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tL6t

'n)odaa, ,q1 lo tFMt{ ?ui Txosati ?uo
\aaf,ol{M, [uout. [q ptrl{lns uoqoauofiit go
stuquaf, ltao1 [q E orsr.t palarro tu ?

rry LaPEE Idrrdr
chlpkr hBditrss b] J.h! r6s

Dsisfd

w & l }Isckly LiEitudj cirham
o r97r nIB IndusEi€s Limn d

tnREE

SYeeping the Bodd

Oronologi€l List of

&id6PIdEBud

rorm.drq'7

Ootirm ComDfy rorfud rlo,

Lrg M.s Ph.tr

&

Miftal co.

Jol.o.l lPD

hrlu rlu

rAmdsm .d itr ,q' , h fom ftr
G 3t( It0sd& c.m. co.'thl r dr
MlE Ptnrr & Min.nl co (FmEJ "

tr[€nfiI6nFoy$

lsourh

ro,

lnLr) rorh.d

tndurrld (lehod) ror6.d ,947
nl.d CyFum&l,ict fomcd r9r9

r.quiEd by rht

indrFnd.n,lyu it r9l9vh.tr rA

,dt

(rdriis,

& son

rornc,l

'36r

Tt. cr}.un MinB fdocd rqol
T

c. folqd ri
Th.KiDssmc!$;., 6,-,ia^
r.c.sbh&c;]o-d,3,3
h€

sub w.:rdo GDsum

H.nry WirLiDsn l()m.d

Blicr$db

c,frsih
J.

&

&

Niio,il

1360

r@6,ss

c.. fEm.d

& SoB

f.hrd

1353

fornrd

Eoff.l & Pnpd Milk rom.d re5r

O.9i rh(BofuLd)r.-"d,q{
Nonllm warc P:Ds co. aom.d rqrT
1927

hmkd,ornmc lrridsi&sororPdigiia'or7

w. sn.!,!nrd ro@!d r&s

Pcblord

I

Drld.fi PLn6 Bo.rd (i',l.nuf(tuins) rornld
oEr Thc Briti,h PLG B.erd\ omEE(ial

1330

callcDd.Erl{lk&Gne cc
?h. Gm,t sili.otr Pl6fu cd.
Th. Nedslod Phrr & c.n.d G.
Th. N.i Adrm.ft asrE co hm.d Di
ric P)do P srd Bed co rom.d

hrn o,?!m ?6du.6 aormcd ,er3 Grm med
ulrcd

Cilurbil Gyo$m&wdmc

rd lrrinsim

,

'qii

Alti.bolr*d
taPr.<tlcE

D.

And.l$n

& Son

f.med

I

unrns in

Gyprcc ro.med resr GenrEtd ,\B Grpro. req)

(Grarifi.)

fomen

roi

1349

H. Gill shdPiDs! (dispced 011964)

Grurm

Phti.s !q?o

lrodud fomed 4{

ELrr Modd.s
,.8ndbur, &

Bdrmir

d.

son

cmDn fornEd 19',

romld

'gar
Eold;ry Bor Co. rord.d

*

L

w,

ErlrlfiII r

JolNd Dm

& Uoirdr ftrmod 106r

And*mwiui df th! Dn ,h t,htr(,ldnl
(Muurdtoritrs)j Ii. cofilm cuh$nr,
J.W shcrprd,',rh. Lou Mcs PtM$Co
rd ThomsM.chh & sotr

Anllcfno!
Girt;b

Pl4rr

md

Jtrd
Th

&

or GwlE Pre&rk
co, th;6Jp5un Mii6,

Pmducb (Grc.inirh.)

I

c. sbbn &

& Giu form.d 3sJ. w. Gin & son 13?6

Rodcu6e PaDtr

Mit co iomed rq,r

I, Aimrorh & ca @okon) roh€d rq17
Rrd( ,f. Pip.! sJ4 romed rfi7

Kiirby chDincE ro'mrd rq43

c,ypsh irr*,b rmlsm.rcd h nw conpm,
Britih GrEum fomed rq6a

sh4mkr f.m.d ,9l4; joiff'l ,P3 rqE
Moultfrdd rudibne fdm.d r97o
P.pu ilruBh anrisrniEd in ,fl .o4puy
Drvid$! RdcliIl. Goup forncd r96t

,$e

Produ.r (Mmuf,tuiDs) rcmed ,err

c}mb*

Pack.sins torn d rq6?
{n,lFmnioolF. \r ahambcBl(inhiaonarmE,
EibEbmdc! rinrE (rormftty pstr ol c. Dn d$i

Beuroct Gylsub rndun,r.s

folo.d

I

q46

c.rbE roroed 1967
,{mlganrtiotr oI Th. nnanni, loldiu Bor G,,
lruo & Gill rDd p,n ofc. Ddidsi &

r,ador

& DroP.ous* tomed 19{6
acqun d rhroush D. Andmoi & s!

Fdu
'r hc

co$r(bn Eoud co. torm.d re.i

$6)

I vhit io BPB

nrnd Pr.a, 6 Rdil,

tun lla*erborrd DlMi;
'r

omce

Bi tnrnd

t
boird line .nd hlndlins

hd,nsp. t4

{een p!. 3o-3r
,J,1.

r. ry,rrJ 6

d Wllhsy

ing md and

Eham, t[ar" 6 C@pt, Lidtool
Eleofrod oiW:lb\c) lhscrh@rd line

ndrire pulky ior Turbury NI U LGalai LinC\,Ddb)
.ring blocL ollodu,lrb6t., LCulak lkg,. Dnb!

h6id for Vrndebih mnsion
d nedtbr it Tuiburv MiI

Tmcrion

sE

ordns fi Nhll,y Thoro lriarllrr,

n crum

it Histotr Q!'ffiy

Fosler l(omotive !t H.vton

q!.ry

l'.!ld minqs th oln nadst
Joserh Robinson's CoiehilL Mi.e
tang Meg CoDpany
CL,ifu
Cok te & Giy's strling pia vith chalk qu*ry
Advcfiqndts by Caroab & Ci- md D. Andeson & Son
Satonl Wro & Hoplinson
engine
Snb-WciLdcn GypsuD Cohpmy hddbil

ti

forghs or John Pcrh & Sm
tiuhnu Po
shsN
Mkl',il
Nan4 Lot,lor
lng 0hqt,*
g
w,tlkB
,1' rkk!, Mrtbootsh
llns ln liuld mim M.'t.
afron'r wriDnirs litr No(h Se Gs piqclinc n. 6 D. Pato,

o

bunJlins m!(him,

Wcke

IndL{ncc.

crnJdr

,'!,n

d./

,r

/.

$!rk t

sm

AdEtisemenis b J6ah Robilsn & Co. ind John Hose & co.
Cocklrles Acrelrerd Shrfi F. W.Tas.ll at Sa,Cdkl.
Jms Ellwoodt rubbing stole aactorr
Qr-ryins at Kirkby Thore rgn
Brnish Pldter load's recla1ion ciub tud
Crrlisle ll6ts & Gnot Ci. wrls oudns
Augutine $ckdt, iNcntor oa plx$erhoard
Sa.tet's pltent rpplisdon

sul,e

hining rt I{cGECs

Th. Birhfi Plasr.r Berd's minnic hool
Briiish Gj?sro Nixon ad\e Bemcot
Aou$i6 Lrhontoiy, Erst Lc.ke ,Mi.laet Neab, Loa,ldl
connolLed srovth roor, E s Le.ke Caerh PhotapaplLr. Latia
Fdglson Hous, M.rylebone R@d M gel N.ak, Lrtdat

Nldlon\ Mucicmtus Mill. ub.r r8?o
flndc8 and t'r*F, Inve.fod tuc\ine .,Udda,

dor Caftons, Biminghan: ch(king pintcd

$d'stipqin9',Mnnul N.nh, LMdh
E iE ofBlB Channcn: I{ush Fc4uson,

Prowtrln

bc$cen pp. r2cr27
guiuotiniry

sh*t,

Sn Cflhm H.ynm,
Inrd Bolpo and R. s. JnlB
wlvo Iin6, Ahcniy ?r?cr Slcls
repemy emo Lse at Mounlfield Mntui Nr.h, L|ndaa

nlhentlr). r nM ft'l d \"9d.!iFe c cld rdoc.r ir\c. io-.n'n(
nlt d Stit6 and de\tloped ir i.ro a new ftaleirl-nlsterl'@d. It I"s
mthis'h{'Ll'he.ompN.nntsd-'.b,J n l Dn L,^"0
nin in his
Auglttile Srckett, rvhGc work *as t e.rlur lo.s
"fts
n rnd in rony other l.nds, was born in r84r xt Wrrm. a smal tovn
Thc Unit€d St.t€s ol thc day wd in a slisldy cnbtic pa$.oloniil
oadcvelopnent. 'Ihe West had beD opcNd up by rhc railrods ren
rsbdo'cSa,L.'sbinh Oreolthebloodtr{ cp.sod,..trhi..ounny\
ry. fic Civil \v"'. h6 to.oin.de \irli s.(Lc ! srl) rn" rhood. h
'
v$cduci'rd n tl. t.n$ l"FPulr'e,htu ln.r rc \\nttrl..q::trh.
Ovil \ bmLc M Dd' A l-e "holeo. th. s-rSa.Lcd lcrnd.o'n.
uvy olthe \o_b. (ii L.':J'h. r rri" I'mj.r h-o rnan.tr.rc.onnc ,.o-,:
thcE k r Sackdts Erbour at tne e.stem e.d ol Lakc Ontdio.)

l'hcrc tu no r0cod of lis orriy irno rlN qorld ol huiNs rfid tlB w .
bur r hi{ Jo< h( wii tr nr^lcmrcly Bt$l'rl trmnulicnrs ol'htruL
rc.trforccrl. vrlu|)L\ tr d mulrinl( doth lirtri6,llctrhu Lrnctl,{ :rirl

plpcrcolhs.Otrcotihua.wrhor,smplNotlti thotrcmliishowshirtr
ro bc i rn,' r * h r gf. l..
s,{fdl l(r, n.lim"d FrrrJ, r.tr,
'trilE
n6Eils, rnd J (nsitr\c Lciiins.
The period bcttrccD r87o .ud r89o B.s onc ol indrsrirl bmnr i',
North Anerie, *ith budgrt surplus .bou.dnE, invmto( ndurishnrg,
and lrlde, both internll and cxt&n , qtmrdi. ity Lc [y. Sdoltcn
ms to join the lrnks ofthe legion oasruggliry nrvcntos. I.Iis bsic nlo
\Bs that of r lisht-veight peking c6c, usnrg his nuhiplc fabri6. 'l lr
ese tr6 . voodeq fr.me, shich n6 corrcred wnh bMds mNisting ol i
nmbd ol l.ye4 of p.pei stronsly nxed togethcr by bycs of tnr. 't hu
@to turned ou! to be very good ind chap, lut they had i Intal th! |
they did not stand up to the he.t of the sun, so thrt durins slipnrcnt rh(
rar would nelt &d ruin both the box and tle contents. Bur Sickcrfs
fdtiLc nind
not to be divd-ted, Thee could te oths us6 lor
bords. An mociate fron the late 1886, ri'r€d L. K.ne, &.dled htsl

w

li!

6

hrt b.c!, it w6 about 1888 wien ve {ee .cunu'As ncd a I
lati.g largo *ocl<s of pitc[, rnd S&tefr ad I conei]ed the ida ol
Drki.g a wall bord b be sold fc $rls aad c€ilings in compditioo wnh
bcrds in loguc at tbat tihc- Stnw prper in rols
very cheap lnd yr
necdcd ar6h oudcts aor pitch and Sa.kcit.onoi,cd tne idea ofnilins n
on a qh.cl s) ,igh_ or re rli6ofFpd EiLL a thin i' _. w
ol pitctr, a mnplctcd bord b.ing rbout
inclN tnick.' 'ine,tu'i',1

6

*

K!ne, the whel ms built.bout tu fet in dimettr. A
ein the rcofto i@nmodrte it.TheditreEnt hye6 of
papo lvdc pasd tnougt r pitch tank befde teing rolled on to the bis
vhcl- wlen enodgh byds hld ben 6{ed, the wh€el vd stopped and
thc borrd dt o1I n in l6ghs.
This, lgiin, do* not appar to have b*n oveHuesful. Kme F
olkd thd bct en tnem they lost r,6@ dollaB on the enteerise. 'rhe
frublc with tne board v6 tnat it 'b1€d' its pnch thrclgh the plp ,
ruining th. dcmnrioB Tho .mc a farcful day, vlich pNibly provcs
rlxr tr qs fred L. <rnc, add oor Sdk. rr, trto qs .h .t d. imoEro'
Perhaps v€ ee tlnt Krns ws hcrcly a sddivc mir or, AnyMy, he

Lcordins

loLc hid to be

to

n

'One day, wlilc wc

vdc ganl8 d ihc vhet,

sugsested trying plBter oa

dcploring our

IN, I

hris, vhich ve did, using l to8ls mnilh

It.lrtotr,nw w"'nix",t uI rlE rrl'urcr quik rhir trn'l D urcdit
Dlirndrrl$r,rnu llr,,r!i\u,v h i, dtrn l(r,nrlH(ri,r
,dryr. Wh "r rut i' J.*tr "r li'ur \,m( niit rur( hur sirh !
f,.f!h iu t$l'(.'{ vsv lrrrl r"i {rtru. l'l,,i.torlk Lsroi
EtoFhd|l( rd hli(li sr rhu rFr hn,m.l NJ m.'.lc our ol'DLFkr
hp!r. S h\qu,r r, rhi.. !r.'1. lr 'd.r J( ,u.N w.,h icl, p"pr,
ftudootrd SNkcuw lb"ird !$ h"flr,'
htlrt ntrN,nly qrv rlx, ihir s,. -.nrn',{,ly . p'oJ'.i r ,d he
!d fitroIlddi', rh. Unndl Shk\ in r89o
h I Lnoyo drr I. A!s!ei'& Saclett, ! citizen oa ine Unncd Shtcs,
jdlr[ ii Ncs Yo .ity, in thc.ounty ]nd Sbtc of Ncs Yort, lave
lvorrcd E'rr'. r.w .rJ n"llImflo. n mF i' I .'J. W.' co\r-

tlr, ol'wIich rlk lollotritrg h i s?ccihciun.
Thc Dbico oirhF nqnriol i. ro pmvi,l bor',lr o' pL16":Ln
llybcn*J rsa subrid'( lor larl ard plis' ..r rrrc'.Jror.
|o hnrr -rlk ol hon.c( o|m'.'.. . . Tn. p'rrtr.omp.r:Lion
,, tu spr.ad in . drin hycr npon . shcct ol papor, r scond shet ol
rpcr" hi.l upon.h. hh.,r scc'nd lr)er r sp^-d pon.r. -nd soon
urdl$,n.'n! lJr.F ha\e been,uperpo"ed,'{rc n.e$..iy ro p,oduf,
a bdil olthc required thicknes.'
ront Ms grinicd drted 22 MrL 1894, ,nd nbered 52o,r2j.
onk dh{ins for nis l,irenr rmli.ation shorvs a berd of si{ nli6.
lih lDdlierion nc pus his miiinun { aou hyds and bis mlindh
hn. I Iic dcscription ol tbc .dnnt g6 ol this n$v prodnct coul d hddly
bcttdcd now. Hc srys: 'My i,Dprov.d L{ards - . . h.!c thc idkntr , . . ol bcing convcnhnt\ a nd quictly appli cd, of 6cing poa.cdy
mth dEroonisrudyforimcdiatcocapmcy,rndollrccdobfrod

.llnsvhichis$objcdoublcjnrlmtc.Rills... andmybcdMrin,'n) $. \,n uhreha plr h "all m br oecod.ed. i loreir rpl(.

m6N ofpeer hmsings,' His tbid nuin claio \"s thlt his Imrd ms
md 6!n, tut yet $ft enolsh to alloy niik to be driven through itAntrnn eono,.r Lodcrbo,nL a
Hn p{en. sEbh.hed ud q l,
'hc
h-d oo-bled I dr(o r88o
mcndos mdi uirl bmm Imn prodrcuon
qop
hhq(
rrebled b6.een .8ar -nd ,6r$. sr'[d,
d ,89o,
'he
vcd inro Foddlti.n. KinEq:.counr @nind6l
'Wc thcn built i mrlL vorks at Prnroro, N6v Jc^en did @de the
!m boa',1 wnl nr o' s\ d,"s ol 'J' prne . tr.\i 'g 'lc pi,'s in i
noito box rnd l)oftins it on thc nrclinc with bnckcs; usins . . . loll
. &tric6 and nbbd bdt . . . {nh rn mdlB eryins bble of woodm
aL$ nor ovcr 50 fcct lon6. It did not htc long to dcmo.sftft the futiky
of nl\ing this viy ud tbe neesity for a veiy IoDg eda ro dclivcr

doorgl ro hodh, trrl rt r rs{on(Uc Nrd.
l,ici dn,fd,,s HDc rh, cc rlnn{unl dolhs n!trc hsc, Sroksrr i,Non(l
pitorlql l,is (wicc lbr n,hins ilrc i$rs.'

ho

d dr

dr lirirlod orl,

ul

O. M. (nodc. tr suhscqucrt rrcsidcnt .a Unir.d Stit{s GyNrtr,
iak s qr the sory. 'His lsictctt's] grcitst tioblc !r lirs leis rlrr
dcrdo!,n6t oa,.ontintuus nix.r b prcprc ind dclivcr rchildy
Lrgc qnantitks olphdic strc! (mix.d pli{., r rtriiorn nrc. Alicr
much tid ind cffor, hc 6adc $liicicnt pmgrc$ rocn.Ucni !,rft)L!
for a nixc patent i. March 1898.' Ii hct, thc dcvicc s.s onc s[nlr
nixed vltr 3nd stucco on r novi.g toughcd bclt somc 50 tut l, E.
This htcr beonc kDoytr s 1 t@k bclt, which onc to bc nnilrNy
uscd in U.S. Gypsunr pllnts unti I lroun d 1935.
Srclctt and Kmc had built. sccotrd pllnt at CLrcnoDt on rh(
rodows it the back cnd olJqsy City. It 16 ! lons nrrcw buildirs,
itont r,6@ tict lons, 2nd sosdy only ro a*t sid.. A complnr) sickrr r
Wrl Board, \Es inorpoqted with ! apital of 5qo@ dolhs. BJ , g9{,
los6 on the vl.cl, lxompo rnd opcmting Chmnont [ld rn n to .r d
ro,ooo dollars. Io iccp thc turpan, goingj rcorntcd Ki.q dry
'srndbaggd' I Enincis int hling2oosh,ie{ 50doil,s erch.
As an alt i,Etive to drli.g thc bdrds in acks susporded fmf ilr
ccihg, a ,n thod {as dcrclopcd oa hking b&ids aiom drc mcni.c $(
on rctal plrtsj obli,thg a long 6ricr. Tnis idci vcnlup in fldn6 ilotrg
with fic plant built for it in King's Mill, Shtcn Isl.nd.
Dolrds vcrc slling cor.puiirrcly brnkly, but i prcpcr finishing
ncthod va Dissing. It {6 lound thnt pipcring str.ight on to thc b@
ms unsitisflctory, so n \vN susgcstcd that plGtcr bc laid on to rlr
bmrd. Thc ,ist Gnd cxistins) house in which rhs mdnod us uscd was
45 Wavcdy Arenue, Rrooli\n. Thc rsult nrs 1 aalurc, but (bcn
fto c@ts $crc hied tbcrc us sonc succ$. Shortly latssrrasi in r9o2!
a aurtner plmt ws 6nilt) ud, in tbc soms hlt r*onisned mrds Di ltrcd
Kane, 'We beso to nate money lnd pxy monthly dnidends'. Pmduc
' o. -s
'o, ,sgq ro 'eo' +oq d cr'do'Ji ri) nrer.eiruulPur.
'c,
Frcm r,8oo,064 squire let ol6ord produc€d in 1898, outprt in.r€*cd
to 4,863,280 in r9or. i'his dae, in fa(, is thc tuhing poi.t in the so.y

orphnc'bord :r A'n.'cr io orro'l-.lur. rd b'r\.,r..nph i|o
nodmre inrncial suce$ and sebilny.
Sicier's lourth phDt, .r Girbut, Ncw YorL Ms thc fi6t to llc
built idiacobi to r ph$$ ,nillj obviously drc kcy to relhhlc mAs prodtrc
iion. Tho planr flas ndi door ro the pla cr $lcini.g nills ofthc Lyconts
ing Cilcini.g Co,npanI. It produccd torrds mBuring 32 nrchcs by 36
inchcs- Attcnps to mrkc bords oa $orcy hcisht bd flikd mh !bly.
4

lum of tho eituy, rlvrlq vho onvhd S0cLcn'd Nldcit
unuurcd oo dr 38trc. Atr odBr nuncd l' Lick &m

Bct

irrdlrm ir'g tlt'$ili
tr cunrl,l(k lurd-lnnnii[
'nrhitru, ru ml'( Uorh[ miJc
rk v llllonRl in llor inl[h
'rying
rDDor i(r, ll sr.l.rr flunglrrJ otrsiids llc bu r molc d
tl.nB Nlr,rGrnrl krn.J., Mi.hlLatr,rn! rhcn n'"r,crroud) .r
Dod[c, tr r ,o r dii( riu "$ncJ lJl L.s u\p.rn. In loo!.
, GynluD ll(lin lrroring srclcrr'" Irord. rrJ c... 0.Uy. '1

,b$rqoo,rhcconrt yle*dSrclcrlspl.nBiromhim.
i.[.ns,hulrhcn.oduLrion hsur6{ fir tir erc i em'i'-cdih'.
t80,1, Srrldr Fo,]uetl 25.@8 bosds mesurins 5. !b.,L'd u

by 36 inchcs. In livc ycm hc more thln quadrurlcd 1nis ouqur.
loot. hcq,6 proJlonE.r rm,ins J..6i..56 boJdr. ia roo. i-a
! lhc tiko{vc! by U.S, Gypsun, he Fo&ced ?,o84,93o tords.
nrin rcfincmcnb verc introdued, including 1lt foldi.s-over oI
!dg! of thc bottom byer of poper. Augasrine Sackct bcenre a
lorolU.S. GyDsuD in rqr2. He died ia rq4 ascd ,]. No tinute
do jusdcc to this m. to rhon tnc {holc i.du ry tle {orld over
r. i. huch, l'ernxDs tne gtaroe t stnnory to nnn is that his prcduct
r i dly ohr.gld in oncc cxcepi, oa @usq for the rcdldion
lho nunto ol plies and thc qurlny ol plstr .nd plper. The conert

Thu3' ttui, ino dNtdlmrd nssrye 16 spread .nd @k oot in the
nltcd Stlks. 16 dovolopncnt v6 to be quite diflerent in Brntin. Onco
mtu0l pmduct [rd bcen nore or ]es periecEd in Andict, it

nldlyg'nod n popuh'n. Bd.e\e ' ren \effiair" li'srrrpgu..
Brimin. r\. blnllv con{nr,.e buiJ[q . Jd. ' U rNLl d.
Whilc tbc plder conp ries in rll parE of Bitain, notlbly in thc
Sbd, \dt ar\i .A is aJ\ticrs :o
ldhn&, rhe Nonh-rs',,nLl
'F rh,. d_y. r\oy $r un1trr.c otr
dr tchn,qLs rn .he srl' ueFn
n vlq in r!ro, ms beomine estabfisned, lerning. saitinB gamc,
d rh penins a Eled ,- h' ,o be,l rFEsivo'o'c. .o Bi':I.
du ry. lr qs nor . nr: rhe riddl. 10)6'\$ rh( mdjionLl Elpsm

Dlning.ndmilhnsaa- .enoh,oredd.tun.IJuElFerglen.ind
lhll oen stoiies mc told hu h oui amunr. But one concern, tlat ot

Mcchic

ot6

d SoN,
the picture no\,.
The cool'ay n$ fonndcd 6 r mining opeEtion in 1906 in (n[ty
Thorc, Cnnbrland. It h appropriate thlt the nine and sitc ol tnis
in Dr: n1rob epjr trbond.onnccro,, sl-n' d
aomp,ny.
'ro
sh,
fie
lor
xi. h.s rhe ldqen DLnr il rlr BPB lrdLr,ie,
fdm
hris
Grcup- Ai the tom olthe €ntury,lhe tlnd ;6 ouned ny tnc Lorvthcr

Thoms

lrr

Esl0lq xl lded fron rhco bI t$o fituc , John {rd l)illd Mccl,h,
'l Ic uyn$ui *trdciulfon' lhu,niruqNrcrt !r n onnllDl$ru! Drillrur
hy thc ]\4cchics it Luduglctr, rMr OlNgow. Sho ly n,u rlty i .,tr-

podcdthcircorp ry-Nit[r.ilihlol'{ro,om -rlryotu]crln d iu'
hill it Kirlty'l.llorc, jNt to lhc noltb oirh. pr.sdnr lldtrt.'lhis nrill
llso *rvcd oino Nncs Nd quirris in rlrc locnlny.'l hus, sirhir r con!
pantivelysho tinc,Mcciicth giircdr.cDtrilDlieinrhcsyfstrtr
induta of ihc NortlHvest,
Itr r9r2 r d.?pd A,Erion nrmcd F. S. Culvq rppclrcd it Kirhhy

