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THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA

DEPARTMENT OF EELECTRICAL & COMPUTOR ENGINEERING


ECX6332 POWER SYSTEMS PLANNING
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
ACADEMIC YEAR-2015/2016
Academic coordinator: Eng. Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi
Contact Phone:

(011) 2881332

E-mail:

lasam@ou.ac.lk

The course consists of:


Four assignments:
#1, #2, #3 & #4, the assignments should be submitted on or before
due dates as mentioned in your activity diary. No marks will be given for late submission.
Continuous Assessment test (CAT): There will be one CAT on the date specified in the
activity diary and the test is an open book type.
Day schools: There will be three-day schools. These day schools will be held on the
dates specified in the activity diary. Although the day schools are not compulsory, you are
advised to attend to these day schools.
Final Examination:
3 hours.

This will be closed book type. The question paper will be of duration
Average of the best Four out of Five activities 40%

Eligibility Criteria:

ASSIGNMENT-1

To be submitted as stated in the activity diary

1. Daily electricity demand pattern (including week ends & holidays) of a small scale industrial
customer metered at 400V/230V, working on three shifts is shown in figure Q1. Characteristics of
the operating loads during three shifts are shown on the figure itself. Assume a month of 30 working
days:
Shift - 3

Shift - 1

Shift - 2

Shift - 3

Load (kW)

30 kW
Induction
Motor Loads
operating at
0.8 p.f.

10 kW
Lighting Load

10 kW
Lighting Load

10

11

12

13

14

15

Time (hrs)
16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

Figure Q1
Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

i)

What would be the monthly electricity bill of this consumer as per the tariffs structure given
below in Table-1?

ii)

Compute the monthly annual cost saving, if consumer improves the power factor of the
industry to 0.95

iii)

Calculate the required size of the capacitance in F to be installed to improve the power factor
to 0.95. (Assume that the capacitor banks are delta connected).

iv)

What would you suggest to do this consumer from the DSM point of view with respect to his
shift schedules so that he can further increase his annual savings? Determine the savings based
on your suggestion with improved power factor 0.95.
Table-1 (Tariff applicable for Industrial Customers)

Customer
Category

Conditions

Maximum
Demand
Charge
(LKR/kVA)
Per month

Industrial
Time-of-Day
option

Metered at
400V/230V,
contract demand
more than 42 kVA

1100

Energy Charge
(LKR/kWh)

Fixed Charge
(LKR/Month)

12.00 bet. 06.00-19.00


20.00 bet. 19.00-22.00
6.00 bet 22.00-06.00

3000

2. A power system consists of two generating units having costs and availabilities given in Table Q2
(a). They are to serve a LDC of which the characteristics are given in Table Q2 (b).
a. Draw LDC and compute the annual energy demand in MWh
b. Determine the expected production costs of each generator
c. Compute the Loss of Load probability (LOLP) index
d. Calculate the Unserved Energy (ENS).
Table Q2 (a)
Generator
Unit-1
Unit-2

Average Costs
(LKR/MWh)
1000
1500

Capacity (MW)
80
40

Availability
(1-F.O.R)
0.95
0.9

Table Q2 (b) Load Duration Curve Data


Time(p.u.)
Load (MW)
Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

0.0-0.2 0.2-0.8 0.8-1.0


100
80
40
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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

3. A hexagonal-shaped urban residential area shown in figure Q3 is to be fed with a distribution


transformer located at the centre of the area. Six main feeders will run along the road ways at an
angle 600 to each other as shown in thick lines. Five lateral feeders connected to each main feeder
run parallel to each side of the hexagon. The arrangement of the housing scheme is expected to
impose an area load density of 1 MW/km2. The operating voltage is 400 V, three phase, four-wire
type.
B

C
Main Feeders

500 m

500 m
1

Main Feeder

A
Laterals

Figure Q3
If the impedance per unit length of a lateral is twice the impedance per unit length of the main
feeder, calculate the impedance per unit length of the main feeder, such that the voltage drop
anywhere in the residential area will be within 5% of the nominal voltage.
[10 Marks]
[Hint: Assume that the loads on the laterals are uniformly distributed along the line]

Y
where S is the electricity
S
sold per person per year, and Y is the national gross domestic product (GDP) per person per
year. Table Q4 shows the historic variation of sales and GDP in a developing country. Estimate
the electricity intensity in each year during 2005-2014, and comment on the result.

