WTO 2009

Trade Profiles 2009

WTO MEMBERS
(As of 23 July 2008) Albania Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Bahrain, Kingdom of Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Congo Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia European Communities Fiji Finland Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) France Gabon The Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong, China Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lesotho Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao, China Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Saudi Arabia Senegal Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Chinese Taipei Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States of America Uruguay Viet Nam Zambia Zimbabwe

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ISBN 978-92-870-3694-0 © World Trade Organization 2009

INTRODUCTION

These Trade Profiles combine information on trade flows and trade policy measures of Members, Observers and other selected economies. The information is retrieved from various WTO Divisions and external sources and presented in standardized format for quick reference.

The indicators are divided into five categories: I. Basic economic indicators – population, GDP, current account balance, etc.

II. Trade policy indicators – specific WTO relevant information, including tariff binding information, import duties collected in total tax revenue, the number of dispute rulings (complainant, defendant), notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force. III. Merchandise trade indicators (customs-based statistics) – information on total trade flows broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations. IV. Commercial services indicators (balance of payments based statistics) – trends in total trade flows and a breakdown by major components. V. Industrial property indicators – annual number of patents granted and marks registered in the name of residents and non-residents in the economy. Data are currently provided for as many Members and Observers for which adequate information is available in the WTO Secretariat and other national and international bodies. For updates, see the WTO Online Database at the WTO Statistics Gateway (www.wto.org, choose Resources, Trade statistics). Depending on data availability, missing trade profiles will be completed or added. For sources and methodology, please refer to the Technical Notes at the end of the publication.

The definition of economies in this booklet does not imply an expression of opinion by the Secretariat concerning the status of any country or territory, the delimitation of its frontiers, nor regarding the rights and obligations of any WTO Member in respect of WTO Agreements. Throughout this report, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Republic of Korea and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu are referenced as Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela, Korea, Republic of and Taipei, Chinese respectively.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

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Acknowledgements are due to the International Monetary Fund, the International Trade Center, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Statistical Office of the European Communities, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Statistics Division, the World Bank and the World Intellectual Property Organization. The assistance of all these organizations in supplying statistics as well as other information has greatly facilitated the work of the Secretariat.

Symbols and abbreviations
... AOA CRN DSU EIA EU Not available or not reported Not applicable WTO Agreement on Agriculture Central Registry of Notifications Dispute Settlement Understanding Economic Integration Agreement European Union GATS Services GDP ITS MFN PPP RTA General Agreement on Trade in Gross Domestic Product WTO International Trade Statistics Most Favoured Nation Purchasing Power Parity Regional Trade Agreement

Annual average percentage changes are calculated using a geometric average. Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding. Tables include in general information for the period 2000 - latest available year. Unless otherwise indicated, (i) all value figures are expressed in United States dollars; (ii) merchandise trade figures are on a customs basis; (iii) trade in commercial services data are on a balance of payments basis; and (iv) merchandise exports are valued f.o.b. and merchandise imports c.i.f.

Comments and enquiries on this booklet should be addressed to statistics@wto.org. Closing date 15 October 2009.

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TRADE PROFILES 2009

CONTENTS

Afghanistan – AF Albania – AL Algeria – DZ Angola – AO Antigua and Barbuda – AG Argentina – AR Armenia – AM Australia – AU Austria – AT Azerbaijan – AZ Bahamas – BS Bahrain – BH Bangladesh – BD Barbados – BB Belarus – BY Belgium – BE Belize – BZ Benin – BJ Bhutan – BT Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela – VE Bolivia – BO Bosnia and Herzegovina – BA Botswana – BW Brazil – BR Brunei Darussalam – BN Bulgaria – BG Burkina Faso – BF Burundi – BI Cambodia – KH Cameroon – CM Canada – CA Cape Verde – CV Central African Republic – CF Chad – TD Chile – CL China – CN Colombia – CO Comoros – KM Congo – CG Congo, Dem. Rep. of – CD Costa Rica – CR Côte d’Ivoire – CI Croatia – HR Cuba – CU Cyprus – CY

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Czech Republic – CZ Denmark – DK Djibouti – DJ Dominica – DM Dominican Republic – DO Ecuador – EC Egypt – EG El Salvador – SV Equatorial Guinea – GQ Eritrea – ER Estonia – EE Ethiopia – ET European Union (27) – E27 Fiji – FJ Finland – FI France – FR FYR Macedonia – MK Gabon – GA Gambia – GM Georgia – GE Germany – DE Ghana – GH Greece – GR Grenada – GD Guatemala – GT Guinea – GN Guinea-Bissau – GW Guyana – GY Haiti – HT Honduras – HN Hong Kong, China – HK Hungary – HU Iceland – IS India – IN Indonesia – ID Iran, Islamic Rep. of – IR Iraq – IQ Ireland – IE Israel – IL Italy – IT Jamaica – JM Japan – JP Jordan – JO Kazakhstan – KZ Kenya – KE

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92

TRADE PROFILES 2009

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Korea, Republic of – KR Kuwait – KW Kyrgyz Republic – KG Lao People’s Dem. Rep. – LA Latvia – LV Lebanon – LB Lesotho – LS Libyan Arab Jamahiriya – LY Lithuania – LT Luxembourg – LU Macao, China – MO Madagascar – MG Malawi – MW Malaysia – MY Maldives – MV Mali – ML Malta – MT Mauritania – MR Mauritius – MU Mexico – MX Moldova – MD Mongolia – MN Montenegro – ME Morocco – MA Mozambique – MZ Myanmar – MM Namibia – NA Nepal – NP Netherlands – NL New Zealand – NZ Nicaragua – NI Niger – NE Nigeria – NG Norway – NO Oman – OM Pakistan – PK Panama – PA Papua New Guinea – PG Paraguay – PY Peru – PE Philippines – PH Poland – PL Portugal – PT Qatar – QA Romania – RO Russian Federation – RU
2 TRADE PROFILES 2009

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138

Rwanda – RW Saint Kitts and Nevis – KN Saint Lucia – LC Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – VC Samoa – WS Sao Tome and Principe – ST Saudi Arabia – SA Senegal – SN Serbia – RS Seychelles – SC Sierra Leone – SL Singapore – SG Slovak Republic – SK Slovenia – SI Solomon Islands – SB South Africa – ZA Spain – ES Sri Lanka – LK Sudan – SD Suriname – SR Swaziland – SZ Sweden – SE Switzerland – CH Syrian Arab Republic – SY Taipei, Chinese – TW Tajikistan – TJ Tanzania – TZ Thailand – TH Togo – TG Tonga – TO Trinidad and Tobago – TT Tunisia – TN Turkey – TR Turkmenistan – TM Uganda – UG Ukraine – UA United Arab Emirates – AE United Kingdom – GB United States – US Uruguay – UY Uzbekistan – UZ Vanuatu – VU Viet Nam – VN Yemen – YE Zambia – ZM Zimbabwe – ZW

139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184

AFGHANISTAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) ... 10 170 30 602 ... ... ... 2008 ... ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 157 131 159 133 Imports 132 106 173 147

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 ... ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 ... ... ...

2008 ... ... ... 49.0 ... 1-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 5.8 Non-agricultural goods 5.5 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Pakistan 2. India 3. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 4. Saudi Arabia 5. China Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 610 3 350 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2006-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 22 9

2000-2008 20 14

2008 23 19 2008 0.02

... ... ... 55.0 11.8 2.5 1.7 0.3 28.7 Value 2008 ... ... 2008 ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Pakistan 2. China 3. Japan 4. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 5. India Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 ... ...

... ... ... 17.2 15.4 12.1 8.1 4.8 38.6

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 ... ... 2008 ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009

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ALBANIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 143 12 295 24 251 - 1 924 2 837 82.7 2008 153 225 310 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 140 114 84 58 Imports 111 86 91 66

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 11 15

Annual percentage change 2007 6 8 28

2008 6 7 12 0.022 7.6 2.8 4 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 8 September 2000 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.0 5.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 9.4 7.8 Non-agricultural goods 6.6 4.8 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.4 in non-agricultural goods 43.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 108 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Serbia 3. FYR Macedonia 4. China 5. Montenegro COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 355 5 251 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 35 37

2000-2008 23 22

2008 26 25 2008 0.03

7.7 22.1 70.1 79.7 8.3 2.9 2.8 2.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Turkey 4. Serbia 5. Russian Federation

17.3 18.6 63.6 60.7 7.4 6.0 4.7 4.4

Value 2008 2 419 2 361 2008 0.06

2000-2008 24 24

Annual percentage change 2007 30 22

2008 26 25 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

8.8 70.8 20.4

14.8 65.9 19.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 270 Total 3 270

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TRADE PROFILES 2009

ALGERIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2003) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 34 362 173 882 276 016 9 780 3 141 75.1 2008 137 124 187 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 42 28 79 53 Imports 56 38 61 42

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 3 8

Annual percentage change 2007 3 -1 8

2008 3 5 12 5.1 6.2 2-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 18.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 23.3 Non-agricultural goods 17.8 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 0.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Canada 4. Turkey 5. Brazil COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents ... Non-residents ... Total 214 Value 2008 79 298 39 479

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 29

2000-2008 17 20

2008 32 43 2008 a 0.24

2008 a 0.49 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 0.2 Agricultural products 98.8 Fuels and mining products 1.0 Manufactures By main origin 43.6 1. European Union (27) 30.1 2. China 7.8 3. United States 3.4 4. Japan 3.0 5. Argentina

23.0 3.0 74.0 51.9 8.6 7.7 3.9 3.3

Value 2008 3 101 7 194 2008 0.08

2000-2008 16 23

Annual percentage change 2007 10 45

2008 25 58 2008 0.21

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 2 372 Total 2 372

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

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ANGOLA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2003-2005) Trade to GDP ratio (2003-2005) 18 021 83 383 106 296 9 402 1 668 125.4 2008 268 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 46 31 147 121 Imports 72 50 46 29

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 13 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 20 ... ...

2008 15 ... ... 0.134 ... ... 36 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 23 November 1996 Trade Policy Review date 14, 16 February 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 59.2 7.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 52.8 10.0 Non-agricultural goods 60.1 6.9 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 5 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 67 100 21 100 2008 0.42

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 39 56

2000-2008 31 27

2008 51 54 2008 0.13

0.1 99.1 0.7 ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2007 311 11 610 2007 0.01

2000-2007 2 26

Annual percentage change 2006 ... 11

2007 ... 69 2007 0.37

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

5.4 72.4 22.2

21.6 1.8 76.6

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

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TRADE PROFILES 2009

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 86 1 225 1 824 - 402 17 424 131.9 2008 ... 92 96 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 182 156 130 104 Imports 174 148 161 135

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 ... -4 -2

Annual percentage change 2007 ... ... ...

2008 ... ... ... 0.015 ... ... 42 2-2 ... ... 0 1-0 1-0 1-0 0-1

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 58.7 9.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 105.0 15.0 Non-agricultural goods 51.4 8.9 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.8 in non-agricultural goods 4.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 32 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Netherlands Antilles 2. United States 3. European Union (27) 4. Barbados 5. Dominica COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents ... Non-residents ... Total 9 Value 2008 80 770

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 3 17

2000-2008 6 8

2008 5 6 2008 b 0.00

2008 b 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 1.7 Agricultural products 55.3 Fuels and mining products 42.5 Manufactures By main origin 30.9 1. United States 23.6 2. European Union (27) 10.6 3. Japan 8.2 4. Netherlands Antilles 6.1 5. Trinidad and Tobago

20.4 36.9 42.7 58.2 12.3 4.3 4.1 3.9

Value 2008 509 296 2008 0.01

2000-2008 3 9

Annual percentage change 2007 4 14

2008 5 4 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

16.4 69.9 13.7

36.1 18.1 45.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 1 031 Total 1 031

a Refers to 2002 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2002. b Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2005 and by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

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ARGENTINA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 39 876 328 385 571 537 7 588 3 070 45.2 2008 139 161 138 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 45 30 47 29 Imports 47 29 47 30

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 7 5

Annual percentage change 2007 9 9 21

2008 7 ... ... 0.315 2.8 3.8 12 3-1 69 ... 1 15 - 16 3-6 2-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 12, 14 February 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 31.9 11.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 32.5 10.3 Non-agricultural goods 31.8 11.9 0.0 11.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 4.3 in non-agricultural goods 21.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 63 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Brazil 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. United States 5. Chile Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Residents 145 Non-residents 1 442 Total 1 587 Value 2008 70 023 57 423 2008 0.44

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2002-2004) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 31

2000-2008 13 11

2008 26 28 2008 0.35

53.1 12.5 30.6 18.9 18.8 9.1 7.9 6.7 2.0 Value 2008 11 870 12 579 2008 0.31

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Brazil 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. United States 5. Paraguay Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 30 28

5.6 10.9 82.9 31.3 15.7 12.4 12.2 3.1 3.2

2000-2008 12 4

2008 16 19 2008 0.36

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

15.2 39.0 45.8

31.2 35.8 33.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2003 Direct residents 39 231 Direct non-residents 17 032 Madrid ... Total 56 263

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

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TRADE PROFILES 2009

ARMENIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 077 11 917 18 678 - 1 383 1 718 57.6 2008 245 201 226 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 145 119 123 97 Imports 119 93 127 101

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 12 9 11

Annual percentage change 2007 14 -3 13

2008 7 -14 8 0.015 4.6 1.7 7 8-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 5 February 2003 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 8.5 2.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.7 6.9 Non-agricultural goods 7.5 2.2 0.0 0.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 30.1 in non-agricultural goods 82.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 106 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Georgia 4. United States 5. Iran, Islamic Rep. of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 210 Non-residents 3 Total 213 Value 2008 1 069 4 412 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 49

2000-2008 18 22

2008 -7 35 2008 0.03

20.4 25.3 52.5 54.6 20.3 7.3 4.9 2.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Ukraine 5. Turkey

18.2 16.8 54.5 29.7 20.4 9.2 7.6 6.5

Value 2008 636 952 2008 0.02

2000-2008 22 23

Annual percentage change 2007 20 29

2008 11 23 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

21.7 52.0 26.3

49.3 34.1 16.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 672 Direct non-residents 492 Madrid 2 996 Total 4 160

TRADE PROFILES 2009

9

AUSTRALIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 21 374 1 015 217 762 559 - 44 040 18 699 46.1 2008 129 123 190 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 23 17 24 12 Imports 21 14 21 12

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 3 8

Annual percentage change 2007 3 4 9

2008 4 4 13 1.145 1.8 2.5 18 7-5 36 1 0 7 - 10 5-2 0-2 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 March 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 9.9 3.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 3.3 1.3 Non-agricultural goods 11.0 3.9 0.3 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 48.9 in non-agricultural goods 49.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 103 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Japan 2. China 3. European Union (27) 4. Korea, Republic of 5. India COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 1 086 Non-residents 10 150 Total 11 236 Value 2008 187 259 200 338 2008 1.17

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 19

2000-2008 14 14

2008 32 21 2008 1.22

13.9 59.7 15.5 22.8 14.6 10.5 8.3 6.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Japan 5. Singapore

5.4 17.2 71.5 21.0 15.6 12.0 9.0 7.2

Value 2008 45 601 45 491 2008 1.21

2000-2008 11 12

Annual percentage change 2007 22 22

2008 15 18 2008 1.30

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

19.5 55.2 25.3

33.3 34.9 31.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 25 868 Direct non-residents 9 063 Madrid 8 855 Total 43 786

10

TRADE PROFILES 2009

AUSTRIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 8 344 416 380 318 350 14 269 49 161 110.2 2008 117 154 140 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 25 21 Imports 22 25 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 6 5

Annual percentage change 2007 3 9 7

2008 2 ... ... 1.366 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 114 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Switzerland 4. Russian Federation 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 1 327 Non-residents 237 Total 1 564 Value 2008 180 966 183 441 2008 1.13

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 19

2000-2008 13 12

2008 11 13 2008 1.12

8.9 6.2 83.3 72.1 4.4 4.2 2.5 1.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Switzerland 3. China 4. United States 5. Russian Federation

8.9 16.1 73.3 73.5 4.4 4.2 2.9 2.1

Value 2008 61 673 42 578 2008 1.63

2000-2008 13 13

Annual percentage change 2007 20 17

2008 12 9 2008 1.22

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

21.7 35.4 42.8

32.1 26.8 41.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 5 613 Total 12 082

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

11

AZERBAIJAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 8 679 46 259 76 072 16 454 3 774 96.9 2008 351 543 495 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 62 44 102 76 Imports 100 75 73 50

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 17 24 22

Annual percentage change 2007 25 43 14

2008 11 15 21 ... ... 4-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 9.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.8 Non-agricultural goods 8.4 1.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 34.0 in non-agricultural goods 10.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Israel 4. India 5. Indonesia COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents 79 Non-residents 2 Total 81 Value 2008 30 586 7 575 2008 0.19

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 63 15

2000-2008 43 26

2008 44 25 2008 0.05

1.7 96.1 2.0 56.5 12.6 7.6 5.1 3.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Turkey 4. Ukraine 5. China

16.5 3.8 78.6 28.4 18.8 11.3 7.9 6.7

Value 2008 1 454 3 826 2008 0.04

2000-2008 26 30

Annual percentage change 2007 39 19

2008 24 15 2008 0.11

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

54.6 13.1 32.3

17.8 8.9 73.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 145 Total 3 145

12

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BAHAMAS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 335 6 935 ... - 1 002 23 250 117.0 2008 116 101 100 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 148 122 83 57 Imports 137 111 114 88

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 0 0

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 1 ... ... 47.5 13.4 2-2 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 29.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 23.6 Non-agricultural goods 30.9 0.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 37.8 in non-agricultural goods 15.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Canada 4. Nigeria 5. Turks and Caicos Islands COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 989 3 123 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 16 8

2000-2008 7 5

2008 23 6 2008 0.02

13.7 27.1 52.6 69.9 12.7 5.2 2.3 1.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 3. Netherlands Antilles 4. European Union (27) 5. Trinidad and Tobago

18.1 27.9 52.8 87.2 5.2 2.0 1.2 1.1

Value 2008 2 503 1 254 2008 0.07

2000-2008 3 3

Annual percentage change 2007 7 -1

2008 -2 -17 2008 0.04

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

2.1 86.0 11.9

28.3 24.6 47.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2004 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

13

BAHRAIN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2006) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2005) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 767 15 828 20 344 2 257 41 915 171.3 2005 134 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 73 51 76 51 Imports 84 60 97 71

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2005 6 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2004 6 ... ...

2005 8 ... ... 0.081 42.8 2.8 36 3-1 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 18, 20 July 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 73.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 34.4 5.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 38.9 8.6 Non-agricultural goods 33.4 4.7 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 24.1 in non-agricultural goods 1.9 Services sectors with GATS commitments 22 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Saudi Arabia 2. United States 3. European Union (27) 4. United Arab Emirates 5. India Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) b Commercial services imports (million US$) b Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2004 Residents ... Non-residents ... Total 26 Value 2008 18 150 12 500

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 9

2000-2008 14 13

2008 33 9 2008 a 0.08

2008 a 0.11 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 0.5 Agricultural products 90.5 Fuels and mining products 8.9 Manufactures By main origin 5.3 1. European Union (27) 2.7 2. Australia 2.4 3. Japan 1.5 4. Saudi Arabia 1.0 5. China 79.1 Unspecified origins Value 2008 3 740 2 030 2008 0.10 Annual percentage change 2007 6 6

5.6 59.1 35.2 11.4 6.3 5.2 4.8 4.2 51.0

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 6 19 2008 0.06

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

20.4 31.2 48.5

44.6 24.8 30.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 2 341 Total 2 341

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007. b Break in series for commercial services: 2004.

14

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BANGLADESH
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 160 000 78 992 213 504 1 032 217 49.1 2008 157 241 219 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 76 54 115 89 Imports 69 47 75 52

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 12 10

Annual percentage change 2007 6 13 16

2008 6 9 15 0.101 39.1 11.8 32 5-0 ... ... 0 1-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 13, 15 September 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 15.5 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 169.2 14.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 192.0 17.6 Non-agricultural goods 34.4 14.3 0.0 0.5 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 75.1 in non-agricultural goods 4.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 9 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. India 4. Canada 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 16 Non-residents 146 Total 162 Value 2008 15 357 23 838

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 16

2000-2008 12 13

2008 23 28 2008 a 0.15

2008 a 0.10 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 10.2 Agricultural products 2.2 Fuels and mining products 87.6 Manufactures By main origin 51.2 1. China 25.7 2. India 4.0 3. European Union (27) 3.5 4. Kuwait 1.7 5. Indonesia

28.6 13.1 51.4 15.6 13.2 9.7 7.2 5.1

Value 2008 891 3 684 2008 0.02

2000-2008 15 12

Annual percentage change 2007 14 27

2008 30 38 2008 0.11

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

12.5 10.2 77.3

87.4 5.0 7.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents 32 Direct non-residents 149 Madrid ... Total 181

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

15

BARBADOS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2005) Current account balance (million US$, 2005) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 255 3 409 4 950 - 385 16 565 130.6 2002 96 91 93 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 163 137 91 65 Imports 150 124 129 103

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2002 -2 -4 -4

Annual percentage change 2001 -2 -3 -5

2002 -2 -6 -2 0.015 10.6 5.4 40 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 17, 19 September 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 78.1 13.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 111.1 31.0 Non-agricultural goods 72.9 10.8 0.0 0.5 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 12.4 in non-agricultural goods 4.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 21 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Trinidad and Tobago 4. Saint Lucia 5. Jamaica Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1999 Residents ... Non-residents 3 Total 3 Value 2008 395 1 892 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2003-2004) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 8 5

2000-2008 5 6

2008 -17 11 2008 0.01

23.1 23.1 53.0 21.0 11.8 9.5 5.4 3.9 19.7 Value 2007 1 729 755 2007 0.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. European Union (27) 4. Japan 5. China Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2006 9 7

19.1 21.3 59.0 36.8 19.8 13.4 3.6 3.5 0.0

2000-2007 7 7

2007 12 11 2007 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

2.1 69.3 28.6

33.4 13.1 53.5

Trademark registrations by office, 1999 Direct residents 50 Direct non-residents 701 Madrid ... Total 751

16

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BELARUS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 9 681 60 302 118 695 - 5 049 6 284 128.4 2008 189 187 201 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 60 42 70 45 Imports 55 37 84 59

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 8 9

Annual percentage change 2007 9 7 0

2008 10 8 10 5.4 2.9 4-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 10.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.3 Non-agricultural goods 10.5 12.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 8.3 in non-agricultural goods 9.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Ukraine 4. Brazil 5. China Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 1 015 Non-residents 115 Total 1 130 Value 2008 32 902 39 483 2008 0.20

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 23 28

2000-2008 21 21

2008 36 38 2008 0.24

8.0 38.0 52.3 43.9 32.2 8.5 3.3 1.9 0.0 Value 2008 4 224 2 583 2008 0.11

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Russian Federation 2. European Union (27) 3. Ukraine 4. China 5. United States Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 37 23

8.7 39.1 48.7 59.8 21.6 5.4 3.6 1.2 1.6

2000-2008 20 22

2008 30 29 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

70.8 8.6 20.5

50.0 26.0 24.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 1 404 Direct non-residents 706 Madrid 6 028 Total 8 138

TRADE PROFILES 2009

17

BELGIUM
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 10 704 497 586 369 213 - 12 015 74 923 177.2 2008 116 123 123 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 8 13 Imports 9 14 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 3 3

Annual percentage change 2007 3 4 5

2008 1 ... ... 2.563 ... ... 33 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 68 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. India 4. Switzerland 5. Russian Federation COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 405 Non-residents 114 Total 519 Value 2008 475 550 469 486 2008 2.96

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 18 17

2000-2008 12 13

2008 10 14 2008 2.86

10.0 12.7 76.5 77.1 4.8 1.5 1.4 1.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Japan 5. Russian Federation

9.3 19.8 70.1 70.3 5.5 4.1 2.6 1.7

Value 2008 86 139 81 942 2008 2.28

2000-2008 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 29 34

2008 16 17 2008 2.35

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

32.6 14.5 52.9

28.2 23.2 48.6

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

18

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BELIZE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 311 1 367 2 155 - 154 5 360 126.7 2008 142 163 103 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 166 140 144 118 Imports 170 144 170 144

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 7 0

Annual percentage change 2007 1 -6 0

2008 3 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 44 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 12, 14 July 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 98.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 58.2 10.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 101.4 20.7 Non-agricultural goods 51.5 9.3 0.0 0.5 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 33.9 in non-agricultural goods 15.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 17 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Costa Rica 4. Trinidad and Tobago 5. Mexico COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents ... Non-residents 7 Total 7 Value 2008 310 837 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -3 4

2000-2008 4 6

2008 16 22 2008 0.01

55.2 38.3 1.4 45.0 26.8 16.8 2.6 1.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Netherlands Antilles 3. Mexico 4. Panama 5. China

13.3 16.6 47.6 34.2 11.9 9.4 8.9 8.1

Value 2008 358 161 2008 0.01

2000-2008 13 4

Annual percentage change 2007 9 11

2008 -3 1 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

7.0 78.5 14.5

43.2 25.4 31.4

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

19

BENIN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 8 662 6 680 12 715 - 535 313 53.2 2008 138 116 111 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 147 121 133 107 Imports 149 123 139 113

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 3 2

Annual percentage change 2007 5 ... ...

2008 5 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 36 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 22 February 1996 Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 June 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 39.4 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 28.3 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 61.8 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 11.4 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 6.9 Services sectors with GATS commitments 12 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. European Union (27) 3. Nigeria 4. India 5. Niger COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 050 1 990

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 19 30

2000-2008 13 16

2008 20 24 2008 b 0.01

2008 b 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 41.7 Agricultural products 0.6 Fuels and mining products 6.2 Manufactures By main origin 24.0 1. European Union (27) 10.8 2. China 8.7 3. Côte d'Ivoire 8.6 4. Ghana 7.2 5. Togo

34.2 21.4 44.1 36.6 8.5 6.9 6.8 5.3

Value 2007 281 491 2007 0.01

2000-2007 12 15

Annual percentage change 2006 10 28

2007 43 43 2007 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

4.5 73.5 22.0

60.2 14.6 25.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2005 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2005. b Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2005 and by destination/origin refer to 2006.

20

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BHUTAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 687 1 359 3 266 ... 1 537 94.8 2008 200 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 160 134 179 153 Imports 180 154 177 151

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 9 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 14 ... ...

