You are on page 1of 10

Copyright 2014 Scienceline Publication

Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism


Volume 4, Issue 3: 213-222 (2014)

ISSN-2252-0430

Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation)


System in Expansive Soil
Saad F. Ibrahim*1, Ala Nasir Aljorany2 and Ahmad Ibrahim Aladly3
1

Assistant Professor, Department of Highway and Transportation, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq
Professor, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
3
Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
2

*Corresponding authors E-mail: drsaadfarhan@yahoo.com

Many plastic types of clay swell considerably


when water is added to them and then shrink with loss of
water. Foundations constructed on such clays are
subjected to large uplifting forces caused by swelling.
These forces induce heaving, cracking, and the breakup
of both building foundations and slab-on-grade members
(Das, 2011). Expansive soil is a term applied to any soil
that undergo detrimental changes in volume because of
variations in moisture content. These soils subject to
cycles of wetting-drying and swell when taking up water
during wet seasons and shrink because of evaporation of
water in dry spells (Chen, 1988, Nelson - Miller, 1992).
Such soils are considered natural hazards that pose
challenges to civil engineers, construction firms, and
owners. Based on (Chen, 1988) the six major natural
hazardous are earthquakes, landslides, expansive soils,
hurricanes, tornados and floods. Over the last four
decades, relentless efforts were made to understand and
solve the problems associated with engineering on
expansive soils. Several methods can be used to
minimize the effect of the damage caused by expansive
soils. These include soil replacement, physical &
chemical treatment and use of special techniques. The
application of these methods will keep intact over a long
period of time. Many of them, however, have certain

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

INTRODUCTION

Received 15 Jun. 2013


Accepted 03 Oct. 2013

ABSTRACT: Granular Pile Anchor (GPA) is one of the innovative foundation techniques, devised for
mitigating heave of footing resulting from the expansive soils. This research attempts to study the heave
behavior of (GPA-Foundation System) in expansive soil. Laboratory tests have been conducted on an
experimental model in addition to a series of numerical modelling and analysis using the finite element
package PLAXIS software. The effects of different parameters, such as (GPA)length (L) and diameter
(D), footing diameter (Df), expansive clay layer thickness (H) and presence of non-expansive clay are
studied. The results proved the efficiency of GPA in reducing the heave of expansive soil and showed that
the heave can be reduced with increasing length and diameter of GPA. The heave of (GPA-Foundation
System) is controlled by three independent variables these are (L/D) ratio, (L/H) ratio and (Df/D) ratio.
The heave can be reduced by up to (38 %) when (GPA) is embedded in expansive soil layer at (L/H=1)
and reduced by about (90 %) when GPA is embedded in expansive soil and extended to non-expansive
clay (stable zone) at (L/H=2) at the same diameter of GPA and footing. An equation (mathematical
mode1) was obtained by using the computer package (SPSS 17.0) for statistical analysis based on the
results of finite element analysis relating the maximum heave of (GPA-Foundation System) as a function
of the above mentioned three independent variables with coefficient of regression of (R 2 = 92.3 %).
Keywords: Expansive Soil; Sand; Heave; Granular Pile Anchor (GPA); Foundation; PLAXIS; Finite
Element.

limitations and may be very costly (Dafalla and


Shamrani, 2012). Keeping these shortcomings in view,
an attempt to develop a simple, easy to install and costeffective alternative foundation system, this research
presents a simple foundation technique in the name of
GPA foundation system as a dependable solution to
suppress or tolerate heaving developed by expansive
soils.
Concept of (GPA-foundation system)
GPA is an innovative foundation technique,
devised for mitigating heave of expansive clay and
improving their engineering behaviour. It is a
modification of the conventional granular pile, wherein
an anchor is provided in the pile to render it tensionresistant. Granular piles are a well-known ground
improvement technique used for reducing the settlement
and increasing load-carrying capacity of soft clay beds
(Hughes and Withers, 1974). In a granular pile anchor,
the foundation is anchored at the bottom of the granular
pile to an anchored steel plate with the help of a mild
steel road. This renders the granular pile tension-resistant
and enables it to offer resistance to the uplift force
exerted on the foundation by the swelling soil
(Phanikumar, 1997, Phanikumar et al., 2004, Rao et al.,
2007, Phanikumar et al., 2008). Figure 1 shows a typical
schematic representation of the fundamental concept of

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

213

GPA and the various forces acting on the foundation.


