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ECX6332 POWER SYSTEMS PLANNING

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

ACADEMIC YEAR-2015/2016

Academic coordinator: Eng. Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

Contact Phone:

(011) 2881332

E-mail:

lasam@ou.ac.lk

Four assignments:

#1, #2, #3 & #4, the assignments should be submitted on or before

due dates as mentioned in your activity diary. No marks will be given for late submission.

Continuous Assessment test (CAT): There will be one CAT on the date specified in the

activity diary and the test is an open book type.

Day schools: There will be three-day schools. These day schools will be held on the

dates specified in the activity diary. Although the day schools are not compulsory, you are

advised to attend to these day schools.

Final Examination:

3 hours.

This will be closed book type. The question paper will be of duration

Average of the best Four out of Five activities 40%

Eligibility Criteria:

ASSIGNMENT-1

1. Daily electricity demand pattern (including week ends & holidays) of a small scale industrial

customer metered at 400V/230V, working on three shifts is shown in figure Q1. Characteristics of

the operating loads during three shifts are shown on the figure itself. Assume a month of 30 working

days:

Shift - 3

Shift - 1

Shift - 2

Shift - 3

Load (kW)

30 kW

Induction

Motor Loads

operating at

0.8 p.f.

10 kW

Lighting Load

10 kW

Lighting Load

10

11

12

13

14

15

Time (hrs)

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

Figure Q1

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

i)

What would be the monthly electricity bill of this consumer as per the tariffs structure given

below in Table-1?

ii)

Compute the monthly annual cost saving, if consumer improves the power factor of the

industry to 0.95

iii)

Calculate the required size of the capacitance in F to be installed to improve the power factor

to 0.95. (Assume that the capacitor banks are delta connected).

iv)

What would you suggest to do this consumer from the DSM point of view with respect to his

shift schedules so that he can further increase his annual savings? Determine the savings based

on your suggestion with improved power factor 0.95.

Table-1 (Tariff applicable for Industrial Customers)

Customer

Category

Conditions

Maximum

Demand

Charge

(LKR/kVA)

Per month

Industrial

Time-of-Day

option

Metered at

400V/230V,

contract demand

more than 42 kVA

1100

Energy Charge

(LKR/kWh)

Fixed Charge

(LKR/Month)

20.00 bet. 19.00-22.00

6.00 bet 22.00-06.00

3000

2. A power system consists of two generating units having costs and availabilities given in Table Q2

(a). They are to serve a LDC of which the characteristics are given in Table Q2 (b).

a. Draw LDC and compute the annual energy demand in MWh

b. Determine the expected production costs of each generator

c. Compute the Loss of Load probability (LOLP) index

d. Calculate the Unserved Energy (ENS).

Table Q2 (a)

Generator

Unit-1

Unit-2

Average Costs

(LKR/MWh)

1000

1500

Capacity (MW)

80

40

Availability

(1-F.O.R)

0.95

0.9

Time(p.u.)

Load (MW)

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

100

80

40

Page [2] of [15]

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

transformer located at the centre of the area. Six main feeders will run along the road ways at an

angle 600 to each other as shown in thick lines. Five lateral feeders connected to each main feeder

run parallel to each side of the hexagon. The arrangement of the housing scheme is expected to

impose an area load density of 1 MW/km2. The operating voltage is 400 V, three phase, four-wire

type.

B

C

Main Feeders

500 m

500 m

1

Main Feeder

A

Laterals

Figure Q3

If the impedance per unit length of a lateral is twice the impedance per unit length of the main

feeder, calculate the impedance per unit length of the main feeder, such that the voltage drop

anywhere in the residential area will be within 5% of the nominal voltage.

[10 Marks]

[Hint: Assume that the loads on the laterals are uniformly distributed along the line]

Y

where S is the electricity

S

sold per person per year, and Y is the national gross domestic product (GDP) per person per

year. Table Q4 shows the historic variation of sales and GDP in a developing country. Estimate

the electricity intensity in each year during 2005-2014, and comment on the result.