2008 14 ... ... 4.8 0.9 3-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 21.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 41.4 Non-agricultural goods 18.9 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. India 2. Bangladesh 3. Nepal 4. Hong Kong, China 5. Japan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 521 543 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2002-2004) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 63 25

2000-2008 22 15

2008 -23 3 2008 0.00

48.3 50.2 1.4 95.1 2.8 0.9 0.5 0.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. India 2. Japan 3. European Union (27) 4. Singapore 5. China

18.4 25.2 56.2 74.0 4.7 4.1 3.9 3.6

Value 2008 53 108 2008 0.00

2000-2008 13 11

Annual percentage change 2007 16 -1

2008 -13 1 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 837 Total 837

TRADE PROFILES 2009

21

BOLIVARIAN REP . OF VENEZUELA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 27 943 313 799 357 795 39 211 4 603 52.3 2008 142 93 288 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 38 24 94 68 Imports 49 31 59 40

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 -1 14

Annual percentage change 2007 8 -6 34

2008 5 5 14 0.316 8.7 6.3 68 3-0 ... ... 0 1-2 1-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 November 2002 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 36.5 13.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 55.7 16.8 Non-agricultural goods 33.6 12.8 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 4.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 63 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Netherlands Antilles 3. European Union (27) 4. Taipei, Chinese 5. Brazil COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Residents 14 Non-residents 742 Total 756 Value 2008 93 542 49 640 2008 0.58

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 37

2000-2008 14 15

2008 35 8 2008 0.30

0.2 95.6 3.5 40.4 20.2 8.5 4.0 2.7

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Colombia 3. European Union (27) 4. China 5. Brazil

16.0 2.5 71.8 26.4 15.0 12.9 9.4 9.0

Value 2008 1 708 7 821 2008 0.05

2000-2008 6 8

Annual percentage change 2007 6 25

2008 10 8 2008 0.22

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

26.6 52.4 21.0

50.8 20.5 28.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2000 Direct residents 9 744 Direct non-residents 8 710 Madrid ... Total 18 454

22

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BOLIVIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 9 684 16 674 41 431 2 015 1 031 71.4 2008 135 215 166 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 96 72 135 109 Imports 114 89 122 96

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 10 7

Annual percentage change 2007 0 3 5

2008 6 16 15 0.024 4.5 3.4 18 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 12 September 1995 Trade Policy Review date 2, 3 November 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 40.0 8.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 40.0 9.8 Non-agricultural goods 40.0 8.1 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 9.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 36 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Brazil 2. Korea, Republic of 3. Argentina 4. United States 5. European Union (27) COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1995 Residents 8 Non-residents 39 Total 47 Value 2008 6 448 4 987 2008 0.04

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 23

2000-2008 23 13

2008 45 44 2008 0.03

16.1 76.4 6.7 43.8 11.8 7.1 6.9 6.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Brazil 2. Argentina 3. United States 4. Japan 5. European Union (27)

10.2 10.8 78.9 18.4 14.5 10.5 9.9 8.3

Value 2008 482 1 018 2008 0.01

2000-2008 11 11

Annual percentage change 2007 5 9

2008 0 15 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

13.1 57.0 29.9

41.6 27.6 30.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009

23

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 773 18 452 31 656 - 2 764 4 294 106.1 2008 153 202 130 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 103 79 97 71 Imports 85 61 138 112

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 9 3

Annual percentage change 2007 7 13 14

2008 6 8 9 0.1 0.0 3-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 6.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 12.4 Non-agricultural goods 6.0 3.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.0 in non-agricultural goods 26.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Croatia 3. Serbia 4. Montenegro 5. Switzerland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 38 Non-residents 234 Total 272 Value 2008 5 064 12 282 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2006-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 25 33

2000-2008 21 19

2008 22 26 2008 0.07

12.7 24.6 61.2 55.0 17.2 15.1 3.4 2.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Croatia 3. Serbia 4. Turkey 5. China

17.0 20.2 62.0 48.0 17.1 10.6 5.3 4.6

Value 2008 1 658 632 2008 0.04

2000-2008 18 12

Annual percentage change 2007 28 29

2008 14 7 2008 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

19.9 49.8 30.3

43.4 33.3 23.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 120 Direct non-residents 550 Madrid 3 977 Total 4 647

24

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BOTSWANA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 1 905 12 969 25 511 2 434 5 458 84.9 2008 137 138 134 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 105 81 111 85 Imports 112 87 120 94

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 4 4

Annual percentage change 2007 4 9 14

2008 -1 3 12 0.034 ... ... 36 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 18.9 7.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 38.8 9.4 Non-agricultural goods 15.7 7.6 0.0 2.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.1 in non-agricultural goods 55.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 19 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. South Africa 3. China 4. Zimbabwe 5. Israel COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 4 875 5 165 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 32

2000-2008 8 12

2008 -6 28 2008 0.03

3.1 19.5 74.9 60.4 20.3 4.9 4.5 3.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. South Africa 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Israel 5. United States

12.7 19.0 65.8 78.6 10.4 2.8 1.7 1.2

Value 2008 992 1 076 2008 0.03

2000-2008 16 9

Annual percentage change 2007 20 16

2008 8 11 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

8.5 55.7 35.8

42.9 26.1 31.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 595 Total 595

TRADE PROFILES 2009

25

BRAZIL
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 191 972 1 612 539 1 976 632 - 28 192 1 854 26.2 2008 132 183 183 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 22 16 31 18 Imports 24 16 22 13

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 8 8

Annual percentage change 2007 6 7 21

2008 5 -1 18 0.897 ... ... 13 4-1 56 1 1 24 - 14 11 - 3 2-2 3-2

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 9, 11 March 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 31.4 13.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 35.5 10.2 Non-agricultural goods 30.8 14.1 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.8 in non-agricultural goods 31.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 43 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Argentina 4. China 5. Japan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 233 Non-residents 2 232 Total 2 465 Value 2008 197 942 182 408 2008 1.23

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 32

2000-2008 17 15

2008 23 44 2008 1.11

31.0 22.2 43.7 23.5 14.0 8.9 8.3 3.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Argentina 5. Japan

5.6 23.9 70.5 20.9 14.9 11.6 7.7 3.9

Value 2008 28 822 44 396 2008 0.76

2000-2008 16 14

Annual percentage change 2007 26 28

2008 27 28 2008 1.27

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

18.8 20.1 61.2

23.4 24.7 51.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total 128 540

26

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2006) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 397 11 471 19 540 5 232 27 851 97.2 2007 116 101 135 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 82 59 113 87 Imports 143 117 113 87

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2007 2 0 4

Annual percentage change 2006 4 4 4

2007 1 -10 13 0.039 ... ... 37 4-3 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 February 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 95.3 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 25.4 2.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 31.0 0.1 Non-agricultural goods 24.5 2.9 0.3 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 91.7 in non-agricultural goods 67.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 22 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Japan 2. Indonesia 3. Korea, Republic of 4. Australia 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 11 100 2 300

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 0 25

2000-2008 14 10

2008 45 9 2008 a 0.01

2008 a 0.07 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 0.1 Agricultural products 96.4 Fuels and mining products 3.3 Manufactures By main origin 30.6 1. Malaysia 19.8 2. Singapore 15.1 3. Japan 12.2 4. European Union (27) 6.7 5. United States

17.2 3.0 79.3 21.6 17.4 12.8 10.8 9.0

Value 2007 821 1 128

2000-2007 23 6

Annual percentage change 2006 21 10

2007 10 9 2007 a 0.04

2007 a 0.02 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

51.2 30.1 18.7

35.6 39.5 24.9

Trademark registrations by office, 1997 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents 1 051 Madrid ... Total 1 051

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2006. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

27

BULGARIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 7 623 49 900 94 476 - 12 577 7 765 147.4 2008 155 209 256 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 68 57 Imports 58 63 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 10 12

Annual percentage change 2007 6 5 10

2008 6 14 12 0.142 ... ... 58 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 December 1996 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 80 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Turkey 3. Serbia 4. Russian Federation 5. FYR Macedonia COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 65 Non-residents 199 Total 264 Value 2008 22 470 37 261 2008 0.14

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 23 29

2000-2008 21 24

2008 21 24 2008 0.23

13.8 32.6 52.3 59.9 8.8 4.7 2.7 2.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Ukraine 3. Russian Federation 4. Turkey 5. China

8.0 29.6 61.6 62.1 8.0 6.2 6.1 3.3

Value 2008 8 000 6 696 2008 0.21

2000-2008 18 19

Annual percentage change 2007 23 34

2008 23 22 2008 0.19

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

28.9 47.5 23.6

32.6 35.6 31.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 4 241 Direct non-residents 1 101 Madrid 4 675 Total 10 017

28

TRADE PROFILES 2009

BURKINA FASO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2001) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 15 209 7 948 17 662 - 291 148 35.4 2008 153 178 143 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 159 133 176 150 Imports 152 126 148 122

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 10 6

Annual percentage change 2007 4 ... ...

2008 4 ... ... 0.015 15.4 7.3 33 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 3 June 1995 Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 June 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 39.2 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 41.9 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 98.1 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 13.1 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2004) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 5.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Togo 2. Ghana 3. European Union (27) 4. Côte d'Ivoire 5. Switzerland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 550 1 800

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 23

2000-2008 13 14

2008 -12 11 2008 b 0.01

2008 b 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 72.4 Agricultural products 2.7 Fuels and mining products 6.5 Manufactures By main origin 41.0 1. European Union (27) 16.6 2. Côte d'Ivoire 13.7 3. Togo 10.5 4. Benin 9.4 5. Ghana

12.5 25.0 62.0 33.3 17.9 11.2 6.8 5.8

Value 2007 70 433

2000-2007 14 19

Annual percentage change 2006 12 10

2007 -1 14 2007 b 0.01

2007 b 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

3.0 74.8 22.2

58.4 14.4 27.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006. b Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2004 and by destination/origin refer to 2005. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

29

BURUNDI
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 8 074 1 163 3 090 - 223 66 50.9 2008 127 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 184 158 190 164 Imports 182 156 169 143

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 4 ... ...

2008 4 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 13 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 23 July 1995 Trade Policy Review date 2, 4 April 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 21.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 68.3 12.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 95.1 10.5 Non-agricultural goods 26.6 13.1 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 0.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 22 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United Arab Emirates 2. Switzerland 3. European Union (27) 4. Kenya 5. Congo, Dem. Rep. of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents 1 Non-residents 4 Total 5 Value 2008 57 403 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -9 -26

2000-2008 2 13

2008 8 26 2008 0.00

62.3 15.3 22.4 43.6 15.3 11.7 5.3 4.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Uganda 3. Kenya 4. China 5. India

10.0 3.0 64.9 40.5 9.6 8.8 7.3 5.0

Value 2008 3 173 2008 0.00

2000-2008 6 22

Annual percentage change 2007 18 -13

2008 -50 3 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

27.3 40.8 31.9

38.6 52.4 9.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2002 Direct residents 20 Direct non-residents 132 Madrid ... Total 152

30

TRADE PROFILES 2009

CAMBODIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 14 700 9 574 27 997 - 1 060 836 143.6 2008 201 287 261 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 111 87 99 73 Imports 105 80 126 100

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 9 16 15

Annual percentage change 2007 10 10 12

2008 5 ... ... 0.034 26.7 2.9 30 2-1 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 13 October 2004 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 19.0 14.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 28.1 18.1 Non-agricultural goods 17.7 13.6 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2004) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.3 in non-agricultural goods 6.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 94 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Hong Kong, China 3. European Union (27) 4. Canada 5. Viet Nam COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 4 300 6 600

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 16 14

2000-2008 15 17

2008 5 22 2008 b 0.04

2008 b 0.03 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 2.8 Agricultural products 2.2 Fuels and mining products 94.4 Manufactures By main origin 46.9 1. Hong Kong, China 22.0 2. China 21.2 3. Taipei, Chinese 3.4 4. Thailand 1.5 5. Viet Nam

5.7 14.1 46.9 19.9 16.5 11.8 11.2 8.2

Value 2008 1 606 958 2008 0.04

2000-2008 18 15

Annual percentage change 2007 21 17

2008 6 8 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

14.3 76.0 9.7

63.5 11.3 25.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents 499 Direct non-residents 1 941 Madrid ... Total 2 440

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

31

CAMEROON
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 18 898 23 396 41 860 - 547 570 51.1 2008 133 120 193 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 110 86 126 100 Imports 120 94 105 79

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 2 9

Annual percentage change 2007 3 -12 6

2008 4 25 42 0.028 ... ... 47 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 13 December 1995 Trade Policy Review date 1, 3 October 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.3 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 79.9 17.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 80.0 22.3 Non-agricultural goods 50.0 17.1 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 46.7 in non-agricultural goods 7.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 3 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Congo, Dem. Rep. of 5. Chad Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 4 350 4 360

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 1 17

2000-2008 11 14

2008 21 18 2008 a 0.03

2008 a 0.03 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 26.2 Agricultural products 65.2 Fuels and mining products 3.0 Manufactures By main origin 74.3 1. European Union (27) 6.4 2. Nigeria 3.4 3. China 2.8 4. Equatorial Guinea 0.8 5. United States 2.8 Unspecified origins Value 2008 552 1 708 Annual percentage change 2007 -14 0

21.5 29.5 49.0 35.0 23.3 6.3 3.5 2.9 0.1

2000-2008 -1 8

2008 16 21 2008 a 0.05

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

38.7 37.2 24.1

49.7 22.5 27.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2006. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

32

TRADE PROFILES 2009

CANADA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 33 311 1 400 091 1 213 991 27 281 28 681 70.9 2008 120 104 123 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 11 6 20 10 Imports 11 6 12 6

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 1 3

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 0 ... ... 3.361 0.8 0.8 16 6-3 38 7 0 32 - 15 14 - 11 6-5 1-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 21, 23 March 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.7 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 6.5 4.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.5 11.5 Non-agricultural goods 5.3 3.7 2.6 2.9 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.9 in non-agricultural goods 55.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 105 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Japan 4. China 5. Mexico COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 1 809 Non-residents 16 741 Total 18 550 Value 2008 456 464 418 311 2008 2.84

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 8 9

2000-2008 6 7

2008 9 7 2008 2.55

11.8 35.3 46.8 77.6 7.5 2.3 2.2 1.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Mexico 5. Japan

7.7 16.0 75.5 52.4 12.5 9.8 4.1 3.5

Value 2008 64 795 86 644 2008 1.72

2000-2008 6 9

Annual percentage change 2007 8 14

2008 2 6 2008 2.48

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

18.4 23.6 58.1

23.5 31.5 45.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 11 583 Direct non-residents 13 515 Madrid ... Total 25 098

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

33

CAPE VERDE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 499 1 730 1 747 - 197 3 145 106.0 2008 153 318 229 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 190 164 128 102 Imports 171 145 157 131

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 16 11

Annual percentage change 2007 7 14 16

2008 6 13 12 0.015 12.2 3.9 17 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 23 July 2008 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 15.8 10.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.3 12.1 Non-agricultural goods 15.2 10.2 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.7 in non-agricultural goods 40.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 99 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Côte d'Ivoire 3. Morocco 4. Brazil 5. United Arab Emirates Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 32 825

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -7 38

2000-2008 14 17

2008 66 10 2008 a 0.01

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 14.2 Agricultural products 47.9 Fuels and mining products 37.9 Manufactures By main origin 60.3 1. European Union (27) 30.7 2. Brazil 1.2 3. Japan 1.0 4. Thailand 0.7 5. China 3.8 Unspecified origins Value 2008 528 333 2008 0.01 Annual percentage change 2007 30 18

30.4 10.9 58.7 78.7 6.2 3.6 1.9 1.6 0.8

2000-2008 23 17

2008 13 17 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

25.2 66.6 8.2

41.3 42.5 16.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2006 and by destination/origin refer to 2007.

34

TRADE PROFILES 2009

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 423 1 970 3 254 ... 140 35.5 2008 106 103 98 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 173 147 185 159 Imports 187 161 168 142

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 0 0

Annual percentage change 2007 4 13 13

2008 3 7 10 0.015 ... ... 40 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 11, 13 June 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 62.5 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 36.2 17.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 30.0 21.9 Non-agricultural goods 37.9 17.3 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2005) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 0.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 17 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Switzerland 3. Cameroon 4. Israel 5. Hong Kong, China Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 195 310

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 13 23

2000-2008 2 13

2008 10 24 2008 a 0.00

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 38.1 Agricultural products 15.7 Fuels and mining products 32.8 Manufactures By main origin 55.9 1. European Union (27) 13.7 2. Cameroon 11.9 3. Congo, Dem. Rep. of 5.0 4. Japan 2.6 5. Congo 5.9 Unspecified origins Value 2008 29 175 Annual percentage change 2007 18 21

... ... ... 20.8 15.7 6.1 3.9 3.6 41.0

2000-2008 16 6

2008 11 20 2008 a 0.01

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

7.4 56.1 36.5

49.9 30.6 19.5

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2005. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2001.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

35

CHAD
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 11 067 8 361 16 106 ... 741 110.5 2008 200 522 195 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 106 82 174 148 Imports 151 125 88 63

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 9 23 9

Annual percentage change 2007 0 -19 -14

2008 0 -12 -2 0.015 ... ... 33 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 19 October 1996 Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 January 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.5 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 79.9 17.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 80.0 21.9 Non-agricultural goods 75.0 17.3 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 4 650 1 830 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 7 11

2000-2008 50 25

2008 27 22 2008 0.01

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 93 2 455

2000-2008 20 34

Annual percentage change 2007 12 10

2008 11 19 2008 a 0.07

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

5.0 71.2 23.8

53.0 17.4 29.6

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2001.

36

TRADE PROFILES 2009

CHILE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 16 758 169 458 242 398 - 3 440 7 766 80.5 2008 139 159 230 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 48 33 48 30 Imports 45 27 51 33

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 6 11

Annual percentage change 2007 5 8 14

2008 3 2 13 0.333 6.3 3.8 4 18 - 13 0 ... 0 10 - 13 2-3 0-1 0-1

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 7, 9 October 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 25.1 6.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 26.0 6.1 Non-agricultural goods 25.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.3 in non-agricultural goods 0.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 42 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Japan 5. Korea, Republic of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 58 Non-residents 348 Total 406 Value 2008 66 456 61 903

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2000-2002) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 23

2000-2008 17 16

2008 -2 31 2008 a 0.38

2008 a 0.41 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 23.5 Agricultural products 63.9 Fuels and mining products 12.2 Manufactures By main origin 24.5 1. United States 15.2 2. European Union (27) 12.8 3. China 10.8 4. Brazil 5.9 5. Argentina

7.4 28.8 55.0 17.0 14.0 11.4 10.5 10.1

Value 2008 10 645 11 143 2008 0.28

2000-2008 13 12

Annual percentage change 2007 14 18

2008 20 15 2008 0.32

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

59.9 16.5 23.6

60.2 12.3 27.5

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 16 992 Direct non-residents 8 775 Madrid ... Total 25 767

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

37

CHINA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 1 325 640 3 860 039 7 903 235 426 100 1 796 73.4 2008 217 457 324 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 2 2 5 3 Imports 3 3 5 4

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 10 21 16

Annual percentage change 2007 13 20 14

2008 9 8 4 5.898 6.6 1.9 16 8-5 110 ... 0 6 - 17 1-4 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 11 December 2001 Trade Policy Review date 21, 23 May 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 10.0 9.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.8 15.6 Non-agricultural goods 9.1 8.7 0.0 0.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.8 in non-agricultural goods 51.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 93 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Hong Kong, China 4. Japan 5. Korea, Republic of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 31 945 Non-residents 36 003 Total 67 948 Value 2008 1 428 332 1 132 488 2008 8.89

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 26 21

2000-2008 24 22

2008 17 18 2008 6.90

3.0 3.8 93.1 20.5 17.7 13.4 8.1 5.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Japan 2. European Union (27) 3. Korea, Republic of 4. Taipei, Chinese 5. China

7.7 27.1 64.8 13.3 11.7 9.9 9.1 8.2

Value 2008 146 446 158 004 2008 3.88

2000-2008 22 20

Annual percentage change 2007 33 29

2008 20 22 2008 4.53

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

26.2 27.9 45.9

31.9 22.9 45.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 215 161 Direct non-residents 19 159 Madrid 13 877 Total 248 197

38

TRADE PROFILES 2009

COLOMBIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 44 534 242 268 395 663 - 6 713 1 648 35.5 2008 143 153 211 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 58 41 74 49 Imports 54 36 62 43

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 10

Annual percentage change 2007 8 11 14

2008 3 8 3 0.194 10.7 7.6 27 4-1 10 ... 0 5-3 0-1 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 30 April 1995 Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 November 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 42.9 12.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 91.8 16.9 Non-agricultural goods 35.4 11.8 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 5.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 57 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 3. European Union (27) 4. Ecuador 5. Switzerland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 20 Non-residents 207 Total 227 Value 2008 37 626 39 669 2008 0.23

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 23 26

2000-2008 14 17

2008 25 21 2008 0.24

17.8 48.0 31.5 38.0 16.2 12.8 4.0 2.5

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Mexico 5. Brazil

11.5 7.1 80.2 29.2 13.5 11.5 7.9 5.9

Value 2008 3 967 7 108 2008 0.11

2000-2008 9 10

Annual percentage change 2007 8 14

2008 11 15 2008 0.20

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

31.2 46.5 22.3

42.3 24.5 33.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 10 635 Direct non-residents 7 504 Madrid ... Total 18 139

TRADE PROFILES 2009

39

COMOROS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 1995) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 644 530 752 - 19 347 50.9 2008 118 94 140 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 200 174 180 154 Imports 193 167 183 157

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 -1 4

Annual percentage change 2007 0 6 8

2008 1 8 2 ... ... 1-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 11.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 5.6 Non-agricultural goods 12.2 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Singapore 3. India 4. United Arab Emirates 5. Yemen Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 13 180

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 31 21

2000-2008 -1 20

2008 0 29 2008 a 0.00

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 40.7 Agricultural products 0.3 Fuels and mining products 1.3 Manufactures By main origin 16.1 1. United Arab Emirates 1.3 2. European Union (27) 1.2 3. Pakistan 0.6 4. China 0.3 5. Tanzania 80.0 Unspecified origins Value 2007 46 59 Annual percentage change 2006 10 18

32.1 0.7 40.8 38.6 12.8 4.0 3.7 2.9 25.8

2000-2007 3 15

2007 8 10 2007 a 0.00

2007 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

10.8 63.2 26.0

63.7 20.2 16.1

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2004 and by destination/origin refer to 2007. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

40

TRADE PROFILES 2009

CONGO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 615 10 699 14 265 - 2 181 3 655 149.3 2008 136 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 88 64 142 116 Imports 138 112 74 51

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 -2 ... ...

2008 6 ... ... 0.024 20.0 3.4 49 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 27 March 1997 Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 September 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 16.1 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 27.3 17.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 30.0 21.9 Non-agricultural goods 14.6 17.3 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 4 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents ... Non-residents 13 Total 13 Value 2008 9 050 2 990 2008 0.06

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -5 43

2000-2008 18 26

2008 58 5 2008 0.02

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 364 3 767

2000-2008 14 23

Annual percentage change 2007 20 45

2008 20 7 2008 a 0.11

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

4.0 18.0 78.0

15.0 4.8 80.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

41

CONGO, DEM. REP OF .
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2002-2004) Trade to GDP ratio (2002-2004) 64 205 11 588 20 638 ... 62 57.4 2008 147 172 347 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 113 89 140 114 Imports 123 97 121 95

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 7 17

Annual percentage change 2007 6 10 9

2008 6 6 6 0.015 32.6 8.5 38 0-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1997 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 96.2 12.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 98.1 12.8 Non-agricultural goods 95.9 11.9 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 12 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 3 950 4 100 2008 0.02

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2000-2002) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 20

2000-2008 22 25

2008 49 24 2008 0.02

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2004 172 494 2004 0.01

2000-2004 25 20

Annual percentage change 2003 45 12

2004 19 24 2004 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 1996 Direct residents 205 Direct non-residents 374 Madrid ... Total 579

42

TRADE PROFILES 2009

COSTA RICA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 527 29 834 50 884 - 1 578 6 035 102.8 2008 147 154 159 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 87 63 72 47 Imports 80 56 99 73

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 6 6

Annual percentage change 2007 8 10 4

2008 3 -1 5 0.086 6.3 1.7 8 6-4 2 1 0 4-0 1-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 7, 9 May 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 42.8 6.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 42.5 12.5 Non-agricultural goods 42.9 5.4 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 35.9 in non-agricultural goods 30.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 20 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Nicaragua 5. Hong Kong, China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 9 504 15 372 2008 0.06

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 12

2000-2008 6 12

2008 2 19 2008 0.09

34.7 2.3 63.0 38.2 17.4 6.3 4.1 4.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Mexico 4. China 5. Japan

9.6 16.4 73.3 38.2 11.2 6.2 5.7 5.4

Value 2008 4 164 1 966 2008 0.11

2000-2008 10 6

Annual percentage change 2007 22 12

2008 16 9 2008 0.06

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

9.8 54.1 36.0

32.7 34.4 32.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009

43

CÔTE D’IVOIRE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 20 591 23 414 34 001 488 904 90.1 2008 105 151 128 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 86 62 118 92 Imports 101 76 89 64

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 5 3

Annual percentage change 2007 2 -10 1

2008 2 7 0 0.062 31.4 10.9 42 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 4, 5 July 1995 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 33.1 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 11.1 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.9 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 8.6 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 39.9 Services sectors with GATS commitments 29 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Nigeria 4. Ghana 5. Burkina Faso COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 10 100 7 150 2008 0.06

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 0 15

2000-2008 13 ...

2008 19 16 2008 0.04

47.4 36.5 11.5 48.0 9.7 6.4 4.6 4.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Nigeria 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Thailand 5. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela

22.3 31.2 46.5 29.3 27.5 6.9 4.5 3.6

Value 2008 845 2 444 2008 0.02

2000-2008 9 10

Annual percentage change 2007 10 8

2008 9 8 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

28.2 13.5 58.3

59.4 15.5 25.1

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Break in series for merchandise: 2001 for imports.

44

TRADE PROFILES 2009

CROATIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 434 69 332 84 621 - 6 397 12 400 93.3 2008 141 152 180 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 78 56 42 25 Imports 64 42 69 47

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 5 8

Annual percentage change 2007 5 4 6

2008 2 2 4 0.167 2.4 1.1 17 4-0 ... ... 0 0-1 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 30 November 2000 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 6.2 4.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 10.8 10.3 Non-agricultural goods 5.5 4.0 1.8 1.9 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 22.9 in non-agricultural goods 54.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 126 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Bosnia and Herzegovina 3. Serbia 4. United States 5. Marshall Islands COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 40 Non-residents 107 Total 147 Value 2008 14 112 30 728 2008 0.09

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 19 20

2000-2008 16 19

2008 14 19 2008 0.19

13.1 17.2 69.4 60.9 15.4 5.5 2.5 1.4

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Bosnia and Herzegovina 5. United States

9.2 20.3 70.4 64.1 10.4 6.1 2.7 2.1

Value 2008 15 164 4 513 2008 0.40

2000-2008 18 12

Annual percentage change 2007 16 11

2008 21 17 2008 0.13

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

11.8 74.3 13.9

22.9 24.6 52.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 955 Direct non-residents 785 Madrid 6 985 Total 8 725

TRADE PROFILES 2009

45

CUBA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 11 247 ... ... ... 1 875 ... 2008 ... ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 114 90 52 33 Imports 82 58 102 76

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 ... ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 ... ... ...

2008 ... ... ... 0.062 ... ... 12 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 20 April 1995 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 30.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 21.3 10.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 37.0 10.9 Non-agricultural goods 9.4 10.7 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 7.7 in non-agricultural goods 5.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 50 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 2. European Union (27) 3. Russian Federation 4. Bolivia 5. Mexico Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 37 Non-residents 33 Total 70 Value 2008 3 500 14 500

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 27 6

2000-2008 10 15

2008 -12 33 2008 a 0.09

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.02 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 20.0 Agricultural products 54.9 Fuels and mining products 25.1 Manufactures By main origin 12.8 1. European Union (27) 9.8 2. China 3.2 3. United States 1.6 4. Canada 1.2 5. Brazil 62.8 Unspecified origins Value 2008 9 129 ... 2008 0.24 Annual percentage change 2007 19 5

16.4 30.2 53.2 21.8 13.4 4.5 3.5 3.1 36.7

2000-2008 17 ...