Thorc. Cnlvcr ms n rcbrdcrL m.ntrlactor.r lioN Chicrgo ind in i si\
ycis ssoci,rior virh tlc Briiish gypsum industLy hc *!s ro c\cr r r
hig l sigDiliant and formtiye influene, One wh! kncv bim ndl, liru
.1.d:'rles6- \err,tuble,.ery An,e_.r qr--,r ri" n i'' r..
s+:n r ro no.ell ro r.. crh tr'':,
rulrk irB
'1d disove ng .nd exploiting gytsun in tho'\ *ct olr"
rlr
ocapltion alkr
eflicidt
rot&dor
wnich
cou
nr
United Sh&s h.d ben to dqclop an
usd in to d. Tne Et.rdq ne ionnil in demilol sqply in th. Cni.xti('
stockihrds, in tlte toB ol 6lmd going to $ase fron Nllions of shughtdeJ &tde. Contad h ben fade bcts..n Did Mcclic rd Colvf
in the United Sbtes ene tine prvioudy, md hrving nihscd rh.
phenonen.l suce$ ol ihc ,lasterbodd indusby in i6 .d\ drts nr
Anelica, Culv€r us eNinced thuc w* r li4€.noun ofroi.y tl
be Drde irom it in Bribin.
Culvels inmedirte efe.t on Mcchie'Fshich to hin ep.arcd ripc
dn@gi to exp.rd demrti.ruy if given the right lub-ms to pcButulc
tnen io inshll the 6ist Aheicdn-style lctlc lhnt tor produci.g hrnivrlt lldtd rt Krt6y Tnoie. Tnb m ro bc &c n6t oaiB tnd in this
ounhy. The new dilt wis set up towards thc cd oa r9r4, by Nhiclr
tine the epnal.atne conpany bad bm qu.drupled. Sbort\ ta tlrc
outbrert ol thc r9r4 r8 rvd, Cdver took ov€r tt€ nuugiry directoL
ship fmn Drvid Mcchic, vho joircd the Army and subsquently
migl.t d to Ncv ZmhDd.
Ir m at this potu rh.t thc Drn who vm to revolutionise the cypNn
idnsiiy atp€lred on the scene; Hush ftigson ioined Mcchics s
srlcs rc?rsentltivc lor the Iaoshire lnd Ch$nire !re!. lom in
Gnpbeltown, ArBylhhn€, Hugt Fe+rsn ms onc ol lhc nrt sons and
oDe dlush1er of a Sottisi buildei eho hd hccn ftsionsibLc, among
othq tlrings, lor s{dd pnisky distildic donnd thc titrlands.
Although Fergnen *6 ncvn r nrn io discus his fdnily with colle.s!es, Ie did tell an inpobatle story $oui his htho. Hc nscd to sry
1lnrdditirciledvnhdr$ftorP n nr ords b dq ns *dL,g rim€ e File rh€
plddd lint ro lpply rh. irteirl tu mlls md eiliD$s.
6

ov6r hl{

lnrhuwffdnlrolhd iNnildqt

ndri

ctubrlld-

li,nily l8l t,,Nr nlfto( d witl, u,ftlrowoh.'Yo un,ld
rlo0o riringt,lrcrswm would jolirsly siy, llc *orkcd lbr0limc
rllchu urli.( ir Clu\g ". rh(tr n' hN mrlv ,6 l-c (. 1( ro rhc
ciL dr li,sl,u ltr ,o+ hu i,an(J l'c \{' lr' rhcF..r'l Cl,n!. I.ivcrIIU ln r('tr 'arlitrr ."r.rrr p vnb ,LJbr. i y"n l-I.',
told l ldlcy j.iNd thc linn in i ibn, c,r,..ity nd thus 6cs,.
'n
tlotr vilh lcrsoson shi.n s.s to lst into thc Ltc r)16. It is srid
!h0 only timc !6[uson cad trcnt bick ro canDboltown vas Rhm

*, dr

t rrtrf no doubt Cnlv.r's nilEu that dccid.d McGhiCs horrd, in
lnho ror s, to purch$c r plNcrbond plant lron thc U.S.A. and to
\1,,.h's. Brildins s.i'ed.o
uho r &ic lor r bu. d'ngro hou.r
yft
bni
Iftr
in
rlE
it
becme
clelr
that thele vodd hNe to
ll r9t6,
a filstdntid nrcrosc nr c^pital to nnrne thc plBterb.ard lentuE
lhol Mcchic's sh.rcholdeB could not supply the nre$ary funds.
r.i r6olvcd. rhsclore. oi.por o rhep.r''e-boddalerro ' r$!
'o Bm,d I ,c''61cd. ,5' ,o 'rL or'hp
pr y! Th. Brir'.h rlrrr
'
1q r7 s6 onc
lot! ol thc nes venture sems renll[able, aor tbe

i'.

rrni sl suct
Eutopc\ b;-rer I r c'rr P".c rJJ r,.om'rar
IIntumud.-" h{, rrmna.B) rh, r'lorrlr6Fr !.,tof\Lr,
lrnishdh.,\,o..trr\ Gs u r"a rlc oLaL"'. "l qft,lrJ

!d, The shrpe of liuropcrn li$ory $rs gadulLy 6cing cbingd in
ndcrsj no .onniry wonld cscpc thc social uphcrv.l ol ihcsc ycds.
lo men on pcoplct ninds rvdc Lc.nr, Trotstr, WmdJor WiGo\
loyd Gcorsc rnd Ludodorfl. On 8 Mry r9r7, Hris admittcd il).lo$
I !B.oy !ilh$ rnd woodr hrt $as to bc rcEanrcd drc ncxt day. Clar.
ltt ws "inging n rl, quccl-s H.'llatrd ss follo\edbv {?r$inr ol
lrWomo. r rhcCrsn rnd \4nr. Horcl, ( rr.ts.c,sL\cn mLr. nrcr ior

cdrd,,.of rhcB' F' I FtcrBnrd Tr
nd
been
incorporltcd
.s r pliEte company on 26 April r9r7,
mprny
On the l@ ol i( nothins nuch ol imDortane Ms dccidcd !t this
frntolirctulnccunBolr

acting.Themrnr.ccR@rd,hr l."rr dson.'$i.iro'rnd('r1'mrn
$E cl@tcd chlimu, d't Thom6 whnc\, . M.nch6e!
(6
(sho
to be fie fst Nd, !t the time. ihe onlr custonq of the
ulldd
wrs
eleftd secret{rtr. Cdlvd and Fergdson ftft
!.w @np.ny)
ttDointed selling agenrs rnd l\,lcchie's s*e to supply tle pla*er. An
owrdraat of {r5,ooo rA rgred to by Wili,6s D€acon's D.nk. Some
lvcnty shddholdcs nad becn fou.d to iN6t in thc {2o,ooo onpany.
The onpany fts no{ e$ablishod in in unprepNsing red 6ri.L
building in .n mftndkablc row of No-up and rwo-do\rns acrN the
rlE. frcn Livcipool. Todiy, thc onrci Io.ncr]y occupicd by Britisl
f Mcchie's,

Inrd i{ onons r

j,Nrlils quoi$ of lirrh Nlotr Nt |{clrud
stoi(s, sd bMk lion rtu hdtrLr ol rl'o Msicy which ! hidddr hy nM,'l
blict oo trgrrsrl ir.n shdring.'ll!.lli.cr iow lrcl,nrg t, S | rn
ItDds, lnd lro ilso thc rcgisr.rod ollicd oi dr Wirul Id$ Strl)dnr.
lr, rh( '.r c Briri.h tlI ll,,n.l l,rJ h(r 11 nf. liI.N, r s.F .tr
prrtnmhir {nh one, Fms llffvcy, h i btrild0m' Dcrch ns cofrtr rr
in LiveDool. l'his corrp y is srill d
$ h rlt rc.. JMrs II v(y
$d to ne d.scly csociltcd yirh DIB too, rd trN for manyycrrs rlr
diector in c|dsc ol rrdkctins.
But n Ms r *snsc tine, il not . do*trrisht insnc tnnc, o (rr n
tot ly ncn indn*I]. Sn.ll wondq thnt its nrccption rv$ hirdly rorir(l
b, n.. nol.b. p r' rrde ifi.l'nd I i.h'r @n.prnj tr.qr..".,..
'
' Hxrlcy. 'lro ur
sould '.
hive driecn inybody
mxd', sdd Archibxld
srious sctbacks (cLdod rlm6t inmedirtcly. An incidcnt, sbic[ s
cloudcd h ,nyserJ, cxne a6ont snight imJ; x ticnd ol Culvo's
absconding \dth ,,onel c,enrkcd to pry ror rne phstol'mrd mrchn,c.
Il this {erc not a erious enough 610*, r min vno hid gilcn tc.Iri(l
sdvie ms lo* in thc dr'la,t.1\is trN i disNcr ita timc rvho rlrr
,{hy tes, iir thc sords ol Harlcy, 'scioDing lor pl$tcrboard ,ar
ih teDporarybuildingJ- On r6Augus r9r7 Cnlvcr s.ilcd lor thcU.S.l.
ile did not rctlm. TlnN cndcd ltis six ycar sojourn nr tlis mnnty.
Duing thal time hc hd i rcduccd a ncthod ofcaknrition wlich h$
lcnained studlrd pncticc to this d.y, rnd nc h.d bccn thc pcrxor
md.ly .esroniit le tu the aoudins ofrhe rlBte.bmrd ind!*ry in ihc
Utritcd Kingd.n. lvirt hrppened I Mcchie's ninute bmt reco.ds oD
r7Jnly r9r7 tlrt Culverxnd lersnsoD h aailed b t.le up 2,ooo sl, cs
lo l.''\"J h',dr., J'o,rl-.''he'r oJll ul nd hcl..oni. 1 n.
onc sm* tbit relations hrd ftddony b@ne embiftscd No mde mtr
Ic $bnnod. ,,lll tfie hi$dr. c.'r do is to .clnowledsc thc Lr.tihutnr
lDde by Fn.I Snnm Cnlve.
Tbe British Pldicr Berd ms now in businN, maling i plisq
boad wlich, lcrhaps in deleience to tbe regional pitiotism so nronglr
repHented in tlE rccma round the bble, srs elled'Thisde'.'ll,c
ompany rvas, lmwcvoj slipping inb l finan iaL fiisis tbit \B b bc I
onstant conpMior fbr scveml yff.
l,lnstu

The nain rqson Id thh crisis m thc complce lrck ol mnndcnc nr
lhsiciboird s6onn by tbe builling trade. Archit6ts islt ii ms a clq)
rFD r b(:ure lor Lrh
pld.cr I nlke rhc roR 'c{rt .'
Aneri.atu, Brnish builden, it "nd
lrpeEd, jusl did not kmy wh to do
vith pl.serboira. Harley reih th.t on one o@sion thc conpary
Iad suptlied Costai6 {ith r,ooo y.rds ol phsterbo.rd for i housing
schonc itr Lilcrpool. They relored sone dinculty in using n. Fersrsn

IJ

8

rr,!LivErol fi drh

dhdkKrrhl

'lthniltki{u{hl
n)l[D$ond vcrc$n'irDi,rg
lhc Du nll tlrc !hno,
lrlcs i+rcscnhflkirFnds,
rhc*ln)1.
uorsistrnurr,
oIqffNc,
\rlb
rqxnlrd
lron
hnildus,
dclicd tlMr b
0llhc rnnc
'chillcngcl
! sould

Nriuk

nolk'llu rrrq, lur r[c !l(fnru_u,{ ( rh'. lii gr.o.r w$ g. Lr. "
€|ltlNr h) UIrlr qhcrJ'v l-c w,,LlJ \rl llrqc bo d otr !or..ro pry lor J. ol-!e,
lon, llc ss rlh"d lroo.. jr' rir
'1vr'Li..E,
ptuvidc
His
hricl
sts
to
nis o{n sd!!y.
lo
'.rnvis dchitccb, $ts

o!. 0nd Govcrnmrnt, municiprl rnd comty omcials'. The Bo.d
Lfihn, 'Yoo must usc yod b6t cndcrvous in eNNins . . . rnd
l,
1'nc
1h. n.xt
n r rorth.
notr'\. dsDitc.ll
drp:.c rll .RorL
erorls r,d
lnd r'J
h lhc
rhc $lc
slc dMq,t'
'ends.
'r,.
{is
obliscd
toiDtros
its
orcrdrolt
to
r.'. rlDconpoy
Ir,@o.
rn rl'. Lr.li,nge Sbr:'r Hr..
On r{ Mr.'h 19'r.,r r
''c('ing
volnoDl, llLL,'' r'.'gso1 tras unJlimo..lv elec(d Ji'rt1{.'r1x
'
Nr, drc .onpiny rv{s plsd otr thc list ol Gorernnent{ppmlcd
Npplh6, .nd tlc conrp.ny also advdtised r.. thc
lldh[
'mtdirls
t li c in thc Nadon ?rs. It t@k a 6 inch dorble colum h the
Itlly Mrl. DRr" rrr r, r lur,hl're ri'" ' bl ui.i
ool n'o e
ftI otum kom J omm ,e o ,r"F.,",, rn.o:-'ed,o'uprdi'ro.d'
r.
ss
i,"d
ro
t
r
c
lio'
d -..c.' ol
rirmt
fi
nrne'
fl'c.ff
utrg
D
tiro. IG hb,lir'6, raoJnltrh,ls' r'e(ng.qr.5\o$0 obe
,,.41. Tlrc o\erdkn r.nJ !'b lPr. -\.,ortr rr" o. .n.pe.'.or

ltdtd

by
In thc opnio. ol the comnrittee disster on .i1, 6c
iNprovcd mmgement d the qercile ol tnc $ricrcs ccomny a
os cdcaully
rctlcnclncnt. Elery item of qp{dituft
pmsible
avoidcd.
$tutini*d md il

iu* tc

Among thc comphints {eie the rbsen& oao{pcr iorbyrlrBo.id,a
xn ntncnt ol outsidss interlering, d lick of or$nn tion nnd conenItrtiotr in nrlmsers. it rEs dso poiorcd ont tnrt mmgcs did nor hrvc
thc tBirins or blsin* crprity io.un m cntcrpiisc ol Nch r D.Nrc.
lut thc difrculti$ qpqided in thc plant vdc causd by thc atrct thrt
drhoush manrseB and re.hnicians sm wcl cnough veNcd in plster
lcchniqus. they sm oito quit€ llfiled by thc lqdions or thc pl.st{
ln bond mking. Mmy rccthilg toubles rerc cnounte{d nl produc!lon, R{ltin6 in widc ,rrirtiom in qu.litr. It Ms .ls tue, noNcv.r,
y, or, norc
lhot ekn trnh ptrld bodds, the tnde \vas not rc.Ily
pEpdred
aor
thc
to ne ready
reusiely, w.s not
Foduct.
y diFcroi iron todly\ Foductiod lincs,
The dcnhl pldt ms
nr
ri'....\n i Nft ndidoc.' roo I'om rho*',oln,'n' n

rc

v

{n

r''l.

satrt wltu vi*itcrlrhr Dl r' ue.$ it| innmm{ lrotltrrirls ltrr rtr
siy 'I tlhrSnL h wnr rnlic lrr. My lir irn|rusirr si$ thrl ir sft r
hrl. g no.]\lso rh n sotrl trNo! bo dtryrhnrF rlilllr.trr.''lhcrc

tr|nhro r@DtiN. licononrlc r(4tc,y th'n rhc GRI wlr "$ il',tr
Iriflirnr. ln ,,)rr, r' .'lyrn h,',1{, .k w''ll.sry ktr u hr trtr{nl'r' ,\\

l[nb dk(!{i rlDi, lxr rh( f,,ll,,wn's Ju.' \ J: "l hs snrls ucru
Lally rt tr { riirill s yuJ J&.ru,\ $ur,,lrhc utnriutr rl (rNr,6
huld lt cu iilnl s l;r r: pn*'l'lr , dil .u,h ri' c rs rhc briloi"L
ltnftri,tr" nr lrc ounrl J{- ,,1.,1 ,. "^.n i ruou. s.rpplJ ol ou- I'r 'J - r.'
Jut h tItr s nc r.t',d, rl'u l),,"J sriJ s h .otr.c rclr'' I r'urt,'y
lurri," I'*,o*,,in...1(ins'l'h, riJo l,rs iov, tr,.co,.nd r ,. p' rctr'
r f'oa' n.d
is ereD i diaLior o' .
Im! ihc bunncs r
'hc(

"r
no.!nrinft$ nrixor, rhc lotrFth l)dsootr rhr IirDrirg rrlls rhcnrlr
(
oR ra. oi.l e.
ro lLd. ll'( N,'Jd l.'{ nn\c,l n' r -, tr,(r( r,iu'
Thc slisht$t diffolty, or tho shonc$ dcliy ir clc ing ihc nrir(,

r

yonld rcsut nr'i @nrplctc srm-ut tlit could tiko hdii diy k' ohiti
out'!s onc drisinal eDnloyce puts it, 'l hc ohicl poblcN uxc liotr, r[(
fsct that nrc boa.ds {crc open-cdscd. Iftnc mixturc *rs t[ liqrnl ir
*oulddibhleDUtoitnecdscs. Ilitwrstn,*i4rficdiving6c1t\vn'l,l
slip, son.tinrcs cmsing tnc divins m.tr t, shll. 1hcsho ncssol'rlr
belt nemt that tho bo,rns rcrc frr lron $t $hcn rhcl wcrc hkcn !'rl
I,Lry kinds ol drior veic tied, inclMi.g onc nrvcrtcd lry i nrin N['
bargiincd }llh flngh Ferguson on the b1sis ol'no succN, Do ,aynrtrr'.
I. lh. \rrds ol one .hronicler, hc sudscd through nis pocl.t lor lin

hcc!"rf yc,r.'ll,^ cai,. orfu' ol'\.
ltoo nc Nmcicnt ordeB in hind to

uohs b t'e'nB. Jd $eerdy rno
kccp the rvolLs tully dcupicd lor

tunyNnrhs. lnJ.J,sog'.rt.srhedcmrm rr iaredi.rq.p' r.iu'r
t ldltor ru h,,""" rto Dla Jho nlcnne'r rnd o o'orid" f.nl.tr
vorl'nE(rl,nrl. Th. Gpillws du\ r(osed b lao,oe.
InNoverber r9:o, p'o5BneEihocr lbr,5 I {ious.ix monrh. s
I!,trj 't',rr .t' r ye'. Hush Fersuor q, ,,f,inr.d nrn.'6cr olrhe
-dlint

Mixing tnc plst r ms vcry nNcn. rulHlihumb dlair. A tlDl.il
nrixture n6: cislt blgs of gpsunr phster, two bass .iswdu*, lnd oD(

q

oire. or
E.'odnD' o D. w Ltrr i hrl.
'
'nrdc
'$
hr.
.''r ioitr' mauEin" , -, 1,
Jn chirs. or admilsr'luon (h_ ld's
rfth Hlsh Fdsuson in 1927) thc tcd ris.n6cn for {hat yould ium

Brnish ll.stq Bo.rdt vorks at Nalhsey hre been unlusl} dcs
cribed. but the common rhrue uscd lo. tlis early iventies' peri,)J is
'Heath RobnrsoD', At this time, theE rere 32 porlc *orhing rl{
Iacioq.. sitn one ontside salesnm. Sucn ws the flu.tuxting demnd th
enployes, vith very lex q.eptioni, $otrld \eork tn@
hs on xl
rM honths on: Thtue sizs oa 6o&d {er€ hcing pioduccd: 3 fet hy
2 leot 8 in.hcs {the d6t cilled aor), 3 led hy 2 lcct 6 inchcs, md il tn.t h}
2 icet 4 inch.s Gtu lerst nr demnd)- The 6oard Ms cut by 8vo Fnrh\,
vlid $ood tovx s tne end oltnc telt on eithei side ofthc tablc. Thcy
had cnrgr oll suinging r aoot elcchic saw trLich they sould sving !,
ech othor to dice rhc borrd.s it cmc t6t. 'Actu lx only two or thrcc
ch,p6 got thc rops ol tbcir thumts
or', sys one ex+mploycc,

itwJl,*y.

i hev-dly ol the @mp!.y. It shs vcry sooD obrious rno tho
_o
lnrn of ft. hour sould be l"\n''J b^ rh('nr' \\61 nmr is ts !r,
thc pr€.nrnry BtB Ii du, c, l.&lqu cF:r Loodon. T'"io
i,r! urMly Lntulgd uble, : a'ci \.c 6rr brilliatr': Hish r-s. o'.
FcBuson h6 le r,r iDd,libi' np'c$iol on .n(.oaf.'.. RP Lio s
nbt.o'brc-h
lo rhc nentjon or \i' i m
'.n$rrom.shiprdriag
i
b..
us. l. r-5
ro amDlerel! omn'cJ rdl'rrrcn $herfe_
"^
p,oplc\
ciFrrc.rc" o' b.au. " F tu'nd \i.n
.lwE Lolm;inq nha
him m lmorhde oadig ry and drcnslh thlt cxnre r lile d luri', he
ott

no

ro bc

o

'
o

rr

I nF ( .or1. lc
mireJ,
l'rc ol Hush rcrsu'o'
'ived
c
in H6Ell.. n.rr -.arpurl
in r lrga dc.(fco
lnd hG j
Hh blsines wis in laier yc.s @nducted fron d suits h drc V.ldorf
'_ o. ipi o ,\c @mcr sJie.
Horcl :n London. I r rrc., lor m,at JeF
numtered &on rq to 4r on lhe third noo.. ft h ft,nomborcd !s sp.mely
furnisned, pcrhrps even m@nly fnmished. rnd d 'gir g ofl a ro1hd
fcty yellow glorv, vith old gold fnrni,shings, ospcciilb an ohate bblc
.lorh to {hich lhe eye tept hveling'. An onploy@ remembds: 'Hc
ws a shrwd mm. Qiie fric.dly to derybody whcn he nanted to le. A
lov.blc bnt nm old beBcu.' Another roalG: 'Tt€ nost lm.zing tning
.bour lha. po-.il.o,hiT i. r\e bddroorn F rna. r. sho rohk'irhr
on rh. hbl€ il ironr olhiq r prct{ ol, Er.rc. I o$e'
'o

The

ot

All mrtcrids lrrc lnggrd by hand. Thc phs€r, srdust and rctrrJq
vhich lorsomc rc&nw6 nictndncd GnieGitam 1rere hauled ur
to rlE top floor. ,{t tlrc otlE cDd ol tlte belt ftre tso sirls hling the cui
borrds ofrlhe t.ble to stick then in the drie$. "rn6e gi[s could nov.
quickly il they {rnted to', s}s ! contemDo&ry. 'lclleN,ouldnl do it .s
quickly .i dl.' Dverr now ud tnen sonene hid to jonp on to thc bdt to
unclog tne sdps of plaster that hd diibbled into thc sorkings. Oets
sionalln the only !n$er vs a neatv slam {nh i slcdgc-I nncr.
'lhe roception of rldterhord in ine building indusrl b€grn ro
ioprolc slighdl in tlc r92os. It would bc a lonB strugglc yet .o rchie\c

De

sral

(*,1:n

I

'lhcrbry lllNrdlioMd ir lnirrh hituviltruy nliNxrdNl,lydfl,

thc (o.y ol llush lr.rsuvr, sincu hix itrv,lvqnurr in ll{ i,nhNlry wd
dr $ylc oi lil'u, nlnxNt tlrc uctrrml lil!1 o, lilu n, Ih[h lruxtryfl, r\
prsrcctivc on rlis crkiodn$ry |usn,!rim1 vds ltrrs givrtr [y ll. A
Bromlcy Drv.npo(, i sc i,tr di@nr. llc *iinu:'llis (rcnFrh lry i|
his skill in.cgorilior ind nr lis rbihy Lo.hrn rnn rvh tl( dtrndencc ol ihosc snh Nnon h. trrs dd,lnrg.'i'Lis.onl cn.c \rns nor
nisplied, lor o!tr thc ym6 Ir \r.s iblc io bri,rg Lgcrlu i lxrgo nu tr'lr'
ol riv.l compxdcs, in crch ol vhich, llmos \vithint cr.cptnn,, r](
idividuals on@flrd lclt tMt thcn i,trcss Ldd lrcd tnncdrn liir ly
md en goEron+ This riu bc rcmcmbcrcd xs lris €rc r.hickme' i. $hrle.ne!onrp-r \ crp,rdcd-nd,,.qrn.Jrnoqol n.."'.rt{'i.i,.
while a tre.th{kins seies ol t*eorc6 ncr€ to bc pnllcd ofi nr r
eque.e ofcolN durins tlE nridjg3os, Llugt Feisusont rcilb(snkri
DlesuE $s in the acqlisition rnd not the ledin& Thjs is {hcrc hls

_r hl.'

15.