Year

GDP

Electricity

Sold

(GWh)

Table Q4

2009

2010

2005

2006

2007

2008

114261

115922

119050

121729

129244

2232

2253

2371

2353

2608

2011

2012

2013

2014

135204

140990

150783

157115

165286

2742

2916

3270

3565

3886

b) The income elasticity of demand for electricity is expected to be positive in a developing

economy, initially at a high value and then approaching values in the range of 0.8 to 1.1 as the

country reaches a significant level of development

Considering that GDP reasonably represents the development of national income, estimate the

income elasticity of demand every year over 2005-2014, using the information given in table Q4.

In the context of the above statement in given in b), discuss the possible reasons for the

fluctuations.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

Page [3] of [15]

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

ASSIGNMENT-2

1. In the recent past there have been concerns that optimum economic dispatch among the coal power

plants was not the best from an environmental point of view. Following is a problem based on a real

situation that occurred in the mid-western United States. Two coal-fired steam power plants have

input-output curves as follows:

H 1 420 5.25P1 0.0105P12 GJ / h, 20 P1 200 MW

H 2 630 4.2 P2 0.0158 P22 GJ / h, 20 P2 200 MW

Both power plants burn coal with a heat content of 27000 kJ/kg that cost 15 monetary units per one

metric ton (1 metric ton = 1000 kg). The combustion process in each unit results in 12% of the coal

by weight going up the stack as fly ash.

a. Calculate the net heat rates of both units at 200 MW

b. Calculate the incremental heat rates and schedule each unit for optimum economy to serve a

total load of 300 MW with both on-line.

c. Calculate the total cost of supplying that load in monetary units.

d. Calculate the rate of emission of fly ash for that case in kg/hr, assuming no fly ash removal

devices are in service.

e. Plant 1 has a precipitator installed that removes 85% of the fly ash; Plant 2s precipitator is

90% efficient. Reschedule the two units for the minimum total fly ash emission rate with both

on-line to serve a 300 MW load.

f. Calculate the rate of emission of ash and the cost for this schedule to serve the 300 MW load.

What is the cost penalty?

g. Where does all that fly ash go?

2.

a. Identify the H.V side bus-bar configuration and L.V. side bus-bar configuration.

b. Also identify each and every component shown on the given figure Q#2

c. Identify the two by-pass isolators installed on the H.V side and explain the reason for installing

the same.

d. Also explain the purpose of installing P&p Q&q H.V and L.V breaker on either side of the power

transformers.

e. Why do we have V.Ts and C.Ts. installed at some locations of the bus configuration?

f. If the rating of the 132/11 kV T/Fs are 30/40 MVA, OA/FA and the p.u. impedance is 12% based

on its OA rating, what would be the L.V. breaker short circuit rating in terms of kA. (State any

assumptions made)

g. Also, compute the minimum continuous 11 kV bus-bar rating, 11 kV bus-coupler rating and 11

kV feeder breaker rating. (State any assumptions made)

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

. .

A

132 kV

q

11kV

B

N.C

b) An 80 MW hydroelectric plant is expected to cost 300000 LKR/kW to construct. Construction

period is about 4 years and the IDC is calculated to be about 20% of the construction cost. Its

maintenance cost is estimated to be Rs. 28 million LKR per year. Under average hydrological

conditions, it is expected to generate electricity at an annual plant (capacity) factor of 45%. The

estimated economic life is 50 years. Calculate the life-cycle cost at discount rates of 5% and

15%.

b) What do you observe as the effects of the lower and higher discount rates?

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

4. a) What does kilowatt peak (kWp) actually mean in solar power module?

b) How would you orient the house shown in figure Q4(a) with respect to North-East & South-West

directions for a best suitable photovoltaic installation?

