cambridge, England. Copyright
1997-2008 University of Cambridge. All rights reserved. SIMILE Copyright The SIMILE Project
2006. All rights reserved. Note that JQuery: Copyright 2008 John Resig (www.jquery.com) is

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included in the Ajax section of this distribution and is covered under the MIT LICENSE (see below).
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(http://www.antlr.org/license.html) NativeCall Java Toolkit (http://sourceforge.net/projects/nativecall/)
Redistribution and use of the above in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
is permitted provided that the following conditions are met: (i) Redistributions of source code
must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer; (ii)
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions, and
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and (iii) Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of any other contributors may
be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written
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CONTRIBUTORS AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT
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OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
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LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE
OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. The Java Getopt.jar file, copyright 1987
1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc. #ZipLib GNU software is developed for the Free Software
Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA, copyright 1989, 1991.
PTC hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program #ZipLib written by Mike Krueger. #ZipLib
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PTC will provide the source code for such software for a charge no more than the cost of performing
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is a module which is not derived from or based on this library.): javax.media.j3d package; Copyright
1996-2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA. All rights
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See the README-FIRST.txt for more information.). 3D Graphics API for the Java Platform 1.6.0
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(SharpZipLib, formerly NZipLib), a Zip, GZip, Tar and BZip2 library, Copyright 2000-20xx IC#Code.
All rights reserved. #ZipLib was originally developed by Mike Krueger (mike@icsharpcode.net) with
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Adler (madler@alumni.caltech.edu) and its other contributors; (iii) Julian R Seward for the bzip2
implementation; (iv) the Java port done by Keiron Liddle, Aftex Software (keiron@aftexsw.com);
(v) tar implementation by Timothy Gerard Endres (time@gjt.org); and (vi) Christoph Wille for
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libiconv Copyright 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc. (http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/).
NHibernate 200x, Red Hat Middleware, LLC. All rights reserved (http://www.hibernate.
org/343.html). MPXJ 2000-2008, Packwood Software (http://mpxj.sourceforge.net/). Java
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DevlL Image Lib 0.1.6.7
(http://openil.sourceforge.net/). Zip Master Component Lib 1.79 (http://www.delphizip.org). Exadel
RichFaces 3.0.1 (http://www.exadel.com). Jfree / Jfree Chart 1.0.0 (http://www.jfree.org/). Memory
DLLLoading code 0.0.1 (http://www.dsplayer.de/open source probjects/BTMemoryModule.zip).
May include Jena Software Copyright 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 Hewlett-Packard
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INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT
NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. Jena includes: JakartaORO
software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (described above).
ICU4J software Copyright 1995-2003 International Business Machines Corporation and others All
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the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization of the copyright
holder. CUP Parser Generator Copyright 1996-1999 by Scott Hudson, Frank Flannery, C. Scott

