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# Module: 6

Lecture: 3

X
X st

tan

2
n

1
n

## These indicate that non-dimensional amplitude

frequency ratio

X
and the phase angle are functions of the
X st

n

## There are three cases possible:

1 The inertia and damping forces are small, which results in a small phase angle
(i)
n
. The magnitude of the impressed force is then nearly equal to the spring force. This zone is
called as stiffness dominated zone.
m 2 x

F0

kx

(ii)

C x

n 1

For

0
n 1.0 , the phase angle is 90 and the force diagram appears as shown in the
figure.

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m 2 x

C x

90 0
F0

kx

n 1

## This is called as damping dominated zone

The inertia force is now larger, is balanced by the spring force, whereas the impressed force
overcomes the damping force. The amplitude at resonance can be found to be

(iii)

F0
C

F0
2 k

At large value of

0
n 1, approaches 180 , and the impressed force
expanded almost entirely in overcoming the large inertia force as shown in Figure

m 2 x

C x

90 0
kx
F0

n 1

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## Summary of Some Relations

0
(1)

r 2 1 2 2
For practical values of damping, that is small damping, magnification factor is maximum, when r
is slightly less than unity.
When 0
d
dr

Ast

A
1

Ast
2 i

(2)

When r 1,

(3)

## A is very small when n

(4)
(5)

When A Ast n
(i) 0 at 0 and n
i.e. the response is in phase with exciting force.
(ii)

## at the resonant condition i.e. r 1

2
(iii) , when n
the response is out of phase with the exciting frequency

A
Ast

tan

1 r

2 2

1
2 r

2 r
1 r2

at r 1,

A
1

Ast 2

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A
Ast

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r 1

1 A

2 Ast

Case : 0.25
1
2 2

1 1
1

2 2
2 2

1
2
2

2 1.414

A
Ast

r1 1

r2 1

A
Ast
2

1 .0

1
r

r1

1
2 2
Squaring

Solving for, r 2

1 r

2 r

2 2

1 r 2 r
21 2 r 1 8
1 2 2 1

r4

r2

2 2
2

## When is small, 2 is negligible

r12, 2 1 2 r1, 2 1 r2 r1 2
r2 r1
2
Hint: B; nominal Expansion
1
1
1
2!
1!
1 2
1

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2 1
2 n

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## can be found by measuring width of resonant peak at

Quality factor Q

A
1

Ast
2 2

1
2

Q related to the damping provides the measure of the sharpness of the resonance. Larger the Q,
smaller is the damping.
For an undamped system, Q =
For critically damped system Q =
Note that, the power required is proportional to the square of the amplitude.
Thus power require at the label of measurement of the width is half that of resonance.
The points in the above figure are called half power points.
Ex.

We assume a system
F (t ) F0 cos t
Single DOF undamped System
m x kn F t

F0 23N

m 10 kg

k 1000 N m

2 n

Initial condition

x0 0
x 0 0.2 m / s

x(t)

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= ?

motion ?

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Solution of equation
x t

A1 sin n t A2 cos n t

k
1000

m
10

## Appling initial condition

F0 m
cos t
n 2 2

x 0 A2

2.3
0
300

23
3000
0.2
x t A1n cos n t A1
0.02
10
23
x t 0.02sin10 t
cos10 t cos 20 t
1000
A2

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