4. a) The electricity intensity Ei in the national economy is defined as Ei

Year
GDP
Electricity
Sold
(GWh)

Table Q4
2009
2010

2005

2006

2007

2008

114261

115922

119050

121729

129244

2232

2253

2371

2353

2608

2011

2012

2013

2014

135204

140990

150783

157115

165286

2742

2916

3270

3565

3886

GDP (millions of constant value currency)


b) The income elasticity of demand for electricity is expected to be positive in a developing
economy, initially at a high value and then approaching values in the range of 0.8 to 1.1 as the
country reaches a significant level of development
Considering that GDP reasonably represents the development of national income, estimate the
income elasticity of demand every year over 2005-2014, using the information given in table Q4.
In the context of the above statement in given in b), discuss the possible reasons for the
fluctuations.
Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi
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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

ASSIGNMENT-2

To be submitted as stated in the activity diary

1. In the recent past there have been concerns that optimum economic dispatch among the coal power
plants was not the best from an environmental point of view. Following is a problem based on a real
situation that occurred in the mid-western United States. Two coal-fired steam power plants have
input-output curves as follows:
H 1 420 5.25P1 0.0105P12 GJ / h, 20 P1 200 MW
H 2 630 4.2 P2 0.0158 P22 GJ / h, 20 P2 200 MW

Both power plants burn coal with a heat content of 27000 kJ/kg that cost 15 monetary units per one
metric ton (1 metric ton = 1000 kg). The combustion process in each unit results in 12% of the coal
by weight going up the stack as fly ash.
a. Calculate the net heat rates of both units at 200 MW
b. Calculate the incremental heat rates and schedule each unit for optimum economy to serve a
total load of 300 MW with both on-line.
c. Calculate the total cost of supplying that load in monetary units.
d. Calculate the rate of emission of fly ash for that case in kg/hr, assuming no fly ash removal
devices are in service.
e. Plant 1 has a precipitator installed that removes 85% of the fly ash; Plant 2s precipitator is
90% efficient. Reschedule the two units for the minimum total fly ash emission rate with both
on-line to serve a 300 MW load.
f. Calculate the rate of emission of ash and the cost for this schedule to serve the 300 MW load.
What is the cost penalty?
g. Where does all that fly ash go?

2.
a. Identify the H.V side bus-bar configuration and L.V. side bus-bar configuration.
b. Also identify each and every component shown on the given figure Q#2
c. Identify the two by-pass isolators installed on the H.V side and explain the reason for installing
the same.
d. Also explain the purpose of installing P&p Q&q H.V and L.V breaker on either side of the power
transformers.
e. Why do we have V.Ts and C.Ts. installed at some locations of the bus configuration?
f. If the rating of the 132/11 kV T/Fs are 30/40 MVA, OA/FA and the p.u. impedance is 12% based
on its OA rating, what would be the L.V. breaker short circuit rating in terms of kA. (State any
assumptions made)
g. Also, compute the minimum continuous 11 kV bus-bar rating, 11 kV bus-coupler rating and 11
kV feeder breaker rating. (State any assumptions made)

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

. .
A

132 kV

q
11kV
B

N.C

Substation Configuration for Q#2

3. a) What does Interest During Construction (IDC) means in project evaluation?


b) An 80 MW hydroelectric plant is expected to cost 300000 LKR/kW to construct. Construction
period is about 4 years and the IDC is calculated to be about 20% of the construction cost. Its
maintenance cost is estimated to be Rs. 28 million LKR per year. Under average hydrological
conditions, it is expected to generate electricity at an annual plant (capacity) factor of 45%. The
estimated economic life is 50 years. Calculate the life-cycle cost at discount rates of 5% and
15%.
b) What do you observe as the effects of the lower and higher discount rates?
Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

4. a) What does kilowatt peak (kWp) actually mean in solar power module?
b) How would you orient the house shown in figure Q4(a) with respect to North-East & South-West
directions for a best suitable photovoltaic installation?
Following data has been observed for a solar power photovoltaic installation:
Total installation capacity proposed = 10 panels of 30 kWp = 300 kWp
Total installation cost of solar module = 5000000 LKR
Performance ratio of the panels at the premises = 85%
Equivalent sunny hours/day considering all the weather factors and rainy days = 3.6
Annual maintenance cost = 1% of the total capital cost
Inverter efficiency = 98%
Life time of the total installation = 20 years
Assume 5% degradation for first 10 years and 15% degradation for next 10 years for solar panels
as shown in Figure Q4(b)