2008 6 ... 2008 ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 374 Direct non-residents 673 Madrid 1 614 Total 2 661

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2006.

46

TRADE PROFILES 2009

CYPRUS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 864 21 277 21 186 - 4 479 25 729 96.8 2007 127 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 133 50 Imports 88 68 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2007 4 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2006 4 ... ...

2007 4 ... ... 0.066 ... ... 48 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 30 July 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 25 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Lebanon 3. Russian Federation 4. United Arab Emirates 5. Japan Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2005 Residents 6 Non-residents 62 Total 68 Value 2008 1 599 10 616 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 24

2000-2008 7 14

2008 15 23 2008 0.06

20.8 29.3 48.7 49.6 2.7 2.1 1.7 1.7 19.9 Value 2008 10 218 4 572 2008 0.27

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Israel 3. China 4. Japan 5. United States Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 23 28

13.9 21.4 64.1 66.9 8.0 5.3 2.6 1.7 0.1

2000-2008 13 14

2008 23 26 2008 0.13

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

30.4 27.1 42.5

36.7 34.2 29.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 318 Direct non-residents 2 411 Madrid 1 477 Total 4 206

TRADE PROFILES 2009

47

CZECH REPUBLIC
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 10 428 216 485 257 696 - 6 631 26 063 151.8 2008 140 218 206 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 30 36 Imports 29 38 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 12 11

Annual percentage change 2007 6 15 14

2008 3 ... ... 0.695 ... ... 37 28 - 5 143 10 0 82 - 67 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 86 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. United States 4. Switzerland 5. Ukraine COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 227 Non-residents 976 Total 1 203 Value 2008 146 321 141 493 2008 0.91

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 29 27

2000-2008 22 20

2008 19 20 2008 0.86

5.5 5.4 89.0 85.2 2.7 1.7 1.4 1.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Russian Federation 4. Japan 5. United States

6.5 14.2 79.2 67.0 8.8 6.4 3.3 2.1

Value 2008 22 179 17 256 2008 0.59

2000-2008 16 16

Annual percentage change 2007 23 21

2008 29 21 2008 0.49

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

28.1 34.8 37.1

25.7 26.6 47.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 7 316 Direct non-residents 895 Madrid 4 235 Total 12 446

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

48

TRADE PROFILES 2009

DENMARK
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 5 498 342 672 201 249 6 938 58 406 102.9 2008 111 134 155 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 34 17 Imports 32 17 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 4 7

Annual percentage change 2007 2 4 6

2008 -1 ... ... 0.984 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 66 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Norway 3. United States 4. Japan 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 151 Non-residents 70 Total 221 Value 2008 116 759 110 827 2008 0.73

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 11 15

2000-2008 11 12

2008 14 12 2008 0.67

20.2 13.3 63.9 68.5 6.0 5.5 2.0 1.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Norway 4. United States 5. Russian Federation

14.6 9.3 74.7 72.5 5.9 4.7 3.2 1.7

Value 2008 71 960 62 269 2008 1.90

2000-2008 15 15

Annual percentage change 2007 19 19

2008 17 16 2008 1.78

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

66.1 9.4 24.5

54.3 15.7 30.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 4 055 Direct non-residents 755 Madrid 3 378 Total 8 188

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

49

DJIBOUTI
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 848 875 1 814 - 171 877 89.4 2008 131 138 138 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 183 157 169 143 Imports 178 152 172 146

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 6 6

Annual percentage change 2007 4 ... ...

2008 4 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 42 0-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 27 February, 1 March 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 41.0 27.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 48.4 21.1 Non-agricultural goods 39.9 28.8 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 13 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 69 580 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 41

2000-2008 10 14

2008 18 23 2008 0.00

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 115 137 2008 0.00

2000-2008 7 10

Annual percentage change 2007 -5 23

2008 25 39 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

80.8 6.5 12.7

78.4 2.4 19.1

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

50

TRADE PROFILES 2009

DOMINICA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 73 364 636 - 90 5 056 108.4 2008 117 63 101 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 187 161 173 147 Imports 192 166 185 159

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 -7 0

Annual percentage change 2007 5 ... ...

2008 3 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 35 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 94.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 58.7 9.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 112.2 20.5 Non-agricultural goods 50.0 8.3 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 18.5 in non-agricultural goods 13.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 20 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Jamaica 3. Antigua and Barbuda 4. Trinidad and Tobago 5. Guyana COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 40 225 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -11 17

2000-2008 -3 5

2008 9 15 2008 0.00

39.1 13.6 47.3 27.1 16.3 15.2 8.8 5.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. European Union (27) 4. Japan 5. Canada

24.5 16.6 58.9 39.7 21.3 9.6 4.3 2.7

Value 2008 101 62 2008 0.00

2000-2008 2 3

Annual percentage change 2007 0 14

2008 2 7 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

3.7 71.5 24.7

50.4 17.3 32.3

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

51

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 9 838 45 790 80 841 - 2 068 2 799 66.4 2008 150 115 125 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 94 70 65 42 Imports 77 55 103 77

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 2 3

Annual percentage change 2007 8 2 12

2008 5 3 4 0.093 10.8 4.1 7 2-2 ... ... 0 0-3 0-1 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 9 March 1995 Trade Policy Review date 24, 26 November 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 34.9 7.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 39.6 12.8 Non-agricultural goods 34.2 6.2 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 60 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Haiti 4. Korea, Republic of 5. Canada Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 6 949 16 095

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 8 12

2000-2008 2 7

2008 -3 18 2008 a 0.10

2008 a 0.04 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 10.1 Agricultural products 7.5 Fuels and mining products 81.4 Manufactures By main origin 40.2 1. United States 18.8 2. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 8.8 3. European Union (27) 3.7 4. Mexico 2.4 5. Japan 15.4 Unspecified origins Value 2008 4 883 1 775 2008 0.13 Annual percentage change 2007 5 12

12.7 27.7 59.5 44.8 13.4 10.9 6.7 3.9 1.6

2000-2008 6 4

2008 3 5 2008 0.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

7.5 85.9 6.6

66.6 18.6 14.7

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2001.

52

TRADE PROFILES 2009

ECUADOR
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 13 479 52 572 107 946 1 598 2 510 71.7 2008 148 147 217 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 72 50 104 78 Imports 73 51 82 57

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 10

Annual percentage change 2007 2 -2 6

2008 6 1 5 0.091 ... ... 23 3-0 ... ... 0 3-3 2-0 2-0 0-1

WTO accession date 21 January 1996 Trade Policy Review date 15, 17 June 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 21.7 11.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 25.6 15.0 Non-agricultural goods 21.2 10.7 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 2.2 in non-agricultural goods 31.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 66 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Peru 4. Chile 5. Panama Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 2 Non-residents 31 Total 33 Value 2008 18 511 18 686 2008 0.12

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 13 15

2000-2008 18 22

2008 29 34 2008 0.11

28.3 63.7 7.6 45.3 11.3 9.2 8.1 4.8 0.4 Value 2008 1 288 2 888 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. China 3. Colombia 4. European Union (27) 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 13 10

9.0 18.5 65.7 14.9 12.2 9.5 8.6 5.0 13.4

2000-2008 6 11

2008 19 16 2008 0.08

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

29.8 59.2 11.0

56.6 18.8 24.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 4 928 Direct non-residents 7 253 Madrid ... Total 12 181

TRADE PROFILES 2009

53

EGYPT
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 81 527 162 818 441 584 412 1 217 72.9 2008 146 358 298 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 66 46 33 19 Imports 50 32 41 24

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 17 15

Annual percentage change 2007 7 23 29

2008 7 28 24 0.248 9.5 3.8 33 6-0 28 ... 1 0-4 0-1 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 30 June 1995 Trade Policy Review date 26, 28 July 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.3 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 36.8 16.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 96.1 66.4 Non-agricultural goods 27.7 9.2 0.2 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 44 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. India 3. United States 4. Saudi Arabia 5. Japan Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 80 Non-residents 220 Total 300 Value 2008 23 995 47 540 2008 0.15

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 36

2000-2008 21 16

2008 25 28 2008 0.29

11.5 47.7 34.3 35.3 6.6 4.8 4.6 3.4 6.2 Value 2008 24 674 16 322 2008 0.65

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Saudi Arabia 5. Russian Federation Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 24 27

19.7 19.6 57.2 26.7 10.9 8.4 6.1 4.3 0.4

2000-2008 12 11

2008 26 25 2008 0.47

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

33.1 43.7 23.2

44.8 17.9 37.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 029 Total 3 029

54

TRADE PROFILES 2009

EL SALVADOR
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 6 134 22 115 41 675 - 1 119 2 524 75.6 2008 125 146 150 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 107 83 101 75 Imports 94 69 100 74

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 5 5

Annual percentage change 2007 5 4 8

2008 3 7 5 0.054 7.7 0.3 25 5-4 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 7 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 3, 5 February 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 36.5 5.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 42.2 12.3 Non-agricultural goods 35.7 4.9 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 23.3 in non-agricultural goods 61.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 29 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Guatemala 2. United States 3. Honduras 4. European Union (27) 5. Nicaragua COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1995 Residents 1 Non-residents 60 Total 61 Value 2008 4 549 9 755 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 8 14

2000-2008 6 9

2008 14 12 2008 0.06

20.3 5.2 73.9 23.1 20.3 16.1 10.5 9.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Mexico 3. Guatemala 4. European Union (27) 5. China

16.4 20.1 63.2 30.6 10.1 9.4 7.0 4.3

Value 2008 1 482 1 958 2008 0.04

2000-2008 10 10

Annual percentage change 2007 5 15

2008 2 15 2008 0.06

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

23.7 60.3 16.0

48.2 31.9 19.9

Trademark registrations by office, 1997 Direct residents 1 303 Direct non-residents 4 157 Madrid ... Total 5 460

TRADE PROFILES 2009

55

EQUATORIAL GUINEA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 1996) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 659 18 525 22 329 - 344 14 755 69.8 2008 457 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 75 53 183 157 Imports 133 107 110 84

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 21 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 21 ... ...

2008 11 ... ... ... ... 1-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 17.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 21.9 Non-agricultural goods 17.3 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 16 300 3 270 2008 0.10

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 24 37

2000-2008 40 28

2008 60 18 2008 0.02

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 33 1 419

2000-2008 17 13

Annual percentage change 2007 15 33

2008 26 26 2008 a 0.04

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

2.8 49.9 47.3

17.0 3.5 79.5

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2000.

56

TRADE PROFILES 2009

ERITREA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2000) Trade per capita (US$, 2000-2002) Trade to GDP ratio (2000-2002) 4 996 1 654 3 158 - 105 175 100.8 2008 116 81 81 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 196 169 157 131 Imports 181 155 189 163

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 -3 -3

Annual percentage change 2007 1 -2 -2

2008 2 ... ... ... ... 1-0 -

WTO accession date Non-member and non-observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 10.0 Non-agricultural goods 7.6 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Sudan 3. Singapore 4. India 5. Russian Federation COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 17 530

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 43 3

2000-2008 -9 1

2008 13 4 2008 b 0.00

2008 b 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 65.0 Agricultural products 2.5 Fuels and mining products 32.5 Manufactures By main origin 36.1 1. European Union (27) 19.4 2. United States 12.4 3. United Arab Emirates 7.2 4. Saudi Arabia 2.9 5. India

46.5 1.7 51.7 25.9 15.9 12.2 10.5 6.3

Value 2002 118 25

2000-2002 48 3

Annual percentage change 2001 109 18

2002 4 -9 2002 b 0.00

2002 b 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

18.2 64.2 17.6

27.6 49.5 22.9

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007. b Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2003. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2000.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

57

ESTONIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 1 341 23 089 27 701 - 2 192 24 337 162.0 2008 165 163 190 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 79 64 Imports 79 77 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 6 8

Annual percentage change 2007 6 0 4

2008 -4 -1 -8 0.088 ... ... 32 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 13 November 1999 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 103 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. United States 4. Norway 5. Ukraine COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 13 Non-residents 1 043 Total 1 056 Value 2008 12 451 16 028 2008 0.08

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 17

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 13 2 2008 0.10

14.7 16.3 68.7 63.4 15.1 5.7 3.0 1.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Belarus 5. Japan

12.7 17.4 69.4 59.7 10.1 5.7 3.8 3.1

Value 2008 5 048 3 352 2008 0.13

2000-2008 17 18

Annual percentage change 2007 25 26

2008 16 11 2008 0.10

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

39.6 24.0 36.4

38.8 23.6 37.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 876 Direct non-residents 302 Madrid 2 991 Total 4 169

a Break in series for merchandise: 2004.

58

TRADE PROFILES 2009

ETHIOPIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 80 713 26 487 70 069 - 1 822 125 48.2 2008 187 220 226 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 132 107 93 67 Imports 99 74 90 65

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 10 11

Annual percentage change 2007 11 10 4

2008 11 3 7 49.8 17.0 1-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 17.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 22.4 Non-agricultural goods 16.6 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.1 in non-agricultural goods 22.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Saudi Arabia 3. United States 4. Switzerland 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Residents ... Non-residents 1 Total 1 Value 2008 1 602 7 700 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2001-2002) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 24 20

2000-2008 16 25

2008 25 34 2008 0.05

85.5 0.5 9.0 35.0 7.7 7.2 6.2 5.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. China 2. European Union (27) 3. Saudi Arabia 4. United Arab Emirates 5. India

13.9 12.8 73.2 20.2 18.7 14.2 8.4 7.3

Value 2008 1 770 2 371 2008 0.05

2000-2008 21 22

Annual percentage change 2007 33 50

2008 50 37 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

59.2 21.1 19.7

68.1 6.6 25.4

Trademark registrations by office, 1995 Direct residents 239 Direct non-residents 103 Madrid ... Total 342

TRADE PROFILES 2009

59

EUROPEAN UNION (27)
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 496 754 16 847 194 14 817 619 - 373 591 8 523 27.9 2008 117 144 144 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 1 1 Imports 1 1

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 5 5

Annual percentage change 2007 3 5 5

2008 1 2 1 0.6 1.2 28 27 - 4 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Russian Federation 3. Switzerland 4. China 5. Turkey COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents Non-residents Total Value 2008 1 924 912 2 282 239 2008 15.91

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 16

2000-2008 12 12

2008 13 16 2008 18.33

6.6 8.7 81.4 19.1 8.0 7.6 6.0 4.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. China 2. United States 3. Russian Federation 4. Norway 5. Switzerland

7.6 33.5 56.4 16.0 12.0 11.2 5.9 5.2

Value 2008 743 195 620 710 2008 26.86

2000-2008 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 22 19

2008 11 13 2008 23.90

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

26.3 14.6 59.2

26.1 22.7 51.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 39 910 Direct non-residents 17 170 Madrid 12 046 Total 69 126

60

TRADE PROFILES 2009

FIJI
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 839 3 527 3 676 - 715 4 352 114.3 2008 109 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 149 123 120 94 Imports 144 118 143 117

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 -7 ... ...

2008 0 ... ... 0.015 18.5 6.2 34 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 14 January 1996 Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 March 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 52.3 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 41.8 11.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 47.2 23.7 Non-agricultural goods 40.0 9.9 0.3 2.8 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.6 in non-agricultural goods 5.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 1 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Singapore 2. European Union (27) 3. United States 4. Australia 5. New Zealand COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 923 2 266

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 11 0

2000-2008 6 13

2008 22 26 2008 a 0.01

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.01 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 49.1 Agricultural products 27.0 Fuels and mining products 19.5 Manufactures By main origin 18.6 1. Singapore 15.5 2. Australia 14.7 3. New Zealand 13.3 4. China 6.9 5. United States

17.1 31.2 42.9 34.2 22.8 17.7 3.3 3.2

Value 2007 733 497

2000-2007 9 6

Annual percentage change 2006 -6 2

2007 -1 -3 2007 a 0.02

2007 a 0.02 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

33.6 58.6 7.8

57.8 19.7 22.4

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

61

FINLAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 5 313 271 282 188 219 10 121 39 327 86.0 2008 125 140 146 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 37 34 Imports 35 35 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 5 6

Annual percentage change 2007 4 5 4

2008 1 ... ... 0.639 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 99 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. United States 4. China 5. Norway COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 643 Non-residents 278 Total 921 Value 2008 96 455 91 781 2008 0.60

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 18

2000-2008 10 13

2008 7 12 2008 0.56

6.2 10.6 78.0 55.9 11.6 6.3 3.1 3.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. United States 5. Norway

8.4 24.8 65.5 54.3 16.3 7.0 3.0 2.6

Value 2008 24 229 23 119 2008 0.64

2000-2008 15 14

Annual percentage change 2007 32 19

2008 5 5 2008 0.66

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

14.6 12.9 72.5

25.7 18.9 55.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 2 352 Direct non-residents 474 Madrid 2 837 Total 5 663

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

62

TRADE PROFILES 2009

FRANCE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 62 048 2 853 062 2 112 426 - 52 910 23 010 55.2 2008 114 120 134 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 6 4 Imports 5 6 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 3 4

Annual percentage change 2007 2 3 6

2008 0 ... ... 4.716 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 67 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Switzerland 4. China 5. Russian Federation COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 9 748 Non-residents 2 364 Total 12 112 Value 2008 605 403 705 577 2008 3.77

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 11 14

2000-2008 8 10

2008 10 14 2008 4.30

12.6 7.5 77.7 63.6 5.9 3.0 2.2 1.7

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Russian Federation 5. Switzerland

9.3 19.5 70.4 60.3 6.5 5.5 2.9 2.3

Value 2008 160 464 139 359 2008 4.25

2000-2008 9 11

Annual percentage change 2007 15 15

2008 11 8 2008 3.99

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

25.6 34.3 40.1

30.1 30.2 39.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 6 381 Total 6 381

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

63

FYR MACEDONIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 2 038 9 521 20 460 - 1 210 4 832 124.0 2008 124 129 134 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 112 88 112 86 Imports 104 79 125 99

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 3 4

Annual percentage change 2007 6 12 15

2008 5 10 5 0.024 ... ... 26 6-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 4 April 2003 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.2 7.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.2 13.7 Non-agricultural goods 6.3 6.8 1.3 1.5 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 19.1 in non-agricultural goods 56.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Serbia 3. Croatia 4. Bosnia and Herzegovina 5. Albania COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2004 Residents 23 Non-residents 83 Total 106 Value 2008 3 978 6 852

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 40 39

2000-2008 15 16

2008 19 31 2008 a 0.04

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.02 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 12.9 Agricultural products 9.1 Fuels and mining products 77.7 Manufactures By main origin 65.1 1. European Union (27) 19.1 2. Russian Federation 4.9 3. Serbia 2.6 4. China 2.2 5. Turkey

11.9 26.0 62.1 49.5 12.3 8.6 4.6 3.7

Value 2008 992 970 2008 0.03

2000-2008 17 18

Annual percentage change 2007 37 37

2008 24 30 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

33.0 23.0 43.9

41.8 14.0 44.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 4 675 Total 4 675

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

64

TRADE PROFILES 2009

GABON
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2005) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 1 448 14 435 21 037 1 983 7 898 94.8 2008 119 87 168 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 90 66 164 138 Imports 142 116 109 83

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 -2 7

Annual percentage change 2007 6 4 22

2008 2 0 13 0.024 ... ... 36 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 1, 3 October 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 21.4 17.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 60.0 21.8 Non-agricultural goods 15.5 17.1 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 2.0 in non-agricultural goods 7.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 15 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Singapore 5. Switzerland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 8 700 2 450

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 21 16

2000-2008 16 13

2008 32 23 2008 a 0.01

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.05 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 8.3 Agricultural products 87.6 Fuels and mining products 4.0 Manufactures By main origin 58.4 1. European Union (27) 12.1 2. United States 10.6 3. Cameroon 5.3 4. Japan 2.6 5. China

17.0 5.0 77.3 66.9 7.3 3.5 3.0 2.6

Value 2008 149 1 467

2000-2008 -2 7

Annual percentage change 2007 13 18

2008 16 18 2008 a 0.04

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

22.0 7.7 70.3

31.4 26.9 41.7

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2006. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2005.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

65

GAMBIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 1 660 782 2 262 - 53 321 93.8 2008 148 99 97 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 199 173 167 141 Imports 186 160 182 156

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 0 0

Annual percentage change 2007 6 7 9

2008 6 9 -1 0.015 ... ... 33 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 23 October 1996 Trade Policy Review date 4, 6 February 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.7 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 102.0 19.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 103.5 18.9 Non-agricultural goods 56.1 19.0 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 23.0 in non-agricultural goods 1.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 111 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. India 3. Senegal 4. Singapore 5. United Arab Emirates COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 14 329 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 9 24

2000-2008 -1 7

2008 11 3 2008 0.00

63.7 15.4 20.9 42.8 17.4 17.4 4.8 4.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Côte d'Ivoire 5. Brazil

31.9 20.7 47.4 42.1 10.9 10.8 8.9 4.3

Value 2007 114 77 2007 0.00

2000-2007 9 3

Annual percentage change 2006 16 107

2007 24 -18 2007 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

17.4 65.3 17.3

47.2 9.6 43.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

66

TRADE PROFILES 2009

GEORGIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 364 12 793 21 370 - 2 851 2 028 87.1 2008 179 161 201 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 135 109 107 81 Imports 108 83 118 92

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 6 9

Annual percentage change 2007 12 10 22

2008 2 5 9 0.020 3.7 1.3 14 8-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 14 June 2000 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.4 1.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.6 8.3 Non-agricultural goods 6.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 41.8 in non-agricultural goods 98.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 125 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Turkey 3. Azerbaijan 4. Ukraine 5. Canada COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 38 Non-residents 33 Total 71 Value 2008 1 498 6 058 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 25 42

2000-2008 21 31

2008 21 16 2008 0.04

18.3 23.2 51.7 22.3 17.6 13.7 9.0 8.8

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Turkey 3. Ukraine 4. Azerbaijan 5. Russian Federation

15.9 20.0 63.5 27.4 15.1 10.8 10.0 7.0

Value 2008 1 159 1 152 2008 0.03

2000-2008 24 23

Annual percentage change 2007 22 27

2008 19 32 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

53.2 38.5 8.3

55.7 17.7 26.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 301 Direct non-residents 638 Madrid 3 699 Total 4 638

TRADE PROFILES 2009

67

GERMANY
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 82 140 3 652 824 2 925 220 243 550 34 994 87.4 2008 110 163 140 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 1 3 Imports 2 2 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 7 5

Annual percentage change 2007 2 8 5

2008 1 ... ... 8.802 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Switzerland 4. China 5. Russian Federation COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 12 977 Non-residents 4 762 Total 17 739 Value 2008 1 461 853 1 203 787 2008 9.10

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 19 16

2000-2008 13 12

2008 11 14 2008 7.33

6.0 5.8 86.2 63.7 7.2 4.0 3.4 3.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Russian Federation 5. Switzerland

9.0 18.9 70.6 58.5 7.2 5.6 4.4 3.8

Value 2008 241 590 283 028 2008 6.39

2000-2008 15 10

Annual percentage change 2007 18 16

2008 11 11 2008 8.11

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

24.4 16.6 59.0

23.0 32.4 44.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 51 749 Direct non-residents 2 785 Madrid 6 104 Total 60 638

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

68

TRADE PROFILES 2009

GHANA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 23 351 16 123 33 907 - 2 151 698 109.3 2008 153 133 178 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 101 77 100 74 Imports 90 65 98 72

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 4 7

Annual percentage change 2007 6 3 9

2008 6 5 9 0.042 20.0 6.8 33 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 January 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 14.3 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 92.5 13.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 97.1 17.4 Non-agricultural goods 34.7 12.3 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.6 in non-agricultural goods 33.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 30 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. South Africa 2. European Union (27) 3. India 4. Malaysia 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 5 275 10 261 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 13 20

2000-2008 15 17

2008 26 27 2008 0.06

49.3 15.8 7.8 44.0 26.4 5.3 3.2 2.8

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Nigeria 4. United States 5. India

14.0 13.4 60.8 27.8 11.7 8.7 7.7 4.3

Value 2008 1 579 1 977

2000-2008 16 18

Annual percentage change 2007 28 25

2008 -2 9 2008 a 0.06

2008 a 0.04 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

19.4 56.3 24.3

47.3 30.9 21.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

69

GREECE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 11 238 356 796 329 963 - 51 312 14 961 53.5 2008 138 118 132 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 65 23 Imports 42 34 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 2 4

Annual percentage change 2007 4 6 7

2008 3 ... ... 0.483 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 67 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Turkey 4. FYR Macedonia 5. Russian Federation Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 355 Non-residents 3 890 Total 4 245 Value 2008 25 242 79 049 2008 0.16

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 20

2000-2008 10 11

2008 7 4 2008 0.48

23.2 20.2 53.9 64.0 5.1 3.6 2.6 2.4 2.6 Value 2008 50 377 24 392 2008 1.33

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 5. Turkey Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 21 24

13.2 14.8 71.8 54.9 7.3 5.5 3.3 2.8 1.4

2000-2008 13 11

2008 17 23 2008 0.70

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

56.2 34.6 9.2

56.3 16.1 27.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 688 Total 3 688

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

70

TRADE PROFILES 2009

GRENADA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 106 638 901 - 222 5 400 97.7 2008 121 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 191 165 165 139 Imports 184 158 176 150

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 15 ... ...

2008 2 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 41 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 22 February 1996 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 56.8 10.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 101.0 16.9 Non-agricultural goods 50.0 9.2 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 15.5 in non-agricultural goods 12.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 19 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Dominica 2. United States 3. European Union (27) 4. Saint Lucia 5. Barbados COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 31 363 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 32 22

2000-2008 -5 5

2008 -9 0 2008 0.00

58.6 0.3 41.1 16.4 16.3 16.1 11.2 9.4

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. European Union (27) 4. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 5. Japan

23.1 20.0 56.9 30.9 24.9 10.7 7.0 3.6

Value 2008 145 109 2008 0.00

2000-2008 0 3

Annual percentage change 2007 14 10

2008 -1 5 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

8.3 74.4 17.3

47.2 10.0 42.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009

71

GUATEMALA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 13 676 38 977 65 100 - 1 862 1 706 66.2 2008 135 128 148 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 93 69 98 72 Imports 81 57 96 70

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 3 5

Annual percentage change 2007 6 11 7

2008 4 8 12 0.067 12.1 3.4 16 3-2 ... ... 0 7-2 2-2 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 21 July 1995 Trade Policy Review date 4, 6 February 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 42.2 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 9.9 Non-agricultural goods 40.8 4.9 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 30.0 in non-agricultural goods 59.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 20 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. El Salvador 3. Honduras 4. Mexico 5. European Union (27) COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 3 Non-residents 107 Total 110 Value 2008 7 738 14 549 2008 0.05

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 14

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 12 7 2008 0.09

41.8 11.3 46.9 39.4 12.6 9.5 6.6 5.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Mexico 3. European Union (27) 4. China 5. El Salvador

13.8 20.8 65.1 36.7 9.7 6.6 5.8 4.7

Value 2008 1 649 2 125 2008 0.04

2000-2008 11 13

Annual percentage change 2007 15 15

2008 2 5 2008 0.06

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

11.4 64.8 23.8

54.3 28.5 17.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents 4 184 Madrid ... Total 4 184

a Break in series for merchandise: 2002.