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Ananianused by permission. The authors and their employers disclaim all warranties with regard
to this software, including all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness. In no event shall
the authors or their employers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages, or any
damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract,
negligence or other tortious action arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of this
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is freely available without charge and provided pursuant to the following license agreement:
http://www.imagemagick.org/script/license.php. Info-Zip and UnZip ( 1990 2001 Info ZIP, All
Rights Reserved) is provided AS IS and WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. For the complete
Info ZIP license see http://www.info-zip.org/doc/LICENSE. "Info-ZIP" is defined as the following set
of individuals: Mark Adler, John Bush, Karl Davis, Harald Denker, Jean-Michel Dubois, Jean-loup
Gailly, Hunter Goatley, Ed Gordon, Ian Gorman, Chris Herborth, Dirk Haase, Greg Hartwig, Robert
Heath, Jonathan Hudson, Paul Kienitz, David Kirschbaum, Johnny Lee, Onno van der Linden, Igor
Mandrichenko, Steve P. Miller, Sergio Monesi, Keith Owens, George Petrov, Greg Roelofs, Kai
Uwe Rommel, Steve Salisbury, Dave Smith, Steven M. Schweda, Christian Spieler, Cosmin Truta,
Antoine Verheijen, Paul von Behren, Rich Wales, and Mike White. ICU Libraries (International
Components for Unicode) Copyright 1995-2001 International Business Machines Corporation and
others, All rights reserved. Libraries are provided pursuant to the ICU Project (notice is set forth
above) at http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/icu/index.jsp. The Independent JPEG
Group's JPEG software. This software is Copyright 1991-1998, Thomas G. Lane. All Rights
Reserved. This software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group. iText Library
- Copyright 1999-2006 by Bruno Lowagie and Paulo Soares. All Rights Reserved source
code and further information available at http://www.lowagie.com/iText. jpeg-6b.zip - JPEG image
compression library, version 6.2. Used to create images for HTML output; Provided pursuant to:
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Kumar at the University of Minnesota, can be researched at http://www.cs.umn.edu/~karypis/metis.
Mozilla Japanese localization components are subject to the Netscape Public License Version 1.1
(at http://www.mozilla.org/NPL). Software distributed under the Netscape Public License (NPL) is
distributed on an AS IS basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either expressed or implied
(see the NPL for the rights and limitations that are governing different languages). The Original
Code is Mozilla Communicator client code, released March 31, 1998 and the Initial Developer of
the Original Code is Netscape Communications Corporation. Portions created by Netscape are
Copyright 1998 Netscape Communications Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Contributors:
Kazu Yamamoto (kazu@mozilla.gr.jp), Ryoichi Furukawa (furu@mozilla.gr.jp), Tsukasa Maruyama
(mal@mozilla.gr.jp), Teiji Matsuba (matsuba@dream.com). The following components are subject
to the Mozilla Public License Version 1.0 or 1.1 at http://www.mozilla.org/MPL (the MPL) and
said software is distributed on an AS IS basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either
expressed or implied and all warranty, support, indemnity or liability obligations under PTCs
software license agreements are provided by PTC alone (see the MPL for the specific language
governing rights and limitations the source code and modifications thereto are available under the
MPL and are available upon request): Gecko and Mozilla components Spidermonkey Charset
Detector Saxon-B (http://www.saxonica.com/documentation/conditions/intro.html). Office Partner
Components 1.64 (http://sourceforge.net/projects/tpofficepartner/).
Rhino JavaScript engine,
distributed with a form of the Mozilla Public License (MPL). tiff-v3.4-tar.gz - Libtiff File IO Library
version 3.4: (see also http://www.libtiff.org ftp://ftp.sgi.com/graphics/tiff) Used by the image EFI
library; Provided pursuant to: http://www.libtiff.org/misc.html. The DITA standards, including
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OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/): Copyright 1998
2004 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved. This product includes cryptographic software
written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com) WHICH IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG ''AS IS''
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. This
product also includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com). pcre-4.3-2-src.zip Perl Compatible Regular Expression Library version 4.3. http://www.pcre.org; Provided pursuant
to: PCRE License. lpng120.zip - PNG image library version 1.2.0. http://www.ijg.org; Provided
pursuant to: http://www.libpng.org/pub/png/src/libpng-LICENSE.txt. libpng, Copyright 2004 Glenn
Randers-Pehrson, which is distributed according to the disclaimer and license (as well as the list of

Contributing Authors) at http://www.libpng.org/pub/png/src/libpng-LICENSE.txt. METIS is 1997


Regents of the University of Minnesota.