The uplift force (PUplift) acting on the base of the
foundation in the vertical direction is due to the swelling
pressure (Ps) of the expansive soil. This uplift force is
resisted by the weight of the granular pile (W) acting in
the downward direction. The friction mobilized along the
pile-soil interface also resists the upward movement of
the foundation. This friction is generated mainly because
of the anchor in the system. The upward resistance is
further augmented by the lateral swelling pressure,
which confines the granular pile anchor radially,
increases the friction along the pile-soil interface, and
prevents it from being uplifted (Phanikumar, 1997,
Phanikumar et al., 2004, Rao et al., 2007, Phanikumar et
al., 2008).

depending on the adopted non-linear elastoplastic


models.
Experimental Works
The expansive clay used in this investigation was
collected from Al-Wahda Discrete at Al-Mosul
governorate in the north of Iraq, from a depth of about
(1-1.5) m below the ground level. A series of rotten
laboratory tests was carried out on the expansive soil
samples to obtain physical, mechanical, and swelling soil
properties. Table 1 and Figures 2 - 7 shows the
properties of expansive soil used.
The granular material used for the installation of
the granular piles was dense sand with (75 %) relative
density. Table 2 and Figures 8 and 9 show the properties
of sand used.
Table 1. Summary of Physical, Mechanical & Chemical
Properties of Expansive Soil Used

Figure 1. Concept of Granular Pile Anchor Foundation


System and Forces acting on a Granular Pile Anchor
(GPA) (After Rao et al., 2007)
Objectives
Due to limited knowledge currently available in
the literature about GPA, the present study is an attempt
aiming at insight understanding to the behavior and
performance of GPA in expansive soils in reduce the
heave. The following aspects are covered:
1- The behaviour of GPA-Foundation System
under heave.
2- The validity and suitability of GPA as a
dependable solution for problems in expansive soils.
Different parameters will be investigated that
would be count for in the design of GPA, such as GPA
length (L), diameter (D), expansive soil layer thickness
(H), shallow footing diameter (Df), (L/D) ratio, (L/H)
ratio, (Df/D) ratio and presence of non-expansive soil.

Table 2. Summary of Physical, Mechanical & Chemical


Properties of Sand Dunes Used

MATHERIALS AND METHODS


The study is divided into two phases including:
1- Experimental Phase: A cylindrical physical
steel model with (30 cm) diameter and (50 cm) height
has been built up and planned experimental laboratory
testing program has been performed on expansive soil
bed prepared from silty clayey soil.
2- Numerical Phase: A numerical model has
been used and solved to analyze the described problem
in the field. A software finite element program PLAXIS
2D-Version 8.2 packages is used to solve such problem

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

214

Figure 2. Grain-Size Analysis Plot for Expansive Soil


Used According to (USCS)

Figure 6. Time-Swell Plot for Expansive Soil Used


(Free Swelling Test)

Figure 3. Plasticity Chart Plot of Expansive Soil Used


According to (USCS)

Figure 7. Void Ratio versus Log Pressure Plot for


Expansive Soil Used (Swelling Pressure & Consolidation Test)