Following data has been observed for a solar power photovoltaic installation:

Total installation capacity proposed = 10 panels of 30 kWp = 300 kWp

Total installation cost of solar module = 5000000 LKR

Performance ratio of the panels at the premises = 85%

Equivalent sunny hours/day considering all the weather factors and rainy days = 3.6

Annual maintenance cost = 1% of the total capital cost

Inverter efficiency = 98%

Life time of the total installation = 20 years

Assume 5% degradation for first 10 years and 15% degradation for next 10 years for solar panels

as shown in Figure Q4(b)

100%

Panel degradation

95 %

80%

85 %

60%

40%

20%

10

0%

20

Year

Figure Q4(b)

Calculate the life cycle cost (LCC) of a solar unit at the above installation?

[Assume 10% discount rate while performing the above calculation]

Figure Q4 (a)

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

1. The following are the proven options available for large scale electricity generation in the future for

a utility.

Oil-fired

Thermal

Coal-fired

Thermal

Combine cycle

Auto diesel

Combine cycle

LNG

Nuclear

Prepare a basis for the comparison of these options by completing the attached table-1.1:

*** Calculate the values corresponding to this raw while you are performing the calculation

Notes:

a. All costs are border prices, in constant 2016 Rupees

b. Assume no escalation of capital, maintenance and fuel costs.

c. Consider a common period of analysis, equal to the economic life of the plant with the

shortest economic life.

d. Assume straight-line depreciation of plants over their economic life with no scrap value.

Note that the nuclear plant has a cost of decommissioning.

Based on your results and other information available to you, comment on the following:

1.

What is the most attractive form of bulk power generation in purely economic terms?

2.

The following are the environmental effects of each type of plant. The mitigation of

which is not included in the costs given in the table-1.1

Coal - Sulphur Dioxide in flue gas, use de-sulphurisation

Warm water discharge, use cooling towers

Oil - Warm water discharge, use cooling towers

Nuclear - Warm water discharge, use cooling towers

Table-1.2 gives the capital and recurrent costs and the other consequences of implementing

mitigatory measures.

Calculate the percentage increase in the economic generation cost of each type of plant if the

mitigatory measures are implemented.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

Table - 1.1

Coal-fired

Thermal

300

200000

4

18.53

Com. Cycl.

Auto-diesal

300

100000

3

13.54

Com. Cycl.

(LNG)

250

145000

3

13.54

Nuclear

Capacity (MW)

Pure Capital Cost (LKR/kW)

Construction period

IDC at 10% (% of pure costs)

Oil-fired

Thermal

300

150000

4

18.53

(LKR/kW.month)

90

130

50

50

200

(LKR/kWh)

0.35

0.75

0.45

0.40

0.18

Plant factor

0.8

0.8

0.75

0.75

0.8

16.50

4.50

16.00

9.50

2.00

25

9.08

30

9.08

30

9.08

30

9.08

35

9.08

maintenance cost (MLKR/year)

****

****

18750.00

PV of salvage and

De-commissioning (MLKR)

(LKR/kWh)

maintenance cost (MLKR)

(LKR/kWh)

Fuel Type

Fuel Costs (LKR/kWh)

Total fuel & variable maintenance cost

(MLKR/year)

Economic life (years)

Present worth factor @ 10%

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

500

250000

8

35.00

****

****

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

*** Calculate the values corresponding to this raw while you are performing the calculation

Table - 1.2

Fuel Type

Capacity (MW)

Oil-fired

Thermal

300

Economic life of FGD plant and cooling

towers (years)

Com. Cycl.

Auto-diesal

300

Com. Cycl.

(LNG)

250

Nuclear

30

30

35

500

4500

25

30

0.50

Plant deration (%)

Coal-fired

Thermal

300

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

27000

27000

27000

27000

42000

at 25 yrs. (MLKR)

at 25 yrs. (MLKR)

Present value of

salvage value (MLKR)

0.8

0.8

0.75

0.75

0.8

9.08

9.08

9.08

9.08

9.08

Plant factor

Expected generation (GWh/year)

Present worth factor @ 10%

Present value of Energy (GWh)

Total operating cost of

FGD plant (MLKR)

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

increase (MLKR)

****

of a unit generated (LKR/kWh)

****

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

****

****

2.