'. r rl-r',n'\e

n'.pii'g

oi'.r ri1u ih tr'i

,'

D. Iorbcs K.ir, who {rs n,mgd ofrho lV hsa wor[. rnd lrcr
beme mmgcr of thc Erith $orLs, says: 'Hc ms a culturcd nntr,
bur . hrd brrgaincr. Onc was cms.ious ol hb shod{onings, 6ut nr
m. cmphtdy oushnding .baflct6. lIc didn'1 rally i.r dro lris
\lllrite ChicL llyou dnrgiod vfth hirq !c would ulk it our wnb iotr.
He ditu\ havc thG knrd of aLool tiddc $Inch so rnI pcoplc, ,nn.h
lsser nen, devetop s ! kind ol protectirc deodilc *nL' !V lio,
stltu {$ not a mtter lor dncusion. He lded to tell ! story to thc lcN
who sere close 1o hiD $ort a slthernrs ol the cllm in Scodlnd. ln his
ich Loshnds lcent he {ould tell ho{ h the old drys when tle rcry
stliu 6n$ious clan h qs net, the mdor chielt m would sir at drc
Led ol the tabG, {hile l$sr lisu6 ranse'l down the ilble. One dry
'h. V,6- Er ^ L.hor r i,, p|... Jr\n rl. ', ol.. q. iJr, q.'c r
ulier- Mccrcg.. siid, thongh: 'Dinm Roullids. Wkrcthc Mccrgltr
sis, IS thc hed oI thc tr61o.' -And Fcrguson roold .htrctlc. It {xs
obvioudy a fablc tb,t iptqicd b nin. Indced, the latc Joc Hu$t, sho
bccdnc dely Nociatcd with the onp.ny a its iudno., remcmhord r
lunch ln Lnrcrpool. Idgnson ms litc. Whco !c di,cd hc sa dtcd il
he muld mre to sit lt drc head of tle t$le- 'Whcre Feryuson sits IS tlc
he olthe t$le, my ftietrdi, hc replied. And it v$ nero qustioned.
John Sheppdd, nhos Iamily r.n 1 vell+nown sypsun coflpmy for
nlny dec.ds remeDbeB: 'Everybody in BPB, no nDter wno dEy re,
h6 a lot to thrnk old FsBuon lor. rt ms ln initi or in this world. He
didnt put uy blutron; you yere never in doubt 6 to nh.t he wt€d,
d uhrt Ms vmDg when he tound smetning Ms *mns. In hto yo,:

tir

y ld,! nt rlc nsuu
rlldoN c,urr! k' hl{ ovtr vD*{. I.Ic vould
q
*r,trrq
s{'lJ
h ilk[. [c
iciJ lltr )ou
nd ll'lhuc *tr{ { rrhiry
amirg.
lEtr hc ditl vhit, rhc n{clios nrisht so on lill lirur ir
\}
ul
srtrtl_
w,{rl
ly
l,
nLr\cJ
rlt
flri\rl,,l'\rr
trtc$tr(\
ho{o
rhruudl'
hi'blsiirs.'
l'u$ih{n
rtrhohLJ
ld$, II(.i;,,hr.,$li r
J* Il hr R(,il(J:'ll( c"ul [fr dn'tr ip r l.,l.rr' "'r(''o s. c l'
lfa, hr hc un'ls{, J ,ft r'y clc.dy. Hc nJ o,o
nirin(lnrnr{n$. Vroylllcdidnil.n{ s'r_roruleof rt.sceP'
n c mrc ILl.'J_h.r,a//,1:{.rl- 'olg ync.dtr brI
ljm
ul.lnl qj rl' hi.'n"ncyh'o''shr.'ir .r) ."fp.r,i.. remenbel_hil:
rord
doiiq bsrns. d Iu. oclorl rq rl-^ Tir''s, id I
nll;],l hc (. r honn,o so ror" I Lrn. aFrol heo,,b" l, 1 r /, r.
lhrcuqh hi. hu.inN. t lc hJd no'"1''rod, ''L oLr no'ih fli,l'. H( qs
onlv itc' i. onflo mt rrotrledl , r1d I remembs " \s' by l tlole
s,h;.hin J h hdc m\c ed. n," rolour rlm prR -\n .rn pr_
tudcd li1r o. o tr e'r 'nnr "olq. $nierl,iFL':[c {ro,o@. I
bllicLc,.nJor.o, \crhebl"rchrdir'1v.ncar'j 5: grl-.fcr6x.on
tcnt ibsohcly md. It snockd lis nc ols srtten, is Ic vB mlde to
l@k snch i fool. He had nltnally told us hos .-letr hc hd IeeD. I don't

d(

o\ " r .i',no.h.. Vr rhio-" Tro J' o .he drr hh
l.rh$d'iir'" \\o ld \\ ll. ind bl tltr' r:T' h"y (o" oe,hnd r ounc
tub{inLirl sirms or fl n,y- rh(I qould cr".' i plre .rle Derb lor
think hc co'

lhcir Bmrd meetings. Hiving dispNd oa tne 6usine$, tbey Nolld serde
do{n for some hr'p..ny .ap, tnd hre these cnormous arsuncna ovd
rvopene rnn ttu.cpcicc.
'.lc on
AlrhoLq,, r-u.o', $ol.d dcrl J liL" ih( n'o\e LLron orh

*o, i. . -h d.ihdnorh.ededh'"J'ir.o'"ho
.1'pd
.'ror, h,l' \Jd.' rn ikrb J t"''nd. John
h.il EDireJ J
rd\b",, reu.., O''or [oEU.on s
Chrte:.h..,,
i\c.trly i,..
"p,
0ttibltes sas his tmdcn.y to engt$ yonng nen, Onc oa,ny collcryues
in mr in.UBre @mpro! r r'l" i v.'l 'cnoL r nbt . Lur FLrBu'on
orsl;o.ed i' bceuse l-" h",l'tl.r r hnq to m_. I .utposc . Pl,ved
rumr,.d,ri.\c..,nd:llrhr'. r'd I bc.iere..e"a' in rc \i'own rou.h
lny

oplolfr.,

h. un'lJl*e'ohreh.d H'o!.ss\cDnru.('
hf" I rh qlrc.ure h' m : , " 'i hle rs ,u'L
for
b;.irrc$
rrJinin(
'n
,u' .o'
lh
en ,r.." ro \i. qu.lorc.r,

o!;i

hN .von.

sr.
n6.. br.ilN br.ims.
@ triny DcoDc ruh'lr. lh uscd ro pl"J g'l''r.'v Slru_or' ao'tri g
wih Robi.,nlrh (ror iarr reli . nFn) sc-r.b \ br' qo,l
r\d I doni rh'n[ h''n.' Jnlone ,-i l'J. t]. trr' ne I r' ' ,3r '- .naer
f@ls mrttinjj litc slidly, ii.t all.'
Ioln C,llrle describcs Fesuson .s 'tn inptiient oan, tt,tcd qunc
miunlty *itn Nc, a comn,.din6 pc$on ity, Icrsuson {ts rot .

Nnilir[ nrtr, brr hc i$ ir rhc snn( tinusndnld(l l,nvi,,n tr r$r
itt divu nnilc. llc {$ trrr ,rvcrwhchnirlgly conccnul rbour IiN
rl)Dqr{n&, Morc lhin omu hc woru i I'ir ol hrighl ycll(N rhrs virlr
id! srit. Yct hcsivc on r disrinjrtrislulNtr.IlcMs i hllnrN wirh n
srdghr bicl. IIc could illuct i contcmDnxN$ hiu&trr hc h$ b(tr
sobctinos dcs.ihcd xs boing'olyrpi l hc cotrl.l rl$ !pDu$ iinillv
rber6.d in $h sonconc {lk)sc opn,i,r hc rBpcctcd Lid 1{' siy
Thosc sho wortod unh nim in rhosc c ly diys siy thlt tncy [kud rl'.
rtnosphde hc o.rted. tlis lre\tige is illustutc{ by dtc alct thlr hir
dockbmko, Robdt Bighnd, Ms tne .nly nnn who cvcr ollcd l,i'n
jut 'Icrgoson'. To c!fironc ckc iro (rs ldy nrnch Mr lrcrsnym. 'l hr
rcootcrc$ vns umNciously locticd rd sxld lctul to sonrc od,
situations. Onc cnlloyec roncmbcrs thd Ir oncc hid ro liI nr ln'
Fergnson's rcsulff chnuflar Nho [d gorc of ill. IIc was not.llo\r(1
to usc the Rolls, bt hrd to takc lis old bMgcr to drc *ition h Li!ffpooL
ro nFetfer3uson.o'-lehi. r homc.w\en Lcp..t.d Lpf(Elr.otr .;,tr,
!t the end of the weete, tl)e b6s ane to.he dod orryiDg i corL
scutdc. I don t l.on ryhl srctlx but it 16 r tremcndous shock sei'i(

nin c ryins r c@l scutle,'Ihat Nd seeins him cumnrins himscll
inb ny old 6usg, s,s the most exhm.,linlry rhins I hld qperiened.
Irorcbon imbucd ])coph wni by ry. 'We lived l ph*erbold i',
ttusc drys'. srJs one cnploye. By the hrc r92os thc busins v6 vcry
vilorous, r stull mtny, Sut cvdrbody srs well aM.c th,t thry {cr
bcgnni€ to liticipat h so,nothing ort of tnc ordinsry in industy'.
Hrdcy latcr rcqucd: 'Tnc odd visitor rvould om aloog to WdLscy
.nd scatbnrgly rclcr to "thai bloody n..ghlg mchid'r relly n
lookcd ?rcq .{ful. TIcn i[c mgs wouldn't work and Jrck Yarcs,
thlt m6t inprcsnc forcman, Ld io ssi,lg r got slcdgehilmd to
srt thc thing novins agiir Bni wc wdc notiv cd by tso thingsl
aelr oi liilure .nd the hopc ol. aortunc.' H.rlcy ilso mreobe6:
'C!\rc! vs joliil, Emcious rd tntd. Fcrguson one respcctcd. I fch
ruthc! likc ! son to him.' On thc onc thnd CuNtr rvas appm€lrblc xod
infom.l (Lc is remcmbscd flnting with i Naits in tho KrrdoD.h in
Litrrool). shile, on thc oth$ h!nd, Fcrsu$n, who usd to sn'lite God
rt tne top oi the tce rvnh his directos round hin', onied on lis lifc.Dd
busines Iiae rs onc ind the srmc.
trirlios ncnoriB ol thc Urillrsry phnt re oa2n 6sti.l1y locll unit,
dno$ a fanily .dii.. Hugn irc$uson souH nrvc his mcds scnt in
lroh th€ cfd ncrt d6. thruugh a nol. in tnc {rl1 rftl up r pull.y. M2nr
x porhed cgg as hoisted in dmt vay.
Ttr docision that ,nNt chingd thc lortuncs ol thd .onlxny Ms
t.kcn in 1927, to rqunc i ncw nB.hinc lrcn Amsi€. 'llis ais fic
this

Ro}rrvk[rorfien ish P]$Er tsNii. Gory. !r
qrc l,liahdhloriedrhe.ohpNrtu r

ricBdis[I

unri.s F.n, c*dc Rrcn{i.h. on

r.di udPq chi;ou

(hn) d{r

j;n' Doasins

r. 1. ,{h'i{ nl. I,".o@ ll. l'. ".' \1 !,
Inolflr r
r"
,'t.,, r,r' i h,r1 ('.'h', ''.rr1(:,' r (\t,$ ' ' i'.J,.{'.,'l
IO,r
tr r''rhtrr.'. r'.)n'
Idlno" r" xr,.,.,t, ,,ti" r,,"
r, I'r"i.l'Ji'tr..r,'r'i.l Ill,drn, 'yi.r " l'l'.i.1')t,i q.\
l'.
,i.(,
1.r
,kl
1,"
n,l
ir I'ni ,. .J\i-' o1
rrD
lla
l,
+J
tr I
I'i.r: 'll. "r'
nrl
rtl'r's
Itotck t,nriri,,
'-n
''
(tr-rn'u.r.
1,
,.
. 'r ,h) r,
I
,
i
fthully , ri".ri.h ,in, ., .n'l
liit rlll ((:.,r',, r 1.,,1 j.*, r',,].\lLJ o r.',,i".f i.,':. l.'. i,' ." inc
[tonirltr^l ,'1. , ,,11(riri[ tr( '" nc ln,tqih,, /u'
'u[-.'"h r.,i. nad nr.l
I l0'nirNtr'itr' 'l ,li .'(, ri.'(rl.L
',iil"
.,i' ". ll l y -.j..co , 'e
..rl,
tr'
,.-"r
.or,hc
lb u d
r
md t,tr {rr1{" ".l.nl ." ' " rr. ,r,. ior.I ..i in.cr. 'l' "
ch0ro hnrght lllrlcy inn, contrct $ifi his son, Denretius
ir h{ (irirwold,

li,

'

Wlhrr

who wis

Yootr[ (n'issold,

i

b

plxy a lcrdi,rg prrt

ir

the corPrny\

hdllirm mxrlunaticirn and cnsineer,

M! r

lH r(,,lrl'.\1.'"..1" d"lFri,.rorT'.'ron"Y,.' l'. rr
r,d
irrt'onu' n .r,.tl-,. l, "...\'.n.nl o tr..' c l.ir,,,'','
,n
-o'..
r.
I
L,i.'
i'.tr.ira.tr1tr^l
I trll,h.trr",".h,,.
mrN[(..nLlLi'..r. ll nL ".poosiL'|..or l'.a ': - ,f'tc "o d
ll.ii{y wfutr it $] hu lt nIrIh 'tr 1,r.rql'c',
h,l
H 'Fl ^J,'"''I
'l hm \q. r ' r r,, 'i."'r; qr.i'L o. .'.
(dscritrd
bJ
bnt
rim
wis
intoducd
to
Sc\vcu
L.
Atry
!N,
IIc
ll
'[.1'\uto\.'.. .h..,
,ohtr (n ,1"..,hn.'"iq,. o:rr' ,r
'r
r'1:'
1"'"id'L'... 'J
iknr l'rsi.l" io'l.s.qpun
En
1',
rr
I oIr.d l'.0 so per
.unkJ i, ,l]r h'ia 1..'I.l'..r r B'n
F.

slor hrlro,ooo. Adurllx I thoughtdris \vrs r b.ll ofu chcck, becNse
hh cmrNry h'rd ju$ d6l cd prods ld i6e prcvious ymr oi serer
llli' ollfus, ind loc was I arom x .tfrp,ny [t hdn't oide r
rrrsrqc.' Not unnaturilly in the.i.unnr .cs, Avery reaused thc oItar.
Swi l,l(.'ds l o' l ns'\r. U.r. C.p ur ..o'"1.', In r n n
lll,ll l nnricsiorisun n 6 en tmotly tsnblins dro,oe. Tnct
nii l trrnc'/+ m' lion

l,rll.rrcr,o\or r. riEn lraf'o). .orBlB.'\ h'ni,,nJ
u N on th. nec 'r''n,J'r a' l''r. Hc rcme,..ol. I " il i'
dirootns sithcEd to seo tl]k grc.t cvcnt one sumner d.nillgir 1923.
'lhuc {rc inmcdhb problcns. Trcuble qne .Ion tu ixins

Nchincry, which sB locdnrg cirhcr too nn'ch or nn, litlc dr*ci. It $rs
hto summd 6y tnc timc thc plant *"s ro*ins oredr. Tnc sliiiwrs
rhcn doubleJ, onc rdnnirg lrom $v ir the m.hhg to tlne iir drc
0trclnoon. thc otbcr lronr thrcc to elere. !i night. nbour six nronds
lfld, tbc old Thistlc nMline x.s cn,sal dovn. Atr rtteorpt bld bccn
l Enisr iitr

rihfo rrodrL (6so,riho. ,l.h!n

pllinhotri mn.sr$tnnio{s]lbtq h

4n

r('nr rlB tsoihclituN ro{!ths, hrr rhc'lhi{lo nMlhr$ud
lm Nrch dunh, loiu nishr,'rsy$ I cnrrloy.c,rltrsrMnr lho
othc$oolrl g ld,klll ir xltlouid.d r,ul'& ndos!,'
Ahbontrhis rihc, h rl( lito rwsrtius,
c{rscdrrriirl
t, sct {p pld{.rbord m nlJI rlurs. Onc 'wodh(d
us tr lirn i Middl.scx. trtrrl
,t', h r u.h n' Dur.rl"y \' i' r-,,Nr. kl lnrrtry \ri,.ur l,1,r.t', .trtr.
,l'c ,nl(trt]r.l kq Ir' .ia{trr tri,' L N
i1d r irrF c. rc trm'
'n,iri',[
or,PiL'r uole.0r,lb((iiiirJ,,, l'hclJ\.n..;.orrl',1, .trai i
Lord o r hc olo
i I'n - F,,r' $.r ,hr . h,ul n .l.I rJrr\ ,h
'rpr
trPpeMn.e) rnh its crcm fi.c aor dircd dsontion, trxs ils, litr.
tudc

A ncrv sds mplign $a liurcncd rnd lrcmpts wcrc nNdc ro
exp.nd thc conpiny\ n.*ei fufinc. i. the sourh olEnslind, *hor
arr*r.'r':\A l-rd c, oun(rc,l ro'rr d't6.'D uirl. hc'l hr.jh',,. J
l-liey hrd o c\plr,,r"-1 . rctuturc.'r. I \i- u. re].rmrlc\ ot'l i r.,
b@rd.
arplh, h.
\rnhri;cs
11
'rr'
^ro
ound Londor-\yitnout !
ncr with Iittlc o. no suac$.
'o)8 rno rn'orh.. r'y r4ro .r sre.(r numbq ol.cf'c.pr hr .er ltr tr n,
on n iiorar.16, qoulJ r'r.el r\e coL
shr'r, or Pii-trrou.
ho'd jn n.lNca oD,h-. b
rno
b'sinAiFr F,, n, (
B t in \^rl..f.y. ''1, r, Frnb urtre ild hu'-iLI \ide:r 'h-,,+,t..tr)

\i'h de.$'

ori.d

r(

lllu

ry il
;'
I,
us.nl-EdNnoirsre' oJJ IprorN"r r.' inn'rc., Ir
.o npr,) ;tu' -cd iB.,l. anJ.h" u tr'
rle iN.rn, e \ .r.qur..t
.. an *n ol- I fcrEr.otrs. -r r' L.."h(h
o
fque
bu.i.$ nnr l'l'.
'n
imrrn e rscEr,' John C-larkl,.cll\
'I1 rl. \a) :'l! ols tlrt us.'l r. lu/ rsJL,'n bu { n d.h, i'
i0 r co' ! r'. bu (r L on! L' J olrh. tr r..,. I rhuu"hr rrr q-\
*ti,s
lor ronblc. Sponrrneous co,nbu*ion $rhd onc or M nr6 thrt woi
not, Dittely, r11 th.t bis, but thcy auscd ! gr{t de ol snolc. 1
"", -lled ovs bJ Rc' r .ir (Lcarv \. \ J r r.l- Lro peMtul'I .
t.,

h.L,o rormfllyb,e,"n E\$.o loorbill.,xhous*or(i orero' .,
htei tei:mc s.l6 nanasq. Thcy wcic ihinling oft lins out mM
q*,ial lo$ rn.u'. r... | \o!l.d o. r qhol. si6 u prcp..,, rtr,
rcw ol p.po. I w, . uTnrotrcd r r,J
P'gh Iersl,or qJ: _\tclr, qcie.oohnc ar Ln-,
Ttu .$,.r @mrJIc. "ikF," rn-r tnne'rme:l I'etr tctook J uDrnoqd:
'1.u ?sor rl'h.policic l--. n.en.youl srid,j$,Ih,oThtr
Lr sr:d ! rie Bord:'Wh . oo ,ou
sirh J ., , i'Tncr
'hrnli
.imDreE
'd tt
sr. r
..|!tri( .nJ rh. Lfin rtlrro, ys.'hrJr
I \. ,1
.hc.
'ist'he..b.
I hrdrl
trerc Etl,nc,rhour., ,J fers!.otr
id.a Lr
$id: _$.rr. i, me-n, tr?
u i",n,".a roiloo.-o,. p,oni-,a
/4o.ooo o o.uhe"ds. l LJ iu.r ad f oo,ooo no..h or i ,{rr('
'

s'

*s" uyin$,u nl-rtlton

y.rt ut
hi,'r
lik
mlur& llv
lioo,ooo '
n, h r0rr, ir $s.l(nl !, r ! ltllr inr, , l,trl'li( (o rt }
th llF." rIltriy sd trL irrs hcr.l ,'J n, rhu I'L'lJ.i{.trrlu{rv.
i nrrio lly lniw . lir nr{ rcu, L[pl,4r. trho,oirrcd rlny tllrt hdnr( n tr(nr t hl( hrlln(J'i $-llNl rnJ hx l,.r',1
B!h[h l'[n( Ilosd. l'huush,'r "s..tr,( ki.n orco\cr1r',
b cutrrDl tM mlc ul'pl,rtcr'
u r|rcl r.ndcn'i' g ad h
a nxm na irtrrl rlrlr(r or.
"'..
ln E CyFutrr Aiio.Drion,lr,l Il''h'cl.rgrhr rl.h ne".one''r
rly w,rs rtrr.Fins upnJr "i' , 'n J rhou6hr. h( k hoDe of upa iho lirnrly unrcr.hr,l m'rlods n d prcar(s ol i . ' {. Ho"
lhoy *ciu Wirl'in nv. yu rl'o''i.mLroie'rl-.clrni1E.
w, ncr{uNvc Inq' ol llugh fc,'g!{n. A.J il \rd bcei'
iry hoFhnrlnFrhry

x,irv*v

rd

had
rly rD2,n,ib.om.ob\iocrl' .nc I-EmoL hold
q'
inor populr'.n -nions,,er.. T'rd,
d I iiJiiliLmr
'no"u'.
,
prctFDn
.
.shtl
cfF
6{
rtir
rh.
ol
r.6
IlnS
"s
'Dibl
rn -d or \i. n oIe
rhml. oN,,frh. dn(ros. and I {o." mle'

urcd dis posibihy, ncithcr oithem having..y do$t thlt r srert
r. s$0hm,l. Bo'h nccdcd..or ditree, s"r",r,.R.omer.':o"
, C{lnicll{l uith noncy tied up v.nted 10 see nis slrr6 qloled on
gtel Mirkcr, rlr $oclLrckcr sJnted neq husinc$.
Tllo lioclUroltr, rra.old Brett, oa Eu6ei Nicholson s oI Shcmcld.
ld Drcnl visns io walhsey anJ mdde tdrul rmrcrches to utrsh
n c cco'ti.\ "-i.
tlru{on. Fcrsu$n trr p-hrrr erfl lpriv(.
_o
toul hh rbslu.c Do'c. o'i'L .ub;p.' '!. .otilL po.e' .',dJ
n.l ihircholoch iJ l-e soul'l !J 'vL: \\c l .ee, '0J rl'h,ugh i'
u luvc ben obviout thrt . Dpid influx of.tpjol rvould eisttu BPD
fittci fulurc, he .oniinued to hssititc. Then one d,y in litc 1932, thc
ll,rotcr iou"J h,tucll'i i \.'l grtr'. .mJl roo',,.olooLj rg'lc
ry!l$rlly! G' nic' rel. .ni rg r ir.rermed J) trdsrggb'ed
lht 0notlrq, nor didr, iplrMch vould not be entircly unvdcome,
tnd 0 culious on&odirtion beNvccn thc stockbroler and Fcrgnsotr took

q' P_rsM' o" rhr o0.B'c','em.abs'\rr e
"dt
hny\ oflii6 beins knosn th{ he ss chrllsged in ,his nry:
'Yo!ennrvc,,,pbo.cc ltom heE-ttt yon mus,d sry the nanc
Dhc.. llrro'J

ot thc onprny, vh.i jt m.k€s, its opitil, fts tmnt, or its 6ses, If
you scm _o bo ri'n'1g.r uv olr.'e,e 0" .-,o'E ur\ iirdrrils
shc( you nc, lou ll bc r o{ immeJi'ely.:1d DO\T COME
BACK,'

A nflui. s d lrvc h, rlr kN$l mpitd, rho tmntu rr not nstt
ill nff flolch ki ooc Nl rlt ennc lisuro lllcu prr ih I'iN o'll ro
SncHicld xnd thc'r i,n[Mcd r {aincd in$nc .on!*drion. Stri llr.lil
sure

l[dFlio,tr cD

rmrllry,

i{

irc,l$ritl, hd {d iltr

DuLl

n rl[ omrrD { ,irDcs

krtr*r

by tho lKh,'si,ldr qnn un t.
! rif tho

no,nk nnnkh dy uduu

'Cyril, I wnt you to du t dc l.'

'1'd not dlowcd

ro tctl you.'

is.ll

this aboutt'.sk€d Brctt's

olldsuc. '18 yo(

Brctt repued wenly: 'l'm tesinnins to {onder, Btrt hk tncsc li8tr' ci
dosn. A comp.ny is n.ting, san Ir@. y6i its qitrL ir trroo itr
slar6; net jsls .re Ir@ too.'He co.tinoed:'I $h.r yutr r,
undcltake to bly 6qooo
sh.B tor Grr lrTs,ooo-bnt

{r
"1

h.l y@

Ir

sell ba.L to

ne

o6e

'(c'N

lalfoftlem d r pioit of{5,o@

'l've nder nqrd ol dythhg lile this id ny life, tut let's

to y,ntr

go over

tlr

l buihs posc q iur. h" wG no* ,c."1, lbr.' r.'i* orr.LMveF
mrl!trdoliotrs thrr woulil shrkc rl'c iiduiI],
Ill t dr(iii n.Il'.uq\, ss ro LrD.'nd hr o.ntsDB. Upto L''
,lH tun cr or gyf.rm, its prcdlcuon rrJ. ' i t g'cn c\.cnr. ib
iuo 6ie iin'l i,,\c Nilh-trc{ Wr.lr rr rnoun,co roa rnfl '
llon whid, he r,lcspo,.,o( rorni ir'u'i'erord,eco(1rr.
oi lhal lhc comrnry tris quored un'L e S'ork \,{'rte., \r r (6
I,!d $ tr c ii mot propcrly nation,l 6 a encon ms to ctbtlish
h rb{ sL ro op r,o'h_
u inh.a of inrlu.ncc Ine rn."e,
q.,e'
,,.,,,i1anount
or _,"1- rs
ry, ii lhc $urh o'tnRhno.
iil rhc Thons. r snc ms clDsen st Erith ird. in Iqn. it vds
dod to sp dhod ind put . plaster and pl6tdl@rd plant thcio. It
r bold no{c {nd. cbdlense to otiq glrlsun conpaniB.
ldy Bclller, sifc of l,ord B€lper, who hatnc.hdm.n ofBP! in
\o' r' rbemrn{\' rrr
!,6ncc"did o l'llgh F.lgu o" 5,

fu r LliE(oreys r'os:
'subjcd ro r rcpdi, tell your nFtdjous fiiends thrt ve vill
60,00o shds on thc rerN yo've given ne, tut , , ,'

fie oi, sitnourr doubt.!sE,nh'

6ny

Not \6iting ld tuithq onncnr, Brett tlunlfully slanncd thc tdF
phonc dom a.d tuning 6ide to Fergusoq sddr 'l knoir you ll nur
Eo b.ck oD you vord. Now let us stdt a nordal del by tlghoDing
ShefreLd asain, $ th1t yo! cm iate you prop.r ,lacc in ncsotiations.'
stiu ilther usure of{hrt h &tuilly tilen tla.e on thc telelhonc,
Fsgnen s.t quietly for a ninute or two. Then he cmpbne.ied Brct
!!d told Inn to go !hod, The next morning, Btds Shcfrold couc.sus
rvqe iD Walhsey, Not lons.fter. BPB {.s l nchcd on io the Stock
The MdLet sd n6t sulpdsed. A cmpa.y wlich had hiddetr ia
li"hi rnJer r ocre'rrsrdderJy lound ro hr\e rcr pmm,ins DNi
tilinB ror dprnsion. One aonune or ovd {r nn[on vs m.de tnin
. very slort tine. Two nore nn[oMircs wcre crated ftq the bl.@es Rhich lollo*ed vnhin i year or so. The finmcid pB sd
deligbtcd at this iay olsu.shinc in. $ndrlly sioomy @nomic sly. 'r\
r8

19

lietdes io prodlce daster ar Erith mc . c, mons pisms, rle
th.ro thr_ u.' c u nermoni@ ,1, ru{ed by dugh Fergu$o belongd
. dbprri_c gr oup o'gylsuh pmdxes I orm,n, ) ean, tne 6) psr rn
$c shall .s-rE in mo'e derr hrd cdiull, buil. rp Lheir
tltions in the Noith-se*, rlc Midlands and the south*6t. M6dn
@pais racnod back to tte nineteenth €ntuly. They hd

6

ov.lopedrdmrehu'shipui'helrno,t,ullyrhe@mlrrusqse

s

mjly @n@rnE
fdiliB in the

ho

ftdned

syp$n so*ed iato $e bistolhs

and

tliditlons ol

n6! intin c wy. Br vbile the coftp3nis hrd tM
s indruial .d\ enturB by troi oftu.y Ji{er1r hetgoJrds,

It u8, by the 1936, widdy lelt rhat tlc day of$ch rdveDt!6 sls pr$.
Th. intqlops ss res:rded siih thc deerest slspicion Bhen tre (.s
,nL.n seriously
l. Both the ounm od ile v6lqs hld Nrtded
dmost m instincl rc sypsun; for where it ss to be lound, nos bst to

lt

hrcd, A0d
Duqrc
ri {riLrlrkliriur ruc[ nr l[ir
oi(.llc.rii's, Slrt s, Gy|snr MirA xl orhul, idlourly gu rlul
hc arhnd, hdv ooNt c0ocrively r,, [c
cduli doNr ry,I'cMiriF rhc.dchct ol'

its oun ri{,csscs nd nlcN.
lhc pladcr mrnu&.nm* Ndc gtuul.d

itrr slrnlgd imsoudrMrds lmN

h rlr& nrin

Cmlislc i s.cond ly, irr

rLFi,trNi lirrl,

i iirihrruri.

cnclc round rhc villigc of GorhaD, ncir Nortinghur, rith rn orri(u
to thc c6t.t Nc"drk, xDd modr( to thc trcst it lnuldj ind rhir(ly. ir
Susscx. Bc.ven thcn, thcy scNcd thc rvholc munty \vith gyDstrtr
Thcrc
nncnsc rimlry bctwen thc omDinies. pr iruli'1y \rir[itr
prNtrt trrir((l
thc individnnl regions. But arcmpls nere
c
aront. The nro* su(c$aul oa thsc attmrts rc\ulrcd, nr r89ot i'r rlir
IirmltioD or rhc G$sum Asocixtion, latc. ta hc duibod "1 hc liriy

,$

thie.c, r

m t,

"..o.r,"" "^

h.mcJ

ro

"n'

r

b.nir,,,,t

'Jrr,,.tr
pLies, tonsport ntcs, tqns of bdins, somc rcgdlti.ns or nnN
xl
cxporb, nnd to si\c thc gypsu,n tndc a onvcnidt rhy oa Jcrli,rg {irlr
ilrhcnrnnl[
othcr t!'le a$ocidioN. Tn. Asecirtion, in fict, ldcd
y
r93o! ind did l,craom nany usctul functiom. Bur *orics irc sill
oI thc icqucnt lclings of ill{,sc adong dr dsocirtcs.
O, r -,,-l 5r, a'Lr orcol h tr,mb6 ua.oL,.gcd.o rnn.pr ir'
rel in loxddd iigotu on 1 lioc tlEt clN.d r sidnrg bclongins to i rn il
I1c 6^t
{xs 6dlcd diat it \16 losing tridc. Brfllcd ntrdl it rliF
.ov.i.d tlat ns rieal $as Dorilrg rlic nam6 and addrc$qs ol !h. consigncB nxrtcd on rhc sigons ind o,Icrins them cut priccs.
Thc selc ol drcir opcotions rvas $ill 6np!D1ive\ sm,ll, rhousl,
throngh thc 1928 itv6 cxpitrdins.ln 1923 thetohl pl'st salsolill
thcdsociitionompanieMs r35,o13 tons. By 1929 the rnnulsles hxl
rcrchcd 186,276 tons, olwlich 02,620toDs \rcre na.dsall phfer.
C.mpanis @ntibukd r lery into a ccntrl lity. Iftne tade ol ono
conplny s!ffcred, it tmk lion thc lrittyr 6nve6e$ if it gain.d olcr r

tr

s

u

fto

c

ftin anout, it contitutcd norc. Uniiom pde ats {crc o*.nsiLrly isEcd bctveen thc neml'er Lxnrprnies. One fornd ncmbct
recalls:'Thc otcb-rhnse ss: "every6ody busb cverybody ckc nr i

nrcctins oltnc !$ociation nntil. ol.onrsd, ]'oo get oubido." It rery ms
a lot ol tnn.' Tnc ncn$ers \ould
hotel in Lccds, Dcrby oi
\,ls'. F.ts,. ,., . ') r \rrry tr'hosphtn. h.' itrrc'our . sonh, mouon
Dut then, as a,nehber says: 'Yon would go dong to2 ostonrer and
roti.c a poculiir sm.U and scc r hugc sdmon sittins on . sideburd.
Sonc rikt had bccn bcaor..'But thc s.nrc nenrber saysi 'If lnerc
Iadr\ tco rn asocintioD, rc should h.rrc icen cutting sch othels

n*t rt.