Figure 4. Dry Density versus Moisture Content Plot for


Expansive Soil Used

Figure 5. Vertical Stress versus Axial Strain Plot for


Expansive Soil Used

Figure 8. Grain-Size Analysis Plot for Sand Used


According to (USCS) Expansive Soil Used

Figure 9. Shear Stress versus Normal Stress Plot for


Sand Used

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

215

Heave tests were performed in metal cylindrical


container of (0.3 m) diameter and (0.5 m) height. The
expansive soil bed is prepared firstly by laying a filter
paper covered with thin layer (30 mm) of poorly graded
sand, as a drainage layer. All internal sides of container
are covered with petroleum jelly to diminish friction
effect. After thorough mixing with water, the soil lumps
are spread inside the model container at maximum dry
unit weight of (16.3 kN/m) and optimum moisture
content of (21.5 %) which is obtained using standard
compaction test in form of eight layers. Each layer have
a compacted thickness of (5 cm) and contain (5.76 kg) of
soil to give the total depth and weight of expansive soil
inside the model container of (40 cm) and (46 kg). The
uniformity in the soil bed is checked by measuring the
unit weight and moisture content at various depths of the
soil bed. The (GPA) installed in expansive soil bed by
made a hole in the centre of the expansive soil bed
surface by driving a steel pipe gradually in specified
diameter up to the required depth. The unit of anchor rod
with the bottom anchor plate of specified diameter and
depth is placed vertically in the hole. Simultaneously, the
hole is filled with poorly graded sand gradually and
compacted gently using steel tamping rod in required
relative density (75 %). Finally, GPA is formed in
specified depth and diameter at an average dry unit
weight of (16.9 kN/m). The GPA length was varied as
(10, 20, 30, and 40) cm and the diameter as (1, 2, 3, and
4) cm to give a different ratios of (L/D). A circular mild
steel plate of (20 cm) diameter was used as the surface
shallow footing in the heave tests. A total of (16) test
was conducted for studying the heave behaviour of
(GPA-Foundation System). Figures 10 and 11 show the
experimental setup of heave test.

Figure 11. Plate of (GPA-Foundation System) under the


Heave
The soil bed is wetted gradually by adding the
water from the top and continuously pumping water
from the base of model container using water pump and
controlled valve. Water pump system is used as a
vacuum to accelerate the saturation of expansive soil bed
by continuously suction the water from model container.
The model was left under the saturation and amount of
heave is measured and continuously monitored with time
until there is no further swelling. At this stage, saturation
of soil bed is conformed and the test is completed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The results of unreinforced and reinforced
expansive soil bed with (GPA) are obtained as shown in
Table 3 and Figures 12 - 15. Generally, the heave
response appears non-linear behavior and increases
continuously with time until reach the equilibrium after
(7) days for unreinforced expansive soil bed and (4) days
for reinforced expansive soil bed with GPA. The results
showed that the unreinforced expansive soil attained a
final heave of (26 mm) and the heave of GPAFoundation System decreases with installation of GPA in
expansive soil. This may indicate the efficiency of
(GPA) in reducing the heave. This is in agreement with
findings of Phanikumar (1997), Phanikumar et al.
(2004), Rao et al. (2007), Phanikumar et al. (2008),
Ismail and Shahin, (2011), Krishna et al. (2013).
Table 3. Summary of the Maximum Heave of Expansive
Soil Reinforced with (GPA) Models at Different Lengths

Figure 10. Schematic Details of Heave Test of


Reinforced Expansive Soil Bed with (GPA) Models

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

216

Figure 12. HeaveTime Relationship for Reinforced


Expansive Soil with (GPA) at 1 cm Diameter

Figure 15. HeaveTime Relationship for Reinforced


Expansive Soil with (GPA) at 4 cm Diameter
The results showed that, there are three main
variables controlling heave behavior of GPA-Foundation
System that can be categorized as [(L/D) ratio, (L/H) and
(Df/D) ratio]. The heave of GPA-Foundation System is
affected by one or all theses variable, the heave
reduction and degree of improvement increases with
increasing (L/D) ratio, (L/H) ratio and decreases with
increasing (Df/D) ratio at a given two variables. The
percentage heave reduction and degree of improvement
can be expressed as a percentage from the maximum
heave without (GPA) by the following equation:
(1)
Where:
Hvo: is the maximum heave of footing without
(GPA) reinforcement.
H'v: is the maximum heave of footing with (GPA)
reinforcement.