72

TRADE PROFILES 2009

GUINEA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 9 833 4 266 11 839 - 456 235 60.3 2008 132 123 102 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 139 113 182 156 Imports 155 129 160 134

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 3 0

Annual percentage change 2007 2 6 2

2008 8 8 8 0.015 ... ... 37 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 25 October 1995 Trade Policy Review date 12, 14 october 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 38.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 20.1 11.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 39.7 14.2 Non-agricultural goods 10.0 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 9 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Switzerland 3. Russian Federation 4. United States 5. Canada COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 360 1 600 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 7 26

2000-2008 9 13

2008 19 33 2008 0.01

5.0 52.6 10.4 49.6 19.5 10.6 6.7 4.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Australia 5. Brazil

16.2 39.5 44.2 53.5 6.7 5.2 3.9 2.9

Value 2007 44 248 2007 0.00

2000-2007 7 4

Annual percentage change 2006 6 14

2007 29 12 2007 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

13.6 0.4 86.0

38.9 11.7 49.5

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009

73

GUINEA-BISSAU
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2004) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 1 575 430 847 14 170 76.7 2008 94 135 105 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 181 155 187 161 Imports 196 170 186 160

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 -1 4 1

Annual percentage change 2007 1 5 9

2008 3 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 40 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 48.6 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 40.0 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 50.0 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) b Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. India 2. Singapore 3. European Union (27) 4. Panama 5. Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 98 160

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 7

2000-2008 6 ...

2008 15 18 2008 c 0.00

2008 c 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) ... Agricultural products ... Fuels and mining products ... Manufactures By main origin 86.6 1. European Union (27) 12.1 2. Senegal 0.8 3. Thailand 0.2 4. China 0.2 5. Gambia

... ... ... 46.9 40.9 7.0 2.4 1.6

Value 2007 11 48

2000-2007 13 8

Annual percentage change 2006 -15 -5

2007 187 21 2007 c 0.00

2007 c 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

12.7 71.4 15.9

56.9 39.3 3.9

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007. b Break in series for merchandise: 2001 for imports. c Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2005. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2006.

74

TRADE PROFILES 2009

GUYANA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 763 1 158 1 940 - 166 2 398 197.2 2008 102 99 98 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 154 128 155 129 Imports 161 135 158 132

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 0 0 -1

Annual percentage change 2007 -2 ... ...

2008 3 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 26 3-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 8, 10 July 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 56.7 10.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 21.7 Non-agricultural goods 50.0 9.3 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 37.4 in non-agricultural goods 16.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 19 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Canada 3. United States 4. Ukraine 5. Jamaica COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 799 1 300 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 19 19

2000-2008 6 11

2008 14 23 2008 0.01

47.0 24.5 9.1 30.1 22.5 17.4 5.4 4.8

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Trinidad and Tobago 2. United States 3. European Union (27) 4. Netherlands Antilles 5. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela

15.2 39.8 44.9 29.0 26.6 7.9 6.5 5.6

Value 2007 173 273 2007 0.01

2000-2007 0 5

Annual percentage change 2006 0 22

2007 17 11 2007 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

5.0 29.2 65.8

31.4 21.1 47.5

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2002 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2002.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

75

HAITI
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 9 780 6 953 11 509 - 80 297 46.0 2008 104 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 162 136 156 130 Imports 147 121 145 119

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 1 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 26 1-1 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 30 January 1996 Trade Policy Review date 4, 6 November 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 89.2 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 18.7 2.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 21.3 5.7 Non-agricultural goods 18.3 2.4 9.3 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 16 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1999 Residents ... Non-residents 7 Total 7 Value 2008 490 2 148 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 3 13

2000-2008 6 10

2008 -6 16 2008 0.01

8.0 0.0 92.0 ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

30.7 28.8 40.5 ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 193 558 2008 0.01

2000-2008 3 9

Annual percentage change 2007 2 30

2008 27 17 2008 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 1999 Direct residents 82 Direct non-residents 812 Madrid ... Total 894

76

TRADE PROFILES 2009

HONDURAS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 7 242 14 077 28 709 - 1 225 2 280 131.1 2008 148 158 163 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 97 73 114 88 Imports 89 64 115 89

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 6 6

Annual percentage change 2007 6 4 8

2008 4 3 2 0.035 7.4 1.5 17 3-2 ... ... 0 6-0 2-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 29 September, 1 October 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 32.6 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 32.3 10.7 Non-agricultural goods 32.6 4.9 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 32.4 in non-agricultural goods 61.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 17 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Guatemala 4. El Salvador 5. Mexico COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2002 Residents 6 Non-residents 41 Total 47 Value 2008 6 046 10 389

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 17

2000-2008 8 13

2008 8 21 2008 a 0.06

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.04 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 26.6 Agricultural products 4.3 Fuels and mining products 56.7 Manufactures By main origin 42.8 1. United States 20.3 2. Guatemala 9.2 3. European Union (27) 8.1 4. Mexico 4.4 5. El Salvador

11.4 16.2 58.9 40.0 8.3 6.6 6.0 4.4

Value 2008 902 1 203 2008 0.02

2000-2008 8 7

Annual percentage change 2007 9 6

2008 23 17 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

5.8 68.8 25.4

60.0 28.6 11.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 1 119 Direct non-residents 4 147 Madrid ... Total 5 266

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

77

HONG KONG, CHINA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 6 978 215 355 306 487 30 532 119 905 406.5 2008 143 188 176 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 13 8 12 6 Imports 13 7 20 11

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 8 7

Annual percentage change 2007 6 8 9

2008 2 3 2 2.846 0.6 0.0 4 1-1 ... ... 0 1-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 13, 15 December 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 45.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 0.0 0.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 0.0 Non-agricultural goods 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 in non-agricultural goods 100.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 68 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. European Union (27) 3. United States 4. Japan 5. Taipei, Chinese COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 57 Non-residents 4 782 Total 4 839 Value 2008 370 242 392 962 2008 2.30

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 8 10

2000-2008 8 8

2008 6 6 2008 2.39

1.8 2.0 94.0 48.2 13.7 12.5 4.2 2.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. China 2. Japan 3. European Union (27) 4. Singapore 5. Taipei, Chinese

4.2 5.8 88.8 46.1 10.0 7.6 6.4 6.3

Value 2008 92 318 45 849 2008 2.44

2000-2008 11 8

Annual percentage change 2007 16 15

2008 9 8 2008 1.31

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

30.8 16.5 52.7

32.5 34.6 32.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 6 324 Direct non-residents 13 070 Madrid ... Total 19 394

78

TRADE PROFILES 2009

HUNGARY
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 10 038 154 668 194 023 - 12 980 21 402 158.8 2008 131 221 204 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 36 37 Imports 33 37 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 10 9

Annual percentage change 2007 1 16 13

2008 1 5 5 0.607 ... ... 33 28 - 5 143 10 0 86 - 67 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 102 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. United States 4. Ukraine 5. Croatia COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 112 Non-residents 525 Total 637 Value 2008 107 709 107 910 2008 0.67

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 27 22

2000-2008 18 16

2008 13 13 2008 0.66

8.1 5.2 84.8 78.3 3.6 2.3 2.0 1.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Japan 5. United States

5.8 15.3 77.5 68.3 9.3 5.6 2.6 1.8

Value 2008 19 958 18 469 2008 0.53

2000-2008 17 19

Annual percentage change 2007 28 33

2008 18 20 2008 0.53

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

19.9 30.2 49.9

19.7 21.9 58.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 3 127 Direct non-residents 884 Madrid 4 380 Total 8 391

TRADE PROFILES 2009

79

ICELAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 317 16 658 11 656 - 6 607 48 730 85.3 2008 134 148 158 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 100 76 86 60 Imports 107 82 87 62

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 6 7

Annual percentage change 2007 4 18 -1

2008 0 ... ... 0.046 1.0 0.8 46 19 - 7 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 7, 9 June 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 95.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 23.5 7.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 109.1 40.5 Non-agricultural goods 9.6 2.3 3.1 2.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 67.0 in non-agricultural goods 79.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 113 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Japan 4. Norway 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 11 Non-residents 127 Total 138 Value 2008 5 382 6 205 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 38 9

2000-2008 14 12

2008 13 -7 2008 0.04

38.6 41.1 19.0 76.2 5.6 4.4 4.4 2.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Norway 3. United States 4. China 5. Australia

10.0 24.8 64.5 53.6 11.2 8.0 6.6 4.4

Value 2008 2 134 2 498 2008 0.06

2000-2008 11 10

Annual percentage change 2007 24 16

2008 -3 -15 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

43.7 27.1 29.2

32.2 44.2 23.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 630 Direct non-residents 739 Madrid 3 044 Total 4 413

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

80

TRADE PROFILES 2009

INDIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 1 139 965 1 217 490 3 388 473 - 9 415 467 47.6 2008 179 256 302 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 27 19 9 5 Imports 16 10 13 7

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 12 15

Annual percentage change 2007 9 8 8

2008 7 0 0 1.243 19.5 10.9 39 8-1 169 ... 0 18 - 20 9-6 1-0 0-1

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 May 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 73.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 49.0 13.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 114.2 32.2 Non-agricultural goods 34.7 10.1 5.3 5.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 6.8 in non-agricultural goods 9.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 37 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. United Arab Emirates 4. China 5. Singapore COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) a Commercial services imports (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 1 907 Non-residents 5 632 Total 7 539 Value 2008 177 499 293 374 2008 1.10

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2002-2004) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 22 25

2000-2008 20 24

2008 21 35 2008 1.79

12.0 24.4 63.2 21.6 11.8 10.5 5.6 4.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Saudi Arabia 5. United Arab Emirates

4.0 45.6 43.3 13.9 10.0 7.8 7.3 6.2

Value 2008 102 648 83 599 2008 2.72

2000-2008 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 23 22

2008 17 18 2008 2.40

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

10.8 11.5 77.7

49.5 11.5 39.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total 109 361

a Break in series for commercial services: 2004, 2005.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

81

INDONESIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2001-2003) Trade to GDP ratio (2001-2003) 228 249 514 389 907 264 606 562 60.4 2008 150 181 197 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 31 21 43 26 Imports 30 20 32 20

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 8 9

Annual percentage change 2007 6 9 9

2008 6 9 10 0.742 4.6 2.0 56 4-2 20 ... 1 4-4 2-4 1-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 June 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 37.1 6.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 47.1 8.5 Non-agricultural goods 35.6 6.7 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 37.5 in non-agricultural goods 66.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 45 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Japan 2. European Union (27) 3. United States 4. Singapore 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents 16 Non-residents 615 Total 631 Value 2008 139 278 126 160 2008 0.87

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2001-2003) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 15

2000-2008 10 14

2008 18 36 2008 0.77

23.6 36.3 37.8 20.2 11.3 9.5 9.4 8.5

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Singapore 2. China 3. Japan 4. European Union (27) 5. Malaysia

10.6 28.5 60.9 16.9 11.8 11.7 8.2 6.9

Value 2003 5 143 17 171 2003 0.28

2000-2003 1 4

Annual percentage change 2002 22 8

2003 -21 2 2003 0.96

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

16.6 78.5 4.9

28.1 18.0 54.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total 24 677

82

TRADE PROFILES 2009

IRAN, ISLAMIC REP OF .
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2000) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 71 956 385 143 839 438 12 481 2 421 57.7 2008 158 136 250 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 35 23 59 37 Imports 48 30 49 32

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 4 12

Annual percentage change 2007 8 3 5

2008 6 1 7 21.1 7.2 2-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 26.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 28.9 Non-agricultural goods 25.6 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 0.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Japan 2. Taipei, Chinese 3. European Union (27) 4. United Arab Emirates 5. Iraq Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2001 Residents 529 Non-residents ... Total 529 Value 2008 113 401 57 411

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2006-2008) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 10

2000-2008 19 19

2008 28 28 2008 a 0.35

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.71 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 3.2 Agricultural products 84.2 Fuels and mining products 9.9 Manufactures By main origin 23.9 1. European Union (27) 22.5 2. China 19.8 3. India 2.9 4. Japan 2.9 5. Malaysia 0.3 Unspecified origins Value 2008 6 763 12 011 2008 0.18 Annual percentage change 2007 8 14

13.7 9.7 70.5 9.0 6.0 3.7 2.6 0.8 74.8

2000-2008 21 24

2008 10 13 2008 0.34

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

44.3 23.6 32.1

22.7 56.4 20.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 221 Total 3 221

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

83

IRAQ
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 1999) GDP (million current US$, 2003) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 23 901 12 602 ... 2 681 ... ... 2004 74 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 53 38 137 111 Imports 62 41 60 41

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY WTO accession date Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Simple average of import duties All goods Agricultural goods (AOA) Non-agricultural goods Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) in non-agricultural goods Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Taipei, Chinese 3. European Union (27) 4. Japan 5. Syrian Arab Republic COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents 28 Non-residents 18 Total 46

2000-2004 -7 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2003 -41 ... ...

2004 46 ... ... ... ... 2-0 -

Observer Applied ... ... ... ... ... ... Value 2008 59 700 31 200 2008 0.37

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 30 3

2000-2008 14 11

2008 51 45 2008 0.19

0.1 97.7 0.0 33.7 29.6 17.4 2.3 0.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

11.9 0.7 26.5 ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2006 353 5 030 2006 0.01

2000-2006 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2005 ... ...

2006 2 -7 2006 0.19

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

57.8 40.8 1.4

51.3 7.8 40.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

84

TRADE PROFILES 2009

IRELAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 460 281 776 197 111 - 12 686 85 122 146.6 2008 143 135 131 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 33 11 Imports 39 8 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 5

Annual percentage change 2007 6 ... ...

2008 -2 ... ... 1.253 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 68 33 - 25 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Switzerland 4. Japan 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 261 Non-residents 53 Total 314 Value 2008 124 101 83 177 2008 0.77

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 15

2000-2008 6 6

2008 2 -1 2008 0.51

10.0 2.2 84.6 62.3 19.3 3.0 2.0 1.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Norway 5. Japan

10.7 13.2 69.5 63.6 11.7 6.8 2.3 2.0

Value 2008 99 235 106 189 2008 2.63

2000-2008 24 17

Annual percentage change 2007 30 20

2008 12 12 2008 3.04

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

3.8 6.5 89.8

2.6 10.0 87.5

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 1 114 Direct non-residents 970 Madrid 2 539 Total 4 623

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

85

ISRAEL
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 7 308 199 498 201 323 1 596 20 114 85.4 2008 128 133 124 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 52 37 35 20 Imports 44 26 36 22

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 4 3

Annual percentage change 2007 5 9 12

2008 4 ... ... 0.478 1.0 0.7 34 7-0 4 ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 21 April 1995 Trade Policy Review date 1, 3 February 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 75.1 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 22.0 6.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 73.3 17.9 Non-agricultural goods 11.2 5.1 5.9 4.7 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 67.3 in non-agricultural goods 76.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 58 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Hong Kong, China 4. India 5. Turkey Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 372 Non-residents 2 117 Total 2 489 Value 2008 60 825 67 656 2008 0.38

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 16 17

2000-2008 9 8

2008 12 15 2008 0.41

3.5 2.3 92.7 32.6 29.0 6.8 3.8 2.6 3.0 Value 2008 23 763 19 600 2008 0.63

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Switzerland 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 10 20

7.5 21.2 67.1 34.5 12.3 6.5 6.1 3.4 17.0

2000-2008 6 7

2008 13 11 2008 0.56

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

22.2 15.3 62.4

34.8 17.5 47.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 2 112 Direct non-residents 5 517 Madrid ... Total 7 629

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

86

TRADE PROFILES 2009

ITALY
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 59 855 2 293 008 1 840 902 - 78 029 20 323 57.9 2008 107 115 122 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 7 8 Imports 8 7 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 2 3

Annual percentage change 2007 1 5 4

2008 -1 ... ... 3.866 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Switzerland 4. Russian Federation 5. Turkey Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 5 257 Non-residents 1 251 Total 6 508 Value 2008 538 028 554 909 2008 3.35

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 16

2000-2008 11 11

2008 8 8 2008 3.38

7.5 6.9 84.2 57.9 6.3 4.0 2.9 2.0 1.5 Value 2008 121 890 131 748 2008 3.23

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 4. United States 5. Switzerland Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 13 21

10.8 25.2 63.0 53.1 6.3 3.8 3.1 3.0 6.3

2000-2008 10 12

2008 10 11 2008 3.78

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

14.4 37.9 47.6

23.3 23.4 53.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 6 620 Total 6 620

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

87

JAMAICA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 2 689 15 068 20 720 - 1 744 4 930 98.6 2008 113 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 118 93 80 54 Imports 98 73 92 67

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 1 ... ...

2008 -1 ... ... 0.044 9.3 4.0 19 2-2 1 ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 9 March 1995 Trade Policy Review date 17, 19 January 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 49.6 7.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 97.1 17.9 Non-agricultural goods 42.4 5.9 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 29.2 in non-agricultural goods 46.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 48 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Canada 4. Russian Federation 5. Iceland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 9 Non-residents 34 Total 43 Value 2008 2 703 8 549 2008 0.02

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 9 14

2000-2008 10 13

2008 25 32 2008 0.05

13.1 76.1 10.1 40.3 29.8 10.6 5.2 3.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 4. European Union (27) 5. China

12.9 42.9 44.2 39.4 17.5 11.6 6.0 3.8

Value 2008 2 735 2 341 2008 0.07

2000-2008 4 7

Annual percentage change 2007 2 12

2008 3 6 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

16.2 72.4 11.4

47.6 11.5 40.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2002 Direct residents 287 Direct non-residents 1 208 Madrid ... Total 1 495

88

TRADE PROFILES 2009

JAPAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 127 704 4 909 272 4 354 550 156 632 12 252 34.3 2008 111 146 126 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 4 4 6 4 Imports 4 4 4 3

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 6 4

Annual percentage change 2007 2 ... ...

2008 -1 ... ... 5.299 1.0 1.4 10 10 - 10 2 1 0 13 - 15 9-7 1-1 0-1

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 18, 20 February 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.4 5.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 24.0 23.6 Non-agricultural goods 2.5 2.6 3.5 6.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 46.8 in non-agricultural goods 82.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 112 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. China 3. European Union (27) 4. Korea, Republic of 5. Taipei, Chinese COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 145 040 Non-residents 19 914 Total 164 954 Value 2008 782 047 762 589 2008 4.87

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 7

2000-2008 6 9

2008 9 23 2008 4.64

1.1 4.8 88.6 17.8 16.0 14.1 7.6 5.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. China 2. United States 3. European Union (27) 4. Saudi Arabia 5. Australia

10.6 42.8 44.9 18.8 10.4 9.2 6.7 6.2

Value 2008 146 440 167 443 2008 3.88

2000-2008 10 6

Annual percentage change 2007 10 11

2008 15 13 2008 4.80

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

32.0 7.4 60.6

32.2 16.7 51.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 79 828 Direct non-residents 10 183 Madrid 5 023 Total 95 034

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

89

JORDAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 5 906 20 013 31 200 - 2 425 4 464 149.1 2008 165 186 179 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 92 68 69 44 Imports 75 53 72 49

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 8 8

Annual percentage change 2007 7 1 7

2008 6 7 10 0.071 12.0 3.3 13 5-2 ... ... 1 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 11 April 2000 Trade Policy Review date 10, 12 November 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 16.3 10.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 23.7 18.1 Non-agricultural goods 15.2 9.8 0.1 0.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.6 in non-agricultural goods 45.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 110 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Iraq 2. India 3. United States 4. Saudi Arabia 5. United Arab Emirates Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1997 Residents 44 Non-residents ... Total 44 Value 2008 7 785 16 942 2008 0.05

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 18

2000-2008 19 18

2008 36 24 2008 0.10

13.8 8.6 76.0 16.5 16.5 13.5 7.0 4.7 8.5 Value 2008 4 291 3 913 2008 0.11

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Saudi Arabia 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. United States 5. Egypt Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 16 17

18.0 24.6 55.1 21.6 20.9 10.4 4.6 4.3 0.0

2000-2008 13 13

2008 30 18 2008 0.11

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

19.5 68.6 12.0

57.0 25.7 17.4

Trademark registrations by office, 1997 Direct residents 2 159 Direct non-residents 1 926 Madrid ... Total 4 085

90

TRADE PROFILES 2009

KAZAKHSTAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 15 675 132 229 177 354 6 978 6 359 92.9 2008 204 162 186 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 43 29 75 50 Imports 57 39 52 34

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 9 6 8

Annual percentage change 2007 9 9 26

2008 3 1 9 4.5 2.1 8-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 6.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.2 Non-agricultural goods 4.9 8.5 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.7 in non-agricultural goods 46.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Switzerland 3. China 4. Russian Federation 5. Israel COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2003 Residents 1 251 Non-residents 115 Total 1 366 Value 2008 71 172 37 889 2008 0.44

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 25 38

2000-2008 30 29

2008 49 16 2008 0.23

4.5 80.9 13.8 42.9 15.9 10.8 8.7 3.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Russian Federation 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Ukraine 5. United States

8.4 15.9 73.4 36.4 22.7 12.1 5.6 5.1

Value 2008 3 936 10 794 2008 0.10

2000-2008 20 25

Annual percentage change 2007 25 32

2008 21 -5 2008 0.31

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

56.9 25.7 17.4

21.9 9.5 68.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 613 Total 3 613

TRADE PROFILES 2009

91

KENYA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 38 534 34 507 61 267 - 1 978 442 59.4 2008 141 155 197 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 104 80 82 56 Imports 87 63 106 80

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 6 9

Annual percentage change 2007 7 6 13

2008 4 -4 8 0.045 8.2 4.1 37 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 October 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 14.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 95.7 12.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 19.9 Non-agricultural goods 54.1 11.5 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 36.0 in non-agricultural goods 69.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 40 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Uganda 3. Tanzania 4. United States 5. Egypt COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 7 Non-residents 17 Total 24 Value 2008 4 972 11 074 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 24

2000-2008 14 17

2008 22 23 2008 0.07

55.8 6.8 37.4 31.4 10.8 7.5 5.7 3.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United Arab Emirates 3. India 4. China 5. South Africa

13.0 29.3 57.7 27.7 13.1 10.3 7.3 5.3

Value 2008 2 520 1 663 2008 0.07

2000-2008 17 12

Annual percentage change 2007 22 20

2008 5 12 2008 0.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

51.0 29.9 19.2

51.7 16.0 32.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 1 564 Total 1 564

92

TRADE PROFILES 2009

KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 48 607 929 121 1 358 037 - 6 349 18 249 90.5 2008 141 212 187 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 12 7 16 9 Imports 10 5 10 5

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 10 8

Annual percentage change 2007 5 13 12

2008 2 6 4 2.589 4.8 1.9 20 6-3 31 ... 0 13 - 13 9-8 0-1 0-1

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 8, 10 October 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 94.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 17.0 12.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 59.3 49.0 Non-agricultural goods 10.2 6.6 0.5 0.6 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.5 in non-agricultural goods 27.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 98 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. European Union (27) 3. United States 4. Japan 5. Hong Kong, China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 91 645 Non-residents 32 060 Total 123 705 Value 2008 422 007 435 275

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 15

2000-2008 12 13

2008 14 22 2008 a 2.65

2008 a 2.63 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 1.8 Agricultural products 11.3 Fuels and mining products 86.5 Manufactures By main origin 22.1 1. China 15.1 2. Japan 12.4 3. United States 7.1 4. European Union (27) 5.0 5. Saudi Arabia

6.1 40.3 53.3 17.7 15.8 10.5 10.3 5.9

Value 2008 74 107 91 768 2008 1.96

2000-2008 12 14

Annual percentage change 2007 28 21

2008 20 12 2008 2.63

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

58.8 12.2 29.0

40.5 18.7 40.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 48 266 Direct non-residents 12 095 Madrid 2 809 Total 63 170

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

93

KUWAIT
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2006) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 2 728 112 116 121 068 64 741 40 369 88.9 2006 159 121 142 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 39 25 49 31 Imports 67 45 48 31

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2006 8 5 9

Annual percentage change 2005 11 ... ...