100%

Panel degradation

95 %

80%

85 %
60%

40%

20%

10
0%

20

Year

Figure Q4(b)
Calculate the life cycle cost (LCC) of a solar unit at the above installation?
[Assume 10% discount rate while performing the above calculation]

Figure Q4 (a)

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

ASSIGNMENT-3 To be submitted as stated in the activity diary


1. The following are the proven options available for large scale electricity generation in the future for
a utility.
Oil-fired
Thermal

Coal-fired
Thermal

Combine cycle
Auto diesel

Combine cycle
LNG

Nuclear

Prepare a basis for the comparison of these options by completing the attached table-1.1:
*** Calculate the values corresponding to this raw while you are performing the calculation
Notes:
a. All costs are border prices, in constant 2016 Rupees
b. Assume no escalation of capital, maintenance and fuel costs.
c. Consider a common period of analysis, equal to the economic life of the plant with the
shortest economic life.
d. Assume straight-line depreciation of plants over their economic life with no scrap value.
Note that the nuclear plant has a cost of decommissioning.
Based on your results and other information available to you, comment on the following:
1.

What is the most attractive form of bulk power generation in purely economic terms?

2.

The following are the environmental effects of each type of plant. The mitigation of
which is not included in the costs given in the table-1.1
Coal - Sulphur Dioxide in flue gas, use de-sulphurisation
Warm water discharge, use cooling towers
Oil - Warm water discharge, use cooling towers
Nuclear - Warm water discharge, use cooling towers

Table-1.2 gives the capital and recurrent costs and the other consequences of implementing
mitigatory measures.
Calculate the percentage increase in the economic generation cost of each type of plant if the
mitigatory measures are implemented.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

Table - 1.1
Coal-fired
Thermal
300
200000
4
18.53

Com. Cycl.
Auto-diesal
300
100000
3
13.54

Com. Cycl.
(LNG)
250
145000
3
13.54

Nuclear

Capacity (MW)
Pure Capital Cost (LKR/kW)
Construction period
IDC at 10% (% of pure costs)

Oil-fired
Thermal
300
150000
4
18.53

Total capital costs (MLKR)

Fixed Operation & Maintenance Costs


(LKR/kW.month)

90

130

50

50

200

Variable Operation & Maintenance Costs


(LKR/kWh)

0.35

0.75

0.45

0.40

0.18

Plant factor

0.8

0.8

0.75

0.75

0.8

16.50

4.50

16.00

9.50

2.00

25
9.08

30
9.08

30
9.08

30
9.08

35
9.08

Present value of fuel & variable


maintenance cost (MLKR/year)

****

Present value of Energy (GWh)

****

De-commissioning cost (MLKR)

18750.00

Salvage value at 25 years (MLKR)

PV of salvage and
De-commissioning (MLKR)

Fuel & variable maintenance cost


(LKR/kWh)

Present value of fixed operation &


maintenance cost (MLKR)

Capital & fixed maintenance cost


(LKR/kWh)

Cost of a unit generated (LKR/kWh)

Fuel Type

Expected generation (GWh/year)


Fuel Costs (LKR/kWh)
Total fuel & variable maintenance cost
(MLKR/year)
Economic life (years)
Present worth factor @ 10%

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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500
250000
8
35.00
****

****

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

****

****

****

****

****

****
****

*** Calculate the values corresponding to this raw while you are performing the calculation
Table - 1.2

Fuel Type
Capacity (MW)

Oil-fired
Thermal
300

Capital cost of FGD plant (MLKR)


Economic life of FGD plant and cooling
towers (years)

Com. Cycl.
Auto-diesal
300

Com. Cycl.
(LNG)
250

Nuclear

30

30

35

500

4500
25

30
0.50

Operation cost of FGD plant (LKR/kWh)


Plant deration (%)

Coal-fired
Thermal
300

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

27000

27000

27000

27000

42000

Salvage value of FGD plant


at 25 yrs. (MLKR)

Salvage value of cooling towers


at 25 yrs. (MLKR)

Present value of
salvage value (MLKR)

New plant capacity (MW)

0.8

0.8

0.75

0.75

0.8

9.08

9.08

9.08

9.08

9.08

Capital cost of cooling towers (MLKR)

Plant factor
Expected generation (GWh/year)
Present worth factor @ 10%
Present value of Energy (GWh)
Total operating cost of
FGD plant (MLKR)

****

****

****
****

****

****

****

Increase in capital cost

Total (Capital cost + operational cost)


increase (MLKR)

Increase in total cost (LKR/kWh)

****

Percentage increase in total cost


of a unit generated (LKR/kWh)

****

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

****

****

2.