A wind farm is now in operation in Puttalam area along the cost where their foundations are at

sea level. Assume the entire wind farm is shifted from Puttalam area to a location near

Ambewela for some reason, where the same wind profile/direction as in Puttalam is available,

but with the turbines installed at a high altitude. Would the power generated be the same or not.

If not why?

=density of air (1.201 kg/m3), U=mean air velocity (m/s), A=swept area of blades (m2)

3

Show that the theoretical wind power is given by P 1 .. A.U Watts.

However the real wind power formula is given by P 1 .C P .. A.U 3 what is CP?

2

What would be the theoretical maximum value of CP?

If CP varies between 0.25 and 0.45, calculate the approximate number of wind generators

required to produce the equivalent of a 100 MW Combine Cycle Gas Turbine. Assume an

average wind speed to be 50 km/h, blade diameter to be 20 m and a suitable value for CP.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of wind power schemes.

3.

The demand for electricity in a developing country from 2005-2014 is given below:

Year

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Sales

(GWh)

5146

5683

6173

6841

6625

6946

7612

8159

8769

9389

a) Calculate the 10 year simple compound growth rate for above figures?

b) Fit a trend profile to the above data using both linear & exponential variations of the form

a. Sales = a + b. Time and Sales = a . e(k . Time)

c) Check the goodness of fit (R2) for the two models you have developed under (b), would you

accept the profiles (if so which, on what basis). Or reject?

d) Using the simple compound growth rate and the profiles you have developed, forecast the

electricity sales value for the year 2015?

e) The real figure observed in 2015 was 9815 GWh. Why is that?

f) Explain the limitations of the technique you have used in above calculations and describe how

you overcome this limitation?

You may use the following statistical formulas applicable in least-square estimation method:

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

Page [10] of [15]

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

For Y= a + b.X

n

n

n

n

2

y i xi xi xi y i

i 1

i 1

a i 1 i 1

2

n

n

2

n xi xi

i 1

i 1

of the form

n

n

n

n xi y i xi y i

i 1

i 1

b i 1

2

n

n

2

n xi xi

i 1

i 1

R2

(y

i 1

n

e

i

(y

i 1

y) 2

y) 2

4. A long distance overhead single circuit transmission line delivering power from one end to the other

end has reached its limits, be it voltage at the end, thermal overloading or stability etc. How would

you overcome this limitation?

(a) If the right-of-way is not restricted along the line

(b) If the right-of-way is restricted

A long distance overhead transmission (O/H) line is delivering POLD MW load at V11 sending end

voltage and V2 2 receiving end voltage. Show that the required capacitance to be installed in series

100POLD

with the O/H line to achieve y% of the total line compensation is

F.

2 f V 1V2 y Sin1 2

Hence show that the new power that can be delivered would be 2.5 times POLD, if the line

compensation is 60 %. Explain why it is not possible to increase y to achieve full compensation

(i.e. 100%) of the line

.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

ASSIGNMENT-4

1. Energy conservation, efficiency improvement and demand management is often a viable investment

option in the Energy sector. These measures may be implemented both on the supply-side and on the

demand-side.

In a particular generation expansion plan of a utility company, a Diesel power (with Auto diesel as

fuel) of 20 MW is required to be added in January 2017. The cost and expected operation of the

plant is given in the attached sheet. By implementing energy management measures, it may be

possible to differ the commissioning of this plant to January 2018. It may be possible to cancel the

plant completely, if the savings are maintained.

Assume that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 2017 onwards and the saving of the

relevant energy can justify the cancellation of the power plant. Actual operation of the power

generating system is more difficult to model but a simplified analysis should give an indicative

results.