2006 6 ... ... 0.259 66.8 2.3 41 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 100.0 4.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 5.2 Non-agricultural goods 100.0 4.7 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 61 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United Arab Emirates 2. India 3. Saudi Arabia 4. United States 5. Qatar Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 87 090 24 874

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2006-2008) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 18

2000-2008 21 17

2008 39 22 2008 b 0.15

2008 b Share in world total imports 0.54 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 0.3 Agricultural products 95.2 Fuels and mining products 4.5 Manufactures By main origin 0.8 1. European Union (27) 0.6 2. China 0.5 3. United States 0.4 4. Japan 0.3 5. Saudi Arabia 94.5 Unspecified origins Value 2008 10 301 12 149 2008 0.27 Annual percentage change 2007 21 19

16.6 4.3 76.2 28.5 11.5 11.3 8.5 6.0 0.2

2000-2008 26 14

2008 13 16 2008 0.35

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

37.4 2.5 60.1

35.3 62.3 2.4

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2004 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2004. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

94

TRADE PROFILES 2009

KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 5 278 4 420 11 549 - 631 1 030 147.1 2008 145 143 264 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 131 106 116 90 Imports 124 98 124 98

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 15

Annual percentage change 2007 8 25 31

2008 8 ... ... 0.015 16.7 3.1 34 9-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 20 December 1998 Trade Policy Review date 9, 11 October 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.5 4.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.0 7.8 Non-agricultural goods 6.7 4.2 0.5 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 31.6 in non-agricultural goods 47.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 138 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Russian Federation 2. Switzerland 3. Kazakhstan 4. Afghanistan 5. Uzbekistan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 84 Non-residents ... Total 84 Value 2008 1 642 4 072

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2006-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 43 41

2000-2008 16 28

2008 45 68 2008 b 0.02

2008 b Share in world total imports 0.01 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 19.8 Agricultural products 40.2 Fuels and mining products 27.7 Manufactures By main origin 20.7 1. Russian Federation 19.9 2. China 18.0 3. Kazakhstan 10.4 4. European Union (27) 7.6 5. Uzbekistan

13.7 34.8 51.5 40.5 14.7 12.9 9.4 5.0

Value 2008 884 988 2008 0.02

2000-2008 41 27

Annual percentage change 2007 86 27

2008 35 71 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

16.6 58.2 25.3

49.5 30.8 19.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 36 Direct non-residents 246 Madrid 3 005 Total 3 287

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

95

LAO PEOPLE’S DEM. REP .
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 6 205 5 195 13 243 107 494 83.2 2008 170 15 15 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 144 118 149 123 Imports 160 134 164 138

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 -21 -21

Annual percentage change 2007 8 -5 25

2008 8 12 6 ... ... 4-1 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 9.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.5 Non-agricultural goods 8.2 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 095 1 302 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 0

2000-2008 16 12

2008 19 22 2008 0.01

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2007 299 229 2007 0.01

2000-2007 10 15

Annual percentage change 2006 -3 18

2007 54 25 2007 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

10.1 77.9 12.0

76.8 3.7 19.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2003 Direct residents 45 Direct non-residents 675 Madrid ... Total 720

96

TRADE PROFILES 2009

LATVIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 2 266 33 783 38 750 - 4 354 12 332 102.1 2008 175 186 249 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 85 68 Imports 78 79 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 9 14

Annual percentage change 2007 10 12 17

2008 -5 ... ... 0.068 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 10 February 1999 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 121 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Norway 4. Belarus 5. Peru COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 81 Non-residents 39 Total 120 Value 2008 10 112 16 090 2008 0.06

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 35 33

2000-2008 24 22

2008 22 5 2008 0.10

27.1 7.4 65.4 73.0 10.0 2.6 2.2 1.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Belarus 4. China 5. Switzerland

15.0 16.7 68.0 75.9 10.6 3.3 2.3 1.1

Value 2008 4 508 3 169 2008 0.12

2000-2008 19 21

Annual percentage change 2007 39 37

2008 24 18 2008 0.09

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

51.3 17.8 30.8

25.8 36.1 38.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 965 Direct non-residents 407 Madrid 3 452 Total 4 824

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

97

LEBANON
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 139 28 660 47 891 - 3 056 10 211 166.2 2008 141 251 158 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 108 84 38 21 Imports 76 54 45 28

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 12 6

Annual percentage change 2007 8 7 9

2008 8 30 10 9.7 1.7 3-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 6.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.5 Non-agricultural goods 4.9 6.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Switzerland 3. United Arab Emirates 4. Syrian Arab Republic 5. Saudi Arabia Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 4 454 16 754

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 27 27

2000-2008 ... 13

2008 25 37 2008 b 0.10

2008 b 0.03 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 12.3 Agricultural products 17.6 Fuels and mining products 68.7 Manufactures By main origin 10.6 1. European Union (27) 8.2 2. United States 5.3 3. China 5.2 4. Egypt 3.7 5. Turkey 39.5 Unspecified origins Value 2008 18 928 13 392 2008 0.50 Annual percentage change 2007 12 14

13.8 16.9 69.3 28.4 7.1 5.0 4.2 3.0 25.0

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 46 34 2008 0.38

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

2.6 38.0 59.4

14.2 26.6 59.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Break in series for merchandise: 2001 for exports. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

98

TRADE PROFILES 2009

LESOTHO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 2 017 1 622 3 202 212 1 143 149.8 2008 135 223 267 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 150 124 177 151 Imports 148 122 178 152

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 11 13

Annual percentage change 2007 5 4 12

2008 4 -22 8 0.015 ... ... 38 4-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 78.6 7.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 200.0 9.4 Non-agricultural goods 60.0 7.5 0.0 2.6 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 80 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. South Africa 3. European Union (27) 4. Switzerland 5. Canada COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents 1 Non-residents ... Total 1 Value 2008 900 2 040

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 16 16

2000-2008 19 12

2008 12 17 2008 a 0.01

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 5.0 Agricultural products 0.0 Fuels and mining products 94.9 Manufactures By main origin 68.5 1. South Africa 17.6 2. Taipei, Chinese 9.9 3. Hong Kong, China 2.8 4. China 0.6 5. European Union (27)

... ... ... 78.2 6.3 5.7 4.0 2.3

Value 2007 68 88 2007 0.00

2000-2007 9 12

Annual percentage change 2006 15 -15

2007 34 18 2007 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

1.0 63.0 36.0

78.5 18.5 3.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 931 Total 931

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

99

LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2004-2006) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 6 277 99 926 96 675 28 454 6 999 101.9 2008 141 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 50 35 127 101 Imports 86 62 83 58

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 7 ... ...

2008 7 ... ... ... ... 2-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Simple average of import duties All goods 0.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 Non-agricultural goods 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 63 050 11 500

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 28

2000-2008 21 15

2008 34 48 2008 a 0.07

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.39 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 0.0 Agricultural products 98.3 Fuels and mining products 1.7 Manufactures By main origin ... 1. European Union (27) ... 2. Monaco ... 3. Japan ... 4. Korea, Republic of ... 5. China

19.9 2.0 78.1 47.2 25.0 8.3 7.5 3.3

Value 2006 385 2 324 2006 0.01

2000-2006 22 19

Annual percentage change 2005 19 21

2006 -8 9 2006 0.09

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

33.2 49.4 17.4

50.9 28.7 20.4

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2004.

100

TRADE PROFILES 2009

LITHUANIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 358 47 341 63 217 - 5 703 14 619 127.3 2008 176 222 259 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 67 66 Imports 63 71 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 12 15

Annual percentage change 2007 9 4 12

2008 3 ... ... 0.122 ... ... 38 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 31 May 2001 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 110 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) b Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) b Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Belarus 4. Ukraine 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 44 Non-residents 25 Total 69 Value 2008 23 632 30 923 2008 0.15

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 21 26

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 38 27 2008 0.19

17.7 26.5 55.8 60.4 16.0 4.5 3.3 3.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. United States 5. Belarus

12.3 30.2 57.2 57.5 30.1 2.5 1.7 1.7

Value 2008 4 710 4 114 2008 0.12

2000-2008 21 26

Annual percentage change 2007 11 33

2008 18 25 2008 0.12

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

59.5 28.4 12.1

48.4 36.4 15.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 2 145 Direct non-residents 556 Madrid 3 729 Total 6 430

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007. b Break in series for merchandise: 2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

101

LUXEMBOURG
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 488 54 257 38 337 2 980 292 754 288.4 2008 132 151 149 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 64 19 Imports 61 26 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 6 6

Annual percentage change 2007 4 6 5

2008 -1 ... ... 0.391 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Switzerland 4. China 5. Russian Federation Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 11 Non-residents 35 Total 46 Value 2008 25 385 31 592 2008 0.16

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -2 4

2000-2008 15 14

2008 13 15 2008 0.19

5.3 4.6 89.0 85.4 2.5 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.8 Value 2008 68 909 40 664 2008 1.82

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Switzerland 4. Canada 5. Hong Kong, China Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 30 26

8.5 19.1 72.3 89.3 2.4 0.9 0.6 0.5 4.4

2000-2008 17 15

2008 5 7 2008 1.17

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

6.1 6.5 87.4

4.9 9.6 85.5

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

102

TRADE PROFILES 2009

MACAO, CHINA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 526 18 599 31 271 5 863 51 629 150.3 2008 291 305 245 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 125 100 40 23 Imports 110 85 78 54

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 14 15 12

Annual percentage change 2007 25 28 22

2008 13 15 -2 0.075 0.0 0.0 2 1-1 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 30 April, 2 May 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 26.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 0.0 0.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 0.0 Non-agricultural goods 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 in non-agricultural goods 100.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 25 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Hong Kong, China 3. China 4. European Union (27) 5. Taipei, Chinese Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents ... Non-residents 63 Total 63 Value 2008 1 997 5 365 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -1 18

2000-2008 -3 11

2008 -21 0 2008 0.03

3.1 12.2 84.7 39.9 19.7 12.3 9.9 1.4 9.5 Value 2008 18 081 3 253 2008 0.48

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. China 2. European Union (27) 3. Hong Kong, China 4. Macao, China 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 37 46

13.2 14.0 72.8 35.9 15.2 9.3 7.9 7.7 0.0

2000-2008 24 19

2008 25 22 2008 0.09

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

2.3 96.1 1.6

8.1 17.2 74.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 392 Direct non-residents 4 664 Madrid ... Total 5 056

TRADE PROFILES 2009

103

MADAGASCAR
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2005) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 19 111 8 970 20 046 - 554 256 65.4 2008 133 136 192 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 141 115 117 91 Imports 125 99 117 91

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 4 8

Annual percentage change 2007 6 25 22

2008 7 3 16 0.015 ... ... 24 0-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 17 November 1995 Trade Policy Review date 2, 4 April 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 29.7 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 27.4 12.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 30.0 14.7 Non-agricultural goods 25.3 12.1 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.5 in non-agricultural goods 38.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. South Africa 5. Singapore Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 7 Non-residents 21 Total 28 Value 2008 1 340 4 040 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 26 46

2000-2008 6 18

2008 8 53 2008 0.02

27.8 10.5 61.6 61.1 21.9 3.1 1.5 1.4 3.7 Value 2008 874 1 159

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Bahrain 4. South Africa 5. United States Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 55 73

10.7 12.9 71.8 21.4 21.0 8.0 6.1 5.0 1.7

2000-2008 14 14

2008 10 55 2008 a 0.03

2008 a 0.02 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

29.5 31.7 38.8

43.0 10.6 46.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents 439 Direct non-residents 419 Madrid ... Total 858

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

104

TRADE PROFILES 2009

MALAWI
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2002) Trade per capita (US$, 2004-2006) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 14 278 4 269 11 948 - 201 126 57.7 2008 135 52 118 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 156 130 172 146 Imports 154 128 159 133

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 -8 2

Annual percentage change 2007 9 -1 -4

2008 10 -5 -5 0.015 ... ... 27 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 February 2002 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 31.2 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 75.9 13.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 121.4 15.5 Non-agricultural goods 42.4 12.6 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 25.6 in non-agricultural goods 27.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 33 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. South Africa 3. United States 4. Switzerland 5. Korea, Republic of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2003 Residents ... Non-residents 2 Total 2 Value 2008 770 1 650 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 31 14

2000-2008 9 15

2008 8 20 2008 0.01

88.3 0.1 11.5 45.3 10.1 5.7 4.1 3.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. South Africa 2. Mozambique 3. European Union (27) 4. Tanzania 5. Switzerland

17.2 13.8 69.0 26.6 20.3 10.8 5.8 5.3

Value 2006 80 222

2000-2006 15 5

Annual percentage change 2005 4 5

2006 86 0 2006 a 0.01

2006 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

39.8 55.9 4.3

67.4 22.3 10.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents 96 Direct non-residents 274 Madrid ... Total 370

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2005.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

105

MALAYSIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 26 993 194 927 383 709 28 931 13 911 205.9 2008 148 145 152 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 21 15 30 17 Imports 28 19 31 19

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 6

Annual percentage change 2007 6 4 5

2008 5 ... ... 1.202 5.4 1.0 29 5-3 12 ... 0 1-1 1-0 1-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 16, 18 January 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 83.7 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 25.7 8.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 83.4 14.7 Non-agricultural goods 14.9 8.0 2.8 0.7 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 74.3 in non-agricultural goods 78.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 73 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Singapore 2. United States 3. European Union (27) 4. Japan 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 338 Non-residents 6 645 Total 6 983 Value 2008 199 516 156 896 2008 1.24

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2001-2003) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 12

2000-2008 9 8

2008 13 7 2008 0.96

13.9 20.0 65.1 14.7 12.5 11.3 10.8 9.5

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. China 2. Japan 3. European Union (27) 4. Singapore 5. United States

8.5 16.0 72.8 12.8 12.5 11.8 10.9 10.8

Value 2008 29 336 29 081 2008 0.78

2000-2008 10 7

Annual percentage change 2007 30 18

2008 4 5 2008 0.83

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

23.2 47.7 29.2

38.8 21.8 39.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 8 108 Direct non-residents 17 382 Madrid ... Total 25 490

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

106

TRADE PROFILES 2009

MALDIVES
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 310 1 260 1 709 - 423 7 049 200.0 2008 182 138 146 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 165 139 121 95 Imports 158 132 156 130

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 8 10

Annual percentage change 2007 7 ... ...

2008 6 ... ... 0.015 71.9 12.5 29 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 15, 17 January 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.1 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 36.9 20.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 48.2 18.3 Non-agricultural goods 35.1 20.7 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 12.8 in non-agricultural goods 0.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 5 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Thailand 2. European Union (27) 3. Sri Lanka 4. Japan 5. Iran, Islamic Rep. of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 331 1 388 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2006-2008) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 1 18

2000-2008 15 17

2008 45 27 2008 0.01

37.6 0.6 0.0 49.0 31.0 9.5 2.9 2.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Singapore 2. United Arab Emirates 3. European Union (27) 4. India 5. Malaysia

19.0 25.4 55.5 21.3 18.0 11.5 10.4 7.7

Value 2008 671 342

2000-2008 9 15

Annual percentage change 2007 13 17

2008 8 29 2008 b 0.01

2008 b 0.02 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

4.6 94.2 1.2

51.9 34.7 13.4

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2004 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2004. b Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

107

MALI
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 12 711 8 740 14 333 - 581 326 65.0 2008 155 175 143 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 130 105 141 115 Imports 141 115 131 105

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 8 5

Annual percentage change 2007 3 3 3

2008 5 ... ... 0.015 13.9 5.9 35 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 June 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 40.2 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 28.5 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 59.2 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 13.4 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods 11.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 2 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. South Africa 2. Senegal 3. European Union (27) 4. Côte d'Ivoire 5. Switzerland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 650 2 550 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -2 20

2000-2008 15 15

2008 8 17 2008 0.02

20.6 2.0 6.4 72.5 6.8 2.7 2.6 2.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Senegal 3. Côte d'Ivoire 4. China 5. United States

16.9 21.0 62.0 26.1 17.2 10.4 10.2 6.6

Value 2007 359 774 2007 0.01

2000-2007 21 13

Annual percentage change 2006 15 15

2007 23 15 2007 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

7.2 61.5 31.3

58.7 17.7 23.5

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

108

TRADE PROFILES 2009

MALTA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 411 7 449 9 444 - 445 31 684 174.7 2007 112 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 117 77 Imports 117 93 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2007 2 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2006 3 ... ...

2007 4 ... ... 0.042 ... ... 35 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 12 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Singapore 3. United States 4. Hong Kong, China 5. Japan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 4 Non-residents 313 Total 317 Value 2008 2 797 4 587 2008 0.02

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 11

2000-2008 2 4

2008 -9 -4 2008 0.03

6.8 1.0 91.1 44.4 13.6 9.0 6.6 5.7

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Singapore 3. China 4. Switzerland 5. United States

14.7 15.4 68.8 69.7 5.9 3.1 2.2 2.2

Value 2008 3 714 2 252 2008 0.10

2000-2008 17 15

Annual percentage change 2007 28 29

2008 10 0 2008 0.06

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

14.1 25.8 60.1

13.8 19.1 67.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 333 Direct non-residents 723 Madrid ... Total 1 056

TRADE PROFILES 2009

109

MAURITANIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) Current account balance (million US$, 1998) Trade per capita (US$, 2004-2006) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 3 200 2 858 6 016 77 811 119.3 2007 139 215 ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 128 103 171 145 Imports 153 127 141 115

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2007 5 12 ...

Annual percentage change 2006 12 118 ...

2007 2 5 ... 0.015 ... ... 41 0-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 11, 13 September 2002 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 39.3 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 19.7 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 37.7 10.1 Non-agricultural goods 10.5 12.1 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 33.7 in non-agricultural goods 10.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 3 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Switzerland 4. Japan 5. Russian Federation Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 750 1 750 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 30

2000-2008 22 18

2008 22 15 2008 0.01

10.7 70.2 0.0 47.5 7.8 7.4 5.4 1.3 28.5 Value 2006 87 406

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Brazil 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2005 53 46

26.9 32.9 33.6 42.1 11.2 4.9 4.4 3.3 11.6

2000-2006 19 16

2006 9 7 2006 a 0.02

2006 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

0.0 8.3 91.7

30.1 3.7 66.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by services items refer to 2002.

110

TRADE PROFILES 2009

MAURITIUS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 1 269 8 651 15 327 - 974 7 826 135.3 2008 140 137 129 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 121 96 81 55 Imports 116 91 101 75

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 4 3

Annual percentage change 2007 5 5 6

2008 5 5 3 0.033 ... ... 30 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 17.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 93.8 2.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 119.6 4.2 Non-agricultural goods 19.1 2.7 0.0 2.8 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 72.8 in non-agricultural goods 88.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 27 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Madagascar 4. South Africa 5. United Arab Emirates Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1998 Residents ... Non-residents 3 Total 3 Value 2008 2 399 4 666 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -4 7

2000-2008 6 11

2008 7 20 2008 0.03

29.3 0.9 58.5 60.5 5.8 5.1 3.1 2.7 13.1 Value 2008 2 530 1 910 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. India 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. South Africa 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 32 19

23.6 22.6 53.8 23.9 22.1 11.5 8.1 4.1 0.0

2000-2008 11 12

2008 15 22 2008 0.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

17.6 57.5 24.9

33.9 23.6 42.5

Trademark registrations by office, 1998 Direct residents 129 Direct non-residents 368 Madrid ... Total 497

TRADE PROFILES 2009

111

MEXICO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 106 350 1 085 951 1 541 584 - 15 725 5 643 58.3 2008 121 142 152 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 16 11 39 22 Imports 14 8 33 21

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 4 5

Annual percentage change 2007 3 6 7

2008 2 1 4 2.007 ... ... 25 14 - 10 65 2 0 21 - 14 6-6 0-1 0-1

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 11, 13 February 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 36.1 12.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 44.2 22.9 Non-agricultural goods 34.9 11.1 0.9 0.7 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 16.8 in non-agricultural goods 31.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 77 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Canada 4. Brazil 5. Colombia COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 201 Non-residents 9 756 Total 9 957 Value 2008 291 729 323 151 2008 1.82

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 9 10

2000-2008 7 7

2008 7 9 2008 1.97

6.0 19.8 72.8 80.3 5.9 2.4 1.2 1.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Japan 5. Korea, Republic of

8.4 12.4 77.5 49.2 12.7 11.2 5.3 4.4

Value 2008 18 474 24 701 2008 0.49

2000-2008 4 5

Annual percentage change 2007 7 4

2008 5 6 2008 0.71

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

12.5 71.9 15.6

14.0 34.5 51.5

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 33 816 Direct non-residents 20 633 Madrid ... Total 54 449

112

TRADE PROFILES 2009

MOLDOVA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 633 6 048 10 628 - 1 015 1 727 137.2 2008 163 260 301 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 134 108 119 93 Imports 115 90 134 108

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 13 15

Annual percentage change 2007 3 10 13

2008 7 12 13 0.016 6.4 1.7 27 5-0 ... ... 1 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 26 July 2001 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.0 4.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 13.6 11.2 Non-agricultural goods 6.0 3.7 1.1 1.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 26.2 in non-agricultural goods 72.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 147 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Ukraine 4. Belarus 5. Kazakhstan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 262 Non-residents 6 Total 268 Value 2008 1 591 4 899 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 28 37

2000-2008 16 26

2008 19 33 2008 0.03

37.8 5.2 56.0 51.5 19.7 9.0 5.8 2.8

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Ukraine 3. Russian Federation 4. China 5. Turkey

13.8 23.4 61.1 43.0 17.1 13.6 6.6 4.7

Value 2008 831 779 2008 0.02

2000-2008 23 19

Annual percentage change 2007 34 30

2008 32 31 2008 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

45.8 24.4 29.9

41.7 35.2 23.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 792 Direct non-residents 467 Madrid 4 071 Total 5 330

TRADE PROFILES 2009

113

MONGOLIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 2 632 5 259 9 388 222 1 554 128.5 2008 178 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 120 95 122 96 Imports 129 103 137 111

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 10 ... ...

2008 9 ... ... 0.015 7.8 3.1 22 0-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 29 January 1997 Trade Policy Review date 15, 17 March 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 17.6 5.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 18.9 5.1 Non-agricultural goods 17.3 5.0 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 1.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 37 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. Canada 3. European Union (27) 4. United States 5. Russian Federation COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 91 Non-residents 83 Total 174 Value 2008 2 539 3 616

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2006-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 22 43

2000-2008 21 25

2008 34 71 2008 a 0.02

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.02 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 9.9 Agricultural products 63.6 Fuels and mining products 2.2 Manufactures By main origin 74.2 1. Russian Federation 9.5 2. China 5.6 3. European Union (27) 3.4 4. Korea, Republic of 3.0 5. Japan

12.1 26.2 60.9 34.3 31.1 9.2 5.6 5.1

Value 2007 571 631 2007 0.02

2000-2007 34 22

Annual percentage change 2006 18 10

2007 18 23 2007 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

38.3 53.7 8.0

50.2 33.9 15.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 1 711 Total 1 711

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

114

TRADE PROFILES 2007

MONTENEGRO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 622 4 521 8 682 ... 7 325 123.5 2008 148 148 148 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 155 129 108 82 Imports 140 114 147 121

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 5

Annual percentage change 2007 11 10 10

2008 7 8 8 ... ... 2-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 4.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 11.1 Non-agricultural goods 4.0 1.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 784 2 918

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 11 48

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 -13 5 2008 a 0.02

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.00 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 14.0 Agricultural products 41.8 Fuels and mining products 41.5 Manufactures By main origin ... 1. ... ... 2. ... ... 3. ... ... 4. ... ... 5. ...

17.8 24.1 47.7 ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 1 104 514 2008 0.03

2000-2008 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 76 16

2008 20 61 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

18.2 68.8 13.0

29.0 6.9 64.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 849 Total 3 849

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2007

115

MOROCCO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 31 229 86 329 137 048 - 4 713 1 991 81.2 2008 149 179 183 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 70 48 45 27 Imports 52 34 65 45

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 8 8

Annual percentage change 2007 3 5 15

2008 6 5 6 0.163 9.1 5.5 36 6-1 ... ... 1 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 24, 26 June 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 41.3 21.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 54.5 42.4 Non-agricultural goods 39.2 18.3 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.4 in non-agricultural goods 1.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 45 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. India 3. Brazil 4. United States 5. Russian Federation COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 128 Non-residents 571 Total 699 Value 2008 20 145 41 752

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 33

2000-2008 13 17

2008 31 30 2008 a 0.25

2008 a 0.13 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 16.3 Agricultural products 18.6 Fuels and mining products 58.9 Manufactures By main origin 72.4 1. European Union (27) 3.8 2. United States 3.2 3. China 2.4 4. Saudi Arabia 1.3 5. Russian Federation

13.8 26.7 56.6 51.9 6.1 5.9 5.5 5.0

Value 2008 12 374 5 482 2008 0.33

2000-2008 20 17

Annual percentage change 2007 24 27

2008 8 21 2008 0.16

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

18.3 58.2 23.5

49.5 19.9 30.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 4 192 Total 4 192

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

116

TRADE PROFILES 2009

MOZAMBIQUE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 21 781 9 735 18 630 - 975 313 80.8 2008 187 305 132 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 119 94 134 108 Imports 128 102 130 104

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 15 4

Annual percentage change 2007 7 -8 -2

2008 6 7 11 0.020 ... ... 39 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 26 August 1995 Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 97.5 10.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 100.0 13.8 Non-agricultural goods 6.6 9.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 11.4 in non-agricultural goods 12.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 17 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. South Africa 3. Zimbabwe 4. China 5. Malawi Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 2 653 3 804 2008 0.02

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 1 6

2000-2008 28 16

2008 10 25 2008 0.02

14.5 78.4 4.5 62.6 10.0 3.1 1.9 1.8 12.1 Value 2008 488 901 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. South Africa 2. European Union (27) 3. Bahrain 4. United States 5. China Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 14 12

16.2 22.5 52.2 29.1 27.4 6.7 4.0 3.9 2.6

2000-2008 5 9

2008 21 10 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

32.3 38.9 28.8

40.0 23.1 36.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 1 155 Total 1 155

TRADE PROFILES 2009

117

MYANMAR
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2007) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2007) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2004-2006) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 49 190 19 618 63 854 802 136 52.8 2006 184 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 95 71 146 120 Imports 122 96 136 110

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2006 11 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2005 11 ... ...

2006 11 ... ... 0.028 ... ... 24 3-1 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 17.4 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 83.3 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 102.5 8.7 Non-agricultural goods 21.1 5.1 0.1 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 5 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 6 937 4 288 2008 0.04

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 38 29

2000-2008 20 8

2008 9 29 2008 0.03

34.1 51.6 14.2 ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2006 256 547 2006 0.01

2000-2006 -9 10

Annual percentage change 2005 2 9

2006 8 13 2006 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

50.8 18.1 31.2

46.5 6.8 46.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

118

TRADE PROFILES 2009

NAMIBIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 2 114 8 564 13 409 747 3 316 81.9 2008 146 79 89 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 116 92 129 103 Imports 126 100 140 114

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 -3 -1

Annual percentage change 2007 4 1 24

2008 3 -47 -49 0.021 ... ... 37 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 19.2 7.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 41.2 9.4 Non-agricultural goods 15.7 7.6 0.0 2.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 26.3 in non-agricultural goods 48.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 3 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. South Africa 2. European Union (27) 3. Angola 4. Canada 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 2 804 4 020 2008 0.02

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 22

2000-2008 10 13

2008 -4 14 2008 0.02

38.4 39.3 22.2 31.8 28.8 8.6 7.1 5.5

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. South Africa 2. European Union (27) 3. India 4. China 5. United States

17.1 17.0 65.8 67.8 15.8 3.5 3.3 2.0

Value 2008 528 592 2008 0.01

2000-2008 12 8

Annual percentage change 2007 15 20

2008 -9 17 2008 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

19.8 72.5 7.7

41.7 19.3 39.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 1 116 Total 1 116

TRADE PROFILES 2009

119

NEPAL
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 28 582 12 615 31 791 733 175 46.2 2008 133 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 146 120 132 106 Imports 130 104 133 107

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 5 ... ... 0.016 23.9 6.7 30 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 23 April 2004 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.4 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 26.0 12.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 41.5 14.8 Non-agricultural goods 23.7 12.4 0.0 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 77 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. India 2. United States 3. European Union (27) 4. China 5. Bangladesh COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1995 Residents 1 Non-residents ... Total 1 Value 2008 1 050 3 600

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2006-2008) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 17

2000-2008 3 11

2008 18 24 2008 a 0.02

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 28.0 Agricultural products 0.0 Fuels and mining products 72.0 Manufactures By main origin 52.4 1. India 29.1 2. China 9.6 3. European Union (27) 3.4 4. Singapore 0.9 5. Malaysia

15.7 22.2 61.9 53.0 8.4 6.4 6.3 3.3

Value 2008 494 840 2008 0.01

2000-2008 2 20

Annual percentage change 2007 35 47

2008 46 17 2008 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

5.5 67.7 26.8

39.5 45.3 15.2

Trademark registrations by office, 1995 Direct residents 381 Direct non-residents 616 Madrid ... Total 997

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2003.