T[c riv.lry w$ toush. tholgn mostly liiendly. it Nould bc unfin to

tho

Asodrrl

u{nDinh{

mmDlmncy, htrr sl,qt roiFuotr

'f
, x, xNu F rh r\i, , u itrrt'{ir , r' intt,tr' gyfq n li nr
d., rlF ls, -irri" uNsnt xutu rruF[r (..tr'rldrl( I'y rrrn(
''ll's

rlr l"r ui ni
h.nrb$ I trtr nl -N,'l'li.hrt lnnr i,rv.
diln''
t.tuq .i lllr .r
tr
l,i
,,1
h
Lntr
,ollN xil'(ryn!(', "h,{
'
rr Ercq'r" J nind
Itd$un, rl'u m:i{ ss str,rl(.Irr ,911.
',,'i',l(tr.
, r'-ir in
.rlcimr.l ullJ ro' i hctr pl.'nr, rn"
'dcJ
tI

ol lhslind. At thdt rnnc, opctrtn,ns in rhc south verc confocd

Onc ns,trr

ir

Ilish lloll,o r.

'n.r".l

Lo dor Tau

rcl

NrE

Thc
i {ir his ollcisuc, AiLhlblld llJrlex .uuthw.trds.
:.
ri."
rr,i
rii"y
rr""a
r,,,iiiii,r:-El
ll,iiiiii.y
"':r'
lu' " lo' g enoJBh
forn,i r, l'. .rrifmcn-., F ir {o ld tror .'l.os
_'har Hallc'
a.J
ucton linc. lr "as, L'r, n. L,E, rl. m'. bJ
nn.n(d oi ii old irb$ ir L nn, lo'tr (rll Fed b Vh{s. lr I '
ii-ril wr ir hrd ben IeJ f, rh.md xc1,.u"rrJ_trecrr I
mw rlD6t dcrcl'. r. rl-. bu"ding $ ^ nf,.l b) . -'rLr,J.r - '
rhirfthd iDstintly rppelcd toFcr$sn. ft * rlrcwht ,tqthrl

lhc crucid fictor in inc dclclopments tnd trcrc to follor. 'fhc
| los .:tr'rrd o ob.'1r der "11
hrl0trh iine ou J b'dry qr'
:.so 1rte.. ry rn.qJip' qil'r1_
lcndll.ncd.
l'
hrd
to
be
h it
b cr0ncs ind ancilhry mclincry tor tne ldgd slips thrt wodlJ bc

folgirsol l-"J FeIo Noq 5."'a rnJ lrd o nple eJ J . -y s 1i6_
int da lor tbc ddnoy ot syrsnn to soutlFN Englmd. 1 hc dcil
lnvolvcd thc shiDpins oa slTsu s nilhst lron Canada i. ships th.t
uld ciEy rno mic proftatlc+o the C.nrdians drhrxcitc fronr
loulh Wal* b k rcrc$ thc Admtic. This dcd Ms rery vdtrblc to
lPB N it mont tb.t slDse corld bc brouslt striisht to r pli*rbord
d.ntd01 ,Dorccub[o\ rpn'rrtriildel.enJ v'o4lor r..: i' r_
in Enqlnh ;ii,,c,.';" o*,. omp.tr-,tre.j c \' s \'lo,nuclo.
8umcx. Thc irnpon l]"m kn"d' or r.-eo J"'l rh. o,6tr.nr! o-' e

'To nrm* ue. hbl:.,m.'r

t" prn'. o !' tdsp' r ..'
ruLdd qi'\. mi' ao'
Thc DlJnr "- tu podlc. plar
'nJ
\.ori,'r F' oPcaDoc$si;rs rFc slf { r ro.L rh.,. orr i' ".a Nor.'
s lons 6 ad o 'ld b. E.er i lor,l. ol..'
ilon sould b_ ntu
'bbk
r"N.
\r
6'{,
ol course rh( .,r.
I6!t 7.ooo
- q r iif r" L.
'm
"rer
-'hc
ol
L
buil.
Jp
uscJ inmeouhlj, rnd r h' sc'to(r ril'\
"'unrd'
yas,
$ft
rmzcd
to
*e
mployes
llt l.ctorr. One dry, in the eaiy
ol I tr

thc

wtdhsmr

r. nmvc.'l'hc iqr tlitrs sM rlmr rll! rih
Ir ,.\ihty $ rk ti,D tr hcirlri"t'.rt,;t io troi
Jn{ir.rs rirr 11*ii{iillrnxIttr]r i.rirtj. tr\ Fiirh

ir r rl'( nLtrnD

gn{i

r,
$ rtdF{,(l nnlNrrly,ar $svr.
h hto
dlsigtr wut ur rhc Dcw phtrt llc{ in r rNritr[ riliit
'rr2i
rwnL\.r.
\tr,'r.l',Nq,rlns,{'rl,uJ,{Li$(rug,th', (ni,$, t

!1.'qi

,,Ji.,t.ol.r r t,r.iw.,t. ur,.,r..rhc,f..t.trj .,n ht,.tr ri,.tr
,a . ..le r,J r aoJ+r n'r
.i{tr.('it,ih,r
' lh\..tr,Innh1"
snciinB Didc it difiotr a.. hin
to himc$ nimsclr'to rhc disci|tirr
ol,lr.ro-d.v \r i e,,,tri.'i,J.i,.n I'..1..r. n,h r . (trrt(L. . n, trr
r..\ -r.d rAs',.,i.c, l' !.'ioli .r tr r !,t. ..,.J . tl
'o r'Ic"*
do,in"
tq.otr.l r,t, llual, fc LL.,' h. J "r.I.,', I tr',,1", rt,r

1

d;ptri., I
trm I S. i,,..r, (.,i.,
l'.'rn \L .omc lo.rbqi5 IL tr. trr,oSr. i',,^}pI'muCt t., ( . . I,tu .nit
rpo',
.h. f' .j.rtJ tr qs- .hu. q.\ droDut. tt, \.r rtrtr
'r.Lcd r, hrln on'
T dc'q', x'd'h. I o, h. hurJrirc I uojr,r,n r.,,
r
pc.:Di'h o

''l

n

\ {.igr,ne.on.(

IcE nc^ Il nb.cnb.,

f

..

Bu.

trc,lu,'

o..r

c,

in

O.'ot,.,,,,,r.

rn clcq.) ,o \ Jlie rL" tr< dc rsr wo't n.uan 1, I \ ir tr ..t
he I r..l' r 'lhL,nFpte.eo.o{tr \t, I
r -.M nom V. G iei m'..
'nr'l

on(qmJ!.Lo E ed.rh"dr.,\*wo ns?4\a'rrdr 7J.r.
b,nl d6 trUins r' 'b.(r mt rlun J J te odn.,:..
'r',T -fl h. {' l'.' rine, Drod ..ion
'
^n rnn,ga "br' Jo. .,-r,tr.
-eel. Tlc

hrd\ ol horrn r;,!
' r., rr r."*1. j" *" ot,'
f'o.id.Jercrc.i.r'orh.d-ou.,1,...on n'. s oor.'l rerbr d,.'^ ro'l,l b,,@ n cn 6.!Ji, ! Tc L,
r.i lu , o_F \o.k uhen - s\it,rn- rn thc n,oJ ,,,uU (\,,
(.nrloJ -d 15,.ncludi e rhe c.m.d '.+.' Thr
qhtr r r!'cr,r.
"rs

In tlc fter.tinr., Gyproc ?tu'luc6, a joint venturc bctrro ,lr
r..rllc^ C- ,r , ann CL,Ji' rnrerc s (s. l
t-d rcctr 6ri

bl',ned, ) n!.b! Ro.l,(.'.'. Tle ,oJo. a.c pr, to'rmb\ rhc,r t,l
betlvem D}]r and Gyproc, lad the two gi{rs oftne industry. Cuiosti
enough, lhe aryucnG &on thGe d.ys .botrt thc Elativc nerns ,;l
CJD'oc Jtul Bl,B I'm.J..tur .h. r;, n+rs r.d clib'. or qo,L
acop e. :rc $' I \ ., mlth xh.. dNPtre,-l,tq..nr A.nr" { . cr..

l'1 .6sii'.o t iouno r.J" ls' r.n borh Ir rhrnLRo"h-{er Lr
-' u"..n olbdl .'s -dor,.' r'n: Btotrortrr rhr,rrts,r o
.l rhe , imDD r.
ft wouli bc e,n" ii.,e, boyc,cr, beaore I techB drythins likc N
1r

pcsoml.s

at Wallttrc)

sluld

is.. Onc mployee s.ys:.Wilt

{yhadr

.lNsfluo iodNd Ir ws i Io kl, rlir, {irh sv.ryt dy
bd trd rlB u rlNtry, svullx y sN dclishhd i, vo* hddc
d.r,I cvd lilr rl t li h l d d,csunc{r o{nuu,trtlus lnlil

t.r l.crywr tn,k tr lE*.ndl i crcst ir his lirith vc u!u, l,cou{
llft.l ir lqihriu i,no.n(ncc ii rl( irdnsrry. 11! is (mcmhdcd
Idlopl rthnir Nrkcd.rp, olidn plsiiglnnori..d throngn dr
Fto, It i{ l{, r$Uil rhii lt' Ln.l ro irl r\r nl rny, rm l.o'n
lro riilvtry stition r milc rwry, rntl drt hc ,l$lys srlkcd. From
tl, Itryniun Lnctr rhrr L'i't ru_rh l'rgl6h gyprr'l.onprricc
rrllroy, 'llirlcy,' hc siid to his collesnc onc diy lookins dr his

E.rd tru','sid

J. N. Dqbyshire, ch.irnran md principal sh ed.! ol'dk Go$am coDpinn to his cnrployes one dly in r93j,
hr. i,ht u,n, u,jr.l r m., snis doq trr-n8e,nei .' T,a'ins ,"
Dn, hc ontinucdr 'Nos, Philip, yor ll t.te these chaps out aor
bo tilmoncy on buy.'
ll wt iided, ror borh Dstyshire .nd Hlsh Fqsuson, a ost eti$
hry imngc'bcnt. l. eguson had g.ined, by take{v , one oa the oo*
Fo int B ish gypsrm onimiei lro! iis pirt, Derbyshir had po
.l drc intcrcss ol nis snsrenoibs
,osrible onDetition ,n
"s.i.n
phsc.
Iron Eitb rnd had converted inet shfes in tle
i c of
lhm Conpmy imo BPB snsres, whi.n sere nurkebtle rt i good
lco o! thc London Sto.k Dxcl nsd. Tne 6is nisnt otrt aor the enco ctrdcd { thc Ald\rTch Thote. For rergNoq . hlc-ovcr spicc
jus sttldcd. He hrd rcqnncd r sr$$andd toe lold i. thc gyp$o
TIE power rnd influcncc of rhc Gotham Conplny hid sDGd ovtr
h0jor,treso(Bril'in'\. \,lidlands rrdih. \orrt-r6'. lr rrrn
c,c rqo scs rlD( tr qas ba\cd. bur .r had llnr...'cd i('o r 6rfsn'
' aLr.nc
our .rl too. Lrch ol n- hornc Li' hrd
tlldc d$ hse m
'hc

Thc Gothln C,mprnysE iNorpo#ed in Dccenber 1897, t*ins
owr another @np!ny, tbe Vidofi Miner.l and li.ster Gnplnl, of
Nodn,tun. " se 'n{llmouns or pl!.e! ere n,,oe f.om aoiJm
ddiv.Ed iom rl-e CFbe r,ine rr Co hm I'[e Co h.r aonp ' ! srr
foundcd hy Job Nighd.grle Deibysniie. His f.frily had been yeonen
firEds in I&ston, Dobrshirc. Jo6 DobJshire (lnown to lis lrhnds
& J,N, and to his intimtes !s Nighdngale) h.d gone to Notingh.n
.bout r89o dd lomed r nm ofa(ountanrs sitn nis hotner, Sduel
P.tricl. Thc accounbncy 6rn ol Singleton, Fabian, Ddbysbtu md
J. N. Ddiyshne nrvolvcd hinsla in a sic.t nmy conpanis

d

.qr

I,,!.r

ptri

tTnlrou:J

r!

rlftnb,

pJmbr?

tlI'8.sr rn.qs.I unsdl

u, pJts,rarnr .uF q n,$uq uo$rqot ldml '.ls!,)

nr sJmDg
nouloltrtdulorr 4Puliro $a rl 'uo€r Jql
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t6,/ .L u.ll .! un(nis ri' o",deDo 16,. f I l, !..t tn5n Hohes b
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hNincss vi\ in jcoNrdy,
o)uld rpDoint i rc.civer. tiinbl. not
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lhcy could ot rglcc amons themsclv.s Rhr the autorc dircction ol' thc
str

rk\s rhnr

(n,ftl'rL,..{IV.'xIl,Frd

T
conrpuy shonld t c. -;nble belielcd 6ri ttu l,est roludon yN to scll
dr {noL ud&hl{ins to thc crpsun .{$o.ird,n. 1r s6 lolt tlnt l.n
4 complex onmtnli.n oa n€ople ud intoc$s colld only lc rcsol\cd
I'y r, e
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'nri,..'ed..'.n.ri'n.r'J.i,
n', blr, "^A1.... aoof , ir nl er r. tr'.rdl/',-, I rlc B.'nt of

Dnghnd, but no

li.blc sohtion nid

been

lond vhcn

tne

$.r brolc out

i.d vifturl[ ar% rll ransrcriotu. ln lune rqr6, a consortiun. nhhh
rnclnd.d I r{r!1.".
uoh.r c,ap-.,. .rd J. C Sb1,, qs
'h.
e(e...
forn. d. rnJ,Fr .,i.{n rl |he r ..rh..e Lr. r,J I ea.nt
Compmy snDuh be hkcn old bJ rhem. Negotiitlons lx$ed n.Dy
montbs, pmhrcted by thc dim.dhi.s ol the \yrr. rhllsiJ thmush,
Carmtr's and Sraton's bckcd out. lervins only cordd i" ;h;
Thrnks, pcrluts, b thc pcLsntcrEc oa]. N. DdbyshiE, bnt al$ to r
B€nerous hcldrg ol the lortuncs of *r. the ompmy ms dtrly blen

j ,F .onl.-r,.,,, rl. I h\ oJ.rtlv .rnl.
'"
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or rl.r r ( orn'hcs?s\iJ,.'prkdror ,; I r.
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woi{ in dE mircs dDd,nills. lhc fice undcfi inqsIdbuiltnp"t[,o
thcir
Thc -"'osph

os,i J'.'.ul n..tr'. 4,. r",sffi,ormi',,q-.le.r.r.,... V
rt' .nJ,, rl r',,.4 r8 !.'.'l " - uorlo Le .to,. (o \.-.
"!rt,n;r.
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fh.
.
q
n
.,J
t,.r.k
d hr'd
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EJT\'
r,
'd..'l
in drc Midlands,
\yo'.tcE wallicd Fcrt' disoccs'oot
ro gcr io \.*. It is

ru$ll( rhir.rL, I'Iff]t ss!(ll, *illtc(li
lrnn rrtrk

ii

'llrc IJrg

ho ck'lts irri',g.lo yrirs
N1lg

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rl,r

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dif.tuntnnro\$ouldbc:'Whrtd'yodrhnrkolrlttu.krl$:'lIcrc|lr
{rs Nuxlh: 'Ii',l hrv. bcm Lctcr ifyou hadnltrtu syN0m o0t.'
Condnnns w(c ftir\ $nnnivc. h h rcnrcnn crcd rhd it KDorhill,
thc drinkhg $atci \ras uko to tbc $oits in tlo srlMnhcd buckets hy
i hllaurncllcd lo.omotivc $rt {ould tmrcl doryn thc sift smdieDt
Iro,n tn! {orls to CorcniU $rtioq rylcro it fick ut thc v.ter. 'l ho
l€o dubtcd CnuBI g Bilb lould th.n chus bnck up the srxJionr,
thro}i1re o[ cnrdcs rd s@t all dound, not ]est int, rne drinhin!
v cr. At thc tot oa dre hill, tl)e lucteB Nse trhen dIt 4 forcDxn
rion ovcrclxin,s xln,ut

tlnre li'rdluls oa ortnreil int, thc \yrtor ind r
it{ith rlwcl nvis. Theresult o,udhxvebeen unspertrblc 6u! rcrlls
rft *"s net,'
onc old h rd:
[y pxrdno hmts,
Thcre vis.o electi.ilr yet eitbor. Ligbiing
"as nni. \rnh $rnrs
(hicl, ir .e iiy ftre qurrt nill dns nl.d Nnh
*u.h in the t,r. Sml,ke s, nlhd th. ln th.l n bc.mc nrgrnrcd nno rle
rrin. Manr x wrker Rxs nighly cdtfu.J$cd to ,rd dhr *Icn slishdy
$rqrins rt x drnce, his fuc woutd bc skcrkcd rvnh bhck mr*s. '1he
vonld thcD drot n

o or

L ri rrfiiri Lr.,i,1,t t.)on!.rro,,.tr,6c...our.

-c..1

t6ru$ it into tnc turc grp$m. Morc serions nriuies verc dclli(ith
l,y the a.r.mn $ho lcpt r bottlc olctrIolicojl in r srecn cupbodd on
nre wall. llc simtly tlcrv thc dust or tlre bortle lnd opplied it, in,l 1hus
?nd

no{ rilhcrts $ff. kutcd.

dr

hpsc of thc mnrc leise n,H thc udeit,fins w]s
xundon d on dE hk+over by the Gothu Conpxq. th. Long Nlcg
nnrc ms re-opend jr r!22 for anhydito Fonu.don by 1. V. Bn xll,
dDbydrn bcnrs rmlied to tlre lDrrsill Chcmicrt *.1Lr Ilillinghmr
Snptlics rsiin$ tlis contrd werc disconrinn.d rl'out 1926, wh.o
qnartitics olchert gll)sum hnd been dposcd.l ho Long Mcg PlNcr &

Ioll.\ring

MiNid C,m])r.y ms aorDed, and ! plltcr trdc rvas luill W to
trouDd 2oo tons lcr set Jrich yrs distriLrtrtd thiough bnildcs'
NercluDts who *se n.t ognised 6y thc trdc Nsocirtions. 'flrn

tEde ontirued util i94o, \rhen tnc phecr milL {is closcd follo\vins
the acqlisition olthe.omprny l,y BPB. Bcnvcor 1916 itrd 1919, rhe
Lons Mes lhsier & Itineml (tr,nFn, ilso oNntcd x smrll plster
pl.tu .1 Faateden l,i\eryool.
<.n,fn.,hr., .. L, Ill." r"c,rro i' l'. rudlt'r.n.'e
'fhis $rs iA. rB?onsihihy oa thc orinins ensnrccr, 'li,m DurnJn.
cmri,gxnd

d iifihcriiishd hmids i

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lr
wis
not
unnsrl
lirx
ro,Lomn
t,
dNdrp
i
nighly lrrAonrl
n,i,ro,l

ttrrl

r$
,$f
;iiii
i!.

Fii

irrrchnrtrt n, dt lirn,.lt is,arcmbc(t thrt.nonr!..isi,,nx nrx.nino
rtr(lcrrlod l)rrl lnr nril$ t, thcrhnton. S urdx.y nighr iJchc.[ his
nrchi'rc. Ii xtrs ils, in tho n rt6 M$ (hr somc ol Gc mijd no\ d.r
nr \ G$ liu) trl rh..i prti. lxrly h rhc dNcl.,prc ol C nc
lirint \oisl,r ph{u. 1hc str.c.sr ol tlis
d c spc.hlly b rlr
"asdirctur nr dr.
ctrurtrrgcrut ol D.rck Drmcrcll, nrn.sn{
l)o*-wr
f(nd r( aiorbN, drd to Jl.k'tonncls tirrorcns scunrg.

Ilcmrvhilc, rs fic noith.n conrpuies wdc bcnrg rberb i| thc
Ooilm) Comtinr, DerLFLnc fas conso]1dtu g lis ,osnion elsc
$luc.I| MrI r9r8, drc G.ihrm Con,pary uquired rhcl)erb! llinct
C!upiiI'l hiscorpm!Ias bxseJ (ihclL!$on, l)o'ty!hi,e,nl,e'can

.-..tr,'.1.i

bn',,,u.,n,.h.

'fhcE arc r(o'ds ol m onn.binkLldir r+r9l
I)erbl l'h$d (ionDxn\ su|Iliod rtu htrilding xnd Iolt(y ! i.los *ith

.trt
,Jt\l ,.,..1. ,.,1 tr.i
in Y.rkshirc |ollo*n,s his con\idn,n Gxt tho lotur hJ nr h: \xll
ph$or, D!.b)slir lcsrn to uduliL.t rc lR *xll phncr chcllxnon.

t,,.c-t..,,

tl,.