Figure 13. HeaveTime Relationship for Reinforced


Expansive Soil with (GPA) at 2 cm Diameter

Figure 14. HeaveTime Relationship for Reinforced


Expansive Soil with (GPA) at 3 cm Diameter

It can be noted that, slightly reduction in heave


was observed at [(L/D=10), (L/H=0.25) and (Df/D=20)]
with (7.8 %) degree of improvement, while higher
reduction in heave was observed at [(L/D=10), (L/H=1)
& (Df/D=2.5)] with (38.1 %) degree of improvement.
This reflects the ability and efficiency of a single (GPA)
in reducing the heave when embedded in an expansive
soil and anchored to the shallow footing. This
performance agrees with the results obtained from
researchers (Phanikumar, 1997; Phanikumar et al., 2004;
Rao et al., 2007; Phanikumar et al., 2008; Krishna et al,
2013). The results of GPA-Foundation System showed
that, there is a great effect on the time of heave
development. The time period required for attaining the
final amount of heave in the case of reinforced expansive
soil with GPA was (4/7) of that for unreinforced
expansive soil. This performance agrees with the results
obtained from researchers (Phanikumar, 1997;
Phanikumar et al., 2004; Phanikumar et al., 2008).
Numerical modelling of heave of (GPAfoundation system)
In this study, PLAXIS 2D-Version 8.2 program is
used in numerical modelling and analysis of heave
problems of GPA-Foundation System. The problem

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

217

deals with shallow circular footing rest on the expansive


soil layer reinforced with GPA models with different
length and diameter. For comparison, the circular footing
rest on the expansive soil without GPA is also modelled
here. The purpose of the problems is to calculate the
maximum heave under the footing. The expansive soil
layer is located above a layer of saturated stable clay
with (6 m) thickness. The active zone of the expansive
soil is chosen to be (4 m); at this depth, the water table
rising causes a considerable swelling in expansive soil.
Figure 16 shows the sketch of described problem.
Axisymmetric type model is chosen, it is the best option
for circular models. The soil parts are modelled using
15-node triangular element. The shallow footing and
anchor plate are modelled using plate element, while the
anchor rod is modelled using node-to-node element. The
footing diameter was fixed at (2 m), and the GPA length
was varied from (2-8) m and diameter was varied from
(0.2-0.8) m. So, the ratio of length to diameter was
ranged as (2.5 to 40) and the ratio of the footing diameter
to GPA diameter varied as (2.5 to 10). The thickness of
expansive clay layer is fixed at (4 m) and thickness of
non-expansive clay layer is fixed at (6 m), so, the ratio of
GPA length to expansive soil thickness was varied as
(0.5-2).
The boundary conditions are assumed using
standard fixity. This means a full fixity at the base of the
geometry and, roller conditions at the vertical sides.
Figure 17 shows the finite element model of heave
problems. The clay of expansive and non-expansive soil
layers are modelled using Mohr-Coulomb (MC) model,
assumed to behave in an undrained manner. The granular
pile sand is modelled using Mohr-Coulomb (MC) also. It
is assumed to behave in a drained manner. The rigid
steel is used as a material for both anchor plate, anchor
rod and shallow footing and assumed as linear elastic
model. The flexural rigidity of anchor plate, anchor rod
and footing assumed as very high to avoid unnecessary
buckling and deformation. All materials and models with
set of parameters are listed in Tables 4 and 5.

Figure 16. Descriptive Sketch of Large Scale Heave


Problems

Figure 17. 2D-Axisymmetric Model, (GPA) Extend to


the Non-Expansive Clay Layer
Table 4. Soil Parameters set Considered for Heave
Response Problems

Table 5. Steel Properties set Considered for Heave


Response Problems

The simple global finite element mesh of model is


generated using the coarse setting to allow a more
accurate stress distribution as shown in Figures 18. The
swelling of expansive soil layer is modelled by applying
a positive volumetric strain of (6.5 %) to the expansive
clay cluster. In reality, the rate at which expansive clay
would normally swell depends on the location from the
source of moisture and magnitude of overburden
pressure. However, for simplicity, in the analyses
presented herein, the volumetric strain was applied
uniformly across the full thickness of the expansive soil
layer.
The numerical results of heave of unreinforced
and reinforced expansive clay with (GPA) are obtained
as shown in Table 6, and Figures 19 - 21.
The results reflect the efficiency of GPA to reduce
the heave GPA-Foundation System. The maximum
heave of footing resting on unreinforced expansive soil
with GPA is observed as (260 mm). In case of footing
resting on reinforced expansive soil with GPA models,
i.e. GPA-Foundation System, the results showed that the
maximum heave of footing decrease with increasing the
GPA size, the heave decrease with increasing (GPA)