120

TRADE PROFILES 2009

NETHERLANDS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 16 443 860 336 671 693 65 391 63 889 136.8 2008 116 136 133 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 5 10 Imports 7 11 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 4 4

Annual percentage change 2007 3 6 6

2008 2 ... ... 3.286 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 66 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Russian Federation 4. Switzerland 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 1 795 Non-residents 524 Total 2 319 Value 2008 633 006 573 188 2008 3.94

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 19 18

2000-2008 13 13

2008 15 16 2008 3.49

16.0 21.4 61.7 76.2 4.5 1.8 1.3 1.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Russian Federation 5. Japan

11.7 24.5 63.2 55.0 8.1 7.4 3.9 2.8

Value 2008 101 613 90 833 2008 2.69

2000-2008 10 8

Annual percentage change 2007 14 12

2008 8 8 2008 2.60

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

30.0 13.1 56.9

24.2 24.0 51.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

121

NEW ZEALAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 269 130 693 115 378 - 11 317 17 312 58.6 2008 124 121 145 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 63 45 54 35 Imports 60 40 53 35

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 3 6

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 -2 ... ... 0.250 2.3 2.6 11 6-5 13 1 0 7-0 3-0 2-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 10, 12 June 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 10.0 2.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 5.7 1.4 Non-agricultural goods 10.6 2.3 1.9 0.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 47.5 in non-agricultural goods 66.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 90 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Australia 2. European Union (27) 3. United States 4. Japan 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 491 Non-residents 3 101 Total 3 592 Value 2008 30 578 34 367 2008 0.19

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 17

2000-2008 11 12

2008 14 11 2008 0.21

58.5 11.2 25.3 23.3 12.8 10.2 8.4 5.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Australia 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. United States 5. Japan

9.9 21.1 68.0 18.0 15.7 13.3 9.5 8.2

Value 2008 8 842 9 473 2008 0.23

2000-2008 9 10

Annual percentage change 2007 14 16

2008 -3 6 2008 0.27

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

22.2 56.9 20.9

33.6 31.6 34.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 2 544 Direct non-residents 2 718 Madrid ... Total 5 262

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

122

TRADE PROFILES 2009

NICARAGUA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 5 678 6 592 15 229 - 1 475 1 309 124.9 2008 130 183 164 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 136 110 145 119 Imports 121 95 142 116

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 8 6

Annual percentage change 2007 4 10 16

2008 4 4 11 0.021 10.0 2.5 21 5-3 ... ... 0 1-2 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 3 September 1995 Trade Policy Review date 24, 26 July 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 41.7 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 43.5 11.1 Non-agricultural goods 41.5 4.7 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.1 in non-agricultural goods 60.9 Services sectors with GATS commitments 49 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. El Salvador 3. European Union (27) 4. Honduras 5. Costa Rica COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Residents 7 Non-residents 129 Total 136 Value 2008 1 489 4 338

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2000-2001) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 19

2000-2008 11 12

2008 22 21 2008 a 0.03

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.01 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 81.1 Agricultural products 3.0 Fuels and mining products 10.1 Manufactures By main origin 31.2 1. United States 14.1 2. Mexico 14.0 3. Costa Rica 9.3 4. China 7.3 5. Guatemala

17.3 23.4 58.1 23.0 13.1 8.6 7.9 6.1

Value 2008 357 572 2008 0.01

2000-2008 8 7

Annual percentage change 2007 9 16

2008 7 9 2008 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

12.6 77.3 10.1

54.0 24.7 21.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2000 Direct residents 404 Direct non-residents 2 490 Madrid ... Total 2 894

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

123

NIGER
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 14 669 5 354 10 033 - 351 129 47.2 2008 147 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 152 126 175 149 Imports 157 131 150 124

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 10 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 34 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 13 December 1996 Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 September 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 44.3 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 83.2 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 38.1 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 12.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 7 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Nigeria 4. Japan 5. Switzerland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 880 1 400 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 36 12

2000-2008 15 17

2008 24 32 2008 0.01

15.5 37.4 5.8 38.9 17.6 11.8 9.9 4.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Côte d'Ivoire 5. Nigeria

25.6 16.1 44.4 31.5 12.6 7.7 5.0 4.7

Value 2007 79 369 2007 0.00

2000-2007 12 17

Annual percentage change 2006 -1 18

2007 -5 13 2007 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

14.8 52.0 33.2

74.3 8.0 17.8

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

124

TRADE PROFILES 2009

NIGERIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2004) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 151 319 212 080 315 030 16 840 718 73.3 2008 160 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 41 27 60 38 Imports 53 35 43 26

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 6 ... ...

2008 5 ... ... 0.236 ... ... 11 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 11, 13 May 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 19.3 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 118.4 12.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 150.0 15.2 Non-agricultural goods 48.5 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods 25.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 32 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. India 4. Brazil 5. South Africa COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) a Commercial services imports (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 80 750 41 700 2008 0.50

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 35

2000-2008 18 22

2008 23 41 2008 0.25

2.2 92.3 5.5 42.5 21.4 9.6 6.5 3.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Belize 5. India

25.2 5.0 68.5 29.1 15.2 8.2 7.1 3.6

Value 2007 5 788 13 902 2007 0.17

2000-2007 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2006 29 35

2007 55 66 2007 0.45

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

68.5 0.6 30.9

41.3 14.3 44.4

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Break in series for commercial services: 2005.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

125

NORWAY
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 769 449 996 277 275 88 341 63 139 75.9 2008 121 110 145 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 28 20 25 13 Imports 37 23 23 14

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 1 5

Annual percentage change 2007 4 3 9

2008 2 ... ... 0.865 0.2 0.3 17 19 - 6 ... ... 0 3-0 2-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 October 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 20.8 8.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 136.3 59.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.2 0.6 10.6 8.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 55.9 in non-agricultural goods 96.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 111 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Canada 4. China 5. Korea, Republic of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 429 Non-residents 1 345 Total 1 774 Value 2008 172 517 89 293 2008 1.07

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 25

2000-2008 14 13

2008 27 11 2008 0.54

5.1 75.6 17.8 83.4 4.4 2.3 1.2 1.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Canada 5. Russian Federation

9.4 13.8 76.8 68.1 6.5 5.5 2.8 2.2

Value 2008 45 595 43 928 2008 1.21

2000-2008 13 15

Annual percentage change 2007 22 25

2008 13 13 2008 1.26

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

47.4 10.2 42.4

33.0 36.3 30.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 8 085 Total 8 085

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

126

TRADE PROFILES 2009

OMAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2006) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2006) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 2 785 35 729 56 593 5 523 18 180 101.3 2006 135 139 169 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 57 40 90 64 Imports 71 49 64 44

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2006 5 9 14

Annual percentage change 2005 6 ... ...

2006 7 ... ... 0.122 9.4 2.0 13 3-1 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 9 November 2000 Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 June 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 13.8 5.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 28.0 12.4 Non-agricultural goods 11.6 4.7 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 35.7 in non-agricultural goods 6.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 98 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. United Arab Emirates 3. Japan 4. Korea, Republic of 5. Thailand Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) b Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 37 719 22 990 2008 0.23

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2000-2001) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 45

2000-2008 16 21

2008 53 43 2008 0.14

2.6 78.7 8.2 29.3 10.9 10.6 9.6 6.8 14.7 Value 2008 1 974 6 122 2008 0.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United Arab Emirates 2. European Union (27) 3. Japan 4. United States 5. China Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 24 25

11.4 7.1 79.2 27.2 17.1 15.6 5.7 4.6 0.0

2000-2008 ... 17

2008 21 26 2008 0.18

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

23.7 40.7 35.6

41.5 14.0 44.5

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 118 Total 118

a Refers to 2004 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2004. b Break in series for commercial services: 2005 for exports.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

127

PAKISTAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 166 037 168 276 439 036 - 15 679 374 41.5 2008 152 175 170 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 69 47 85 59 Imports 51 33 55 36

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 7 7

Annual percentage change 2007 6 2 -3

2008 6 -9 -2 0.176 15.8 7.1 30 8-1 26 ... 0 3-2 2-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 16, 18 January 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 98.7 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 59.9 13.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 95.6 15.4 Non-agricultural goods 54.6 13.2 0.0 0.7 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 44.0 in non-agricultural goods 33.9 Services sectors with GATS commitments 45 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. United Arab Emirates 4. Afghanistan 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents ... Non-residents ... Total 299 Value 2008 20 323 42 326 2008 0.13

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2003-2005) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 9

2000-2008 11 19

2008 14 30 2008 0.26

19.2 7.3 73.2 25.7 18.0 9.9 7.1 3.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Saudi Arabia 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. United Arab Emirates 5. Kuwait

16.8 36.3 46.9 14.1 13.6 11.2 8.9 8.1

Value 2008 2 314 8 985 2008 0.06

2000-2008 8 ...

Annual percentage change 2007 -1 4

2008 4 7 2008 0.26

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

47.8 10.5 41.6

43.5 16.9 39.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total 4 585

a Break in series for commercial services: 2004 for imports.

128

TRADE PROFILES 2009

PANAMA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 395 23 088 42 446 - 2 792 8 642 145.1 2008 163 148 151 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 142 116 62 40 Imports 96 71 86 61

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 6 6

Annual percentage change 2007 12 15 19

2008 9 ... ... 0.087 ... ... 17 5-5 ... ... 1 5-1 1-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 6 September 1997 Trade Policy Review date 17, 19 September 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 23.5 7.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 27.7 13.4 Non-agricultural goods 22.9 6.2 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 32.2 in non-agricultural goods 39.6 Services sectors with GATS commitments 70 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Costa Rica 4. China 5. Taipei, Chinese Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Residents ... Non-residents 15 Total 15 Value 2008 1 180 9 050 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 42

2000-2008 4 13

2008 1 32 2008 0.06

81.3 5.4 8.5 39.2 31.6 5.8 4.3 4.1 1.7 Value 2008 5 794 2 532 2008 0.15

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Costa Rica 4. China 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 25 23

11.1 21.8 66.7 29.7 6.5 5.1 5.0 4.3 24.8

2000-2008 14 11

2008 19 23 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

53.7 24.3 22.0

60.3 14.4 25.3

Trademark registrations by office, 1996 Direct residents 1 798 Direct non-residents 2 840 Madrid ... Total 4 638

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

129

PAPUA NEW GUINEA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2005) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 6 449 8 168 14 241 640 1 486 140.9 2008 125 66 137 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 99 75 148 122 Imports 131 105 104 78

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 -5 4

Annual percentage change 2007 6 -13 -1

2008 6 -29 0 0.021 ... ... 44 4-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 9 June 1996 Trade Policy Review date 15, 17 November 1999 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 32.1 4.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 45.1 13.9 Non-agricultural goods 30.1 3.6 0.9 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2004) in agricultural goods (AOA) 85.6 in non-agricultural goods 94.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 27 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Australia 3. China 4. Japan 5. United States Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 5 721 3 480

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 32

2000-2008 13 15

2008 22 16 2008 a 0.02

2008 a 0.04 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 23.6 Agricultural products 43.8 Fuels and mining products 4.1 Manufactures By main origin 10.7 1. Australia 10.5 2. United States 4.0 3. Singapore 3.8 4. Japan 2.7 5. China 55.8 Unspecified origins Value 2008 342 1 714 Annual percentage change 2007 14 23

16.2 16.2 60.5 58.7 7.6 7.2 5.3 3.2 0.0

2000-2008 4 10

2008 1 -5 2008 a 0.05

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

10.9 1.3 87.8

24.2 4.8 71.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2000 Direct residents 27 Direct non-residents 531 Madrid ... Total 558

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2004. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2005.

130

TRADE PROFILES 2009

PARAGUAY
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 6 227 15 977 29 323 - 345 2 259 110.7 2008 134 179 172 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 109 85 110 84 Imports 91 66 144 118

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 8 7

Annual percentage change 2007 7 10 11

2008 6 15 26 0.034 13.0 2.9 12 3-1 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 April 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 33.4 11.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 33.2 10.2 Non-agricultural goods 33.5 11.8 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 25.8 in non-agricultural goods 45.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 9 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Uruguay 2. Argentina 3. Brazil 4. Chile 5. European Union (27) COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 4 434 10 200 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 46 22

2000-2008 23 21

2008 59 42 2008 0.06

90.5 0.7 7.8 17.7 16.2 14.0 8.4 8.4

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. China 2. Brazil 3. Argentina 4. European Union (27) 5. Japan

6.2 14.3 67.4 27.5 26.6 14.4 5.4 5.0

Value 2008 999 563 2008 0.03

2000-2008 7 5

Annual percentage change 2007 22 20

2008 13 28 2008 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

20.4 11.0 68.7

66.0 22.1 11.9

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009

131

PERU
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 28 837 127 434 245 315 - 4 180 1 968 51.5 2008 158 191 227 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 61 43 78 52 Imports 65 43 66 46

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 8 11

Annual percentage change 2007 9 6 21

2008 10 10 24 0.136 4.9 3.6 25 7-3 33 0 0 2-4 1-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 17, 19 October 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 30.1 6.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 30.8 10.0 Non-agricultural goods 30.0 5.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.2 in non-agricultural goods 22.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 49 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Switzerland 5. Canada COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 15 Non-residents 312 Total 327 Value 2008 31 529 29 981 2008 0.20

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 34

2000-2008 21 19

2008 13 46 2008 0.18

16.9 52.1 13.2 18.6 17.6 12.0 10.9 6.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

12.0 19.6 65.3 ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 3 502 5 425 2008 0.09

2000-2008 12 12

Annual percentage change 2007 27 25

2008 9 31 2008 0.16

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

23.4 56.8 19.8

46.5 19.7 33.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 8 902 Direct non-residents 6 669 Madrid ... Total 15 571

132

TRADE PROFILES 2009

PHILIPPINES
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 90 348 166 909 317 110 4 227 1 370 85.1 2008 146 149 131 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 56 39 51 32 Imports 46 28 57 38

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 3

Annual percentage change 2007 7 5 -4

2008 4 -2 2 0.439 22.0 6.1 17 5-2 ... ... 4 5-5 1-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 July 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 66.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 25.6 6.3 Agricultural goods (AOA) 34.7 9.7 Non-agricultural goods 23.4 5.7 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 34.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 51 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Japan 4. China 5. Hong Kong, China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 38 Non-residents 1 015 Total 1 053 Value 2008 49 025 60 290 2008 0.31

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 7

2000-2008 3 ...

2008 -3 4 2008 0.37

8.1 8.5 82.7 17.4 16.7 15.7 11.1 10.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Japan 3. Singapore 4. Saudi Arabia 5. European Union (27)

11.5 23.4 64.7 12.8 11.8 10.3 8.5 7.9

Value 2008 10 194 8 547 2008 0.27

2000-2008 15 6

Annual percentage change 2007 52 19

2008 4 16 2008 0.24

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

13.4 43.0 43.5

49.8 25.9 24.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents 5 226 Direct non-residents 8 070 Madrid ... Total 13 296

a Break in series for merchandise: 2002 for imports.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

133

POLAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 38 123 526 966 671 927 - 29 029 9 496 84.0 2008 138 209 192 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 29 26 Imports 19 30 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 10 8

Annual percentage change 2007 7 9 15

2008 5 11 13 0.905 ... ... 41 28 - 5 143 10 0 84 - 66 34 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 July 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 61 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Ukraine 4. Norway 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 1 575 Non-residents 1 959 Total 3 534 Value 2008 168 042 204 279 2008 1.05

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 27 30

2000-2008 23 20

2008 20 23 2008 1.24

10.6 8.3 81.0 77.9 5.2 3.7 1.7 1.4

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Korea, Republic of 5. United States

8.1 14.9 74.1 62.0 9.8 8.0 2.5 2.2

Value 2008 35 309 29 925 2008 0.93

2000-2008 17 ...

Annual percentage change 2007 40 22

2008 23 26 2008 0.86

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

30.7 33.3 35.9

23.6 32.1 44.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 14 033 Direct non-residents 1 687 Madrid 4 979 Total 20 699

a Break in series for commercial services: 2004 for imports.

134

TRADE PROFILES 2009

PORTUGAL
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 10 625 242 689 245 150 - 29 599 15 407 74.2 2008 108 134 121 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 54 32 Imports 36 40 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 4 3

Annual percentage change 2007 2 7 6

2008 0 ... ... 0.518 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 66 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Angola 3. United States 4. Singapore 5. Malaysia Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 145 Non-residents 42 Total 187 Value 2008 55 833 89 975 2008 0.35

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 19 17

2000-2008 11 11

2008 8 15 2008 0.55

12.3 9.1 74.5 68.6 6.0 3.3 2.3 1.0 2.9 Value 2008 26 135 16 497 2008 0.69

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Nigeria 3. Brazil 4. China 5. United States Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 27 19

14.1 19.9 64.6 69.2 2.8 2.2 2.2 1.7 0.4

2000-2008 14 12

2008 13 17 2008 0.47

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

26.9 42.0 31.1

31.0 26.2 42.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 15 741 Direct non-residents 1 437 Madrid 3 896 Total 21 074

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

135

QATAR
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2006) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2005) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2004-2006) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 1 281 52 722 56 303 ... 47 127 99.6 2005 147 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 49 34 67 43 Imports 66 44 58 39

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2005 8 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2004 21 ... ...

2005 6 ... ... 0.157 5.3 3.9 28 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 13 January 1996 Trade Policy Review date 21, 23 February 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 16.0 5.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 25.8 8.5 Non-agricultural goods 14.5 4.7 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 31.9 in non-agricultural goods 7.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 46 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Japan 2. Korea, Republic of 3. Singapore 4. European Union (27) 5. India Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 63 830 26 850 2008 0.40

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 23 34

2000-2008 24 30

2008 52 22 2008 0.16

0.0 94.8 5.1 34.3 21.8 11.7 5.7 5.2 9.0 Value 2006 3 489 5 680 2006 0.12

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Japan 3. United States 4. China 5. United Arab Emirates Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2005 57 118

6.8 3.6 89.6 33.4 9.6 9.0 7.2 6.6 0.0

2000-2006 48 37

2006 36 56 2006 0.22

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

72.7 25.0 2.2

26.1 66.0 7.9

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

136

TRADE PROFILES 2009

ROMANIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 21 513 200 071 302 566 - 24 685 5 692 75.3 2008 165 238 251 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 55 44 Imports 40 50 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 11 12

Annual percentage change 2007 6 12 12

2008 9 15 13 0.285 ... ... 38 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 67 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 58 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Turkey 3. Ukraine 4. Russian Federation 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 532 Non-residents 152 Total 684 Value 2008 49 393 82 725 2008 0.31

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 25 37

2000-2008 21 26

2008 22 18 2008 0.50

8.0 13.8 77.9 70.5 6.6 2.5 1.8 1.7

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Turkey 4. Kazakhstan 5. China

8.4 15.5 75.9 69.2 6.0 4.9 4.6 4.2

Value 2008 12 819 11 520 2008 0.34

2000-2008 29 25

Annual percentage change 2007 35 27

2008 36 32 2008 0.33

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

30.7 15.5 53.8

34.1 18.9 47.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 5 849 Direct non-residents 2 004 Madrid 4 775 Total 12 628

TRADE PROFILES 2009

137

RUSSIAN FEDERATION
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 141 800 1 607 816 2 288 446 102 401 4 939 54.2 2008 168 186 427 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 9 5 22 11 Imports 17 11 16 9

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 8 20

Annual percentage change 2007 8 6 27

2008 7 6 19 5.1 5.2 7-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 10.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.2 Non-agricultural goods 10.2 11.8 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 6.9 in non-agricultural goods 24.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Turkey 3. Belarus 4. Ukraine 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 18 431 Non-residents 4 597 Total 23 028 Value 2008 471 603 291 861 2008 2.93

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2002-2004) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 36

2000-2008 21 26

2008 33 31 2008 1.78

5.3 73.1 20.0 56.8 5.9 5.1 5.0 4.5

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Japan 4. Ukraine 5. United States

11.7 4.2 82.9 43.5 13.0 7.0 6.1 5.2

Value 2008 50 694 74 572 2008 1.34

2000-2008 23 21

Annual percentage change 2007 27 32

2008 30 29 2008 2.14

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

29.6 23.6 46.8

17.4 33.4 49.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 14 993 Direct non-residents 6 194 Madrid 12 117 Total 33 304

138

TRADE PROFILES 2009

RWANDA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 9 721 4 457 9 934 - 147 104 33.3 2008 175 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 169 142 166 140 Imports 164 138 163 137

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 8 ... ...

2008 11 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 40 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 22 May 1996 Trade Policy Review date 28, 30 September 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 89.5 18.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 74.3 15.1 Non-agricultural goods 91.8 19.2 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods 22.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 6 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Kenya 2. European Union (27) 3. Congo, Dem. Rep. of 4. Hong Kong, China 5. Swaziland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1999 Residents ... Non-residents 4 Total 4 Value 2008 250 1 139 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 35

2000-2008 22 23

2008 41 54 2008 0.01

34.9 55.4 9.4 31.9 23.4 12.7 6.5 5.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Kenya 3. Uganda 4. United Arab Emirates 5. China

12.5 9.4 78.1 22.9 16.0 14.5 8.4 8.4

Value 2007 126 259 2007 0.00

2000-2007 17 13

Annual percentage change 2006 -11 21

2007 69 21 2007 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

28.5 51.8 19.7

33.2 26.7 40.1

Trademark registrations by office, 1999 Direct residents 5 Direct non-residents 104 Madrid ... Total 109

TRADE PROFILES 2009

139

SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 49 540 795 - 135 11 564 109.4 2008 141 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 189 163 160 134 Imports 190 164 175 149

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 4 ... ...

2008 10 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 47 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 21 February 1996 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 97.9 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 75.9 9.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 108.6 13.0 Non-agricultural goods 70.8 8.6 0.0 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 9.4 in non-agricultural goods 8.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 8 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Antigua and Barbuda 4. Netherlands Antilles 5. Dominica COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 38 285

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -2 9

2000-2008 2 5

2008 -3 5 2008 a 0.00

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.00 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 8.0 Agricultural products 0.2 Fuels and mining products 91.8 Manufactures By main origin 86.6 1. United States 3.4 2. Trinidad and Tobago 1.8 3. European Union (27) 1.6 4. Japan 1.2 5. Canada

20.5 9.2 70.3 58.8 10.8 8.6 3.7 3.0

Value 2008 160 118 2008 0.00

2000-2008 7 6

Annual percentage change 2007 -8 13

2008 3 8 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

12.6 68.3 19.1

43.2 13.3 43.5

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2006 and by destination/origin refer to 2007.

140

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SAINT LUCIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 170 1 011 1 684 - 320 6 917 121.0 2008 122 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 176 150 143 117 Imports 177 151 167 141

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 1 ... ...

2008 2 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 35 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 61.9 8.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 114.6 14.8 Non-agricultural goods 53.9 8.0 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 28.0 in non-agricultural goods 52.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 8 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. European Union (27) 4. Barbados 5. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents ... Non-residents 34 Total 34 Value 2008 164 656 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 4

2000-2008 18 8

2008 52 7 2008 0.00

28.8 22.0 48.2 34.0 23.2 17.0 8.5 3.0

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. European Union (27) 4. Japan 5. Barbados

22.6 26.5 50.7 42.6 23.8 8.4 4.3 3.5

Value 2008 362 181 2008 0.01

2000-2008 1 5

Annual percentage change 2007 4 4

2008 5 5 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

6.2 85.7 8.0

48.1 24.3 27.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2001 Direct residents 42 Direct non-residents 497 Madrid ... Total 539

TRADE PROFILES 2009

141

SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 109 594 999 - 149 5 321 105.7 2008 142 93 110 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 185 159 158 132 Imports 183 157 180 154

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 -3 3

Annual percentage change 2007 8 ... ...

2008 1 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 46 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 November 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.7 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 62.5 9.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 114.5 15.9 Non-agricultural goods 54.5 8.9 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 21.0 in non-agricultural goods 9.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 8 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Grenada 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. Saint Lucia 4. Barbados 5. European Union (27) COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Residents ... Non-residents 2 Total 2 Value 2008 52 373 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 25 20

2000-2008 1 11

2008 9 14 2008 0.00

64.3 2.5 33.1 18.2 17.4 14.7 10.7 9.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. Trinidad and Tobago 3. European Union (27) 4. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 5. Japan

26.2 16.0 57.1 37.0 21.7 14.5 3.3 2.8

Value 2008 178 95 2008 0.00

2000-2008 4 8

Annual percentage change 2007 6 12

2008 -1 5 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

7.4 65.0 27.6

48.4 17.9 33.7

Trademark registrations by office, 1996 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents 124 Madrid ... Total 124

a Refers to 2003 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2003.

142

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SAMOA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 182 523 814 - 36 2 255 85.3 2008 134 113 153 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 201 175 162 136 Imports 191 165 184 158

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY WTO accession date Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Simple average of import duties All goods Agricultural goods (AOA) Non-agricultural goods Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) in non-agricultural goods Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Australia 2. New Zealand 3. American Samoa 4. United States 5. Japan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents ... Non-residents 11 Total 11

2000-2008 4 6 24

Annual percentage change 2007 6 ... ...

2008 -3 ... ... ... ... 2-0 -

Observer Applied ... ... ... ... ... ... Value 2008 11 249 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 45 4

2000-2008 -3 11

2008 -27 10 2008 0.00

14.5 0.3 83.6 81.7 10.2 3.6 1.9 0.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Australia 2. New Zealand 3. United States 4. China 5. Singapore

27.3 24.6 31.7 25.6 22.8 12.5 7.4 7.3

Value 2007 138 55 2007 0.00

2000-2007 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2006 18 2

2007 4 -1 2007 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

5.3 77.1 17.6

53.3 9.4 37.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 21 Direct non-residents 122 Madrid ... Total 143

a Refers to 2002 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2002.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

143

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 161 175 280 - 67 534 64.9 2008 ... ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 202 176 189 163 Imports 200 174 190 164

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY WTO accession date Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Simple average of import duties All goods Agricultural goods (AOA) Non-agricultural goods Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) in non-agricultural goods Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Angola 3. Bahamas 4. Gabon 5. Sri Lanka COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ...

2000-2008 ... ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 ... ... ...

2008 ... ... ... ... ... 0-0 -

Observer Applied ... ... ... ... ... ... Value 2008 11 114 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -12 12

2000-2008 17 18

2008 56 44 2008 0.00

62.2 29.9 6.8 49.3 47.0 1.6 1.0 0.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Angola 3. Gabon 4. Nigeria 5. Thailand

32.0 27.7 40.1 64.0 22.9 3.0 2.2 1.9

Value 2007 4 15 2007 0.00

2000-2007 -15 10

Annual percentage change 2006 -8 62

2007 -50 -3 2007 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

1.6 82.6 15.8

89.4 0.7 9.9

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

144

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SAUDI ARABIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 24 646 467 601 589 531 95 080 12 879 86.6 2008 134 110 107 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 15 10 55 36 Imports 31 21 28 17

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 3 2

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 4 ... ... 0.927 ... ... 11 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 11 December 2005 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 11.8 5.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 20.7 7.1 Non-agricultural goods 10.5 4.9 1.2 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 50.4 in non-agricultural goods 15.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 120 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Japan 2. Taipei, Chinese 3. United States 4. European Union (27) 5. United Arab Emirates COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 17 Non-residents 257 Total 274 Value 2008 313 440 115 147

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 11 29

2000-2008 19 18

2008 33 28 2008 b 0.70

2008 b Share in world total imports 1.95 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 0.9 Agricultural products 89.9 Fuels and mining products 8.6 Manufactures By main origin 26.8 1. European Union (27) 23.6 2. United States 17.5 3. China 7.1 4. Japan 3.6 5. Korea, Republic of

13.8 7.0 76.3 31.9 13.6 9.7 8.7 4.5

Value 2007 7 901 30 798 2007 0.23

2000-2007 7 16

Annual percentage change 2006 9 34

2007 8 59 2007 0.99

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2003 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2003. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

145

SENEGAL
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 12 211 13 209 21 638 - 1 311 586 69.4 2008 138 137 180 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 122 97 103 77 Imports 106 81 112 86

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 4 8

Annual percentage change 2007 5 8 20

2008 2 6 7 0.018 ... ... 29 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 22, 24 September 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 30.0 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 29.8 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 30.0 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 16.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 29 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Mali 2. European Union (27) 3. India 4. Gambia 5. Guinea Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 2 350 6 528 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 33

2000-2008 12 ...