IIo rlvJ ticd to r$nc tu iln,ricr trdc. l,ut n *xs n,ml tlnt rl,c
rlxt*tc .orld tur mt longcr lc c\t.cl.d h lig l,bcls. -l'lc itu dd
rork $.J. doscd nr t9j3, dr ,ndrll.trc ol l,xrdirxll fh{.r hcnrg
trnsldr.{ to GotlNn, xnd rlc I ut.ry l[st6 bcnrg rrld ovu by

h

Io rhc n,cfln,Dc, Goih.m
rcqriild r nin! rxl n,iLlon lcrschold
nF)n. ,^ prtr olrhe nrill rus n\cd for miti',9lirNiirn
Idnd ii
Rcds, tr niatu'a olS'onDd gyfluo, ind iur oxnlc, Ncd Ii,r colouring
$onc iqrs lhi\ orirc nnrdcd on a rcr'-r lis lcpo\it inlccd. .\hhoush
Gonr.m somc,l DrniinF thm in r9.lo, thc srnc lqro\n $xs cxploitd

'lh

t'+r Ji'iirfl Jrrdi,ru hy , t'(r lr,trt'nar,. \t,(rMJ\ tinnr rt,,n
\rLlrl,,.rtri"(.,n,1l{ ( lr','..i\rr,r'rlri' tr.'n,i,i':u',( hl,N).
\41'..,ii,. r rlk 'l'1..tr' f'. tr ar ( .n, {ill r.irr.. i.;' r,, ,r. t. i.
'rn.'.rl.1rl 'l' r 'l'. ntr r. ,, J.. 1-,r
iur{, 'l'.r.fun,r

'"trn(.,rir r,i,.(,h.{(i"
5i. "-,., ",.,,t r' I t,'i t(r.,u,t,t,,t
.n
,l.ir" r- rrr u,h. ,.,.,'.i,... a.,. t,,. rt,.,tors,n,t,
.,il '-'l. loig. l' .,l'o.nh'r.'rr LRr.. . th. r.cor i'.
r,{rLjns u\ed m (hu rrund clou trrJldr
'f '. oo\-ho'lJ $1' .orsoli,r",i,i he('ot,i L.rl)lnr.oot
iD 6r. aqrthcr rcqdsnmm: thc Bozbin nine ir v6rno&;, ul

Thoms

Mcchict.Ii

March r9r9, thc.omrDny rlso Lolrnt rhc rrce
bi.kyird nr Noltj.qnxm.
Hcr) B. n1r, 1..'d-,r'. 0x,,'.,r;.li,,,rrrf r. \o,, Bd (j
rtr K, lhr 'ore. \\!'. , . J ,d. r rq8o \r.ni , Jr(d i' rt".rl
b\
'd,os.lr' J rror1...' Ji. i

hold oa the CdlroD Hill

h.,.jh"r,.u-r,r.r.H.-,r"qorn,.I'squi.,.$.r,,,,,J"
j,i.cd,t.r.o, n r tr rirjr.r,unI r

*u1, i r.gulrr tusincs with l,ilkingions, drc g.ort siis conccrn. 6ad
bccnbuihuI, Lump sl.psun would besuDDlied dnc.t. to be calcincd rt
St Hekns, nnrc n nas nsd lor llxrc sta$ lotkni.g. 't'hc .uu,prny
$rrtcd to dctivcr srpsuu to NIcclic's in rq2{ md thi lcd ro un
pLxsint litigrtior. Nhen corlum bok ovo ihe irorzm. ni'q drcic
.n' r tij (\,., r, q (1.&iJ.'-! \Ir' ('. jmrid , ut r ,trd "rsr
".
lo". oe[\.,d11,,R@.'.ntru - 'o,r.1r'. \llcln., '

$at dre i(k had celscd ro bc sunrhh. A brerchot.onr.ciflit
ms nld, rnd woq h! Gothlm, rvho suc armrded {r,4oo in Mnch

d[.cd

Slonl

xfterxnrds, M.Cnic\ wlich, it vill bc Emenbcrcd, snplicd

BIBsib-1. e rr\t l',...q..cDLr'o\, bJC" rtr 0)',1 ii.,.,
Er;l r, u,8.., i' ',tu1con'-o ot \r.cL,(i r.d r.n,,J,',.
trcso,.,.io'.rirI'e.rlc{\. r d'.lut jcor,,,nn,1(. or,ning

r ' .lsrl n.he \drl.-s-.'. -f ,. r, ov-h.i,1 rh. '. s $,
in his ctcuhr to McGIic\ sharcholdcB in *ii.h he reconnnendcd
,ocpho-.o''\ Gorh.,,l!n'np"nr'nic-,po d.' rh. L, .uIot.
evJcre \l,Ct.,,o .c (rb. nr l. hpr'dniJr,r on n ordnr)
.l- '.. ,l.o. g xir' \'l\u
corr. 1 . ;, .M Tr , J. D.."( L,t,,
r I r {.r1. tr .. r 'c hJe'i'.Tnr d ondah_rd\,i'r',,' r\,i.l
\ J i'.d a L,i! rnu' :o".n.l'cro'rl.u L,qrno.s,or1n. r,.ll.e
".
h .1-hor.o...l),\.,r'l(
r.'d"nr..rFLDc-o.s,irh'Jt,hlJr
on. It hr,] ben n ronDctition s l, Iir iin.,.h,. a..rkr.
\l.Ul :rhdih-r."orlqli.!rr .h.rirq h",,.{,,oi,
DPU
',d
r,d "n.lhr..h 0PD" lhh...0"..b,',.Vc.t,r\rh,J,U
plttstc . GolIurs hkc{vd irould m.an dur 'r'6itde phstes rouid be
r

rnrtidsulitr rl'0 Mirllrn(lr s NdlN ir rhu Ndh rlrl,i$Nrsclo lv
r) lrl'll 'lhis cl('su (tsot'ur i( wnr ov crr$ r(t !i
Or h n, rl ilrhotrsh tul ids s.r. sr r, h notolrh! h.e, rlr 6*)
olrrtr|' ricsJirlcH)D0r r rhr,rtrh rlt hrc rqzos xl.dly r)los, so rlnt
o.. rl'( u.rl.r.r rl tr Inil'r,l tr.tr" r-tr li.'
hy lhu 1,lJl,',,1 rl r
outrnr, \ \r' lrl'lr'l'..r tr!^,,{ rhc,,..'(r."n't'. .r$.'l Lc.rb.cqu."
hkH,vcr ol'(nnhtrr hy lrPll in r9r5 nutrt thit thc Mlcs ol thkdc
nlnny n1l Il'\ (-..(',.r! ,i J or .lll -'orc .lo.c ' .g'.r(o
(i, hn, s^'"T'(,,1.,{'-'..cr'n'l} ro r c"'Jc... I c} or co
th. lirsr compuics b crrn,y r Jiil rimc @nplny chcmist. As other
rdvorltrgunrs

oorttNrics hin sour. ifu qullily ol nre pl$ter sonrs out oa thc lictory
grr.r wis rot : 1viJr ol tlc bcd stxndrrd and tnc v,rixnlc nxtnrc ol th.
Intrl'ru,.w.'.. ru.i.rjl...nl-, 1,..'o. rh, f. upl rupp'.J s:" r'. L il'

hkry:o'.'1.,.r"'c.r,'l-J.hi'.i i.i,+ J6\ rd i{ J r lrd
' Gylsm
0m ol dun, Lcslic lll(I.lor. Plilip Dcrbyshirc rdlls: 'I'hc

rhnrt this 1vs thc in$cr rtul I rctunrbu at l6s onc
six nronds IJ.ddon sodld n{rc tuthing to do
nnd wc{ould lmvc to sick hiD. Bur hc did.rakc rn cnonouslv rrlurbl.
qi?' tr. i. $nhbu.ron
n:r
l ...d. Hrdoon .Ln.o 1. .'
'i.n..
' rnrin conriburions $ftc 'i.
drrtry lbr sclcr.l dcsd6. Eis
in hxlnlg nnFNcmcnts ir t6tug tcclNiqucs, shich hrd bcco li*nrg iD any forral
iunsc, and in introducn,s nen Dioducts. One oathcsc ms Gotbit , thc
hiokiirsortto bc used snh t{o or ihrccprrisolsrnd,\yithr nnishhg
coit olDinl or $hite nert gypsnm. Ove. the Frs, much sles cllon ms
dcvolcd t,.oph.ing thc hxdnnml Rfthna rmed/linr/snd m;turcs
li'r trc*ing.olts rvith x nirtu,c {,1hRlsxll rl$te.xnd srnd) $hich {as
ncllnl rnd .ould thc orc be sxlet used $nh \eosnive p,inb. UDfiflunltcly,oNingt,thclxckol6BtchrssxnJinmrnr"rL{sxodt thc
rcndcnc, oaplist.ca to ore.*nd the hr Mll nixtures, lnde succcis
,cvirdcd ihs cltods. ft was only witL thc intodtr.tion oa pie mixed
lightswcigbr lggicglc plllstcs .lt r World Wir II thd this mfkc.vrs
ruec$fnuy pcncmrcd. Hrddor rko ntmduccd 1 pla$iciser ol Cropftll
llishop mil, nnprokd drc gdrding aM boihtg, and prodtrcod r,l&er
drr, oDdq drc Drmc Tlistlc Borrd Fnish, vB cxlcnsivoly dsed *ith

Asoci.tnlr did

Dot

ficnrbor silirg rltr ilrcr

n

More drlmrtic, but le$ succslul, &s tlc rtempt by Gothrn to
lbr gypsunr. l'hilir DerbFhire joined thc onprnyin r9,9. Hc
supported ihe idei seil, it ms {orth rying{l cmploirs . }rll
,lnnr
kmrvn rv.te. dilioer,
Cln[, ro sek out drose elnsirc dcp.sns in
tlE north. Ch![ is Emembq€d wieldi.s his wlule-bonc ro,ls .round
lMl fields. But his skill is not comDleiely disountcd. He is .]so renrcnbc!€d wdkins rded *ith r tud, Niin 6vo Dieces of nex in tne e, into a

tlo{sc

,]J

hcNik )durlNqirrhuM li ds.ll'D ulllv uirr{ drlv Ii$ divirrii(
(ur.ra hc li unJ ha (ry lI(r tr,"\r:rly rl'" \'tri( 'l'i. rr"{\ U'l''
r;l h*. i... wir' , 1".J..1 11 nrv,{Nul."L,J'.UJF.tr.l'"q(!'r'
Risi.g dcnriDd nxdc n

nNssly

to iLrcrorsc drc si,c

olrlE (nnhrn

.-l' i. rlr llillrnds th! roros
UdtrJ rc 5' rrdc n'. .' \r''F 'u 'i.c q r\'. llcrh.r' 'ntr'
I rv...rs(.'.-.'1.'Tf ' r'rosh'r onJn6' !it Ic r''or
rim,i . F .dLo,-\ Hnr.mo''.$oJAh,',,J,.'c'I'c r'L'l
H. ,".-,'h.,c^t'o,l' D Fo,alh h i rl.er n L rh. 'nr 'r4' "
"J
. ,hr o'c r^ a! sn(. I e , .l rs.,i-orroo un^J\,l'' lrhr l.
.iqr'hc,,r, -rl\ $n.u .lonr.q 'l or' Fl nrv lr r'' I'ri\'l
r,i , *-,".c. slo -.. l.o - .,r (rB rF ' DcrtJ',i'' l'rm'f
h,,l tr.n,';hn, lrenrJir(h'Js\ourI i.r'd,srr,' h' rnl''
tlntire h'd nard, osuriy hit

h

l r cigu snoutdains in rn dslHav

r;,rr"nscublbhmcntoai nhntrIrnhin rrl4did
--h hrhri rnrurs. Dqr}'hn. |l$t ho\rrcr. th it
thc slpNm comp,rics

iiio ! ;ics

otdecisions dtov might

ah.,i :n n dkL h. I(c'.'.,] i'o nso'i. ro"' 'n/.'6r'r si'
EL' rf.rE Lon. -.J r rorn. i" ,rb. orly trceoql-,'.b)\dLiJx
i*-oin' ,-..ta tc ror- 0., o',rY'ne "o ps- r' DDo.rJ 40 d"r
"..n cmmnr lrabr,n,rc r,lJ \is ov o'oins
r BDB sho ly -nel
rc slflc n.n p'r irc. mo h" r N T crr'" o h L)tsm \'otrF
Hi

li ld
-.
'i,
'nhe..1\4idli-.1"
sc lin tor
liudlv sc,t soncoDc ele h [i
Dc'01

ro'1.

Sweepiry the Boud

cL" ".rc5u'!'isc'l r"

plicc. Hc told. nthc'
iunied Netin( 1bnt ire h,d r(red to antlgmDtc vnh Fers!$n' TIcr
hr,rs.lco...rlr_ "hr.,"T-n.'roe,,'';Erhc""inssP**iou.'' J
r. bq$ r' b) rre trd No
ro o'n'' !\;'l :'oo"..'os'Jo

'

r$

oldE induity, rt lemt at
ovcr by BPD in Nlaich IqT q Thc
in
a
nixed shrc ol rpprchenrhtclEd
dcvelopmeds
Grl,
bmrdroofl

ute.

,I -., rhc
l',a \\',.i.e\ "
'),.,r
rrJdEnr s":,
w.n-r'
l'l,
h(on.r*ri.LLdt-l'.r
tne tftdirionil i.dosrv sho inonsnt thitFctgnson's lleshrlproich rnd
hn,onun, r oh.ioJ" e\p'.: " ni .dtr.-..r. .,'tu'd'..e co. J l"
,\om,o'n.;, I L seq. ' r. -'ri.'n, o,hc^ e' ,h y"cre'oo\rl
ncrable rnd rlnt itey r;ld bc sw.lped ntner inm cmied on tnc crcs
r:o1

nd .,r,,,1/. $,rlr,

lvhaterer tbc lcelnres .lihdc .t thc top olihd .ld conplnie, the IEl
rcmins that in r r6-nonrn sprcc, Fosuson n cngnlled, in tuq thc
i..-b.i,L'y l. I S'r",' 3 C...
inDorLrt C!D.J'n MirL.

r hq,lv,e;;,eot
Son.

It nust

f,"

"ih

\\ rleftld.."Jl'r'

l'o'n&

dr norc *trordinrty t*e_ovcr s.qucres
be onc oa 'h&co.,-

llritirl ir\l(is.iil I'i(.ry, (]ic,trr$, [ruaolNillilrg r.s or iltr Nr
ol'rhu o" rls vrirJ.
rincs, rhly (!,"rll i i ild u,ltr*r. litr
nl{rnc., dr o{trcL ol'otrc
^r concufl, ris his dunln Jtrrltr( rhc rtrtcorcrs aml Ms disc$snrg d( sntrrri,m Nnl hi,n. lh0ddi fuLliscdhin
to so in \ilh Ligrnnl. r'nc or c.scntthudcDtisr,lio'strsnRnhrhc
in

mc$ryc tlit thc osmr {isncd (, discrss rhc sin'xriur
Jc r tr''ochtr'sclla,o
n'ol n tr

"d.-ll.,tr.,
By Junc 1936, tlE structur ol c n uq
'

lrissddd,{this

J,q..{,..i,,i

,rs cntirly trnshm.,l.
Aknoush thc diF.rcnt compdcs contnNcd ro oldrrc nxft .r lcss
iftlcpcndcDdx they aouDd tlunsclvB r.swcriblc lj.xily t, llcrgN,n.

{

ol drc Seond World Wm, tlerc rcmanrcd only lon. n ir
rhe in,lunry. Thcrc is nowonlrone.
TAe ftlu.hne o. the pa* oisonrc ot dre o{n.s ol drc oldcr coD
pMios crdtc dphincd by rheir un\yillinsne$ to disturb i hditioD drt
rctbod 6rcl mny dcc cs. Lcr us, rhcrcforc, exanine drc lisrories
and thdniotu oi rncc .onpmici
By lhe

conrponcnL\

i.

'Ihe discovoy ol gypsun in t[c Mountlicld xrci.aSussq ss, btr rll
i@uDa, conphrly midunrl. t'hcro nrd nccn a nisbry ol nrincril
norting,6p(hllyiro. dc crtrction, inttuxm duinsihcscycnicenih
.n'l eishtccndr ccnruds. 'l luc is rlso sornc cviduce .,4 ruJinmtiry
nrirc!.1-sccking goirg brck r bcr funhcr l:rut in 1872, x BightD
gcolosist, Hcnry Willctt, inadc som borhgs h dr Cou.sdlors Wood
1.er olMourilield, ncnRobotsbridgc. His prccGc [i.s iic.ot cLdi

l-r" F .b\loouc orcml.or$.fal'!'r..'rcl/h ri/pi pri e,

exurnution oa thc solosiql Dnkeup ol rlE distict lor thc .rdng of
the lldtish Asocilrion for drc AdlrnencDt ol Scicna lliclt trrs to Lc
held ir Bishton ir tlc .{usust ol 1372. Altlmnsh lhc *ofiIy Mr
Willett's 6nds on dre snbsmra olthe Sub-lvclldcn !a $ry hiv. ben
sngrossing in thcnsrl\$ mcmbcs ol ihc Brnish ,csociation did, in
ftct, dsit the $ortinss ht{ thc only disconry oa lny coDrmcrci
nnl)otunce wRs tbrt ol$lsun.
Pfihaps disappointd rt not nndins cod, or po.hrps too conccnred
yirh tho v?ncemcnt ol scicncc to Lir xbout thc conrnrcrciil qpbnition ol his dkcorciy, $rillct .ppetr b hvo had notning mor to do
*ith th. discovcry. For drc ncxr ycii, tbovoil ar 6oth Counsclld$ Wood
and at lnotlcr borciolc rt Dcarbl Archcr \vmd, Ias hkcn orcr, 6ts16y
a contactor, cn bI dr Dia,nond Rock Boring Conpr y. A 6^t snilt
w$ conrplcted within r ter oi No xrd cornish mnr6 snnih b thosc
who rt th.t tinc vuc to Ic lonnd non inincs ol thc *b d-worc
broushtiD,In 18?6, rsmpNyrys formcd thc Sub-$'c.ldco Gypsu,ir
36

C... r' sd,,ir rltr JrlNir, $hi.l' qr li' iJ L, I'u I'i(l'ly tn,niiilF
'lhr(,trtr],,,i)n".Ji,.r.{i n1tr'F,.,'<V,,yi\7r, rlulLt$M.'hr.'
sarr',r n.{'. i' ( .r s".r'. | tr,,,, 'li'( l(.\(ir \1,{ .(lJ

NN I'onFhr, n,Fcrhd NlrI dirrilrg Mi[h,gs {nd {o ,s, li)r 15,2r6.
'lhu
i,r I bcd] nrr wnh ynnc lnntrciil{inscncy.lenmps
',|)cr
tN r nuk ollhc c,nlhrr's ifrcl i,,rs, fno ! t[colliccrs norio cJ xt
lhnl rir* !.ri'rs n, Ir'n o *!s itr dndnor mdr.d 1- G. Z.rl. (Lcs
litrxrit0lr nnDod Norc rhc i,!iciro$, Nl6ss rishcr xnd Ch.rd..)

t ',,',.,,,,.o,,.",'\II

oJ'.''. -i'

'.n'ii
(:i'ydoD,
It {is WillixD Jocl Kcnip, ! clcmist rnd inrcntor,
md il
^1,..,u'',.
si$ hc rho wis subscqucnily rcsrrdcd rs drc found.r otthc busin6s.
At rnis firn .,ccri,rs, n rus dccidrd io buy i ryiirding machnrc rd to
olllur thc isohrior ol tbc site hy sisniDs an asrenrcrt {ith thc Sourh
li *cn Rrilwry Comprny rnn buildinsa sidiosto drc mnrc. cnduruy,
r {or[s,.onrplctc rynh stcxn engines,nd locomorivcs, {as I ft, rnd r
$M.housc\rxslcrscd inL..don. Cxpitxl oal26,soorv.silso.ccunuldrcd,
$ rhit, by ,{ugnn 1877, lhc Chrimm oa tle B@rd told his shtre
holdcs rhdr r sub mid *oiLs lid now been blilt crplble oln.nulidurnrs r oo toN olphso po erck, ,no{ .l rnich veit to tle Dorkins
I-inc Compily to,uike sleDtic lim. (x rnixtur ol Iinr and plastcr ol
l,iris) rnd thc ie$ sonrg to thc g.rcrd building tmJe tu hetneen roi
Althoush the li'sr .couDs slo{ed r slc for the 6*t .ftr ol sJrsum
lnd plxso $orth I3,31i6. tbe boors still sho{cd r lo$ ol{7. r8r. rol.
It)u lilns td hxlins ph*d ind two for bnr.ing ccncnt we.c buill
but, despnc hrsc sunrs olmooey beins set 6ldc lor c\!.rnncnhl $oll.
thcrc nnl{rrcd x pcid. {hich ms 10 lts lor scvcal ).as, of ryildlr
liryins pn,dlct qulity. !ve! in r8i8, rheic aas xppdrcmly hur ol3
sy$cm ol.o.rrnt srmplins t, te( t6e plist r durnrg bxking. ,{t tne
sa,nc ti,n , nftndxl dil[cdris rB..T hecorrpm]fiiled togctanovcts
di.lt (whcrcupon it lrlnly clung.d tinl!) !.d brd ro nisc tr8,0.o bI
rhcisNcoadcbcnturcs.Ncvc nch$,I crsc olsrmfls {is prepmed 6r
rhc Pdn cxhibitior of rS78.
Nluch ol rhit ctrly tuadc nis nr ground g) Irsun 6 nrlnue ]br thc hop

6cld...'id ir..boc nr !..J ir(. g.lRu. rin-i,rc-',ccor.tr'6rn
iorpoinnt piit oa n'lountfield's productior ind is likely 10 derelop

Bur thc ym r$79 sirv.lo$ ord8r4, crus.d,ndnly hy hexly cotrF
pctitnn Irom tbc Nlidhnds c.nccros shicl Iud g.in.d con.6si..s arom
tne milmF t, trnspor thcn products to drc sourh. Thc trorhpeople
voluntrrily rgccJ to x.ccpt r rcducrion in srg.s. Jocl Kcmp fo reni his
comhission or salcs, ind ruy,ltics pid to the osncr yoc cut by

r{orhids.livorlhugrxtrlMr Zol,slnwlyurl hhlc0ll.,iylrtriIuN
'l'L( N\t yc , rll lvo'kN,'t)lx rc(I( rDorlu dtrl ir rrrg( rhrr
wcrc avcngiDslr r Rcck -trDd I lx{ r snpl$ olla'( {rs dchicvcd
,{ slishi. ir slutincd bm li)ll,NcJ, lu ,s wl,ich rD ll'n|k'ycr\'
Lirbility In\uucc policv sN hk onr.In r88r,x pfulnollr,96ri N6
sho\yn. Zcal, p.c$mxblv brck on bn
Ic., iclr lolJ ctroush to
.lnicise dre sJ*cm oarEs6 dhtribu,on.s
^lUbcntgnrlncicnt.
In 1882. r nNdiridcnd or nvFr nd-r-hal i pcr ccnt vrs nxi d hsh aI old.' . I h r, 6 . 5.lro'" 1,,'.c.omc l, r.l,li. E.I. I rm, n,., r chding two tuw hoiler alm ! stem rachtj I rc\y u.ddground drilij

!

r Dcy sF.,n ol rcpe nNhse,
A hmlthy, ilal tino! elstic, ivxlry l"s bcils pursucd bcr$ccn nrc
ntu ddc. Irinhy. mrnasjns dncctor oa Sun
s_lfsuDr mncc s
V.ildcn, eid iu lis report to dircctoN in r 8lj i drit poor old Crddtu xt
N6 trl* lxd nill so..s, \ehilc thcy rt n'Iounthcld \ycre lsing rvhrt lhct
.onridered thc Derior cdBc runnd. Irinlry clxincd too tbrt thcir
phscr es zo p( ccnt sronqtr thln iny tiur rnc llidhnds, whiclt hc
denourced as 'clup boilcd nrbLnh ton undcrcurtcd, Curionsb,
M,)nniheld Ere llso to lsc LuiisronB for grindjns hrcr and to do drir
shrre oa un'leHurtirs. Tnis riv,l4/ d nol hjndc. rn approlch ro
C,IIcnh's some yems I$crand durhgnr.d.r dros, sitnx propGal to
merge intered\ Norhins oncoill)happmchcrcopt the I'{,rmarion of.
ico rinq among phftr nunlricturcB.
h 1886,i buiunrg slnnrp sr! cd.Itms to hslorar lc.( lio ycrE,
r lcriod drring rnich the complnr"s roruncs acll io dtcir lowN cbb,
di.allr Ioundeing rlt,scthcr. In 1886, btrd dcbr lor ovci dsoo wcre
ftntnolt In r888, dq'ncthcsinnp,Jel KcDrp Ms sr rcdtrpr,I25
to cxrcriincnt.n dre e\trctn,r oasulpbur lLom sypsrm. Shofily xatcF
s.lns, Kemp lelt ilc Berd rnd tdrme secrchry in,l s cnnan 11a

{l ho'Fl JGI K..'r dii o_ rou"l'h. ('F c'o.', o''p..r.1, i' nrr
I tr'ril l..\dr..\.' ds*":..n ^'\'.. .. r ctn.ir, rr.o ',)'i ,
rion nr tbc r89os fic dNp.iitc aN-rn.l thc shDp olhis pcsonrliiy
yN to rcmanr otrthc compa.y rntillhc mnidh 1936nnd irl hkeovcr

sho

rd iocly \sirn
Jocl Kflp is dercdbed by r conicnrlonry rs
iri. hxir. tle hid r tbntlne$ lor sood laod, rnd *rs cinphrdc in spccch.
'Thcrc lere no iar x.d lDts.'rccius oDc {ho Lrcs Ii.1vcll.'Hc
vory deromined nin. lle us tr m r }Io ms prcprrcd b h*c sxcilios
in m indNN ne hrd nol st{ied our nr bnr nr Rlich Ic s e? fururc. So
he got hnn$f in touch trith the tude, toun,l our
it
tcd, rnd

s$!