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

218

length and diameter due to anchorage action of (GPA)


and there are three main variables controlling behaviour
of GPA-Foundation System under the heave. These
variables are (L/D) ratio, (Df/D) ratio and (L/H) ratio,
this performance in agreement with the experimental
modelling. The results also showed that, the (GPA)
could be extended to the non-expansive soil layer or
stable zone at sufficient depth to provide the anchorage
zone help the GPA to resist the heave. (69%) reduction
in heave when single GPA embedded in the expansive
soil depth layer and (90.4 %) reduction in heave can be
obtained when single GPA embedded in expansive clay
layer and extended into non-expansive clay layer at the
same embedded length.
Table 6. Summary of the Maximum Heave of
Unreinforced & Expansive Soil Reinforced with (GPA)
Models at Different Lengths and Diameters

Figure 21. Shading Diagram of the Vertical


Displacement (m) Distribution Resulting from the Heave
for (GPA at L=8 m & D=0.8 m)

Figure 22. Relationship between the Normalized


Maximum Heave (Hv'/Hvo) & (L/D) Ratio of (GPA) for
Different Ratios of (Df/D) - (L/D) Ratio Effect

Figure 19. Shading Diagram of the Vertical Displacement


Distribution Resulting from the Heave for Unreinforced
Expansive

Figure 20. Shading Diagram of the Vertical Displacement


(m) Distribution Resulting from the Heave for (GPA at L=2 m
& D=0.8 m)

Figure 23. Relationship between the Normalized


Maximum Heave (Hv'/Hvo) & (L/H) Ratio of (GPA) for
Different Ratios of (Df/D) - (L/H) Ratio Effect
The efficiency of the (GPA-Foundation System)
in arresting the heave induced by expansive soil layer is
illustrated in Figure 22. The figure relates the normalized
maximum heave ratio (Hv'/Hvo) with (L/D) ratio of GPA
for different ratios of (Df/D), where (H v') represent the
maximum heave of footing with (GPA) reinforcement,
while (Hvo) represent the maximum heave of footing
without GPA reinforcement. It can be noted that for a
given (Df/D) ratio, the maximum heave decrease with
increasing (L/D) ratio due to increasing (GPA) length.
This means the (GPA) movement strongly dependent on
the (GPA) size; the ability of the system to resist various
rates of swelling seems to improve with increasing the

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

219

(GPA) size. As interpreted previously in the


experimental works, this attributed to the anchorage
action (GPA) that resulting from (GPA) weight and
shear stress mobilized along (GPA) body, of them
increases when (GPA) size increases. The heave can be
reduced from (260 mm to 25 mm) at (L=8 m & D=0.8
m) i.e., (L/D=10) with (90.4 %) reduction in heave.
Figure 23 displays the relationship between
normalized maximum heave ratio (Hv'/Hvo) with (L/H)
ratio for different (Df/D) ratios. It can be seen that for a
given (Df/D) ratio, the heave decreases when (L/H)
increases due to increasing the (GPA) length. Dramatic
reducing in heave was observed when (GPA) penetrated
in non-expansive clay layer at sufficient length, this
means the (GPA) can be penetrate the non-expansive
clay layer (stable zone) to provide a sufficient anchorage
in the base of (GPA) help it in arresting the heave. This
behaviour can be attributed to increase the shear
resistance in circumference of penetrate length of (GPA).
The results showed that, the (GPA) could be extended to
non-expansive clay layer with thickness not less than
thickness of expansive clay layer thickness to provide a
sufficient anchorage at (GPA) base. The heave dropped
from (260 mm) to (25 mm) when (L/H=2) at (D=0.8 m
& L=8 m) with (90.4 %) reduction in heave, while, the
heave reduced to (204 mm) when (L/H=0.5) and to (81
mm) when (L/H=1) at the same size of GPA with (21.54
%) & (69 %) reduction in heave respectively.
Figure 24 shows the relationship between
normalized maximum heave ratio (Hv'/Hvo) and (Df/D)
ratio for different ratios of (L/H). The figure presents the
effect of the footing diameter (Df) on the heave response
of (GPA- Foundation System). It can be seen that for a
given (L/H) ratio, the maximum heave increases with
increasing (Df/D) ratio due to increasing footing
diameter. The reason of this behaviour can be
understood as the following: when the footing diameter
increases with constant (GPA) diameter, the annular area
of the footing on which the swelling pressure acts is
increased resulting increases in the heave of the (GPAFoundation System). Dramatic reduction in heave can be
obtained at (Df/D=2.5), where the heave reduced from
(260 mm to 25 mm) with (90.4 %) reduction in heave.
Mathematical Modelling of Heave of (GPAfoundation system)
An attempt is made to develop a mathematical
modelling relate the heave of footing resting on
reinforced expansive soil with a single (GPA) with three
effective variables (L/D), (Df/D) and (L/H). The results
of finite element analysis are merged and entered in a
multiple linear regressions statistical analysis using
SPSS Statistics 17.0 to develop a mathematical model
that relates the ratio of (Hv'/Hvo) as a dependent variable
to (L/D), (Df/D) and (L/H) as independent variables. A
general equation relates all variables were obtained in
the following form with very good degree of correlation
(R2=0.923):
Where:
Hvo: Maximum heave without (GPA) reinforcement
Hv': Maximum heave of with (GPA) reinforcement
L: Length of (GPA)

