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# Module: 16

Lecture: 1
Preamble
The methodology discussed in the section of approximate methods can be generalized and
extended further leading to the development of finite element method. The whole structure may
be divided into small elements and the appropriate trial functions/shape functions may be derived
and applying approximate methods, the simultaneous algebraic equations may be developed in
the element level. Another important point may be noted here that a complex structural geometry
may be composed of several types of finite elements. The appropriate assembly procedure can be
applied to reconstruct the complex structure after assembling the finite elements. The concept of
finite element is more generalized to apply to any complex structure and analysis may be
performed.
In this section, bar and beams elements are derived and demonstrated how to get equilibrium
equations both in local elemental coordinate system and with respect to global coordinate
system.

## M=mass of the element

E= modulus of elasticity
A=cross-sectional area
Integrating twice, we obtain

u x C1 x C2

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## Where, C1 & C2 are constants of integration. At x 0 the axial displacement is u1 and at x h

axial displacement is u2 . Hence we can write

u 0 u1 C2 and u h C1h C2 u2
Showing the above two equations we get,
u u
C1 2 1 and C2 u1
h
Inserting the constants C1 and C2 , we obtain the expression for the axial displacement

x
x
u x 1 u1 u2 L1u1 L2u2
h
h
Where
x
L1 1
h
x
L2
h

L1 1 at x 0 and L2 1 at x h
L2 0 at x 0 and L1 0 at x h
Characteristics of L1 & L2 are
The displacement u x is related to the nodal forces through the boundary conditions

EA

u
x

f1 ; EA
x 0

u
x

f2
xh

So that we have,

EA

u2 u1
u u
f1 and EA 2 1 f 2
h
h

## If we write the equations in matrix form

K u F

u u1 u2 and F f1 f 2 ;
Where
T

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And

EA 1 1
h 1 1

## For a Beam axial deformation we can write

u x L1 x u1 L2 x u2

Where

x
x
L1 x 1
L2 x
h
h

*
1

x
h

Shape Function
They are called as shape function or interpolation function

## Element Equation of Matrix: A Consistent Approach

Let us assume that the axial displacement of the second-order system depicted in the earlier
discussion can be written in the form.
u x, t L1 x u1 t L2 x u2 t L x u t
T

## Where L x two dimensional vector of interpolation is functions and u t is the corresponding

vector of nodal displacement using the above equation the kinetic energy for the element is
simply
h
h
u x, t
u x, t u x, t
1
1
T t m x
dx
m x

dx

20
20
t
t t
2

T
T
1
m x u t L x L x u t dx
20

T
1
u t mu t

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Where m m x L x L x dx
T

## Similarly, the potential energy is

1
dv
2
h
1
P dx
20

1
u u
AE dx
20
x x
h

h
u x, t
1
U t EA x
x
20
x
2

T
T
1
EA x u t L x L x u t dx

20
T
1
u t k u t

k EA x L x L x

dx

## Assuming that the element is subjected to the distributed at force

nonconservative energy we can write
h

w t f x, t u x, t dx
0

f x, t L x u t dx
T

f t u t
T

Where, f t f x, t L x dx
T

## Is the nodal nonconservative force vector.

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f x, t And considering

Total Lagrangian

L T U
1
1
T
T
u M u u K u
2
2
L
M u

L
K u

L
M u
t u

M u K u f x, t
Consider an element in axial vibration, such as that shown in Fig. use the interpolaton function
given by earlier expression and calculate the element mass, stiffnessmatrics, as well as the nodal
force vector for the distributed load
f x, t a bx

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