*I

38

*r

l

krk ovs N nculrnry, hillr d hcur ldi trLrrid,
lir(Nctrlly unrl J ntrl rh( $rrDnry's Drlxhrr \$s
lt ir 6!i.. rrco'(c(ln, rlt rnn,ru hoots rhrl licfit t,rid th. {orlts
*r[so0rolhis oirr !oc[cr.Ilis chtrrlc0r, lnncs ll ris(rhoBorkcd
rvirh rhc .o r|rty 1nr trr,rc rhr, 70 ycra), sxys: I do ron0mhcr hiD
Iryirig rl.r',{r,i.,,1 I'i.. qr r,,..lr''..,.'1, r ri. (. I -, ". r1\ 1...'
rk hI -..i..1 1,.n,'r'.r ' i.' L.l.!.|'i 1 ,rd. ''L r,.. - 'j
nlholik.{l riDSbLc on dri c Ilchllcdi,.ishtbn,cncnlnd
lfuy ifFcci cd n.' Otr. oa J.cl Kc rp's lcssr x.nLvomcn$ on thc
lehricd liont trs lis b.nrs rItr oRmoioncoltllc 6*t dn in Sussc\
nnruhn'rlcdisnrtryolthclomlsquncs.Rcc lsE.reHmis:'$,concc
rwlc i horscoli kiol rotcntiie sly {f ud toptlc hiin o1Inrlo rhrord.
Acxrnlly \a rcrc qunc i \rir olland I thiirk hc \ys iu* i rotm il.r.
A yway,ve$eretincd {25.'This}"s tssiblydr fi6t m.roriig ofcn.c
Kcmp nroduccd i dctrilcd rcprt lor thc
ncnotcdr'l
nrrc
bcen relu.hnny lored !,iheconclrion
Llimcios.lni!
lhit orr phsd.onlimcs Eirble rnd gcnenlh oainae.i.r qualitr'.'
IIc condNd tlur ,ndy buildcs \rore .elusiis t, hur tlc fhster, crt.
rl$ughitn6 lo{cr pric.s d,n thrt ol..np{ito's. l,reo $hercrhcrc
sNr fdir t cnrsomcrrc _, lhc pri.es ol rhe M.unideld |hserscrc
lir Lclow thd of.ornpc o$ roolov,in&.txdiderc.le.ISi or6r.I
tor rre ntnt on to *ro thrt thc pla cr {xs 1 ng orcFbumr. The.c
wcrc i numberorhalTchins lbr coq)cn$tion. S.lcsin r88r hrd 6eeo
wonh lro,ooo. 'ten yo$ her, they {trc $oftr tr.tt72.
Aater noLe expeLnnentatibo, the Dretlmd ol produ.don (rs ch,nsen
rnd r nev produd, nhichMs i n)i$ure oadeld-lnmt and hdni hydmic
tr\'.r.q I lr. l,'rD,J.onl. I'e cor.....'r tr i . ' 'l a.ri r
otvnn. sonc in inc nins output hrd becn used iir dE onnuarctuc ol
pl $orithcrcioathcortput being grer nr colour, nas disoidcd. $nh
ihc ncw mltdirl n {rs p.$it lc to usc the rvhole ol rle min. onrfur. tu
wm thrcaor nu|cnsivc to tulo rnrl with the gr.duil ser, Ihich is r
,rcprtIof mixtursold.rd burntxndhcnri hydrie plNer, n{rsmo
,opular \ h lhc plNfi.$ \ho trscd ii. l d)mpe ioo xls run for sugsc ions lor r Nno lnr thc ncw product A triz. ol {5 w ofrcred,
SononcsussBtedlarnnc. lccruscoarhcuilo un cconnobtilosot
ihe word, n \ys rcve6e(l to Sirapitc. Ir r$9r, Kc p Ms xpnointed
sencrilminlgcr!t{rootrrqr(plLs ror awekforth.uscoll,ntonr,
i conl?yancc, !s la hNc sccn, thlt *as $on misily Npcs.d.d).
Thc latcr r89os sr rhc conrpany\ lotunB o. tlt upwd rcnd.
Evcn thc xuditor rcnturcd b consnrulde (emp on the noy nr $nicl hc

Oi I nxre sei,us lev.l,

!r. nttry q tru t Mt,

I r

bicl i',ro *phnd {hDc.'I hincN ltiht vR
cnhs huilr or lndd tuns'udi,trL oftcD, KrDr''d imdMion ou!
\FipncJ rhr ol hn Jitur'6.!;m,uB, hc urycJ rhc lLurJ k' qncrion r
bntng I'.n lor ih. tinB fon thc cdgerunrcR. I\tr rhc 6si Fn sa n.l
in$dlod (ntil r9or. h v$ so suuca$tul tlllt r scc.nd {rs nnndhrcly
\mflcd s"'n. nrn\iiiotr ws mJc aor Lhc ,^L rim.lor,' n(nsion I
Thc fiBt p.tu.; ol 7r.0-/., qcck ws prid i,r ,rr9. ({njhtrrn( "-'
,lso put sid. fo. thc wifc of r si&mrn in thc l,M $1r, $hilc hc N8
lNd

t rhu cnnnrny

otr 3o o-robrr roor, rocl K.nn. r\cn rgcU 6:. RrireJ $ $rh')
c nln r.s rrc r by l'\.o, Ildrry His orln $-, L.u\,
r _,Ji,
"xs
ssrne. .nd *s involrcd in 6dio *pdiDcntt {itt Mi(oni. Ldis
s.s b join tne dtrpoiy htr, d b h.@mc snl6 mms9. ahc No
hothcB rE d6crib.d s 'diyiding .[c so $mng elenrnG ol Jdl's
chG.ctcr', Hrry wd rcfldtire, mdiculous Gl{irs {nh r 8md &Mtr
fo doi'U things). Lotris, rldDugh lind-hcrrtcd, vd irdciblo: he hid
inncrncd his tuhs's h'c and rhundei Bnll,,nr id lr.*ing. nr.F{xous,nd idindirc, lE ss pdrd@Ldy.bh in cldiol ,MtrcE.
In rro3, $nc suddcnly, !n .nilsmilion ffis dsidcd on by thc
o"rpitry snh the Kingson Gypsud Compiny, of Kins otr-on-Solr,
TIr ndih r6on lo. thc an.lgmltion of ntcHls ms thc nccd to tc
nd eith nuto.l b{.clit to Fodu@ tlc highly su6saul Simpite iD
H

Tn orlciiron r K inss"n {n-SM dlcdbxlto r88o. *hcn rheF r
bl rhc \e.o.d orron Bclps \ho( l'.mily is rF' ro
"ur.
b@mc so impdllnt in tte ddclopnort ol thc indsdy, Thc ,al,r
sh-t qs

,r'a,,li m

v.ry rimple indcd. MiDc6 \'orlcd tne gypsun dep6n
with hrnd tools. .hipting thc ml nith rislt-.ngLd Bl.u8c^-'. Thc
innauiiion. *nich ronk mtil r88 r to comphte, incllded hod 8td, ssn
windirs sc!r, a esq wata tub ind r LanNhire boilcr.
'lhc rccl 6 6a rr Bpon.d hy Blhr. on rlt Ris Son, ro {silJ\dr b-Zouch rhd Bno${-Sdr (or rindi"g. l ailxiy Jding trs
odptctcd in 1881. \vhcn tb. siding rE fiBt opm.d, hc6 vc.c u*d to
hNl ftc rocl arcn thc minc to the wh*faod to the shtion it Kegtorth.
Brt . Io.onoiilc-l,idy Mlrglrct-nas bousbt shm lhc Dbysidl toll
*r lounJ to be @ grc on rhc ho6s.
Bcins m nd 6peillly good ,n lnc r88os or rm orly r8s. {
syDsm mill tr6 Su t b, t-d BrlIIfl. hut rhcrc sG stif mp€titim
fmn oths Midhnds @nem. In t895, i circul r pan fo. n ins pllstr
ms in,tillcd. Vnhin a ye.r d e 'd gmd @nDcction nxd bccn esnlF
lishcd'. Tr e riclcd up old thc hs d@d. ot thc entury util, by
rroJ,lhc K'nssbn omFny ss holdms iF osn rsritri lEl mp{d-

on.

Kln8ron. Mln r

NNlEr4fonflrlH

qlrhln rhoOtour, lcn'ld ro
D (, rltr $,Dtl-

.ndnHxulitrnlyu t$i, Drtrd$vis (,'tfirhily'

illdr, nn'vidcJ trun,I(dthn,u!fi rhN{ctrcrlrions,! uilol rroyos
Thc.m.lslnhtd @ plny'r mm. $!s d.tcrmincd $ l hc CyFutrr
Mins d iL{ liat .hiimnn wB Lo'd llclpcr, who conrinued uidl
hlr dmtl i'r r)ri, IIu wa srcsodcd by thc third Baro! llclper,lit$ x)
choirni..l' rr pdcnt oNr{ry, B}8, lor zr yq$,ShNholdca jr\
t S{h-lvoldcn o p.try Eaiw{ tNoshrrc io tn nc$ @nrhny fq
av.ry mc,lto(rJ ru sh.rcholdcF ol rhe K'ngs'on ompdn,.'I[c CyF
.um l4,ns s.r'.nmrr{nrcJ on 4 tcbrury rgoj. "nJ rh( n\ued crpitrl
rvd 183,257 nr fully piid shfics rnd {,o.ooo ii detdtmi Hdry Kcnp

Vcry sn, thc .dv!nhg6 ld Kngsion $ft apFML Wort otr
.quippins Krns\ton si'h Sinpir. Lnc. ro nmdue 5@ roc o( rhc
,ril.rirl r heet, \Es h i+.d qliclly. xdrhc,i6i,on fiom rhe Strrpit
lllis ws snt out ftom Kintrton in sslEmbor r9o3. 'Ihs lrice !r rh
dmc v$ {r r toi rt vorls.
Th.E lolowcl n onMrd-looldns pcrbd- Th€ @npony qhibilcd
fr tc fBt tinc r lhc Btrildins Tnd.s ltxhibnioD in !9o7 04 rbout
dr. &me tine, s6 lmling iround aor olhci omponie, to lcqnne. At
hur frK.ompdni6. 'n tu North rnd M hndsarunds..'-,ily.
Th. m6t ispotunt M J. C. si.ton & Co., !n old €t btsn d ni,n
(G hkr) in
Fauld .rcr h@rEly onc ol ln. 6r adiruring
'h.
!,0Nfr 16'nfi(ounny,'l hbrmrls:mrnon brdgh' l'ldr, \.$td,
eho hril bcen rLnrngme lilld'omDrny Bnh on'idcnbleuu'aB ind
prn(hc. o o
Bm'd olDtrec'oF otThc G)psr_ Mincs.
'hc
psio.l
{a\
d r:hoot iB 'er br.lc. The'c tr,c, [, i6on@. !
Thi!
.6iM sr*., hsirg sNEl mondt h r9to, rfer ihc Kingsron cm,.ny cns:scd l non-union m1n Bur tlc lc.ling ma prccN oricd on.
ln t9rr,l,ri, Kc'np rn,l Lcirh \trron. Hcnry Ns\ tun\ $n. qenr to
th.lJnited Sbtc! lo L"i 1 li^EhrnJ b otrlcdseollc.rleulcrnins l'q$
mr, hoFser, un l 1934 tblt ! ketdc {s isEltcd !t Mou field,
Thc FiBt World 1V,. hrough iG oh6oclcs, 61di.lly fc Kins*o.,
om .s!in fc.li.g ine omp.tnim oa l@l 6ms- Iri@ cuxins aoong
London Bdch0nB tus dusins dislributivc dimelti€s, $ rh€ @mp!!y
d4idcd io finin@ thcn os! distributinR @nr!ny, E. B. N. AtkiN.
Thc pGtsrr buildG bIM f,s, for Mountli.ld, turcd o.ly 6y thc
dBth otJoel Kmp (vho h.d dicd in r9t8) .t tne ,sc 04 78. At thc od
of |h. M., thc rorkpeople qcre @ing rsie s nuch .s idncdircly
boforc, lor ! # hour w@k, A oc$ drift lh3 put down ro .xplore the Lrcr
.qm d Mount6cld and, hlvins l6ed thcir ldd lor 4! ycrs, ttu conts
pctry boustt inc 6Et ofthc hug. tlcb oa hnd it m lrtd t! ovn in thc

Ni ltu mnrfnry rDs ,'sfi lhe Ui'(rl righh otr rl {lrru nril$ ol
l\i]....,. 1..i...,,rr. .r..l .ll rrtr'r lrJ rr:rrl.rr.s((it. Il'i
r'.''ro\ ri' ' .r. qr, rr, l l .r. $(rr. i'' ', o. r,
,"''' tl"r .'\1..r''.|J, rrtrr,'.r.rn,'lfl.Jii.r,t.tr tra r,,
,' Jr '' :o.!""'"ti,.Jc'.latr. Iil'r:\."'i"
t .. TIe cost oa podu.ing il sas 2liJ. ! t,r. on .1 lic[Nfy r)]r,
ll.tr^ l.mi od rhr d i. rl rr N n-rhotrrl. ro' r \i',n i' hrJ L.r,
' o'n loo rlie n ' r,,nr,r'orfs\.'cI,tr' n'qr''J..'Lr(c'nu'"r,'tr,'" '{.i'\i
r . .. .y. T ...e
^e'. ",,J i Ill.'..1
ThennD&toldrsc orr.l on the buildins brdc fus rcilly bcilg l.lr
at dris ine, Iritisn lhscr Doird hid nrdcrd ia rccdrins tuuLrles
loth KinssnD rnd Monntfrcld \ycrc storsthcning thcn lold on thc
ldtcnt plastd

,errn.

drrtd

Additionil tilns rYcrc boing i.shllcd at Knrs*on

i'hir'J,r.(rc(Jc! 'pr , u'si''p.. nkre\''.

thr
{hen borh rhnh Ndc \rll beLind \rnh delivcrics. Rut it rvas lelt"m
!,me m.r. nft Dlrk'boxrd \v.s dsimblc
In r,rl,, Lmi Delpcr and Louis Kc lp vcDt to CtnxJx to mcct thc
?r.sidc t ol GJpsum, Linrc xnd llxhniDc. Thc s"sii,ilny of buildi g' tlrs "o..n prn| V' u'r,"1 q.'dln$ J. I I o li'S on'e
Not Iorg aftcr{irds, di$L$ioN tcgan rvith Hush trc$usor' NesF
rixri.$ rvere ! l..srhy xtlxir. Ev..Nrl\', in 1936, in xgrccfreni sas
rcxchcd. Lonis Kemp lcir, rltcr soN dis.src.mcnt, and hc died snoLily

r'.' lr.rl.reh",r[., ':.'s.{..'1. 1 l. \.B,on.lcr l).\'n
h \4 i
ro'r,1. (r'ob. .''1'E1n Lnnmi,e'
Thc soonto b!

fi,tilixi $orl

cNcrscs

fmn the aDds.mliion I rhrt

o..nn ' r',pill Jl.r:-""d.., nrP.n. \r.'J !. Jin r '
\lor., .l, :,',r 5.Otr'pu' c'p.'nd.o\c'. qn.{) ln. r'oJn''\
I's
D-|J.J , .. I r Lr': nl ijc\'c n."\ro'.sr.'llEeno' nJro
'n
Itque \,i'u.' .:o orrhcc,,-m L, pr \o'r.rl'rJ,
"5,.
'.'.'.r.rd d'r'. rJ 5:,125 - h4''rh.
cntireI)

n)d froD drc

loundnrsoliLc coDp ly

ro dre end oa tnc

wf

nr

-.rqu ronor rl'cB,,! i,!PLrpro..J j'. .' I'igl es
"
'\. Elr
i' nir . :. \.rc.',ro,"rc',,.' .plo'r.o''.'Trn.!r.op
q'istri' - r,) I.\. l.V.
r.oBoff i,' d..liicd. rl'c
''rlri.
Urishdnrs sidc incroscd. r'nsc is siid to Ic enougn gypsnn there to
I r r.\..tr.r h- Dr m,r!r*r tr rn. Bcr r r''.n' dcrr,,ndtt' ri .r r.e '_. ,;.'{'tr.,oi.f'r^di1'leo\.'opnfl.ducro

h{ hciry iI n N ( , .lNi[DL[d i.dtri. huNrly, lltr huil(lirqs m! [.|n lr,
,' ri'ntr..tr1,' rl.lF. 'l'((,\ '.rs{.r.l'\, r,'.'l-a'rl(.r('i'l'i t,r.yrntr i.
{ lilLcy, !, xs rol rost]oilrl!0 $ood.d \ornny tr trLc[.
in[l.J,l!'str
;l hcsyD{ln su ns 'oit rlr b$. ol tlrc l\ntsck bodsxnl r rl'ctof
ol r[cl),flIl \ dsh'o s(id.'lhcrc iLc r ) tr,iin crn-tcs irtrlrs,
trtrrl li'trr s.in,\, orly rhc tuf rtrrl boLtoDr ol which, NN. r ird 4, irc
bcilrs sorltd.'lho $rus rrc on i hotrvy s.adicnt, trIich h$ ctrused
'l'hc sypnnn lronr llrightling, shich uics i. qu ny, is pNed to x
hcivy mcJiisqr.trrioD fldnt [lount6clJ.Ii 1970, avcEge output srs
nrnnns it rr,ooo ro.s i rvcek. Thc rciccb fron ihc h..vy nedia seplrx
rr'.d,ln i r'd,J')di,.c .,mon..l:, L,o
n,rl.,.L_ ri n.'rtrror'l''n ",, rf . \bour 50-c'!.0' ol h 4f .' .
is supplicd to Po(liDd encnt mrnull( rc6i 25 pcr cent goes to thc
l{ochcnd rrd Ernh ph$crb.rrd IIin$, xnd thc rcst soes tnuugh rhc
Mornll]dd brss.d plste. ro{s for dncct &rlo.
Wc shdl se ihe risninouco ol tLc pGcld dcwlolNens in cnxtttr

Thc !mls!mti,n, h I9o9, ol Gypsum Nlins rnd J. C. Sbton &
C,., brcusht tos.tbcr nvo of the sreat nime ol gypsum. It brousht
ifto. ryider orLrit r codp ry sct in thc tudnnm+tccpcdDovc V.UCI. ft
.lso brousht b grcxtcr prcnimocc onc oa the imtonant &ni[cs nr dre
busin$s: ihc NcNoN, nho EE to seNe tne grtsun nrdustry \rirh
rld .rcor so. 5 ni\1Jli'd\orpkrorc\p'r
\..,[rgt"rl-^s-l h uo.r tr-bJ.eo.onun'^.

Inbrr] i,l li

coi,f, J . r.r

the rq ll]s, noncthcls, r lons, 1:ied.omc.iio. *nh gypsum, lts
renonn lor dibNcr dat6 bNk io the Middle Agcs. Prrt ol the Nomxn

o I'.'l,..r] L trl ,L,n.r'-b:'.'.1drhdJ-r b rr,'r
eld.nh d m ln h i"'.. ''\'.,".'\. lo.'noiC'.' ,,,1',,1,
nonu.nt to G {iac t, te dde Ito,n Tutbury dabaster, 'Ine no$
.1i.,',4

nistoricrl use olTuthury xbbdEr srs aittuic. There are rrornd ihc

flrrl

nnJe\r'r' nr nJ're..l rlrt.' .c- rBrh ^ha 'ror'dt \,
,."ri.nrd n I,'b,'r s"1,hbs'.'.4. '..oinrde: h00.!o'd
soodsi crndlsti.l\, phls n d irtrn dnhs
-1, T r, ..rllin
r .'od o,, ",1 pL r' ,c [oourd'n rlr
"
dE Midllnds rell-proserrcd cxantLs olplasternoos. Tk plascr vm
o'ijrul J r,., J, l brplJ'ng rcr o ".,J' niqu',.o "ood..id
, o\.'r'q rnr s'rlroaL on r ( - ., nJ.
", q\ gfr r Tl ( "ood

'\..' or plaste. as it had be.odc, \r$
'. b.rten to
grlsrnn,
r'hc co.scr pluter wonld te uscd lor floos, rd drc fincr

ms bunt. Thcn
polvdcr

6m.

tho

+l

n'rwills rleilitrss. lhucrr.r.cokhol'rhirlti'rlol rl#trrir[(htir[
Lrclt n, ( lur{ rhc hcsc!crr(rrli.dntr'y,
llj l''1,.r I '.. \,,.r S (',. l'.!l .tr,'ll ,r,.,tl l,,ri'tr.1!.
'tr
r83ll. r11 tu*, thc opcritn,$ ol
chrk srron {c8 nr lntrhHF
John

Ttunt, rnd ncrc coniined to n,n icftnu so0ro rlxsrs ol l,rris nl
floor plxnci, ind sotlinsbuildins Datcriih.
Soon lho cobpuy $is rr)ducins ind scllins RonnD, l,odlNl, xnd
Pdim ccnicnls A rycll, rnd Shton {is in prtnershit snh his brorfuG
in-lrw, lviui.d Ncwton. 1'he rorls \se close by tr cinrl by $lich
gypsun $o.c cmc fro Chcllxston tyice I $eet, Altboush lirtlc is
tno{n rbout Stato., it scdns he \y,s r vell buili min, nncrc*cd nl
cicket ud ocL-nghtin& lor rlich hc yould rrvel mlny n,iles bI pony
With tho coDsruction

oldr No

h Stifordshir rinyry in 1848, it

be6mc cisier to sct qylsum lroD riuld rnd soon norc Ardes oi rl,*cr)
including pottefs pli*cr md (ccm's conmrj $dc bcinglrodu.rd. BI
the edly r86os ihe {orks htrd nolcd to dr Slob rll Nlilts.
In r37q Shbn'sson, Nilliam Ne\ron Si.ron, joincd
rtncslnp.
joined
Ii r 881, young Shn,n ryis
by Nc\rton's Dcpk\ Uc.rj, Nc*ton.
Thc mdes, r.d interons, ol nre SotoD .Dd Ncsron hnilics aic dclicrld) cmslcd in thc history olthe conpmy. TIe nimes scr.linlcd
L, lho.utum ol ninins childrcn Lry then modrert nriden ni.rci dtc
t\ro ladilics rppu to nrvc worked in hlmory.
Durng rc r 87os, tllc lirn bd,iut i le& on tbc lnu0 quany. Wnh
afrGGdas rpplj' oI sonc ncd xt hrnd lir thc nft tine) Stiton's drovc
anaditnto thcs c oll])clillIrD,nrr.ulJ. Open neanh! {cre used 1i,r
Ioihs phscr, thc srilaing.r liAr bcing dDnc b). h.nd. &anc's cenrent
y6 produccd tltrrc md dcnhl ph$o Ms p.oducen by bahrs rhe
hmps oI r.{ sone in licbottonrd ovc.s. rllthotrsn bbincss vrs hun
ning along f.irly smoothly, drcic x"s ror drcrly 1. orcFa6nndr .c oa
noney and drc Shobull nons \y.rc not cxtc,Nivc. h 1889, on tbc d.lln
ol his undc, HcnLy Ncstor took ortol, rnd hc root x dccinon &it
cr cdn,raqrcit'lc!lorounsc:hcdcc !'l to buy an old .oton ,nill .t

c

T

dtbury.ThccotonindutryhidfrllctronlftddncsaDdtLcnilryxs.
vrcxnt.Itnedcdmuchrronsftudiotrtordrltnloigytrd.rtro .Thc
recon{ruction Ms conrrlctcd by scprcmbcr r89o. The sprnrg olr89r
brouglrt a sorc rirli drc *cir .lonssidc thc Dill sonrnins dn flow ol
,i'... ,,,lJr{J I "- {,
io . , pio,lu! .or' q-!
'
swit tud brck tu Snobmll Durins this shod psiod, rlrc Tutbnil pliDr
{N naptukd. On rsunprion rt htbury,.,list nt relarilc, Nilli r
No\yton, no\od drorc n, hscone nill nranrscr.
In r89. 9r, production \yrs runins !t omr rqlDo ions or phstcr I
,14

yoM I1r,Ir)4, iltr l,inr](l nrir$N lirllilldi tri,Irc0rlxn onldr. liiBIr.rtr
bl,'clir ol'iLihri.r
su n) N.w York 6r L )iior IllxN nr i
trfltrsi, h.irs htrlh"dc
l,v (nnrlns Vitrddrl)ih. Scrsrl ol rhd U,)ds
w.iFhd s lons. All rhc l,ids *.ro trr)vcrl sithout nuhdnicrl i r,
trtrrl urtrsfdd l,y fotry rml {rsoD.

Nc{hls l,'d,ctsi'Lliw, 't. T dnrd $rvnnc, a
'90r,Ilun'y
niritrgcnsnrcorol\vorld-ridccxpoioncc, tnkchrrscoldrc\.rk $c
ihour

nntrL..\.ir"i.

tra

,iJ''''lrrL'T'l

r

L"ilor"s "cE

',"1'. Llcn.v Snuricr. S pu cru{dit
Btr]ricd byx riicnnolllcnryNevt,n.
lorlishtcnsnroorins.Sho l,rftuthctumolthcentury,Spu crmoved
to l-cylxnd, nr Lxn xslirc, vnuc he lomrcd thc Lcyhnd St r.r Boiler
ConrFny, thc aorcirnLcr ol Lclhnd l,loro$ (row srnisb Lcrhnd).
Whcn Thc G]'l)su Mi|cs toot ov& ihc co,npdny, lide pm.ticll
dircr .c $rs noriccd d Tutbury. Hcnry N.{ron ind TBlIord lvr_nnc
joincd thc Bord ol Tltr Gj_psunr Nlin s brt Shlon's .onlidrcd to aun.
rion. i.'llr.' .' :l).o'.. .I'.rr.Lijh\,r,u' L,'n,'...
l, hi. i r.r..'Da'\"'o....n.p{.rool ,l''L .lr'-'i.'id.
Thc Grc Nrr r.ok ns tou ol rhc p(so.ncl olshron's: 12 Jid not

rctun rDd HcNy NcRton's son, Tnliord, n"s oN ol ih. ci$ralti.s.
Fimily nLrohcnot {$ not conincd to thc ninigcmc.r.
6. hill
gB,
rt onc tnnc crc vcrc four Snirl$, lour Bilii.gs, dncc Br
dd
^t
rhrcc Bc.ts: it thc minc {crc lour Billiogs, lonr flnra, tlrcc '\i.hc6,
md rlreS.riths.I. Nas stimitcd nu io thc latc loq tbcrc lrd Lco
il lest !o nrco.t Tutbury who hld conrDlcted bctwen ao ud i8 vcr$

Thc opcfltioos sridually oo.mdiscd iticr rhc *ar ud iir 1922 Lcigl
Nowton *is ippoirtcd mxnisi'rs dircctor. Hcnry N.wton siycd or ds
cbairnmn.Il drc nridrgzor drillirsithc miocbyconprcs.d dr x?s
stmcd, rlthoush ha,rd-worhi,rs contirucd tuo thc r9ros. Dicscl locc
notnrs lplsrcd. t) rcph.e drc Lo*s. The diescls *rc mrons th.

I cG -%l\rrrcor 1126
'"r
brousnt in its Rxte th€ unfrnriliir cxpdcn c Go St!to.'s cmplorrc, ol
tirrr,l.,,.dr,JiJ'", ,Jin"i.

u

shorttimcwo ing,tutrrc.ovcrywlsnadcl,y 1928,*hcnLouisKcnrp,
tne Acq 6ui ingcdiors dirc.tdr ot lne Gypsunr Minos, havinB b.c.
thw?ilcd inlis dcsirc totnild su.lt x plint rt Nlountricld) ho( r mrjor
pdin dGignnlgand crccinrg r rotdry kil,r to prodtr.c a ph*d rt Tut,
bury. 'l'be

r.{

rnhydrous plNrcr \e.s crllcd Sttritc.

In rg3r, fmforJ &nnc dicd in

a

botor rc.iJent xnd G. V. -{llen,

lrd ;oincd dr coblrnj son ycls.rrlidi sas rppinted to thc
Dord. ln 1935, IIury Nc{ton, rvLo lud llo$onificJ Strt,n's I'or 50
yef, di.d. IL Rrs su.cccdcd rs chrnm.tr 6y his son lxigh NLiton,
D. ir'".'h. .rto., . !,pli . or t,rol"o
wno

"Jp.ur

lircrurur$.1

t,n

P,fllLuloononrvorc drcrl,llyrl&orrly rq(Ex,ituMclly
lnn rcichctlJlooo

!c rtulrc.d
l.r \uqu{ roN, 'l'h( Urn rr, V i,... n J h(i.(
1,tr,s,

BPD,r\ll.ci!l'\A''NrrlC $.