D: Diameter of (GPA)
H: Depth of expansive soil layer
Df: Diameter of shallow footing
The derived equation is valid within the ranges of
the variables they were developed from. The ranges of
variables can be seen in Table 7. To verify the validity of
the equation, the predicted values of heave are compared
with observed values obtained previously from
laboratory test results as shown in Table 8 and Figure 25.
It can be seen that, the values agree well with
(98 %)
degree of correlation and consider under estimation,
conforming the validity of derived equation.
Table 7. Variables Limitation for the Heave Equation

Table 8. Comparison between the Predicted and


Observed Heave

Figure 24. Relationship between the Normalized


Maximum Heave (Hv'/Hvo) & (Df/D) Ratio of (GPA) for
Different Ratios of (L/H) - (Df/D) Ratio Effect

Figure 25. Relationship between the Predicted &


Observed Heave of (GPA-Foundation System)

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

220

CONCLUSION
An extensive laboratory testing and numerical
modelling and analysis was conducted to study the
performance of Granular Pile Anchor (GPA) in
expansive soil. The research work focuses on studying
the efficacy and ability of the innovative (GPA) system
in minimizing heave of foundations laid on expansive
clay. The conclusions drawn from the different aspects
of the study in this paper may be summarized as follows:
1- Installation of (GPA) in expansive soil reduces
the amount of heave effectively. Of the various
combinations of length (L) and diameter (D) of (GPA),
the amount of heave reduces with increasing both length
and diameter.
2- The maximum heave of (GPA-Foundation
System) is controlled by three main independent
variables, (GPA) length to diameter (L/D) ratio, (GPA)
length to expansive soil active thickness (L/H) ratio and
footing diameter to (GPA) diameter (Df/D) ratio.
3- The efficacy of (GPA) in reducing the heave
can be improved when (GPA) embedded in expansive
soil layer and extend to non-expansive clay layer (stable
zone) at sufficient depth. The maximum of about (38 %)
reduction in heave is observed when (GPA) embedded in
expansive soil layer at (L=H) and reaches to (90.4%) at
(L=2H) i.e. (GPA) extend to stable zone at length equal
to thickness of expansive soil layer, this performance
was observed at (L/D=10) and (Df/D=2.5).
4- Reduction in (GPA-Foundation System) can be
attributed to the (GPA) weight, the frictional resistance
mobilized along the (GPA)-soil face, the effect of
anchorage which made the (GPA) to resist the uplift
force applied on the foundation. In addition, the
developed lateral swelling pressure resulting from
surrounding expansive clay which confines the (GPA)
radially increases the upward resistance.
5- Installation of (GPA) in expansive soil reduces
the time of heave and the rate of heave become faster.
The expansive soil reinforced with (GPA) adjusted
quickly to moisture changes because of the higher
permeability of the granular material. The high
permeability characteristics of (GPA) allowed a quick
circulation and absorption of water and the path of radial
inflow of water became shorter, which led to a rather
quick attainment of the final heave.The time period
required for attaining the final amount of heave in the
case of reinforced expansive soil with (GPA) was (3/7)
of that for unreinforced expansive soil.
6- An equation is obtained to calculate the
maximum heave of (GPA-Foundation System). The
equation is derived basing on statistical analysis of the
obtained analysis results.
REFERENCES
ASTM D4253-2007. Standard Test Method for
Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils
Using a Vibratory Table.
ASTM D4254-2007. Standard Test Method for
Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils
and Calculation of Relative Density.
ASTM D854-2007. Standard Test Method for Specific
Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer.