A wind farm is now in operation in Puttalam area along the cost where their foundations are at
sea level. Assume the entire wind farm is shifted from Puttalam area to a location near
Ambewela for some reason, where the same wind profile/direction as in Puttalam is available,
but with the turbines installed at a high altitude. Would the power generated be the same or not.
If not why?
=density of air (1.201 kg/m3), U=mean air velocity (m/s), A=swept area of blades (m2)
3
Show that the theoretical wind power is given by P 1 .. A.U Watts.

However the real wind power formula is given by P 1 .C P .. A.U 3 what is CP?
2
What would be the theoretical maximum value of CP?
If CP varies between 0.25 and 0.45, calculate the approximate number of wind generators
required to produce the equivalent of a 100 MW Combine Cycle Gas Turbine. Assume an
average wind speed to be 50 km/h, blade diameter to be 20 m and a suitable value for CP.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of wind power schemes.

3.

The demand for electricity in a developing country from 2005-2014 is given below:
Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Sales
(GWh)
5146
5683
6173
6841
6625
6946
7612
8159
8769
9389

a) Calculate the 10 year simple compound growth rate for above figures?
b) Fit a trend profile to the above data using both linear & exponential variations of the form
a. Sales = a + b. Time and Sales = a . e(k . Time)
c) Check the goodness of fit (R2) for the two models you have developed under (b), would you
accept the profiles (if so which, on what basis). Or reject?
d) Using the simple compound growth rate and the profiles you have developed, forecast the
electricity sales value for the year 2015?
e) The real figure observed in 2015 was 9815 GWh. Why is that?
f) Explain the limitations of the technique you have used in above calculations and describe how
you overcome this limitation?
You may use the following statistical formulas applicable in least-square estimation method:
Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi
Page [10] of [15]
2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

For Y= a + b.X

n
n
n
n

2
y i xi xi xi y i

i 1
i 1
a i 1 i 1

2
n
n

2
n xi xi

i 1
i 1

of the form

n
n
n

n xi y i xi y i

i 1
i 1
b i 1

2
n
n

2
n xi xi
i 1
i 1

exp lained var iation


R2

total var iation

(y
i 1
n

e
i

(y
i 1

y) 2
y) 2

4. A long distance overhead single circuit transmission line delivering power from one end to the other
end has reached its limits, be it voltage at the end, thermal overloading or stability etc. How would
you overcome this limitation?
(a) If the right-of-way is not restricted along the line
(b) If the right-of-way is restricted
A long distance overhead transmission (O/H) line is delivering POLD MW load at V11 sending end
voltage and V2 2 receiving end voltage. Show that the required capacitance to be installed in series
100POLD
with the O/H line to achieve y% of the total line compensation is
F.
2 f V 1V2 y Sin1 2
Hence show that the new power that can be delivered would be 2.5 times POLD, if the line
compensation is 60 %. Explain why it is not possible to increase y to achieve full compensation
(i.e. 100%) of the line
.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

ASSIGNMENT-4

To be submitted as stated in the activity diary

1. Energy conservation, efficiency improvement and demand management is often a viable investment
option in the Energy sector. These measures may be implemented both on the supply-side and on the
demand-side.
In a particular generation expansion plan of a utility company, a Diesel power (with Auto diesel as
fuel) of 20 MW is required to be added in January 2017. The cost and expected operation of the
plant is given in the attached sheet. By implementing energy management measures, it may be
possible to differ the commissioning of this plant to January 2018. It may be possible to cancel the
plant completely, if the savings are maintained.
Assume that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 2017 onwards and the saving of the
relevant energy can justify the cancellation of the power plant. Actual operation of the power
generating system is more difficult to model but a simplified analysis should give an indicative
results.
Consider implementation of the following projects:
a. A project to provide 2 energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) at a subsidized price
to all households, to be implemented in 2017, then provide the same subsidy for 9 further
replacements of the lamps.
b. Investment of 1500 million LKR over 2014-2016 in identified loss reduction projects in the
power distribution system.
Notes:
1. All costs are financial, in constant 2013 rupees.
2. Assume no escalation costs.
3. Power system losses may be neglected in for project (a)
Prepare a basis for the comparison of the investment of above options?
The relevant details of each project are given in the next page.
1. Would you recommend the implementation of projects (a) and/or (b) to achieve a net saving for
the Electricity Supply Authority?
2. If so, what is the total financial benefit to the supplier and the consumer?
If not, what modifications would you propose to the projects (a) and (b) so that they may be
financially justifiable?
e.g. More lamps per household, higher/lower subsidy, implement only a part of the loss
reduction program etc.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