2008 41 34 2008 0.04

19.9 34.7 35.2 23.3 17.0 11.6 4.2 3.8 18.1 Value 2007 1 097 1 205 2007 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Nigeria 3. Thailand 4. China 5. Côte d'Ivoire Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2006 4 4

31.2 34.4 34.4 39.8 11.9 6.8 6.0 3.3 0.1

2000-2007 19 17

2007 53 49 2007 0.04

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

12.3 48.4 39.2

49.8 21.0 29.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Break in series for merchandise: 2005 for imports.

146

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SERBIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 7 350 50 061 84 207 - 6 346 4 430 81.3 2008 155 227 307 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 83 60 73 48 Imports 70 48 70 48

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 11 15

Annual percentage change 2007 8 16 24

2008 6 12 12 ... ... 2-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 14.2 Non-agricultural goods 6.3 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.6 in non-agricultural goods 1.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Bosnia and Herzegovina 3. Montenegro 4. Russian Federation 5. FYR Macedonia COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 73 Non-residents 205 Total 278 Value 2008 10 972 22 999 2008 0.07

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 37 41

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 24 24 2008 0.14

19.1 12.1 67.6 54.3 12.2 11.7 5.0 4.5

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. Ukraine 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina

7.4 25.9 66.6 53.3 15.3 7.5 2.9 2.8

Value 2008 4 005 4 231 2008 0.11

2000-2008 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 50 63

2008 28 22 2008 0.12

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

24.0 23.6 52.4

30.0 29.6 40.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 947 Direct non-residents 567 Madrid 5 627 Total 7 141

TRADE PROFILES 2009

147

SEYCHELLES
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 86 833 1 859 - 264 23 734 223.9 2008 116 234 262 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 164 138 138 112 Imports 167 141 154 128

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 11 13

Annual percentage change 2007 7 31 44

2008 3 31 15 17.6 4.4 0-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 8.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.7 Non-agricultural goods 6.4 0.6 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 84.5 in non-agricultural goods 78.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Saudi Arabia 3. Switzerland 4. Sri Lanka 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents ... Non-residents 6 Total 6 Value 2008 390 912 2008 0.00

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -5 13

2000-2008 9 13

2008 8 6 2008 0.01

58.0 39.3 2.7 57.2 36.1 1.1 0.9 0.8

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United Arab Emirates 3. Saudi Arabia 4. Singapore 5. South Africa

22.4 28.0 49.5 31.4 17.3 13.6 8.4 5.9

Value 2008 458 361 2008 0.01

2000-2008 7 9

Annual percentage change 2007 9 13

2008 3 21 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

41.1 55.2 3.7

48.4 10.2 41.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2003 Direct residents 2 Direct non-residents 307 Madrid ... Total 309

148

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SIERRA LEONE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 5 560 1 953 4 260 - 181 143 52.5 2008 229 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 171 145 181 155 Imports 179 153 179 153

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 11 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 7 ... ...

2008 5 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 41 1-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 23 July 1995 Trade Policy Review date 9, 11 February 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Simple average of import duties All goods 47.4 13.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 40.3 16.4 Non-agricultural goods 48.5 13.1 0.0 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 110 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. Saudi Arabia 3. European Union (27) 4. Russian Federation 5. Ecuador Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1995 Residents ... Non-residents 5 Total 5 Value 2008 220 560

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 14

2000-2008 42 18

2008 -10 26 2008 a 0.00

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.00 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 78.1 Agricultural products 0.1 Fuels and mining products 6.3 Manufactures By main origin 1.0 1. Côte d'Ivoire 0.4 2. European Union (27) 0.2 3. Canada 0.2 4. United States 0.2 5. Japan 97.4 Unspecified origins Value 2007 42 86 2007 0.00 Annual percentage change 2006 -46 -10

29.9 40.3 29.1 36.7 18.5 6.5 4.9 4.2 1.2

2000-2007 1 1

2007 -1 11 2007 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

36.7 52.0 11.4

56.3 16.5 27.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 999 Total 999

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2002.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

149

SINGAPORE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 4 839 181 948 238 503 39 109 156 419 443.2 2008 146 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 14 9 14 7 Imports 15 9 15 8

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 8 ... ...

2008 1 ... ... 2.157 0.1 0.0 8 15 - 13 ... ... 0 1-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 14, 16 July 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 69.2 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 10.7 0.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 29.1 0.2 Non-agricultural goods 6.3 0.0 0.5 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 98.7 in non-agricultural goods 100.0 Services sectors with GATS commitments 67 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Malaysia 2. Indonesia 3. Hong Kong, China 4. European Union (27) 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 469 Non-residents 7 009 Total 7 478 Value 2008 338 176 319 780 2008 2.10

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 10

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 13 22 2008 1.95

2.1 19.8 70.0 12.1 10.6 10.4 10.4 9.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Malaysia 3. United States 4. China 5. Japan

3.1 29.4 64.1 12.3 11.9 11.8 10.6 8.1

Value 2008 82 934 78 868 2008 2.20

2000-2008 14 13

Annual percentage change 2007 26 16

2008 3 6 2008 2.26

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

34.8 12.8 52.5

37.7 18.0 44.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 5 437 Direct non-residents 12 093 Madrid 5 902 Total 23 432

a Break in series for merchandise: 2003.

150

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SLOVAK REPUBLIC
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 5 406 94 957 119 369 - 4 103 23 776 170.6 2008 162 235 219 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 44 56 Imports 43 54 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 11 10

Annual percentage change 2007 10 14 9

2008 6 11 10 0.300 ... ... 32 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 68 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 94 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , f.o.b. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. United States 4. Ukraine 5. Turkey COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 89 Non-residents 485 Total 574 Value 2008 70 962 73 389 2008 0.44

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 39 34

2000-2008 25 24

2008 22 22 2008 0.45

4.5 7.5 86.9 85.2 3.8 1.7 1.4 1.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Korea, Republic of 4. China 5. Japan

6.5 15.7 77.4 59.3 10.7 5.8 5.7 1.4

Value 2008 8 469 9 089 2008 0.22

2000-2008 18 23

Annual percentage change 2007 30 40

2008 21 41 2008 0.26

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

34.5 30.7 34.8

27.2 23.7 49.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 2 829 Direct non-residents 1 076 Madrid 3 820 Total 7 725

TRADE PROFILES 2009

151

SLOVENIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 2 039 54 613 56 297 - 2 986 31 939 137.7 2008 140 186 181 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 59 58 Imports 59 67 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 9 9

Annual percentage change 2007 7 14 16

2008 4 ... ... 0.179 ... ... 32 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 30 July 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 84 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Croatia 3. Russian Federation 4. Serbia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 215 Non-residents 13 Total 228 Value 2008 34 105 36 970 2008 0.21

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 30 31

2000-2008 19 18

2008 13 17 2008 0.23

6.2 6.9 86.7 69.0 8.6 4.1 4.0 3.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Croatia 3. China 4. United States 5. Serbia

9.7 17.2 72.7 77.8 3.6 1.9 1.8 1.7

Value 2008 7 624 4 902 2008 0.20

2000-2008 19 17

Annual percentage change 2007 30 30

2008 35 17 2008 0.14

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

27.7 40.3 32.0

25.4 26.0 48.5

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 1 139 Direct non-residents 437 Madrid 3 598 Total 5 174

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

152

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SOLOMON ISLANDS
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 507 647 1 323 - 97 1 337 121.6 2008 136 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 174 148 178 152 Imports 188 162 171 145

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 10 ... ...

2008 7 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 42 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 26 July 1996 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 May 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 78.6 9.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 72.7 14.8 Non-agricultural goods 79.4 9.2 1.4 0.8 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 29 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. European Union (27) 3. Thailand 4. Philippines 5. Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 190 295

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 38 32

2000-2008 13 16

2008 13 3 2008 a 0.00

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.00 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) ... Agricultural products ... Fuels and mining products ... Manufactures By main origin 46.5 1. Australia 12.8 2. Singapore 7.2 3. Japan 7.1 4. Malaysia 6.1 5. Papua New Guinea

... ... ... 31.2 27.1 8.2 5.8 5.7

Value 2008 63 148 2008 0.00

2000-2008 4 10

Annual percentage change 2007 29 47

2008 -3 21 2008 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

10.1 2.8 87.0

43.2 7.9 48.9

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

153

SOUTH AFRICA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 48 687 276 764 492 155 - 20 981 3 837 67.5 2008 138 135 201 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 40 26 46 28 Imports 34 22 39 23

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 4 9

Annual percentage change 2007 5 8 10

2008 3 3 6 0.529 ... ... 29 4-0 56 1 1 0-3 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 19.2 7.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 41.2 9.3 Non-agricultural goods 15.7 7.6 0.0 2.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 31.5 in non-agricultural goods 70.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 91 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Japan 3. United States 4. China 5. India COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) a Commercial services imports (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 80 782 99 480 2008 0.50

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 20 12

2000-2008 13 16

2008 16 12 2008 0.61

8.7 35.4 54.5 31.9 11.0 10.8 5.8 3.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. United States 4. Saudi Arabia 5. Japan

6.1 25.7 67.4 31.3 11.3 8.0 6.3 5.6

Value 2008 12 159 16 505 2008 0.32

2000-2008 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 13 16

2008 -8 2 2008 0.47

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

12.8 62.8 24.4

46.0 26.0 28.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2005 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total 19 895

a Break in series for commercial services: 2001.

154

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SPAIN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 45 568 1 604 174 1 456 103 - 154 128 18 985 59.8 2008 128 130 157 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 17 7 Imports 12 9 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 4 7

Annual percentage change 2007 4 5 7

2008 1 ... ... 2.620 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 65 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Mexico 4. Morocco 5. Turkey Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 2 325 Non-residents 342 Total 2 667 Value 2008 268 339 401 384

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 19 18

2000-2008 11 13

2008 6 3 2008 b 2.44

2008 b Share in world total imports 1.67 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 15.6 Agricultural products 10.1 Fuels and mining products 73.1 Manufactures By main origin 70.0 1. European Union (27) 4.0 2. China 1.7 3. United States 1.7 4. Russian Federation 1.6 5. Japan 2.7 Unspecified origins Value 2008 142 612 104 262 2008 3.77 Annual percentage change 2007 20 23

10.4 24.4 64.7 60.0 6.5 3.5 2.8 2.1 0.0

2000-2008 13 16

2008 12 9 2008 2.99

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

17.0 43.5 39.6

24.7 19.5 55.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 45 251 Direct non-residents 1 589 Madrid 5 559 Total 52 399

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

155

SRI LANKA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 20 156 40 714 91 921 - 3 775 1 131 67.0 2008 148 101 101 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 91 67 89 63 Imports 83 59 81 56

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 0 0

Annual percentage change 2007 7 ... ...

2008 6 ... ... 0.076 12.1 4.3 37 6-0 ... ... 0 1-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 3, 5 March 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 37.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 30.3 11.2 Agricultural goods (AOA) 50.0 25.5 Non-agricultural goods 19.7 9.0 0.5 1.7 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2005) in agricultural goods (AOA) 1.5 in non-agricultural goods 46.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 27 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. India 4. United Arab Emirates 5. Russian Federation Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 54 Non-residents 37 Total 91 Value 2008 8 450 14 008 2008 0.05

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 10

2000-2008 6 9

2008 9 24 2008 0.09

27.7 1.7 68.0 36.9 22.5 5.3 3.1 2.6 2.7 Value 2008 1 982 2 967 2008 0.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. India 2. European Union (27) 3. Singapore 4. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 5. China Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 9 9

14.4 24.0 57.9 20.8 12.8 11.7 8.8 8.1 0.0

2000-2008 10 8

2008 13 16 2008 0.09

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

50.4 17.3 32.3

66.1 14.4 19.5

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 212 Direct non-residents 499 Madrid ... Total 711

a Refers to 2002 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2002.

156

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SUDAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 41 348 58 443 89 033 - 1 314 482 41.4 2008 178 269 225 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 80 57 139 113 Imports 95 70 85 60

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 13 11

Annual percentage change 2007 10 34 -4

2008 8 23 0 ... ... 3-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 20.4 Agricultural goods (AOA) 31.7 Non-agricultural goods 18.7 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 52.9 in non-agricultural goods 19.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. Japan 3. United Arab Emirates 4. Yemen 5. Egypt Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 12 050 9 150 2008 0.07

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 57 9

2000-2008 27 25

2008 36 4 2008 0.06

3.6 74.7 0.5 79.5 7.3 2.3 1.8 1.4 0.0 Value 2008 457 2 552 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Saudi Arabia 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. Russian Federation 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 56 5

13.8 0.5 85.7 25.0 10.6 7.9 4.5 3.9 22.9

2000-2008 44 19

2008 34 -11 2008 0.07

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

3.8 72.4 23.8

50.5 46.6 2.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 1 012 Total 1 012

TRADE PROFILES 2009

157

SURINAME
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 515 2 881 3 866 353 6 109 126.0 2008 154 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 129 104 153 127 Imports 159 133 153 127

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 6 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 5 ... ...

2008 7 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 29 2-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 12, 14 July 2004 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 26.3 Applied MFN tariffs Final bound Simple average of import duties All goods 18.5 ... Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.9 ... Non-agricultural goods 17.0 ... 0.0 ... Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 12 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Canada 3. Switzerland 4. Guyana 5. Barbados Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 743 1 304 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 8 4

2000-2008 20 12

2008 28 25 2008 0.01

4.0 11.1 2.3 14.7 14.4 9.1 6.1 3.0 43.3 Value 2008 233 367 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Trinidad and Tobago 4. China 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 0 17

11.7 15.7 47.7 24.0 23.2 20.6 8.0 4.5 0.8

2000-2008 13 10

2008 11 25 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

8.2 33.3 58.6

24.6 8.3 67.2

Trademark registrations by office, 1996 Direct residents 69 Direct non-residents 1 462 Madrid ... Total 1 531

158

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SWAZILAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 1 168 2 618 5 755 - 66 3 844 162.2 2008 122 138 155 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 127 102 131 105 Imports 146 120 146 120

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 4 6

Annual percentage change 2007 4 -2 3

2008 2 6 3 0.018 ... ... 55 4-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 23, 25 April 2003 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 96.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 19.2 7.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 41.2 9.4 Non-agricultural goods 15.7 7.6 0.0 2.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 44.1 in non-agricultural goods 49.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 9 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. South Africa 2. Botswana 3. European Union (27) 4. United States 5. Japan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 1 790 2 200

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 5

2000-2008 9 10

2008 -5 9 2008 a 0.01

2008 a Share in world total imports 0.01 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 18.2 Agricultural products 2.8 Fuels and mining products 78.8 Manufactures By main origin 45.2 1. South Africa 31.6 2. Namibia 14.4 3. Lesotho 3.2 4. Hong Kong, China 2.6 5. Botswana

12.1 10.3 77.4 92.9 2.2 1.4 0.9 0.5

Value 2007 447 494 2007 0.01

2000-2007 7 7

Annual percentage change 2006 1 -8

2007 63 36 2007 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

2.0 7.1 91.0

11.7 10.4 77.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 992 Total 992

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

159

SWEDEN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 9 221 480 021 344 712 40 317 46 645 96.5 2008 121 144 136 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 24 18 Imports 26 18 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 5 5

Annual percentage change 2007 3 6 9

2008 0 ... ... 1.324 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 66 33 - 24 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 98 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Norway 3. United States 4. Russian Federation 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 1 050 Non-residents 237 Total 1 287 Value 2008 183 356 167 152 2008 1.14

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 14 20

2000-2008 10 11

2008 9 10 2008 1.02

7.8 11.9 79.6 59.7 9.5 6.6 2.4 2.2

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Norway 3. Russian Federation 4. China 5. United States

9.6 18.3 71.9 69.7 8.9 4.1 3.4 3.1

Value 2008 71 592 54 280 2008 1.90

2000-2008 17 11

Annual percentage change 2007 28 21

2008 13 13 2008 1.56

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

17.7 17.6 64.7

16.7 28.4 54.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 3 171 Total 3 171

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

160

TRADE PROFILES 2009

SWITZERLAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 7 631 488 470 324 576 41 214 65 231 113.7 2008 115 127 125 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 20 14 15 8 Imports 23 15 27 16

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 4 4

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 2 ... ... 1.379 1.0 0.5 11 20 - 6 ... ... 0 4-0 1-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 July 1995 Trade Policy Review date 15, 16 December 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 99.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 9.8 7.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 57.2 44.0 Non-agricultural goods 2.7 2.2 81.8 83.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 21.9 in non-agricultural goods 35.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Japan 4. Hong Kong, China 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 428 Non-residents 309 Total 737 Value 2008 200 334 183 192 2008 1.25

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 16 14

2000-2008 12 10

2008 16 14 2008 1.12

3.8 6.8 89.3 61.0 9.6 3.3 2.9 2.8

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Japan 5. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

6.7 13.4 79.6 78.8 5.8 2.5 2.1 1.7

Value 2008 75 194 36 623 2008 1.99

2000-2008 12 12

Annual percentage change 2007 20 18

2008 16 10 2008 1.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

8.6 19.2 72.2

22.5 29.7 47.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 8 638 Direct non-residents 3 752 Madrid 13 476 Total 25 866

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

161

SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2006) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 21 227 55 204 94 243 920 1 303 75.8 2008 142 162 222 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 77 55 71 46 Imports 74 52 76 53

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 6 10

Annual percentage change 2007 4 2 8

2008 5 -2 3 ... ... 3-0 -

WTO accession date Non-member and non-observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) Applied MFN tariffs Final bound Simple average of import duties All goods ... Agricultural goods (AOA) ... Non-agricultural goods ... ... Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) a Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) a Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Saudi Arabia 3. Iraq 4. Turkey 5. Jordan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 14 300 18 320

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 6 28

2000-2008 ... ...

2008 24 25 2008 b 0.11

2008 b Share in world total imports 0.09 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 10.5 Agricultural products 43.1 Fuels and mining products 27.5 Manufactures By main origin 43.5 1. European Union (27) 10.6 2. Russian Federation 5.6 3. China 5.2 4. Ukraine 4.6 5. Saudi Arabia

18.9 30.2 45.0 25.4 9.8 8.0 5.8 5.7

Value 2007 3 563 2 964 2007 0.11

2000-2007 13 11

Annual percentage change 2006 3 7

2007 35 22 2007 0.10

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

6.4 80.9 12.7

48.7 21.8 29.6

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 2 565 Total 2 565

a Break in series for merchandise: 2004. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

162

TRADE PROFILES 2009

TAIPEI, CHINESE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 23 037 391 564 ... 24 638 22 804 137.5 2008 130 166 131 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 18 12 28 15 Imports 18 12 29 18

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 7 3

Annual percentage change 2007 6 9 4

2008 0 0 -4 1.804 ... ... 6 2-2 5 ... 0 3-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 2002 Trade Policy Review date 20, 22 June 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 6.5 6.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 17.8 16.9 Non-agricultural goods 4.8 4.5 1.1 1.8 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 47.2 in non-agricultural goods 74.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 119 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. Hong Kong, China 3. United States 4. European Union (27) 5. Japan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 255 629 240 448 2008 1.59

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 10 8

2000-2008 7 7

2008 4 10 2008 1.46

1.9 9.6 87.0 26.1 12.8 12.1 11.0 6.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Japan 2. China 3. United States 4. European Union (27) 5. Saudi Arabia

5.2 33.5 59.6 19.4 13.1 11.0 8.2 6.3

Value 2008 33 569 33 627 2008 0.89

2000-2008 7 4

Annual percentage change 2007 7 8

2008 8 -2 2008 0.96

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

21.2 15.4 63.3

34.0 25.1 40.9

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

TRADE PROFILES 2009

163

TAJIKISTAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 6 836 5 134 13 027 - 495 615 138.6 2008 195 161 174 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 137 111 163 137 Imports 134 108 135 109

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 9 6 7

Annual percentage change 2007 8 -1 2

2008 8 2 4 20.4 1.8 4-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 11.4 Non-agricultural goods 7.4 0.5 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Russian Federation 2. European Union (27) 3. Uzbekistan 4. Switzerland 5. Kazakhstan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 187 Non-residents 250 Total 437 Value 2008 1 406 3 270

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected (%, 2000-2001) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 5 43

2000-2008 8 22

2008 -4 33 2008 a 0.02

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 14.4 Agricultural products 59.3 Fuels and mining products 11.3 Manufactures By main origin 37.4 1. Uzbekistan 35.3 2. Russian Federation 14.1 3. Ukraine 10.4 4. Kazakhstan 0.8 5. European Union (27)

10.4 35.8 48.9 28.8 16.2 13.1 12.8 12.8

Value 2007 116 590 2007 0.00

2000-2007 9 40

Annual percentage change 2006 7 57

2007 6 50 2007 0.02

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

53.9 2.8 43.3

24.1 1.1 74.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 2 298 Total 2 298

a Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2000.

164

TRADE PROFILES 2009

TANZANIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 42 484 20 490 53 655 - 1 856 256 61.4 2008 170 187 128 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 115 91 92 66 Imports 102 77 107 81

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 11 4

Annual percentage change 2007 7 ... ...

2008 7 ... ... 0.028 ... ... 40 4-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 October 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 13.4 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 120.0 12.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 120.0 19.9 Non-agricultural goods 120.0 11.5 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.7 in non-agricultural goods 67.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 1 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) b Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Switzerland 2. European Union (27) 3. South Africa 4. China 5. Kenya COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 3 037 7 081

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 16 26

2000-2008 ... 21

2008 36 33 2008 c 0.04

2008 c 0.02 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 31.1 Agricultural products 6.8 Fuels and mining products 15.4 Manufactures By main origin 20.5 1. European Union (27) 19.7 2. United Arab Emirates 9.5 3. South Africa 7.3 4. India 5.8 5. China

13.9 34.6 51.5 17.7 13.2 10.1 8.7 7.0

Value 2008 1 935 1 631 2008 0.05

2000-2008 16 13

Annual percentage change 2007 14 17

2008 16 15 2008 0.05

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

18.9 60.5 20.6

40.3 47.9 11.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2001 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents 15 Madrid ... Total 15

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006. b Break in series for merchandise: 2006 for exports. c Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

165

THAILAND
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 67 386 260 693 519 049 - 113 5 250 151.5 2008 145 152 153 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 26 18 29 16 Imports 25 17 19 10

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 6 6

Annual percentage change 2007 5 7 4

2008 3 ... ... 1.036 6.8 1.7 20 7-4 22 ... 0 13 - 3 5-1 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 26, 28 November 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 74.7 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 28.6 10.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 42.7 25.2 Non-agricultural goods 25.6 8.2 18.7 10.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.4 in non-agricultural goods 48.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 75 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. Japan 4. China 5. Singapore COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 116 Non-residents 116 Total 232 Value 2008 177 844 178 655 2008 1.11

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 17 9

2000-2008 13 14

2008 17 28 2008 1.09

17.8 7.6 71.5 13.2 11.4 11.3 9.1 5.7

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Japan 2. China 3. European Union (27) 4. United States 5. United Arab Emirates

6.5 25.9 64.0 18.7 11.2 8.0 6.4 6.3

Value 2008 33 393 46 314 2008 0.88

2000-2008 12 15

Annual percentage change 2007 22 16

2008 11 21 2008 1.33

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

21.8 52.8 25.3

49.6 11.3 39.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 14 769 Direct non-residents 9 871 Madrid ... Total 24 640

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

166

TRADE PROFILES 2009

TOGO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 6 459 2 823 5 357 - 216 372 93.3 2008 119 138 116 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 151 125 151 125 Imports 156 130 151 125

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 7 3

Annual percentage change 2007 2 ... ...

2008 1 ... ... 0.015 21.4 5.8 41 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 31 May 1995 Trade Policy Review date 3, 5 July 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 14.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 80.0 11.9 Agricultural goods (AOA) 80.0 14.5 Non-agricultural goods 80.0 11.5 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 0.0 in non-agricultural goods 8.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments 5 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Niger 2. Benin 3. India 4. Burkina Faso 5. Mali Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 900 1 540

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 8 12

2000-2008 12 13

2008 29 10 2008 b 0.01

2008 b Share in world total imports 0.01 Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 10.2 Agricultural products 5.2 Fuels and mining products 25.2 Manufactures By main origin 12.7 1. European Union (27) 10.9 2. China 9.8 3. United States 9.7 4. Ghana 7.1 5. South Africa 20.0 Unspecified origins Value 2008 242 389 Annual percentage change 2007 24 16

8.6 16.0 30.0 43.3 15.8 4.2 3.6 3.0 2.9

2000-2008 23 16

2008 22 28 2008 b 0.01

2008 b 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

53.5 17.3 29.2

71.2 5.5 23.3

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2005 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2005. b Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2007. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

167

TONGA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 104 264 396 - 24 1 841 80.4 2008 111 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 203 177 184 158 Imports 194 168 188 162

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 1 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 0 ... ...

2008 1 ... ... 0.015 ... ... 24 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 27 July 2007 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Simple average of import duties All goods 17.6 15.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.2 14.1 Non-agricultural goods 17.3 15.8 0.0 1.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments 90 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. New Zealand 2. United States 3. Japan 4. Australia 5. Samoa COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 10 170

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -11 23

2000-2008 1 12

2008 12 19 2008 a 0.00

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 91.8 Agricultural products 0.0 Fuels and mining products 5.0 Manufactures By main origin 33.3 1. New Zealand 30.7 2. Singapore 13.1 3. Australia 7.1 4. United States 4.3 5. Fiji

35.7 16.7 40.8 33.8 21.3 11.6 10.2 9.1

Value 2007 26 44 2007 0.00

2000-2007 9 13

Annual percentage change 2006 -25 13

2007 17 -13 2007 0.00

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

14.4 56.0 29.6

67.3 23.0 9.7

Trademark registrations by office, 2002 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents 6 Madrid ... Total 6

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2000 and by destination/origin refer to 2007.

168

TRADE PROFILES 2009

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 1 338 23 898 33 105 5 364 15 278 110.5 2008 180 135 164 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 74 52 109 83 Imports 92 67 152 126

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 6 10

Annual percentage change 2007 5 ... ...