ASTM D422-2007. Standard Test Method for Liquid


Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils.
ASTM D24884-2007. Standard Test Method for
Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes
(Unified Soil Classification System).
ASTM D698-2007. Standard Test Method for
Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil
Using Standard Effort.
ASTM D3084-2007. Standard Test Method for Direct
Shear Test of Soil Under Consolidated Drained
Condition.
ASTM D2435-2007. Standard Test Method for OneDimensional Consolidation Properties.
ASTM D2166-2007. Standard Test Method for
Unconfined Compression Strength of Cohesive
Soil.
ASTM D4546 (A)-2007. Standard Test Method for OneDimensional Swell or Settlement Potential of
Cohesive Soils.
British Standard BS 1377-(1990). Methods of Test for
Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes, London, UK.
Chen, F. H. (1988). Foundations on Expansive Soils, 2nd
Edition, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.
Dafalla, M.A. and Shamrani, M.A. (2012). Expansive
Soil Properties in a Semi-Arid Region, Research
Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, Vol.
(4), No. (11): 930-938.
Das, B.M. (2011). Principles of Foundation
Engineering, 7th Edition, Cengage Learning, USA.
Hughes, J.M., & Withers, N.J. (1974). Reinforcing of
Soft Cohesive Soils with Stone Columns, Ground
Engineering, London, Vol. (17), No. (3): 42-49.
Ismail, M.A. & Shahin, M. (2011). Finite Element
Analysis of Granular Pile Anchors as A Foundation
Option for Reactive Soils, International Conference
on Advances in Geotechnical Engineering, Perth,
Australia.
Krishna, P.H., Murty, V.R. & Vakula, J. (2013). A Filed
Study on Reduction of Flooring Panels Resting on
Expansive Soils Using Granular Anchor Piles and
Cushions, The International Journal of Engineering
and Science (IJES), Vol. (2), No. (3): 111-115.
Nelson, J. D. & Miller, D. J. (1992). Expansive Soils:
Problem and Practice in Foundation and Pavement
Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York,
USA.
Phanikumar, B.R. (1997). A Study of Swelling
Characteristics of and Granular Pile-Anchor
Foundation System in Expansive Soils, Ph.D Thesis,
JNTU, Hyderabad, India.
Phanikumar, B.R., Sharma R.S., Srirama, R.A &
Madhav, M.R. (2004). Granular Pile-Anchor
Foundation (GPAF) system for Improving
Engineering Properties of Expansive Clay Beds,
Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, Vol. (27), No.
(3): 279-287.
Phanikumar, B.R., Rao, A.S. & Suresh, K. (2008), Field
Behavior of Granular Pile Anchors in Expansive
Soils, Ground Improvement Journal, Proceeding of
Institution of Civil Engineering (ICE), Vol. (4): 199206.
Phanikumar, B.R. & Amrutha, K. (2011). Bulging
Capacity of Granular Pile-Anchors, Pullout

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

221

Capacity or Uplift Capacity of Granular PileAnchors through Bulging, VDM Verlag, USA.
Rao, A.S., Phanikumar, B.R., Babu, R.D. & Suresh, K.
(2007). Pullout Behavior of Granular Pile Anchors
in Expansive Clay Beds In-situ, Journal of
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,
ASCE, Vol. (133), No. (5): 531538, Via Iraqi
Virtual Science Library (IVSL), www.IVSL.com.

To cite this paper: Ibrahim S.F., Aljorany A.N. and Aladly A.I. 2014. Heave Behavior of Granular Pile Anchor-Foundation (GPA-Foundation) System in Expansive Soil. J.
Civil Eng. Urban., 4 (3): 213-222.
Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

222