Sr.,L

ii 1,,-

\'.(n r,{ncJ rl'"
ncs
runrcL640ydds
long,
vrs oPcncd
Borrd.
A
DNnt.omDany's
ftuld in thrt yed, rnd in 1936, thc suecs of Shiirc hxvn$ lJc.r
osc'\c_ *i'h Il
lroLed, ri,e roEr t'ln*1!
'I'J
"lJ'd'orlcrnll,
iandmj, mi.i"" nJ rggirEtr.hrr\ Dcado .Jlnun,lar'
Er.'orll\ incH,e, \''d. lvcn,'s. fu',u'T n.r_ nariu''r
frod-\ror o'po'E .,.|.. Ll..s'i1s, @i c r d ri \ d' F'r. So,'
;eni "e'e i, rv ir J"i' rl,rd s-rs.c.'l p rrr1,, f"r Fnr.,e'* .trd
pint Kenc's rnd ?arian ccncnc. Fiuld als surplied lirdso.c (nDlryd 4 roi sirdcn roctdics, dc.
\\., ' 'I, '.ig\to rilssorr'n rd.r lirJ l- 'u'd bh" 'rt,tr r '
Ge ht, sirh shocking lo$ ol liic, ForJ's ,nd Shton's mtrgcd, xith
kign Ncrvton nr omnDnd. Att$ thi! nfgu, x ncw.Dd norc @n
\enicnt tu..cl ms driven.
Tb hrc ,a6 s hc',u .hi I ol" tr"" l,orrc6 tljrfl. rn'l LhF

uc1 rcitrii'c,lI'J

qs.o -.o.n.

br 'he

Lr)molrh.-so8oororsolrln.'Ii
{6 $.blc.t r5o/+oo tons r v€ek

'q@
iic
production

dued crch reel. St
Itr r,r!2, r nodern kctde rhnt

vd built d Fauld, in coninnction h
GtDro.lroJuG , rJ L'J J "c.ii-Llo',/cph' c_$+ i, f1, u.rn"
L'r he end o' ,e r.,r.' '.U "rs lr rr5os, r lor. i' 4n'J 4, !|q I otr
jmp'u'.re \ i.{
ro
. .rrrolc \r
'dd+.'h/
'\c
'.i
'o"d.
'
'n'r
'crJ,
i,lmflh"ihnio"
r.s
Ir-r\
$
rrd rh(rc
lr.e "n'e 'i[
'
'
Whm, in 1962, BIB uas rc-olsrnised into l}itirh Uascr & Doffds
rnd q proc, St,bD's cmc, rvith The Gwsum Min6, into thc later lnli:
So, dtcr r24 ye$, tlrc St.ton tmd. mrk disppoarcd, r esualr, to
thc ])Iog s ol thc lirscr ompNy. Bnt thc lorllty md chrlcter o[
St

on's souLd bc a much longcr timc dying.

mn l c cnj.ycd thu.nomons mrld-wide rcputldon thxt crllcutu & co. hrvc rttrxcr.d. For dcod6, thc n.me itselahs
hc, syionrmous s rl-.\Gllr... T'c,otr,fry tr.rc rhe plthirn' oi
ph, cr rrdc \ r'n;o1_opolo',colthclryht'Itt' ) J.l)..trs ol
'.rrd
'hc
$D.um'n hc """d,'h. .ompai!.'. onc.rnFI roJ' h r l- n'l
roopcr,c r ntrt gjt.Jn.'s lo\\r'qu.l"'es.i',r'o(l' .n' ul

FN conpiniB

\ids, . l;J' I

sprcirls. rvL.r,d tlTr I {'di.'. rork ,, d
IIa$cB lor rny yc!6 rvith sEt sn &$, And d.s c
po
io' ii rl'. n(rcbins r r N:.< t.
rstulol':nu,
try. n
'.nr,..
ide.rity.
fras rctrincd i distiM f.nily fllvourund
other ormnrcnhl

46

'fhc hshril w finnnh(l ln r85n hy Wlllim Gnornh, i {locl"
btukr lion Liv.r|l('l. IIrvirF l)N Nrds,ft ir ttu Lilunuol ocl
.ruhri8c, \vill' n ( Jll(mri l;ll,,tr.{ rlk nhdiN / hh o{ cmpoBrid
hr n nnl'Rky h nrvc{ i'!, Ilis Brz. lcll on a sm.ll
.nJ .n in
'(l
n*rr
Nostrk,
owncrl h, rlr Ncvirk Plastcr Co,.panr, Ii
.ompiny
olpo a rlNt nc vN uimdrily intcrcNd ir r boih {o!ks tlN $as, oddly,
.rllchcd to r DlNcr nrill, sytsun qulrics Nd ! b.iclyrd, One it
Ncw.rk, .nd fimiliir $ith lhc gre$ins phnq lmdc, l,c @oentntd on
thc gypstrn sidc ol rhc busin6s. N6 ennct$ carenn's did fn moy
yoN pmdu*toilss, nroltly rt ilN, Tnc hst Gdmh boikrlnownro
lEvc bcor opcmtingms.nc oti pair, scntpcd in r92o, in th€ Old Mill
rt GlIcrit!'s plut rt N6vrr!.
Aihoush pr or rhc rd hnsht by \vi nm Gficah Ms rgin
greund, i qur, hld 1,.c. croblirhcd. Thc rop re*s, ih. Ccls.nd
Hcs, yerc utnctcd l,y digging ! noh ibour 15 ld sqn{E, iBtilling

Nnhindgroft lr oritrgordeniciry k,
'l'tunnrMlchir\lN!tiirr { xmtb}
Tlim ii !qj, rh. dfth d
s.s.qin!
'Ie hiFd rnm r
rJilol hd ,hs hdid rEinq
Loql rhrcslin onliny, |oe li*d i'tror[r
hocl of rhc tri11n]

klP i'ui

7,;,Ti

r$ll hFi'

moYins,

tinbcrins.
diggnrg out thc roclq lound in lirgc swclls. Wh onL
could bc !p ro 15 fc.t 6ick, trN cxhiuscd, rhe holc Nould
tecll, whicn".d
bc lillcd rnd lhc quirymcn Nolld noyc to .nothr s.ll. Roclins lhc
moru paerioB. Thc qufryDcn r@ld find . fmthold
Ioscr @t
"as
.nd, di.ging io thc qurffy Lc, vould dlill r holc *ith r chisd, put in i
tot oa t l,snrg powdtr, trmp rhis doRn yith cl4 then tlov jt {ith r
.tr.{ tuse. Th. accidmt r.te is nor rmldcd, sithoush thc qudrrmcn
..ld.d mgh et climbing to thcn mm ddniond stiu. AI thc mk.
toglt[er rith dE d€rburden, vould t tlo$n to tnc bf,m of thr
qu0ry, wh€re it Ms sprEt€d, the ovsl,rrdcn being sprc0d romd ihc
Iovd slops ol tlrc quirry, thc gypsum rmt bcins @ricd by !i.cn s 1o
thc plrnt.
Ar ihc phot not fr nom thc Ds6n fiill q!,rry, tlic !}p6um $Nld
tc m.nuhctud inb hd*ed &st r in 6ikcr'owns. Thc ovd $ould
hc miscd to icd hot i. tne srly bous of thc moring, thd, wnm idgcd
hot cnougn. r6out rM d thac tons of thc gyDun sould bo rollcd nr by
hrnd, in Inmps rbont 6 or 8 incb6 cubq ind Ieft thcrc aor r8 hous.
It h th€n dngg.d od o. 'F.lC, o.long-hmdled shor'.ls, lnd on b rh.
.d$ runftd. ,l.hk prljlN m,incd thc sm. aor nrny ye6. It is
mid thlt in hrer rtr6, C.r.mti\ !rcduccd i br*d olllM bovlcs
th0i co.ld not bc bcatcD, so slducd vere llq {t lohbing lumps orgyt.um inrociid rc6 in rh. ovcb. ol trnich, uhm.'el], r dMn B.rc i1

,i

In 186{, viUirm c.it nt tuik i ninqil nill witl, I'ur-slon6 .nd
entIitugrl dr6scs, rh.t hid bccn pitedcd, 'flre eht.etc plt lnd
husc srx s is srill Nncd by willhm\ gret-slmd$n, Gqald. 'lhc
nill dnle srqd cnsine N$ cxtBordi.iry for the tjncs, tht cJlinJNrs
17

q

,toh0ft.IrI l,howN(,nld*oIhd re, kl$N
n iir Y, r. rtrrl tl,, (trFirtr. rircn tiy i I rr
.mr 1)(l'r(l,,n,lr l.',n't li'.lr 1'.r B.'h. tru ti{ortx." rl;,,,...1
.hscJ hl r Ll,lll w,6 fl,trrrnil r rl \ l,r]r.
Tlr biclydd tr6 ptuducnrs rqooo bii.ls n *cck. Thy wurc r,
rchlvirs ntun.l

rhc

rvrtr",'ll! RNnkl

Bpccirlly sadsrictory. Unlcss burnr vcry nrrd. tncy routd ;ch rtrcij.
banl.ffs ., rrl r id cotr d ro' -., .l ut 'orlcv,Jt'(r.lictr.".,n trl
i ,L,e in Ne* {r .,r r..l o. n.' s'rh bri.ts I o' rh', u.nod.
WllEo. h J r I'Bc lrmilJ or q\e bolcr u'.!tr.i bvroLv.tt,.
o J6, $n {c. hk, h r rnrda, lhc @ d ro i_{, J,na\ it;t rr.,h:,,1
R.d DoDd Pa't.' CPe'rr','oot o\0. he bu.i1ss. r \,or5\r >on br -n,
rno'h. " do.oln Dclju.n.) c.daond CrF Er, $'ro ! iJ
-' 01,.bcflr
" I
ro 5".
.' .)r n .,g'ner dt nirr
ot o'h i 1g, rni

'

'\

'l '

rl r Jre.ito' olrh orDlnv o 88r 'ct
rhe Bc.,jn I t't q,,...r \,,.
showing sisos ol giving out, Rcdno.d deided to look fdrn{;dct. llo

olc'

roolr lt heonr. rhi""qu-.1 rn l.rh',rr.lruoi. rhc\"\e\..
onned ') r Rc\d Jot H"ldfl,tr106.riJ1,h..\cboull.rh.rrtr.
'fh(
r icjru 'io1o. rh ru.r'cuplnrunolNr.\
"exprNion n{er emq bdt tbc mlue of fie sr'psuD
'r'nrt,_'di,;ri"
thar vrs io bc
*tmcrcd{nd is ill bcing extrrcted ri IIarton nror. in mn-

Tl.or..1 onrlk !58{.'r,r $}.i.'r'.!i',d) r.,nutJ,,i.,
Jrrdr - -:'rers Th. mdh,,J. or er rn'io' \q( .h! stun- r
'oo

Br&oD l.Iilt. Ihyins expindcd d cNur€d hioslla gypsunr flppty r'or
d .
d Pdkcr doJ 1r eJ r.e plr- rn" A ,otr:h;j '
o(, lrr$ s-ovi s hr.'y, or ivcn .,n. rna hic r?u{hra . rn lrnl
Hrll, ner Corb,, Linolnshrrc.
4 sistr ol$e sprious tinrcs Ms t6?t ihe crot No{nem Riilway,
dious to plmc in a &grcttabiy ou.drted mlnncr, qare Rc,lnroDd r
sli,.tr" K olt (. "n. h oc I'L..h.J x rh--D.e$pr-',e.hrcr'st,
N,w rL { h\e nr.h..\.'ing,'o (k" ih r, Lnatr s ri;.. trhue .\.tr
rBir .iTed ofl ln ft . I }eoTond o'lv' <rJ r,'\ ft c.'i'v
"tr."nd.,
spcnLling *ekd'l rights inThcC.rhsi JL de.orks
puben
'co).5Fso.lder .oq..
\Ln.rrt Lotrs\ rlrm $or
i..lcn
he bl\r.( {, Hrbc., bLtrlq
r D r.uLI sidc ", t Lou,,
r "ofi.c
,ui.e..\id.. lrrocJr rhhrimeqiv.'r &od.rtrcdqnr
J
c'.edilg sun.l). MoE o\4N roc irs n.ed ro bv 1, eD ut \ih r

' rfl1lal

i

r

I

ir'.
qr1'
r,l
''
d nrnd Tl.P qro0 .U'm\Jn srin.e.oo rtl.,er;0,,.".t-u,
'h 1 \erc l r\:,g r'oub.c v'i r\" Hr"b. qxny. Br .he .mc r ri.J
son, Re'lDo.d B lon Clfcruh, joincd rhc 6u! io look ft€r Hano..
hfc H, roo ir.\ 'or hc,n"lllun rt- tris.rnro.p, ro bc oc.r ir,g
$i ' " a /6...dd|. J1( lGowa, Luurhr. b .,.1;.iSh, * ..oh.ty
48

h$lbrtsl rlrr ir MnNho,lrlrr rn,ch {Ndnl
.r sirli iri liDnr vhr(h rptrni F
nii..

hy

'hc
M$trvlilr, i llLnn li'r Xccno\ ' ccnut
Nxl l, .iin enui wt
'l{o
ntlillod it N.wrrl.
uxpcrinrn$l N l'{,r lioiliDg flMcr-r pnF
!!e r.kl.riatrrlly h'.lJ .tr (ulrcnrnL hv 'l,cr,,1b$ad ol$ru-uuc
ln rll(d l\ir{h.o".I"J,l l',ilcj fh;rq,wit i,-n. "q. :,, tr r.t no"
c4friqk r[. brlcJ. Ar ,l',{, rhF umr.
Vi L-..c, r .rng.. bu.nr
'oo. 1.hmr.dbl
nhy'jruu.pl-ic. nr'loin,rm"nraufld\rd
Douqiun
tsur nrrla roul'lcs bc6:n 1, loon'. Tn. .o.' .r prcdrcuon rF
riuJrn,jc-ouill ibo\. rn,,unuri"rl c.el. ln..o8 RelmondIrLo
clfrcrnh rclnrquishd his i,rfest in the firnr dri lis th&e e]der sons
lool ovc'. R Jr,,nJ rjlcr, who,lir
.mn, n \ic rum_.i\c
'" .q.5,
.0q.o. o. r.' oN.dr-{n
|,cll ir'h. h ln, her r6Dorqblo'r uh''
lllfrc, i,troducing ?!n Crlcincd Plastd, Kccnct iDd ?rrian cement. lDd
olgttrsn'g rh. 'rnL .lqn,ng ol .h. c\u. qperhne nla$c.., .ur
"n1h
lho mmpany x$s. \ell-lno$r
lEE
.'
Tll. prol'l.rrh L,
s.nd $u or "', nun..rr. T\er ".'e
tr,n,
.o'ntLid.
s bor rhc lrnrbl q, r ir(. ot rhdr, tqe.,
lei'inc
\trhile rhe oe< quiids
rnols rh.b"r in .h. \orld. rhc
"oe
opsrriol ol produ, trs r\.r 6m ino( .o - . rt-'n ro sii .". "-.e
bJ !
tdcrned mn'.h ii) r,di'ion. I e 5lurprs ot I e opeii tr('s,r. ir;
.{Ptrie "e . rprul Ld sho'r. i, \". rortrJ
a,R. rl, ;o.,r.
"o.",.8.
eith rh. 6'r I uerdii'. rnd e rn, L, qmrr)
n, .
"etr becon - ;,,. r
l@ ttuoush jn<unte.

T}lc n6in dircctioD of rhc comprny pascd io Louis. the seond son,
balanccd businNmu, ttr.iuqh wfth no tcchDicil riininE lGd.mM
BMon. I rhLJ -on. oc. d d d rrh...ron sLo,l l.- kr Jp. \e,.,rS

I

i nr. h

nJ. unc wrldl s ,:,8 Rcdm" J..L
e}?ul
hcntcd vnh lariol! ietrrdeE, lncludi.g sluc, limc, a '.rure
o6tic aodr,
none of wnich had srtisarctory lcopins propcfics.
Aod then c nc tne G@r Wrr, Redmond servcd in thc soder senicc
under (ji rpro \l"Xe1 E n' Cn,," (,rh. u.rnq hjs [1., c,,rernrrd
Jo*ph. .hc nrd "on. * * rnlo lrdi'. W\ile r..cr uq. "urr, ..e $n
Oflice *epped to o.s!rc its supply ofdedllud sursicrLl)!:$qs, rd
rPonsoEd vork in thc qury lnd iDsulled r nes mEhmicd ddictor.
Whc r\c irmr.l rH..r ,bleo soo. rh- .l^ \3'. r.re\ mld L .on
fcen.e.' n/' ro,ned by Crril lr.'n!i\ r\" s.s,,.on. - clr.n,J

limB.

.cconnrini rhc\ rmkso,torroisqukri.g.iLr'o lnequrrtsFin
gmd onJiLion, fiotrB-h .d.\
T.;1
"6 Lo. tln "ilt.b.$ould
",,c-i[
uing long nircw llMls alo.6 which whcol-bamNr
be bundled
40 lsi abdc the gloutul. One n.n h!'l frllon oF vitn I brd on*.

49

A rrtrIlv

hc

hriLrccnLrnr

h l ,dy rllirctl Lr slnxird itrhc lr {,rs,'l'vi!trN lhd
*$ (tuirc fosihl..

tr

'lnuc {or dillorcN.s iI srLq$ l)d\r( (irLi .,'s oNtr l0r.rr
sidi|gs NJ ttu (jrQi No[hcnr hilwiy hclli rl,sc 1 J 60cn li|]r
orogr..\ i rl- L ri rur. otrh .$o or' !.h\r J.r ir I r. $.- 4tcr I
.,1. c..
i s h1,.. rt u l sl'h .. Nr,. ir. " ., '1.tr
"c(
'n
xnd pottcrl rl&c$ ssc not) ud in loy c$c buildcrsrtrd porrN *c'r
'I he nsr $cp \r?s t, inrlmB orarlc8tshodirdGc, dr quxhy Dltl,o
producr. A lull-dme qurlidcd ch.nist) lldslr Arundcl, b..dr. onc ot
the 6st troLssional .hcmists cnrloyrd nr .bc gypsD nrdnnry
(,{nother }as cDplovcl.t Gothrm.) A rsuh prosuDnnc ol lxpcri
Don&iion ws dccidcd on. 1'hc ln* srnrr,lcs ol tikcd phstcr sho$
the pbduct
codanrd 30 po ccnt ol hcmi-hydrlic, drc i$r
heing srpsun Dd thc raiio$ lords ofunhydmusplircr,whichMs utrlilctJ to hire iniximun srcrgtli. I hriig aounJ thc sourcc ol drc tronblc,
tl$ush. it nns r dircrcnt mttfi t{nrg b .orcct n. Indccd) n }as ro bc
scvc.rl yers neaorc iny rclirblc ndhod w6 lon d. mcxniyhilq com
phinl! tun uscs, crriilcd to ar)d cxpccti,B rhc lrgi:st qurlity,

ln

d

o.\

rcr

During the r92os, nrc Kccnct enrcDt, doublc b.kcJ, supcfnc rnd
ine sra'les Mrc scl,iDslrll, but i| 1924ind r92j tnsc vcro
r siies .l unple$xnt urnslcs yirn rhc loel aai,n.s ov.r nouJirs 01
tLcn h . 'lhe quary dsinise dr*F yere roo snrill and drc lxfurcis
*qc dr.{ening injun.tn,ns. It is pnbrblc rh ihc plst$.rlkas ol
Ncwrl were nor populr vitn the firm$, Nl,o jcrlously sna cd tbcn

dtlsupe

l..od.'L.i *'h ''
.n lhr..r.rl..d...r,,sc.* .r
nrdy m crdrc. ln rny c!ot, xs ym. ,s n Nis discolcr.d r r.s
poBibilitt loi drtimgrft*ed trvith C.Fe'?i!'s bui nnh nrc Raillvry
atrd Can CoDnission, thcre ies no lu her honblc.
Ir 1928, Gcnld C.fcrda, son.lRcJmDnd, j{,incd rnc 6m $misht
,Lon Londor Uolvcsny, rt 111c age of 22. IIc innrcdirtly took !n
intcrut iD thc qndity oI pldtis ind soo. shoftd his mlunl bcnt td
scientidc cxlcrinc.t. (Ec NN, in his loig.onnc.tnn ryitn thc 6m, b

tr(.out

m.Dy

f.tcnt lor lrrioos .:etbods .f p, oJ nction. Mxny morc ol
n6rr pitcDtcd at all, Lut wcrc norlcd as s..rot

his i.rentions sere

Proesses.,
It
soon lelt th.t tlc omplii s snurdotr
bcco lnlg crniel
Cliudius Ash, onc oalhe bis dcDbl lonscs, yrotc:'Wc rcallv nNr ask
you t. ni[e ]iour pl$ter nroro rcsnlii. Thcrc is nothhg bnt tonblc *idr

i$

Ccilld C.rcrxh

{$

norsils:

The ph*er b*ilrg ovem *crc nor bcina

tr(o,l hr rhry r.'r etr'.uly irli.nl ri rt,rrvi\r.'l hd.
r lr, li(t,. tr,^ {.ilitriirs itr(l urleF.rlLilils, l)dI ol
$hi.[ ]if ( s'urlr rrNl,,n(Lrl,( |Lnu. \yo rLcui(|.d, rhdeli,(, r)sltr(
rlos rlr[,[trFf )[ss,llr,rly n,uirol'\yl,i!|, sis irs il)ilny n)trF
utrilitrnrly

sN!

L,'

([

*rtt,

ilnco t)hnd

olFnl col{r,ltrlitr'f

crcryrhn,s orcr r) fio Du hoilir{

!'rod$s shi.l' [kl tiorcd nso]l (rc' nnn] yora n, tl{ nunulicxrc ol
liottcrs rrrL cNnrg tlstcrs.'l lio,c Muld bo r slisht dcro,rtion ol
.olrnn quhl in Ii. dcrhl g dc h.ilcd rhrr. hul n $oulJ tc much
Nn'.rclixblc. ti uotrldlMn. l!tcrDrtor.lbrer[irg J.\rnurunjrNtilielfrciu ila xgrilN boilcd phsor ur migAt drir. S{iil). rnh the
tuw rroc.ss nroNrriooxnd witl rdntrdrft tlrt.rq M could mx*c.

vc irnl)n)vcd rtu qurlny rnd rll thc conphitus rcgudnB drc ntguh y
ol dctrtil fldscr disrDoicd. lu(hcrnorc, rltltough wc tr..l cxt..t d
(irtrh.tr rc".'n[(s.o.o.',.crc'.oI o .nn., i i,. tri ro'\: St f.', i .
ollIrcn$vtypc 01Dh$cr, rcry acw commc.ts $.rc rcccircd ro dic c
lhfi thc chinged nEthod ol nmnulicturc hid cvcn b.or roticcd.'
Ar r
.tr.c. J.rrr rl( .,]6.4(.r,00 ro roo f. .4 fl'1(
rldckencd. &.duciion ol such puriq {as ! coinDletlv uneonomic
inrrtcr. Onc old hud rsdls siiii,rg poliUrios bns oa cooled ookcd
,ryDsuq rxin*xli]rqly chirrDinsoll bi$ or nurl rynh I oaftock lnd {n.
ltush.'ItRas r h.ll oaijob, You nccdcd so nuch tunlrntmtion,Introu

nDixrr;dcinit)hrcxu*youhrdateelinsthrtthis*"sthehislre$sr c
possi6le.' 'llis rco pd ccnt glpsunr sas mo*lv use{l for $duiry. In
rotosre.r. sys Gorll Crlomtx, ii sconrs rarh$ pointlLas pmducnrs
{ccklc$ r$cr. si.cc Rxr xtoui 7j per cent olthc \htuos Muld

nre

invcnd,f dmc

l

ur

crll'omh dudns this pcird. ln thc 2or

\.i -. tr'onc
\.J J , '' tr.lr, f Jr'r..ri. r,r'f
'Ji
ANricrntch c$ \rcr aound to corrrin orsrnic nrltd, trcrrrcd Iil)m
*cHth (citho hrir or noof or loni dl). Evd,rxl! r kerh rdrJs
roi cotunrnrg crusi. xlkili mrk td xs 'K' Rchr.lc.-$.Ls produc..l
rhoy

ll'.*.r'L rliu tr.'lv,o-. .'..''. r'.
varions &onpb by rivlk to grin rc.cs ro dr .rv fttr rixls.

rwllcd,
Thc dcpmtnot producing it \v.s cl6cd lor J.rs ro duc {Io wdc rot
divcly cDgagcd on production. Illc 'Arundcl-Cxllr.trr' prdcss 1vxs,
hosc!c!, ldisco,crcd' indcpcndently br lhc N ioDrl GypsD Cnnprny
ot the U.S.,{. rclrtivcly rcetrtly rnd disclord ir oDc olthct parcnts of
TC "lln\.' . p'o\(or'"!-n'portnnei Ms
ltctddcr, inrcnt d, but iotp ented, ir drc.rrly
'36 by Gculd Crltenta. Ihis $6 r finishios cort rctirdirg mrteiil
with vcry ,s url rnd rclrnh sctiinc F)pcftics

llc*o.'\.n,'o'
o'l'.'
lAcsriti

.\l',{.r rq,o. rur,i'. \tr('(.,trt,F,'.,,1'x,,1 tr(I, n!s rt,rsd.
.r'(r-trJ.'l'hr\ I'al,' \(r',{, \ n jtri\,',r . \r'r l' r', nr!n!' r.'.' !.
l, i,' . r, l. l. qr,, t.... r. i. ( n i'. r,"\ r,,.r,,.i.'.(.,. trnt.,i t.trr,
f
Gcnld Cillcrm, rli( i y(r or nrtrc ,,i i rc;livc rc\c c[
{s
"o;k,
.'L Aolr.., " if' tFjnli.ri(., 111tr.,,1..'rr, .\(tr
l.i5.r.
sr. '\'1.-'l,o!.I \r
14 .'",'.,J ..r r1i.' 1t,c..tr"
;n \...'l,fl..r,r'h.'
i".'..r'.
t)t.'..on,Dln\.trr',i.,,L ,J,J 1(,, i.

on'., ini,,mm.,:r'- l.' or .flrLr,ot.r,idhJ.t rt"Jnd J dr,,. -l.i.. ..'b..or I . r.1.1\cd , aorJ+i',.
tr
'a.
'-f
liL r,'i,. \'ord.,. , roi J
h,cr'r
brttrsp.o,..L
mL l' rrcp.:is-.r lh I "rB
m-."c1.fn.1b.tru Jl-r'.,
nc{ 'ial dodiiying solurion m d sub$q uentlr dchydrarcd r sc.ond tnx
in i ste,n pc$urc !c$et. Thc nmc given io thn r(y ligh qurln\
rlBtorms'(rnir, sonre inBol{ htoily j,*e, sine Kltu rvxi (hinicl
namc tfi. tunily h,d $ftrcd s.h.dl ors rDtry scrcntioos. 'ltn
tr,1r.ar, 1) , j6rn. \rJin.., -.,",,,s,.,r.p",t,'l l( ,.u p o . "
r-! .' or tr I i.c$. prcd-c r; 'c t.b, i i
",.
di,aered lrod thc crrlio one, chiefly dtrc to thc lict thd n *!s i stu r
".( ir rl,i Iir|npoqJe'L'od dior rr r'n d'),1s.olurio'
anJ deh\dr.LJ il r. runJr\e Lrl.r rretr Dr\\ft
Du s,..i,.r \,\...,.,,c y,c\)..,l ,i,-." 1,,,..r,-p-.r1
u",'hca outri rooooo o,L .. ,
Lu' h.B,a,, 'li,' tr.'. c.{.
"eelA"('
G ,i l,..r.nonuutu. ,.J,uo.r
tb^ .r LL,,rl'r1,.