2008 3 ... ... 0.053 5.7 4.0 8 3-2 2 ... 0 0-2 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 March 1995 Trade Policy Review date 14, 16 September 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 55.7 7.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 90.2 18.1 Non-agricultural goods 50.5 5.9 0.0 0.3 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 27.9 in non-agricultural goods 78.8 Services sectors with GATS commitments 32 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Jamaica 4. Mexico 5. Barbados COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 2 Non-residents 79 Total 81 Value 2008 16 929 9 973 2008 0.11

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -5 18

2000-2008 19 15

2008 26 30 2008 0.06

2.2 70.1 27.7 46.0 14.3 6.7 3.2 2.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Brazil 4. Colombia 5. Gabon

8.4 39.2 48.4 24.0 13.3 11.8 7.9 6.1

Value 2007 910 320 2007 0.03

2000-2007 8 -2

Annual percentage change 2006 -9 -34

2007 14 3 2007 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

25.2 50.9 23.9

53.7 29.3 17.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2002 Direct residents 225 Direct non-residents 949 Madrid ... Total 1 174

a Refers to 2005 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2005.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

169

TUNISIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 10 327 40 180 82 572 - 904 4 039 116.7 2008 147 149 139 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 71 49 63 41 Imports 68 46 80 55

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 5 4

Annual percentage change 2007 6 8 6

2008 5 8 10 0.121 8.2 2.8 21 6-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 29 March 1995 Trade Policy Review date 5, 7 October 2005 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 57.6 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 57.9 21.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 116.1 40.9 Non-agricultural goods 40.5 18.6 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.3 in non-agricultural goods 35.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 20 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 3. India 4. Switzerland 5. Algeria Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1996 Residents 31 Non-residents 115 Total 146 Value 2008 19 319 24 622 2008 0.12

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2006-2008) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 30 27

2000-2008 16 14

2008 27 29 2008 0.15

9.4 19.0 71.6 72.1 4.5 3.1 2.4 2.1 2.9 Value 2008 5 572 3 001 2008 0.15

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 4. China 5. United States Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 14 14

12.1 23.2 64.6 57.3 7.5 4.4 3.7 3.0 1.3

2000-2008 10 13

2008 17 13 2008 0.09

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

30.7 52.6 16.7

56.6 15.8 27.5

Trademark registrations by office, 1996 Direct residents 984 Direct non-residents 1 900 Madrid ... Total 2 884

170

TRADE PROFILES 2009

TURKEY
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 73 914 794 228 1 028 897 - 41 685 4 424 48.9 2008 145 171 189 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 32 22 27 14 Imports 20 13 42 25

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 7 8

Annual percentage change 2007 5 7 11

2008 4 5 5 0.841 ... ... 41 15 - 0 93 0 11 2-8 1-2 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 26 March 1995 Trade Policy Review date 10, 12 December 2007 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 50.4 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 28.3 9.7 Agricultural goods (AOA) 60.1 42.2 Non-agricultural goods 16.9 4.8 0.1 0.6 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 30.6 in non-agricultural goods 38.4 Services sectors with GATS commitments 77 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United Arab Emirates 3. Russian Federation 4. United States 5. Iraq Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 296 Non-residents 332 Total 628 Value 2008 132 002 201 961 2008 0.82

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 25 22

2000-2008 22 18

2008 23 19 2008 1.23

8.5 9.0 78.6 48.8 6.0 4.9 3.3 3.0 3.1 Value 2008 34 492 16 234 2008 0.91

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. China 4. United States 5. Iran, Islamic Rep. of Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 13 36

6.5 31.2 58.4 37.1 15.5 7.8 5.9 4.1 0.7

2000-2008 8 10

2008 22 15 2008 0.47

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

22.6 63.5 13.9

46.4 21.6 32.0

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 41 096 Direct non-residents 3 621 Madrid 8 581 Total 53 298

TRADE PROFILES 2009

171

TURKMENISTAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 1997) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 5 028 18 269 33 389 - 580 ... ... 2008 295 190 165 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 81 58 95 69 Imports 109 84 94 68

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 14 14 10

Annual percentage change 2007 12 ... ...

2008 10 ... ... ... ... 4-0 -

WTO accession date Non-member and non-observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) Applied MFN tariffs Final bound Simple average of import duties All goods ... Agricultural goods (AOA) ... Non-agricultural goods ... ... Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Russian Federation 2. European Union (27) 3. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 4. Turkey 5. Ukraine COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 1999 Residents 32 Non-residents 63 Total 95 Value 2008 11 920 5 670

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 11 41

2000-2008 22 16

2008 51 57 2008 b 0.03

2008 b 0.07 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 10.2 Agricultural products 81.4 Fuels and mining products 6.9 Manufactures By main origin 41.1 1. Russian Federation 19.3 2. Turkey 9.7 3. European Union (27) 7.4 4. Ukraine 6.6 5. United Arab Emirates

12.1 2.2 79.8 14.3 14.2 13.3 12.0 8.9

Value 2008 ... ... 2008 ...

2000-2008 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 ... ...

2008 ... ... 2008 ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 2 763 Total 2 763

a Refers to 2005 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2005. b Breakdowns by commodity group and by destination/origin refer to 2000.

172

TRADE PROFILES 2009

UGANDA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 31 657 14 529 36 871 - 1 088 212 53.6 2008 178 247 253 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 123 98 125 99 Imports 118 92 116 90

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 12 12

Annual percentage change 2007 9 12 17

2008 10 7 28 0.016 27.8 12.1 18 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 25, 27 October 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 15.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 73.4 12.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 77.7 19.8 Non-agricultural goods 50.6 11.5 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 18.5 in non-agricultural goods 58.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 5 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Sudan 3. Kenya 4. Switzerland 5. Rwanda COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 2 180 4 526 2008 0.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2004-2006) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 42 37

2000-2008 21 14

2008 29 30 2008 0.03

46.1 4.2 26.6 26.7 14.3 9.5 9.0 7.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United Arab Emirates 3. Kenya 4. India 5. China

14.0 20.3 65.5 19.4 11.4 11.3 10.4 8.1

Value 2008 554 1 177 2008 0.01

2000-2008 13 13

Annual percentage change 2007 11 27

2008 5 23 2008 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

4.3 64.2 31.5

70.0 13.2 16.8

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents 629 Madrid ... Total 629

TRADE PROFILES 2009

173

UKRAINE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 46 258 180 355 336 355 - 12 933 3 026 98.0 2008 171 130 186 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 47 32 41 24 Imports 38 24 44 27

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 3 8

Annual percentage change 2007 8 3 20

2008 2 2 13 0.341 6.0 2.7 5 14 - 0 21 ... 1 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 16 May 2008 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.8 5.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 11.1 13.0 Non-agricultural goods 5.0 4.4 0.1 4.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 23.0 in non-agricultural goods 54.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 137 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Turkey 4. Belarus 5. United States COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2006 Residents 2 505 Non-residents 1 200 Total 3 705 Value 2008 67 003 85 534 2008 0.42

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 28 35

2000-2008 21 25

2008 36 41 2008 0.52

16.9 13.0 69.6 27.1 23.5 6.9 3.1 2.9

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. Russian Federation 3. Turkmenistan 4. China 5. Kazakhstan

8.2 30.8 59.2 33.8 22.7 6.6 6.6 3.6

Value 2008 17 302 15 104 2008 0.46

2000-2008 21 25

Annual percentage change 2007 26 29

2008 27 37 2008 0.43

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

44.1 33.3 22.6

39.5 26.6 33.9

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 12 130 Direct non-residents 3 245 Madrid 9 372 Total 24 747

174

TRADE PROFILES 2009

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2006) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2006) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2004-2006) 4 484 163 296 226 070 22 278 82 688 162.6 2006 152 159 174 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 19 13 53 34 Imports 27 18 24 15

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2006 7 12 15

Annual percentage change 2005 8 ... ...

2006 9 ... ... 0.811 ... ... 26 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 10 April 1996 Trade Policy Review date 24, 26 April 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 14.7 5.0 Agricultural goods (AOA) 25.4 7.1 Non-agricultural goods 13.1 4.7 0.0 0.2 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2005) in agricultural goods (AOA) 46.7 in non-agricultural goods 16.9 Services sectors with GATS commitments 46 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Taipei, Chinese 2. Japan 3. India 4. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 5. European Union (27) Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 231 550 165 620 2008 1.44

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 24 32

2000-2008 21 21

2008 28 25 2008 1.01

3.4 53.6 38.9 21.6 16.4 7.3 3.2 2.2 33.3 Value 2008 8 958 42 773 2008 0.24

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. India 4. United States 5. Japan Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 19 37

8.8 7.2 76.2 22.2 9.9 9.6 7.0 6.6 13.1

2000-2008 22 23

2008 21 28 2008 1.23

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

20.1 79.9 0.0

59.6 31.1 9.4

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Refers to 2004 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2004.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

175

UNITED KINGDOM
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 61 399 2 645 593 2 176 263 - 45 670 24 943 58.4 2008 121 126 136 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 10 2 Imports 6 3 -

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 3 5

Annual percentage change 2007 3 -5 -3

2008 1 ... ... 5.292 ... ... 31 28 - 5 143 10 0 81 - 66 33 - 25 4-4 4-3

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 6, 8 April 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 5.5 5.6 Agricultural goods (AOA) 15.9 16.0 Non-agricultural goods 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 51.3 in non-agricultural goods 53.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 115 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Switzerland 5. Russian Federation COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 2 058 Non-residents 3 872 Total 5 930 Value 2008 458 572 632 017 2008 2.85

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -2 4

2000-2008 6 8

2008 4 1 2008 3.85

6.5 18.0 71.0 56.3 14.1 2.0 1.9 1.7

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. United States 3. China 4. Norway 5. Japan

10.6 16.4 67.8 52.6 8.7 7.9 5.9 2.3

Value 2008 282 961 196 167 2008 7.49

2000-2008 11 9

Annual percentage change 2007 20 15

2008 1 0 2008 5.62

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

13.7 12.9 73.5

19.3 35.6 45.1

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 21 813 Direct non-residents 4 217 Madrid 5 936 Total 31 966

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007.

176

TRADE PROFILES 2009

UNITED STATES
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 304 060 14 204 322 14 204 322 - 614 359 13 066 28.7 2008 119 119 131 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 3 3 1 2 Imports 1 2 1 2

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 2 3 5

Annual percentage change 2007 2 ... ...

2008 1 ... ... 13.486 1.0 1.3 16 11 - 10 220 29 0 93 - 107 33 - 55 6 - 12 11 - 4

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 9, 11 June 2008 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100.0 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 3.5 3.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 4.8 5.3 Non-agricultural goods 3.3 3.3 8.2 9.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 39.6 in non-agricultural goods 49.1 Services sectors with GATS commitments 110 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Canada 3. Mexico 4. China 5. Japan COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 79 527 Non-residents 77 756 Total 157 283 Value 2008 1 287 442 2 169 487 2008 8.01

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 12 5

2000-2008 6 7

2008 12 7 2008 13.21

10.9 9.8 74.8 21.2 20.1 11.7 5.5 5.1

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. European Union (27) 2. China 3. Canada 4. Mexico 5. Japan

5.3 25.7 65.3 17.4 16.5 15.7 10.1 6.6

Value 2008 521 378 367 911 2008 13.80

2000-2008 8 7

Annual percentage change 2007 16 9

2008 10 8 2008 10.54

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

17.4 25.9 56.7

28.5 23.2 48.3

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 138 867 Direct non-residents 31 467 Madrid 2 093 Total 172 427

a Refers to 2006 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2006.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

177

URUGUAY
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 3 334 32 186 42 456 - 1 119 4 448 58.0 2008 128 158 145 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 98 74 87 61 Imports 97 72 111 85

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 6 5

Annual percentage change 2007 8 8 7

2008 9 10 20 0.037 6.8 4.4 17 3-1 ... ... 0 1-1 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 17, 19 May 2006 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 31.6 10.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 33.9 10.1 Non-agricultural goods 31.2 10.6 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 21.8 in non-agricultural goods 42.7 Services sectors with GATS commitments 30 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Brazil 3. Argentina 4. Russian Federation 5. Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2004 Residents 4 Non-residents 82 Total 86 Value 2008 5 949 8 933 2008 0.04

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected (%, 2005-2007) in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 13 17

2000-2008 13 13

2008 32 59 2008 0.05

69.4 3.6 25.9 19.3 16.6 8.5 5.6 4.0 9.6 Value 2008 2 131 1 373 2008 0.06

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. Argentina 2. Brazil 3. China 4. Russian Federation 5. European Union (27) Unspecified origins Annual percentage change 2007 31 16

10.1 30.6 59.3 25.2 18.1 10.2 9.6 8.6 0.1

2000-2008 7 6

2008 20 27 2008 0.04

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

30.5 48.9 20.6

50.4 26.0 23.5

Trademark registrations by office, 2006 Direct residents 2 333 Direct non-residents 2 769 Madrid ... Total 5 102

178

TRADE PROFILES 2009

UZBEKISTAN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 27 314 27 918 72 547 ... 570 68.3 2008 167 186 231 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 84 61 106 80 Imports 103 78 149 123

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 7 8 11

Annual percentage change 2007 10 32 37

2008 9 16 20 ... ... 4-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 15.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 19.5 Non-agricultural goods 14.9 4.5 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports in agricultural goods (AOA) ... in non-agricultural goods ... Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ... COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2007 Residents 128 Non-residents 184 Total 312 Value 2008 10 369 7 076 2008 0.06

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 43 11

2000-2008 18 13

2008 29 46 2008 0.04

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Value 2008 1 204 428 2008 0.03

2000-2008 13 7

Annual percentage change 2007 24 -3

2008 25 10 2008 0.01

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 446 Direct non-residents 639 Madrid 2 960 Total 4 045

TRADE PROFILES 2009

179

VANUATU
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2006-2008) Trade to GDP ratio (2006-2008) 231 574 920 - 34 2 134 96.8 2008 128 ... ... Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 186 160 154 128 Imports 189 163 181 155

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 3 ... ...

Annual percentage change 2007 7 ... ...

2008 7 ... ... ... ... 3-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 16.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 32.0 Non-agricultural goods 13.8 1.4 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 6.6 in non-agricultural goods 15.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. European Union (27) 2. Philippines 3. New Caledonia 4. Fiji 5. Japan Unspecified destinations COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 42 287

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -19 26

2000-2008 6 16

2008 41 42 2008 a 0.00

2008 a 0.00 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 77.4 Agricultural products 0.1 Fuels and mining products 7.1 Manufactures By main origin 17.0 1. Australia 13.9 2. New Zealand 9.8 3. Singapore 6.9 4. Fiji 5.4 5. China 26.7 Unspecified origins Value 2008 212 89 Annual percentage change 2007 26 6

22.7 16.5 58.3 31.1 16.8 12.4 9.1 6.6 0.5

2000-2008 8 5

2008 20 27 2008 a 0.00

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

18.0 67.1 14.9

64.7 15.1 20.2

Trademark registrations by office Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid ... Total ...

a Breakdowns by commodity group refer to 2000 and by destination/origin refer to 2007. Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

180

TRADE PROFILES 2009

VIET NAM
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 86 211 90 705 240 093 - 6 992 1 145 159.4 2008 179 342 371 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 51 36 61 39 Imports 41 25 56 37

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 8 19 21

Annual percentage change 2007 8 21 31

2008 6 ... ... 0.247 ... ... 30 4-2 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 11 January 2007 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 100 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2007 Simple average of import duties All goods 11.4 16.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 18.5 24.2 Non-agricultural goods 10.4 15.7 0.0 0.0 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 32.5 in non-agricultural goods 34.2 Services sectors with GATS commitments 105 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. United States 2. European Union (27) 3. Japan 4. Australia 5. China COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2000 Residents 12 Non-residents 715 Total 727 Value 2008 62 906 80 416

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 22 40

2000-2008 20 23

2008 30 28 2008 b 0.49

2008 b 0.39 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 22.1 Agricultural products 21.8 Fuels and mining products 52.0 Manufactures By main origin 20.8 1. China 18.7 2. Singapore 12.5 3. Taipei, Chinese 7.8 4. Japan 7.5 5. Korea, Republic of

9.6 18.9 65.3 20.3 12.1 11.1 9.9 8.5

Value 2008 6 300 8 615 2008 0.17

2000-2008 11 13

Annual percentage change 2007 18 36

2008 4 24 2008 0.25

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 4 011 Total 4 011

a Refers to 2007 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2007. b Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

TRADE PROFILES 2009

181

YEMEN
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2003-2005) Trade to GDP ratio (2003-2005) 23 053 26 576 55 330 - 1 508 506 74.7 2008 136 100 126 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 89 65 124 98 Imports 93 68 95 69

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) a TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 4 0 8

Annual percentage change 2007 3 ... ...

2008 4 ... ... ... ... 1-0 -

WTO accession date Observer Trade Policy Review date Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2006 Simple average of import duties All goods 7.1 Agricultural goods (AOA) 10.2 Non-agricultural goods 6.6 2.8 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2006) in agricultural goods (AOA) 13.2 in non-agricultural goods 3.3 Services sectors with GATS commitments MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. China 2. Thailand 3. India 4. United Arab Emirates 5. Korea, Republic of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) b Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office Residents ... Non-residents ... Total ... Value 2008 8 977 9 960 2008 0.06

Contribution to WTO budget Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping Countervailing duties Safeguards Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 -4 40

2000-2008 10 20

2008 27 17 2008 0.06

4.4 75.1 4.9 31.2 24.0 8.0 7.6 6.3

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. United Arab Emirates 2. European Union (27) 3. China 4. United States 5. Kuwait

24.8 31.0 44.1 17.8 13.7 7.5 7.3 6.3

Value 2008 593 2 128

2000-2008 ... 14

Annual percentage change 2007 ... 1

2008 3 18 2008 c 0.06

2008 c 0.02 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

7.8 73.5 18.6

50.5 10.1 39.4

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents 978 Direct non-residents 1 498 Madrid ... Total 2 476

a Refers to 2003 values and to the average annual percentage change for 2000-2003. b Break in series for commercial services: 2007 for exports. c Breakdowns by services items refer to 2007.

182

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ZAMBIA
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2008) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2007) Trade per capita (US$, 2005-2007) Trade to GDP ratio (2005-2007) 12 620 14 314 17 110 - 505 604 74.5 2008 151 499 329 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 102 78 150 124 Imports 113 88 123 97

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2008 5 22 16

Annual percentage change 2007 6 21 16

2008 6 21 15 0.020 ... ... 25 2-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 1 January 1995 Trade Policy Review date 27, 29 July 2009 Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 16.8 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 106.4 13.8 Agricultural goods (AOA) 123.3 19.3 Non-agricultural goods 42.2 13.0 0.0 2.1 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 3.8 in non-agricultural goods 29.5 Services sectors with GATS commitments 16 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. Switzerland 2. South Africa 3. Egypt 4. European Union (27) 5. Congo, Dem. Rep. of COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2001 Residents ... Non-residents 29 Total 29 Value 2008 5 089 5 106 2008 0.03

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 22 29

2000-2008 24 23

2008 10 29 2008 0.03

6.7 79.5 13.7 49.8 10.4 7.5 6.4 5.6

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main origin 1. South Africa 2. Congo, Dem. Rep. of 3. Kuwait 4. European Union (27) 5. China

6.0 28.3 64.9 42.6 10.6 10.2 10.1 4.5

Value 2007 279 886 2007 0.01

2000-2007 14 16

Annual percentage change 2006 10 26

2007 22 58 2007 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

34.5 49.5 16.0

46.5 6.3 47.2

Trademark registrations by office, 2007 Direct residents ... Direct non-residents ... Madrid 1 127 Total 1 127

TRADE PROFILES 2009

183

ZIMBABWE
BASIC INDICATORS Population (thousands, 2008) GDP (million current US$, 2005) GDP (million current PPP US$, 2008) Current account balance (million US$, 2008) Trade per capita (US$, 2000-2002) Trade to GDP ratio (2000-2002) 12 463 3 418 ... ... 375 35.5 2005 76 71 83 Rank in world trade, 2008 Merchandise excluding intra-EU trade Commercial services excluding intra-EU trade Exports 124 99 170 144 Imports 139 113 166 140

Real GDP (2000=100) Exports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) Imports of goods and services (volume, 2000=100) TRADE POLICY

2000-2005 -5 -7 -4

Annual percentage change 2004 -4 2 2

2005 -5 -3 -3 0.017 ... ... 38 3-0 ... ... 0 0-0 0-0 0-0 0-0

WTO accession date 5 March 1995 Trade Policy Review date ... Tariffs and duty free imports Tariff binding coverage (%) 21.2 MFN tariffs Final bound Applied 2008 Simple average of import duties All goods 91.7 25.5 Agricultural goods (AOA) 140.1 25.4 Non-agricultural goods 10.8 25.5 0.5 6.8 Non ad-valorem duties (% total tariff lines) MFN duty free imports (%, 2007) in agricultural goods (AOA) 21.6 in non-agricultural goods 13.9 Services sectors with GATS commitments 21 MERCHANDISE TRADE Merchandise exports , f.o.b. (million US$) Merchandise imports , c.i.f. (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By main commodity group (ITS) Agricultural products Fuels and mining products Manufactures By main destination 1. South Africa 2. European Union (27) 3. Mozambique 4. Botswana 5. Switzerland COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Commercial services exports (million US$) Commercial services imports (million US$) Share in world total exports Breakdown in economy's total exports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Patent grants by patent office, 2001 Residents ... Non-residents 29 Total 29 Value 2008 2 150 2 950

Contribution to WTO budget (%, 2009) Import duties collected in total tax revenue to total imports Number of notifications to WTO and measures in force Outstanding notifications in WTO Central Registry Goods RTAs - services EIAs notified to WTO Anti-dumping (30 June 2008) Countervailing duties (30 June 2008) Safeguards (28 October 2008) Number of disputes (complainant - defendant) Requests for consultation Original panel / Appellate Body (AB) reports Compliance panel / AB reports (Article 21.5 DSU) Arbitration awards (Article 22.6 DSU) Annual percentage change 2007 15 13

2000-2008 1 6

2008 -7 16 2008 a 0.02

2008 a 0.01 Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By main commodity group (ITS) 44.4 Agricultural products 24.3 Fuels and mining products 31.1 Manufactures By main origin 37.4 1. South Africa 16.5 2. Botswana 13.0 3. European Union (27) 6.1 4. China 4.0 5. Mozambique

21.2 24.2 54.4 42.8 11.4 8.3 5.7 4.8

Value 2002 208 447 2002 0.01

2000-2002 -20 -5

Annual percentage change 2001 -26 -11

2002 -14 2 2002 0.03

Share in world total imports Breakdown in economy's total imports By principal services item Transportation Travel Other commercial services

... ... ...

... ... ...

Trademark registrations by office, 2001 Direct residents 2 Direct non-residents 18 Madrid ... Total 20

a Breakdowns by destination/origin refer to 2007.

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TECHNICAL NOTES
BASIC INDICATORS
Trade per capita is estimated as an economy’s total trade of goods and commercial services (exports + imports, balance of payments basis) divided by the population. It is calculated on the basis of data for the three latest years available. Trade to GDP ratio is estimated as an economy’s total trade of goods and commercial services (exports + imports, balance of payments basis) divided by GDP, on the basis of data for the three latest years available. GDP is measured in nominal terms and with market exchange rates. Real GDP, exports and imports of goods and services (national accounts based), refer to data at constant prices or volume figures based on 2000. Ranks in world trade of merchandise and commercial services are defined first referring to European Union (EU (27)) members as individual traders and second referring to the EU (27) as one trader (i.e. excluding individual EU (27) members).

TRADE POLICY
The Trade Policy Review date indicates the date of the latest policy review for the economy considered. The tariff binding coverage corresponds to the number of the Harmonized System (HS) subheadings containing at least one bound tariff line divided by the respective total number of HS subheadings of the corresponding version of the HS nomenclature. For MFN bound tariffs, the simple average of import duties refers to the simple average of ad-valorem (AV ) and calculable ad-valorem equivalent (AVE) of final bound HS 6-digit duties. For MFN applied tariffs it refers to the simple average of AV and calculable AVE of MFN applied HS 6-digit duties. The non-AV duties as a percentage of total tariff lines refer to the share of HS six-digit subheadings subject to non-AV duties. When only part of the HS six-digit subheading is subject to non-AV duties the percentage share of these tariff lines is used. Agricultural goods according to the AOA (WTO Agreement on Agriculture) definition refer to HS chapters 1 to 24 (excluding fish and fish products) and a number of manufactured agricultural products (for further information see “The Legal Texts, The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Negotiations”, WTO). This definition does not correspond to the definition of agricultural products presented in the breakdown of merchandise trade by main commodity group (see below). Import duties collected in total tax revenue and import duties collected to total imports (goods and commercial services) are estimated in general on the basis of data for the three latest years available. The number of services sectors with GATS commitments has been established by the WTO Secretariat on the basis of available information and in the light of the Services Sectoral Classification List (MTN. GNS/W/120). The total number of sub-sectors is in the order of 160. In the absence of a GATS schedule for the EU (27), the total number of services sub-sectors listed in the statistical profiles of the individual EC-12 members and of the EU (27) is that of the existing European Communities (EC) schedule. For EU (27) members the number of notifications outstanding (NO) refers to the sum of NO of the EC and of the individual economy. The number of contingency measures in force is based on information made available to relevant committees (annual reports G\L\861, G\L\862 and G\L\869). Please note that there is no obligation on WTO Members to notify the expiry or termination of safeguard measures. For the number of disputes, a dispute is understood to be a proceeding initiated under the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU) and identified by a reference number (WT/DS...). Reports refer to those adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB). For EU (27) individual members the numbers refer to the EC figures including those for individual members prior to their accession to the EC. For more information refer to www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/dispu_e.htm.
TRADE PROFILES 2009 185

MERCHANDISE TRADE (customs-based statistics)
The share in world total exports and imports of merchandise for individual economies is calculated using world trade including intra-EU (27) trade. For the EU (27) as one trading reporter the share is calculated on the basis of world trade excluding intra-EU (27) trade. Breakdown by main commodity group according to the ITS (WTO International Trade Statistics) definitions: Agricultural products refer to food (SITC Rev. 3 sections 0, 1, 4 and division 22) and raw materials (SITC Rev. 3 divisions 21, 23, 24, 25 and 26). It differs from the Agricultural goods AOA definition (see above). Fuels and mining products include ores and other minerals; fuels and non-ferrous metals. Manufactures refer to iron and steel, chemicals, other semi-manufactures, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, clothing and other consumer goods. Please note that due to the products not classified in the three main product groups, the sum of shares may not add up to a 100. Breakdown by main destination and origin: EU (27) members are grouped as one trading partner. Shares for unspecified destinations/origins are presented when at least one of the shares is greater than the share of the fifth main destination/origin. Re-imports are also included.

COMMERCIAL SERVICES (balance of payments based statistics)
The share in world total exports and imports of commercial services for individual economies is calculated using world trade including intra-EU (27) trade. For the EU (27) as one trading reporter the share is calculated on the basis of world trade excluding intra-EU (27) trade. Breakdown by principal services items: Other commercial services refer to communication, construction, insurance, financial, computer, information, other business, and personal, cultural and recreational services, and royalties and license fees.

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
Data refer to the annual number of patents granted to (including those based on PCT international applications) and trademark registrations effected (including designations under the Madrid Agreement or Protocol) in the name of residents and non-residents of the considered economy.

EU (27) refers to the EU members as of January 2007, including EC-12 members (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and United Kingdom) and Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia and Sweden. The Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu is referred to as Taipei, Chinese in the tables.

Statistical sources:
Eurostat, New Cronos and Comext databases; IMF, Balance of Payments Statistics and Government Finance Statistics; UNCTAD, TRAINS database; UNSD, Comtrade database (for OECD members, UNSDOECD Joint Trade Data Collection and Processing System); World Bank, World Development Indicators; WIPO, Industrial Property Statistics; WTO and national statistics.

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187

WTO MEMBERS AND OBSERVERS

Members Observers Other

Note: Colours and boundaries do not imply any judgement on the part of WTO as to the legal status or frontier of any territory.

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189

NOTES

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Trade Profiles provides the latest information on the trade flows and trade policy measures of WTO members, observers and other selected economies. With information for each country provided in a standardized format, the publication is an invaluable quick reference tool for anyone looking for essential trade statistics. The data provided for each country include basic economic indicators (such as GDP), trade policy indicators (such as tariffs, import duties, number of disputes, notifications outstanding and contingency measures in force), merchandise trade flows (broken down by broad product categories and major origins and destinations), services trade flows (with a breakdown by major components) and industrial property indicators. With one page devoted to each country, Trade Profiles offers a concise overview of global trade.

ISBN 978-92-870-3694-0

9 789287 036940

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