Consider implementation of the following projects:

a. A project to provide 2 energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) at a subsidized price

to all households, to be implemented in 2017, then provide the same subsidy for 9 further

replacements of the lamps.

b. Investment of 1500 million LKR over 2014-2016 in identified loss reduction projects in the

power distribution system.

Notes:

1. All costs are financial, in constant 2013 rupees.

2. Assume no escalation costs.

3. Power system losses may be neglected in for project (a)

Prepare a basis for the comparison of the investment of above options?

The relevant details of each project are given in the next page.

1. Would you recommend the implementation of projects (a) and/or (b) to achieve a net saving for

the Electricity Supply Authority?

2. If so, what is the total financial benefit to the supplier and the consumer?

If not, what modifications would you propose to the projects (a) and (b) so that they may be

financially justifiable?

e.g. More lamps per household, higher/lower subsidy, implement only a part of the loss

reduction program etc.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

Capital cost including CIF

132000 LKR/kW

4000 LKR/kW-Year

2.00 LKR/kWh

0.5

Economic life

20 years

Discount rate

10%

16 LKR/kWh

Number of households electrified

1 million

0.8 million

450

250

15 W

60 W

5 hrs/day

4000 hrs

60000 LKR/kW

Years of Implementation

2014

2015

2016

300

675

525

15

30

50

15

20

Expected cumulative

Reduction of losses (GWh/year)

Expected cumulative

Peak-time capacity savings (MW)

Economic life of investment

20 years

Value of additional capacity saved

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

16

60000 LKR/kW

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

PD (s)

_

1

R

k1

s

KG K T

(1 sTG )(1 sTT )

KP

1 sTP

f (s)

f (s)

Show that the Area Control Error (ACE), i.e. f(s) is given by the following equation for a PD step

disturbance:

f ( s)

PD

s

Rk p s1 sTG 1 sTT

PD = 0.1 p.u. MW and k1 = 0.1

R = 3 Hz/p.u. MW

Compute the time error, caused by the above step disturbance, in seconds.

Figure Q3

The units are initially loaded as follows. P1 = 80 MW, P2 = 300 MW, P3 = 400 MW

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

a) What would be the steady-state frequency deviation and the new generation on each unit for a

P

load increase of 50MW, when D= D = 0.0 for the system, i.e. no frequency dependent loads.

f

P

b) The load varies 1% for every 1% change in frequency, i.e. D= D = 1.0 p.u. (i.e. 1.0 p.u. on

f

load base). Find the steady-state frequency deviation and the new generation on each unit.

c) Compute the amount of load released owing to the frequency decrement?

4. Consider the typical substation configurations Figure Q4 (a) & Figure Q4 (b) shown below and the

reliability data given in the table for each component:

2

T/F-1

2

T/F-1

T/F-2

L/T bus

CB-1

L

7

7

T/F-2

CB-2

4

5

Figure Q4 (a)

Figure Q4 (b)

Component

(f/yr)

r (hours)

a (f/yr)

S (hours)

1 & 4 (Lines)

0.09

8

0.09

1.0

2 & 5 (T/Fs)

0.1

50

0.10

1.0

7 (L/T bus bar)

0.024

2

0.024

3 & 6 (breakers)

0.02

3

0.01

1.0

a= Active failure rate

s = Switching time

a) Neglecting any coordinated/un-coordinated maintenance work performed in this system,

Evaluate the failure rate (), average outage duration (r), annual outage time (Unavailability) at

load point L for both substation configurations. If the average load connected at bus #7 is L1=30

MW, calculate the total energy not served for both the configurations.

b) If the un-served energy cost is estimated to be 80 LKR/kWh and the extra cost involved in

converting the substation shown in Figure Q4(a) to Figure Q4(b) is estimated to be 1 million

LKR, what would be the simple pay-back period of the extra cost involved in converting the

substations.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

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