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Curl software, Copyright 1996 - 2005, Daniel Stenberg, All rights reserved. Software is used
under the following permissions: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for
any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and
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THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
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COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF
OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE. Except as contained in this notice, the name of a copyright holder shall not be used in
advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use, or other dealings. Java Advanced Imaging (JAI)
is provided pursuant to the Sun Java Distribution License (JDL) at http://www.jai.dev.java.net. The
terms of the JDL shall supersede any other licensing terms for PTC software with respect to JAI
components. Regular expression support is provided by the PCRE library package, which is open
source software, written by Philip Hazel, and copyright by the University of Cambridge, England.
This software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group. Regular Expressions
support was derived from copyrighted software written by Henry Spencer, Copyright 1986 by
University of Toronto. SGML parser: Copyright 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 James Clark,
1999 Matthias Clasen. XML parser and XSLT processing was developed using Libxml and Libxslt
by Daniel Veillard, Copyright 2001. libWWW (W3C's implementation of HTTP) can be found at:
http://www.w3.org/Library; Copyright 1994-2000 World Wide Web Consortium, (Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, Keio
University). All Rights Reserved. This program is distributed under the W3C's Software Intellectual
Property License at:
http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/2002/copyright-software-20021231.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. See W3C License http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal for more details. Copyright
1995 CERN. "This product includes computer software created and made available by CERN.
This acknowledgment shall be mentioned in full in any product which includes the CERN computer
software included herein or parts thereof." Perl support was developed with the aid of Perl Kit,
Version 5.0. Copyright 1989-2002, Larry Wall. All rights reserved. The cad2eda program
utilizes wxWidgets (formerly wxWindows) libraries for its cross-platform UI API, which is licensed
under the wxWindows Library License at http://www.wxwindows.org. ZLib - Compression library;
Copyright 1995-2005 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler; Provided pursuant to ZLib License at
http://www.zlib.net/zlib_license.html. ATLPort copyright 1999, 2000 Boris Fomitchev is provided by
the copyright holder "as is" with absolutely no warranty expressed or implied. Permission to use
or copy this software for any purpose is granted without fee, provided the foregoing notices are
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A copy of the License may be obtained at http://www.opencascade.org. The Initial Developer
of the Original Code is Open CASCADE S.A.S., with main offices at 15 bis, rue Ernest Renan
92136, Issy Les Moulineaux, France. The Original Code is copyright Open CASCADE S.A.S.,
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as follows: CSubclassWnd version 2.0 - Misc. C++ software; Copyright 2000 NEWare Software.
STLPort - C++ templates; 1999,2000 Boris Fomitchev; Provided pursuant to: STLPort License
http://stlport.sourceforge.net/License.shtml. Zip32 - Compression library; Copyright 1990-2007.
Info-ZIP; Provided pursuant to: Info-ZIP License http://www.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/license.html.
Inno Setup - Installer package; Copyright 1997-2007 Jordan Russell; Provided pursuant to Inno
Setup License http://www.jrsoftware.org/files/is/license.txt. 7-Zip - Compression package; Copyright
1999-2007 Igor Pavlov; Provided pursuant to 7-Zip License http://www.7-zip.org/license.txt. The
implementation of the loop macro in CoCreate Modeling is based on code originating from MIT
and Symbolics, Inc. Portions of LOOP are Copyright 1986 by the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and Portions of LOOP are Copyright 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992 by Symbolics, Inc. All
Rights Reserved. Used under license pursuant to which permission to use, copy, modify and
distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is granted, provided
that the copyright holders copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright
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"Massachusetts Institute of Technology" and "Symbolics" may not be used in advertising or publicity
pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. Notice must
be given in supporting documentation that copying distribution is by permission of the copyright
holders. The copyright holders make no representations about the suitability of this software for
any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty. ORACLE, ODBC, and
DB2/CLI Template Library, Version 4.0.126, Copyright Sergei Kuchin, 1996, 20xx. This library
is free software. Permission to use, copy, modify and redistribute it for any purpose is hereby
granted without fee, provided that the preceding copyright statement appears in all copies. (see
http://otl.sourceforge.net/) The following items are used and licensed pursuant to the Common
Development and Distribution License (CDDL). See https://mq.dev.java.net/LICENSE.txt. Metro
Web Services Stack, Copyright Sun Microsystems. The copyright holders of this library give
permission to link this library with independent modules to produce an executable, regardless of the
license terms of these independent modules, and to copy and distribute the resulting executable
under differing terms, provided that, for each linked independent module, the terms and conditions
of the license of that module are met. Source Code for Metro will be provided upon request and is
licensed under the terms of the CDDL. Open MQ In addition, this project uses Mozilla Network
Security Services and Network Security Portable Runtime (NSS / NSPR) which are licensed under
the Mozilla Public License. OpenDS uses BerkeleyDB which is described above.

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The following components are licensed pursuant to the Common Public License (CPL). All warranties
and awarded damage relief from use of the technology as provided by PTC are provided solely by
PTC and same is disclaimed by other contributors. Source code for the program is available upon
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Scriptable Install System), Copyright 1995-20xx, all Contributors. Includes zlib/libpng, bzip2, and
lzma compression modules with licensing information at http://nsis.sourceforge.net/License. Certain
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Software-Restricted Rights at FAR 52.227 19(c)(1)-(2) (JUN87), as applicable. 05222009
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