(1) Diesel Plant 20 MW


Capital cost including CIF

132000 LKR/kW

Annual Fixed O&M costs

4000 LKR/kW-Year

Variable O&M costs

2.00 LKR/kWh

Expected Plant factor

0.5

Economic life

20 years

Discount rate

10%

Electricity selling prize

16 LKR/kWh

(2) Subsidy on Compact Fluorescent Lamps


Number of households electrified

1 million

Target number of house holds to participate

0.8 million

Cost of a compact fluorescent lamp (LKR)

450

Subsidized price to consumers (LKR)

250

Compact Fluorescent Lamp rating

15 W

Incandescent lamp replaced

60 W

Hours of operation of lamp

5 hrs/day

Economic life of a lamp

4000 hrs

Value of additional capacity saved (if any)

60000 LKR/kW

(3) System loss reduction programme


Years of Implementation

2014

2015

2016

Expenditure in each year (MLKR)

300

675

525

15

30

50

15

20

Expected cumulative
Reduction of losses (GWh/year)
Expected cumulative
Peak-time capacity savings (MW)
Economic life of investment

20 years

Financial value of electricity (LKR/kWh)


Value of additional capacity saved

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

16
60000 LKR/kW

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

2. An isolated power system can be represented as shown below:

PD (s)

_
1
R

k1
s

KG K T
(1 sTG )(1 sTT )

KP
1 sTP

f (s)

f (s)

Show that the Area Control Error (ACE), i.e. f(s) is given by the following equation for a PD step
disturbance:
f ( s)

PD
s

Rk p s1 sTG 1 sTT

s1 sTG 1 sTT 1 sTp R k p Rk1 s

If TP = 10.0 sec. TG = TT = 0.0 kP = 100 Hz/p.u. MW


PD = 0.1 p.u. MW and k1 = 0.1

R = 3 Hz/p.u. MW

Compute the time error, caused by the above step disturbance, in seconds.

3. A single area with three generating units is shown in Figure Q3.

Fig. 22.4 Three-generator system

Figure Q3
The units are initially loaded as follows. P1 = 80 MW, P2 = 300 MW, P3 = 400 MW

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

Page [14] of [15]

2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4

a) What would be the steady-state frequency deviation and the new generation on each unit for a
P
load increase of 50MW, when D= D = 0.0 for the system, i.e. no frequency dependent loads.
f

P
b) The load varies 1% for every 1% change in frequency, i.e. D= D = 1.0 p.u. (i.e. 1.0 p.u. on
f
load base). Find the steady-state frequency deviation and the new generation on each unit.
c) Compute the amount of load released owing to the frequency decrement?
4. Consider the typical substation configurations Figure Q4 (a) & Figure Q4 (b) shown below and the
reliability data given in the table for each component:
2
T/F-1

2
T/F-1

T/F-2

L/T bus

CB-1

L
7

7
T/F-2

CB-2

4
5

Figure Q4 (a)

Figure Q4 (b)

Reliability data table


Component
(f/yr)
r (hours)
a (f/yr)
S (hours)
1 & 4 (Lines)
0.09
8
0.09
1.0
2 & 5 (T/Fs)
0.1
50
0.10
1.0
7 (L/T bus bar)
0.024
2
0.024
3 & 6 (breakers)
0.02
3
0.01
1.0
a= Active failure rate
s = Switching time
a) Neglecting any coordinated/un-coordinated maintenance work performed in this system,
Evaluate the failure rate (), average outage duration (r), annual outage time (Unavailability) at
load point L for both substation configurations. If the average load connected at bus #7 is L1=30
MW, calculate the total energy not served for both the configurations.
b) If the un-served energy cost is estimated to be 80 LKR/kWh and the extra cost involved in
converting the substation shown in Figure Q4(a) to Figure Q4(b) is estimated to be 1 million
LKR, what would be the simple pay-back period of the extra cost involved in converting the
substations.

Lalith. A. Samaliarachchi

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2015-2016-Assignments-1, 2, 3 & 4