n

.i, 1,,

\/o

-,.J -n, tu.T' eLe tr-en rJ !l,cn.'t -ol. n,tu Lo
lrodnce r oorc vmicd.olou, uuldrs in them ri-colourcd bi.[ rmd'i

tu

yhich B. J. Crllcrarr scn.ed I plient. Evcntually, ryitn drc
labour sho isc oi ihc Sc.ond $,orld \!ai and tl]c gcnc;l stoDp nt
bnildiqJ. drc I'atd \yrs cldcd.

ccs

-. ,,6, H s. F(' on, .\i. iin'hble...1, rqutr.J ,l'd,
...''.,orLr1- ' t .-d LorJ U.h.'
\.. u . riel..nJ,otr 'd h"
'.r
Ju bciore tic hleovcr, CifltrNra\ Iid bought. in ad'lirioD to r
4@ lcrc Iml rt Bcxcon Hill, Jcdcho Frm, jNt rdss the nnin nitNay li|c ft.n Hr\yton. A qnrrry rvxs opmcd thor and I brickylrd
bnilt. (Tbe irmr is *ill bcins worLcd by 1 tomnt.) $ihen lrPD took ovcr
D \'dc^or.f.nr."r.q r-.o \n'leFon':u)pJ rP,ru.ts uD J'tr1
' l rh .ool j ll' , ,nt .r shj.I1..'doDrtr j: E]rur 'i,r J L.,
tettle plNcr tLnt at Bunny, nc.r r,oushboroush. trd( J b bea needless encuDbrancc 10 ttu ncrrby developnrg sirc ar lrs Lc c, the pl,it
rl . " . nderoi.-o.' d',r-.' l
",5,llur1\.irlltrdrgrq,\
Tl.c trda.g.rJ L{ l . "... (. pr.le ot !.odn, rg .or.i'i'',Jtr'
!'rr
75,oooloDs ol buildtg pla$u r yar (an iuse of50 pa anr, iomx
'

J

loeu BNlc ol'Fr|Nrtr rl$tr D rully k,l. l [i, wtr{ h pr)vc lh( nrir
iiolrlc,lcvd,,trnu i'i rl'r (l,lri'rrr .D .utr sitrrc r[r hl]"!d,
Utr1il rlr rpr.(riirni,tr' ol rlrr $t{rn .otr'frtri* undu Itirish
(iyNnn iir lltr r)aor, (:xli'cnrr'r, ir] .oNn.tr wirh dr oilrc! icquiLcd
oon.ctrrs, ot)ri!d nr,r rtr l.sr inncl)c cnrly wirhin rho Gurp. 'l'his

h. l,J
..'nlt, .r..nluri
Dc'1.,'.^r!,r"t'l'1."(..(trr..,]1
.t, I i . r.
T, / i, ",1 -.
tln\,,.tr,,.,,,,{ j1. t,. rJ., \..J\r,.,..t.Ir,,( r.

hcurld.\l)cd o hrvc r iob for liti, not only,or hinNeli6ut ntrhise).s
kl $nn sotrs.'lhis kind ol lccli',s is p{lups dyins out slovly, btt
llrro is sill, inroDs thc oldcr peoplc here, ]vhat you nighi.rll Ciltcfr h
Mod rcccnt dcvelormenLs hNe tren th. oNru.lion of dr Nw
Kcmii'r Rchrdcr phnt ol hlgcr oprcity rt Jfiicho in 1968, rnd tl)c
qrnins olthe Cmnsc qumy tu join th. dbting 6vo. h ldtc 1969. Thc
Gringc slxNs sre lrlomise. lli in hte r96q, i sirlll doub]c pu {rs
iNtillcd rt Ne$r* to d,!e h dc .rcFi.crc.sing dmmds aor ligh
Ncw li.cs hd.ngirg to pio.rimnt lIB Ildusries liglres hivc joined
thc grarc rnodsftchcd gcnddno i. ihc dcttrcs on Genld C feEta\
olhcc uxll. Thc b.gs oa phscr, nlich
tive] to lll coneivrble

sil

oomcs ol dr \rodd, drc mlcd 'Britkh Gypsun, Nemrk non. lut
vnr is iNidc is thc GIIorta ph er, unts ly acktu$ledged as the

lrcnicr lhstc

nr drc

idd.

The glpsum oathe llidlinds is histoically rnd in quxlilr onc oitnc
mo* inport.ni in rhe Mrld. h rppBrs xt iimes tu hrvc hccn iding to
bc discolsed, One could, alnx,st liteElly, frll orr Frt oa tnc dcposn.
limes iI NoitinsnrmshiLe still nm orcr gypsun as thoy pLush. Tbc

c!ofGotltrnr,{heretheWi*Niercinrerrun,ispnicd\ h.lJRor[

eLd

hr d of
inss, no$ dehnct, but on.e opcmt.d ty x higbly
hxrJly
l*s
.olourtl
thin
thc
ncn
thct
c,nploycd.
cnhepreneurs,

'l\c histry ol J. W. Shcpprd (icqrncd hy IPB in 1916) gos
b&l to the siy nxla ol fie ni..tccn1h ccntuy. 'fhc Slrppdd lt',ni1y

hrl ha.

axrnc$ in ths Gothrm dishicr r.r ,nln! gcnc iiois. Willixn
Shefprd. too, \1xs x fxm.r. It (rs on I firn it Rcdhill, Ruclifi-orSoar, rhtrhccsr|lishcdr gypsun nininR lrsin $ rrontu rhc nrjddlcof
ihc.c.rury. IIc wonld, {prrcrtly, usc in iroD rod on thc lrlie, prodding n inb drc cMh until it lit so.r.rhnrg solid, nnaiirblr $psun. Hc
wonld dr.n dncct tr tcim oldissss to extrct it. In thc very e ly d!ys,
this gyf m \rould bc hken by hose ind cM to the bints oadre tLent
md titp.d iNo a hcrp. ft nrs iheD bunt ind broken up $ith $@den
flaih. ii rvas lDsscd is oi6_e ph*cr, l@ded inb r brrgc xnd lullcd

i.r'la,

, Wil!,1
. i' \ -'l'1.,,thI \J rl."
.r.W"rtr.'lrl'(l.r\r'r,.t,,rt.,
t,.nr.r,i J,,,.trr :,rt, tr,,r:,,..1

,lN'r

r,,

rlr

wl'

..'tr,1

'l ho fh*o \y$ oJidr bo, sl,r l)y iikll\nhhls,n' $c.tr rtro tt,trn rD(t
ccili|$ ol rhcir oNn hor scs. t'lrro c r ill
rrrtrtl$ ol tl(
'unrrhhtc
rosukshdrcrq.'lhcCorhr]\,tur.N[i.tr
rrcshrckb rzlorxtis
owncd b/ J. IL ShpDrid, Ulillirn shcDl)irl,s gr]t Fitrdn,\ hrs
'a.l rJ 'i ," -r,trfloo..'-rir r'!ri'.r.
.ct,..,r.,:
nrncd firh r(Ll\
or trshs
\\ ... 1.\ \"r-.. \\ri.',. n .\t- tplrd .tr,. I t,, np... o. r,
' shcrc hc rorkcd on lxnd lerscd iro r Lord Hotrc, Rho,
Crrhur nsd4
i rn..nr.n tr.^rnt h. 1..r. r.h. 8/o,.rrn .co, r.,.,(t1

of Jt,'..n.. nC! h'.,' n,.o inl'5,,. ...1,t,i r,t r"r r.rr
riil Kcswo n, thrc. or rour .ilcs Nav. Thc nrill yrs .rncJ l\
\\'r.,Jr'.o'.Dr')'. \o.rn."h., -. '1 ,1 -a.td f ' J 'ris srp. ,.
..d. 1,.\1.1c r,.
Jri.h,,,rdL, sot rq rn.:u f,\''.-tir
p,r L J-u.dior i. n. r.,.n'o hj, ,r, ,s... r.it.(.oo,.
csfccirlly sroccrics, \rm sold bv wcisnl of DrFcr rod c. tcnts. rt ]v.s
obviousl, in rhei s6r o a sLpkcepers to Iu * 1'.ss ,s hcNy xs possibJc.
This dnbi.us Dncticc sas $oD!d bJ, thc LcAlt Nd Wcigiii r\ci, Rhich

bN.'

i i. , cc.trlvpr.,r'.hc.\fl r'h,i

Tho

icc;;ns pnblcn

aor

trJ

qr.'t..t"ii

r,r..

rle operfiors ot nines ir rhc rroi ry,s

s. T , K ,r\ o..d'.,
t .o..ed,,i. ri. h.T r. I.t
'
'n."i
'hr
5.'n.rl.,'-'' -.r../.-,r' i -., rnL'.a,,LhFd^{hJbuJ.r
,.\i . .:. ,t., ,s. I, I r, .ad q,T L, , .5" ho,,o,; ,,t rh. .,., ro rl,(
.ur.c,,,l'-r -,. .|ur,.1 ) j cbou. rqTo r slc/p Jtr',
'
li,.J1 lr...a'..,.n,,, '--. t.do tt\.,j,,
d.,,r.T.,,t.J
'
.n
qi,',.
ts'it u cd 'li ' o
raet o| i L, , d our ur rl
ninr '1ll k,tu,rc.l(r $or[!'] '1.
tuahr
' r,h'.-o 1,.\,pt,'tir]i rnd
\r'5 ''e.,.l
irp .,.i., JtJrrru{ot
l''l) '^_c,d ' ..'ir rIr.'li.-,,.
C rl' n ff .. rn" "',,-".-.d t\ o', I n., \r_rd ;t \o"i.,s,rr r,J
.i{,\' " tr 1.. tr.1."ai " ..s:n 'ti''a, r,,oors'rtl lJn, !rs(
Lnd,n I rh; Shcpt\i. Ni i\4inc (Cu!(,, Bush,.
'
rur..,.Btr.60r.,rrr.o.,.,n
I rJ. , ;r rLc rour r LcrJ or
.\\n
rl
Vc,1..ro.i."1'.
rl.. mr u'c!' ,. ,'.r. ;r ,. ,
Lno{n lnr their moDhl,gility. Onc' hlc is oll vofrhr,olcortr r who,
no'i.' -r *
oi L:. 5.L t cd,uor. r.'.L J,ior D rol,i_,un
^.4^tr':
,nc.'
.
\ 'i r',1,.' lj.n .h.l.',. olcrt 11 ^t;d!-i,t.JL,
s,
''.
..,..rd'..9
,rr.n
..ilx
i ,r.',, i- .'.u.\ .\F,r..,ti
:i
'..r,
L

1-

Id .on'1r

Gorhrm's
54

ri,.r.rJ.'.

r.nl.\ ..-s
',,.',.''h,.,1.
&om visiri&tnc
er,

$nc Men tokcc, Knrs hhn

tb)

(hrdrlild trrrnfliu
,.1'

m' $(r M

nn)i'

\ !i 4r' rL{trIIri^l. i ii
L

'ilJJ

I

A

$sn

cnm rt

crrom

&

Iti,rYl{l(o

C0mprny\

uilhq*ryrrlttud!r,hue

HNhDqnr!

dy.

dna
^r

t

uul ir

Criinil\

d,! u"r orlh. reihm,L

wlNr.wrhrrn,th, itvoul

h0 ntrkind

(!rliNcNmic),

k,iq,t

rlx

lhc nrirr ol (nrlh n w.r. dnli. Isldd, rh{y .l'tcn di,thycd tr dl
iqlcntriry. Sirco m nrtry rlmrcd dr srn. flmnnr, tlty ll trcqrir.d
nioktr ncs, suoh is II ldoF, Sinh , lt iy's Wil'u, oro. Ono such ss
Sdrny S rilh or Sinnny Niltct.llo is icnurbcrcd l'or $ilknrg ro work
cmh diy ir his bcst borlcr, shich nc sould hmg up it dE lie.long
silh his sr!I. IJc }ould dEn put nis old bo\ylcr on. Hc would drill a
liltlc bit, drcn {Iip his old bo$lcr undc thc lDlc Ic *6 drillirg so that
fillc,l up sith chips. Ec would lse thc chips ls ! timp lo. the shot
phccd in thc holc 10 blow thc he.
And n }onld be ouclly unjust 10 undqsiimdc rhc enorDous rcsilicne rDd coussc of thc sypsunr minc6. All lround thc GothD distrid
oncstill hcms hll ol n.n wno, as x nrttcr o a couse, *ould xxlh scvcn
Diles o. nor b nc xt worl by six in ihe moning (4.3o rt NcrErO. Onc
niner !t Knrgston \ylllcd ro 1r nilcs to ind fiom {ol,t evcry dry.
Condnions ,t rrc* rcrc hcllish ind dlnssous.'t'he holcs rcrc drilled
{itn nin'l nus s, blcl-breki,r s implcmen ts wh ich required sam in! !n d
Thrce yca$ airo rhe Cuctoo lsh mine Ms rHpened by thc
ror thl' n' c L
SheppJd- r e orprn) b' I r r'rl or'F o\' ,
'-d fl.stss wse
pmdued lnd supplied (eoe\ lnd l,.ri @menls.
m eted vith hide nues. Cucloo s.d Sni6x,
Anotnd six yes hter, in rgo9, r e@nd minc and nrill scre rqui(d
llon G. Stekci & Co. Ltd., GotnRn, ncd thc W.ldon sl;ng. 1'his
conFny n.d hen oFrdting sincc tnc r86os. SbcpFrd\ molcd ai hd
into thc mrkct for high qmlity building plNdi Otho uscs lor Shcr
,a.d's gypsm indudcd $ohc dtrsing in .ollic cs, forili.s and cotun
dr6si.g.,{ h4! a,nount sas also lscd aftcr thc g1dt Emt CoN llmds
in ihc 1956 aor m(mlising thc cdcc6 of$lt Rrt( on firdid.
A n'rior bmtil'olg\ ror Shcpp.trd-. en.. n'orrly anc 1.. opcnii S
oa thc Wcldon Dnrc. TIE Associrtcd PonLDd Conc Minn6ctures
rpprmched John Shc?ptrd, Uilliams son, nod pnt itio bim tlrit ften
m)cDt rv.s scnins too quickly lnd ms ci0cting. Thcy asled hin lor
sussestioro aor I enent reurd6. At dEt tine, only 6$t and *cond
gnd€ srpsum v.s shippcd from the Sheppard mirc. Mlny thouslnds ol
tons or thids, or 'axnlh'. yelc lcfi tyins thc ninc nout\ d 'sobbcd'
b&l into tllc nincs. At this pdod thcrc Ms no spccinc 6c or dcnand
for tbc dnds. Ttu A.P.C,M. poplc 6tcd lor r s.mplc of svcr
hnndrcdscisnt lor dpsimcnLr hlse{l on Amsian pncticc, rnd it aid thc
iricL. 'I t ;s ]vis thc bul-thmnsn fo. thc comprny. It s^r us r ncw rnd
dprnding trdc, xnd got ;d ol orr rcusd stun'it tne smc timc', John's

.lhc LHinN tld\ hy Sh+Itr'x *lrtrdd sith !l[ c!i,"r,r "t
.l\r(rh,r,l,
,trJ Slmr. J\: !,wrui.Ii(f
i,iu \r.r,liCIr n,
\*,ci.tr.D, 'll'cv B.'"
,n
l.y tt,,,t in rnrr., ln rlt t o rr5o.,
!f.n n q,, Jccllc,l '.(cn
.r.ru.l.. i,,.:
'u.,-(nr
rl 'd ou' 'rJ ccI.J r, c.rr. tr"a r.. rou., "-.,:d.r !,ilinr
. r r a n. rh..,tr i.-sp. .[nL s,,p, ir1,r, .r'"pp,,,t,
a ..
o h. oundn. r5u"LrIh'.(rohsh,'ni,,in.crs'. -0,",.-;,"
sr: dnc.mr olBP! lor mcnr ycr6, rcrnii,n roro. t,,h, sncpp,,
Tnc ndt compMy a.luircd hy BIB, perer Ford & Sons. r
corccm in Fruld, St lodshirc. $6 l{tr ro be thc victin of

\A t,'o\snJ' r'910.Lish't.Fl,.cr,i,",\
nrLusids{ in i rem.n,ln6 e\Dtosion.
Tl." o'i.in..l l,.o 'o-o Lr, \utp,o; N\. rd x ou.in, - J. r
",u" ir. U.-".1, TorLt os ed s .-t- d\on(
qudriG
u'gcdr.I

te

Jly out

in StlEodshii€, at Hollinst n, Ahon, ind StaDto..In r88o, hc
,pr, ".d %edlr.rJI", heDu,'1Jort.n...b-.,, t;.U
r,
'r'nrcd u
.l'.

riAtrac'",l.icrliorr'el..lhi,
rFrn.'. Hi. sdier ror( n_
LiuJrd r$ o r" n r$!) .' rhc !h'.Jr.' er.o{ t,tr bu . Th, i,i
nr' o.'h. F,u d uorts (+ ourl' in .8ql io r. ;IU idL.c ot rt. Le,
r-- keFi. n cnr. t' J . F..ru Lt" ;-k
"cr ent,dd.,.J :h,fl ,1

.lb. tlnt Pds !'ordt four rcN, Ahn. Hdq,, Irthur;nd Ro\rtrni,
j"t .dt ;*p";;.i;''G;h;i;ii.;.i;;i;il;]#ip1;",'#;;;
rh. G'
:'[or I.J6..' ( rD_L] or L,,Jon. tn ro)o rc]. fo J
'.i.(rhis comnxrl
@k oEr
l-d,1. bol c r tr brm.J r \ 6 otcomp..nr6 rhrou. h,,c yq.,
^B, rlr
t!t'e't.m..r\r.h(d uw. br EfB. Lnp\ rdr4rir ,
r.i'c -a'n.crl.
llFrc. ino cmc o. ot L.n;ur,. d r\- \.cdwooJ
l'hs* rrd Gtr, { (o. rhi.5 r,'d., Inin. ,nd D..,nr rr F-ulJ

Dtut(ur innleCLy.

,n ro+ Foro s a!- rro rh. \.w \drDr' pta(r C!, Bir.,rmhlF. h,cll \rFo h,rdr,ll nlr..fl.,Dn oenB rid" r. lru.d.

i!'rh u.q. Fe01.5. gru"n6su,,s.o p..Fdh@,Jet.c"hq., I oro..
oxr. \ocfl tr c'r'n.5c -x nrcrDl. Lvcnto,ll.. ni r91,. r rcw
'tr
,, n.par v w^ rn.oed. rF" Prrljo P,arl Ao.trd r, \ Dt,rr
",i b, in
'aI1,' f.,uU J1o rl.L n.., .o'.rDsr ,,,,o"J ., rer$.,b,e.1.-,,.
v(.1wt1". r'o.$cr dft,.,on hrd b-n c.nyirs u rnd bto.t
q a {ld
'\. B-ni.l. {1.\6kr Do"' Cn. qho, idu6.cr boDts
'o
churh msnoriil
t blcb, rinkers and idrcltis rcrc mrde, sN b b;

d,cd

-'

,oJ'. F'd, oefrF p'r. or BDB.Trero'vptr r.-c rbcn Air
Vini.i? rook o\ct,r. ot -h.qo+.drd trqut hehruJm,nc $hcn
56

wrIn,lcou i,, r)10, rhdMd r,rld (fly{oBll'.i,h wNuiusd.
Ilv ru,r, i' w,'rr{i' rr(d. I'dwutn i,ooorrl r.om'aH,,t'.,tr.tri.tr1ri,('
ulrtrrnrr u,l$ $(.( I+( i , rhu I r.rlLl trrih.. lr$,a'r[.'J,'1,'r
xc r(, hsnr{ ih n,tr. ,ttriu, nnr r!{\l(. 'lhr wr'l",turJar ,,t'q,rr I
hotrrLr n(r i'.,11{'nl *,(lin[.. l'..u('r qLrr rl'( cor.i"yril,. TiLl"
&vor nivo bcor

r

so nldittr rbccnt'n"ncn..nnnNc{nlnsi.nxrrr r(

inrrtrro ungnlrTNn\

rr4-l
'rb 'shi.n.hinrcd 80 liv6, has n,cr bccr
ciusc olthc cxplosioq
discloscd, SoDc said it nigtu nive bccn sbotlse, others simply rnc
esults oadctciomtion of csirgs tcin6 $oed t@ tons uo,lersronM.
Thc snocL vlycs ol rhc cxplNior troc fcli i. towns lite Colenry and
Northrnprr. up ro 50 mil6 isry. Thc counhrside xll around {rs
hkvcd !p i.b c(ics ud inounds reniniscmr of thc tftle6elds olthe
First VorlJ !Vr.. Holcs {ere torn in rlE sidcs ol hoLes. The li.lltl
vilhgc h,U y,s tom ap.it. Firnrs dh.pporcd. LunF ol Br*r,sum .r'l
bo.rbs wd nurLd in xl rlnatioDs. Houses ro niLs ar"y veo d,mxg€d,
Sonc bouldds, 20 toos rveisht, Rere aound hdf-ridlc ayay, n,Jng
been flung up lron 3oo fcct bclox thc swa.ce.
Somc ao $psu bincB ivse Lilta. Othes killed rcre cithcr h lhe
villase or nr thc .c&by R L.L &dp. r'ron tine to time thcrc ]]rs bco a
renewed ell for r. o0ici,l clphn ion buq $ Iir, there lm bcc! none
giyen. A cliim aor cdbpm$tion wd lodsed \yith the,{ir MnrGq, rnd
eventullly !n rRrrd of {95,mo tus mde.
rlmrinsly, tlrc Shtont works iust o,cr tnc hill lrcn
\ytrc
Iarg.ly nnlFdc,l. Hclp cimc inmcdiarcly Iron Sbtons. ft ms d{ided
that tne 6vo 6rns should mcrgc, sirn Mrjor Lcigh NcNton, ol Sl.ront,

'lhc

i

l'ull

in cohmnd.
Tne ahixstc. blo.k tndc mntinucd ro bc heltly. To .omrcnonre
the ssdding ol Pincss Dl i,nberh nr r 948, tlc rcma6 .f the D uchy ol
Lancreor presented h{ vnh a polishcd ahbascr Ia,npsh.dc mde liom
stonc niNd in tL di$rict.
Ir r9!1 rlter i phnt nrd lrccn built at FNld nr codunction witb
Gypmc ?roducs, the two 66t tnosn olthc Ford's plNc^, NaFo ind
4'ttrq dnc back on to the m.[ct afier a brcik of eighr y€s.
TIE esultics oa tnc c'xpiosioq at Ford h.rt not bccn forgoren. It
w.s slid that.bour lDll Brnhh Gypsum's enployccs at lauld 25 ycatr
later h.d rel ircsnho yoc killed in the ny$e.ious {pl6ion. But I ncs
plant has isen r!,1 floscs have ovcigtuin thc usly old crutes.
Wfi tft rcquisition ol P.tr Ford, DIB hrd ta*en orer the Ii* ol
the nenbqs ol the old Gj'psun A$ei ion. In doins e, it had so
{qnncd de wnob of the stnrc epn oa I'ld6liesis, n small compMy, vnn , hine and flctory .t trr* Loalc, vhich hrd becn oLed
57

j,,irlly hy rcrrIosol rh AsN,.i]ni'fl li'visflrlr
t][ Fcd llAr l,cxltc lirdory, $l,i(h \yrs rl'. i,rhsrry
dtrdi{r trn h rhc r)sos, Nrs L oi htrill.

(nn,pn,y Id(lirs ]irn Ii'mtr rsrls( lirtru(itrl,r !r.1nir"tr\r0
l)ci shN ol('{,[r, rol N ln'irisl' (trrfnriu$ i s]rtr'1,, rle\ (ht)ndrr.
l'l,s (itr li , ullh' 11 us n'xlti'is {likly itrotrsi.0s iNo rhc

lnilisInrrld,yrrirsl'nwhrd.s$crcl'r(nilsohri{tr's!)hitrdlcrs.litr
ri\ trr, li\ r lcrr, lrlodi,,g \rrs I tl,c moq ol rho ico on d]r Sl
I-slrcncc Ri!d: lrgc st{ls lrrd, rlrcinrc, t, hc h in lxcfi rnru.,n
lur rll Nnnu hnc. ]\n ihcnrrtivc nmtu ol suprlri,rs tord b thc

Ilut still ihcrc
rnorlu lMricul,rly potonr rivil. . . .
NiGt ol rhs"ns
gyFunr coDpinics no$ pr ol UPll I' unrics I !q
6 $o nNc &cn, lons iod olouful Lilorics, punchlrod by rcmf[rl,lc
drl sysom. nor. Thc Gjiprcc co.\yrny, ljo b( nujor British.on
panrtober c0o\qbrEughFogus.., jhonc!lihcshoncili(oics.
\.r',d. (lopn.n' Foi.. roa .''ri'.r..li n.., u)p.0.,ir.

Drnish nrrrlcl lnd ro tc lou.rl. 'l'rus \rcrc oponcd silh Gyrrn Mincs
at Robc sl,idgc, Sus\ drc n^r Nggc or b.ig lhar fic Itrnish .onpi.y slmld rpplv pliscr to
bomd phil opcit d by G)pr...
'Ihc L,lks nturdcrcd rhc0 no ryrccmcor wd r.ich.d on tho dldcnio. oa
sluics. Nlorco,cr, n ns Lnnd thrt tlEc,pnaltrould not bc aodhcomnrg
ro build itrblc kctlc c cinnrg oquipmcut.
So, dr Iogiql conclusior n6 rcrcfudj r nc{ coDIrDI Md phnt,
dcpcDdilrg or iinl)or.d roct, hrd to bc c*iblishcd i| this couDtr. A
sitc was lonM it Rochster, K.nt, thcn schcdnlcd.s r distc$cd .rcl
Thc nrovcinto thc rrc. by a ne* compttry si6 srcctcd by lool pcoplc 6
! kird olgodsend.'l he NleJsx, towns Nre in the niddleolddrslnnp,
me elrly ,l!ra oa the neryly n,rned conrany !.e dotted rvnh stui$
y b txle the lhce oarln,$.
oa men sbndins h,pelully rt the sxte
irxl
new
De.haDs x ,n(ily, n,und la.tins. ln rny evc.!
indu$ry nr the rrd {rs duly given x l,ler\ins t y the MxJor oi Roche*er,
wno.at dre 6.$ Kd on thc sne. 0'ire spxde he used is still di"_rlxled
in r $riHieu rt thc Roch.scr dmr.)
,\i this p.i.r, ir 193:1, rhcic wrs i.Loduad one Joo SrrbL, yno rks
sent t y GyIsur, Lnnc ud AlibNnr. b Brihin
cnl &. n.N $oils.
ghly
gr
psum
S
txblo,
r
Li
cxpdicnccd
c$in
fti
rrivcd
nr tLc lniu.lr
Jc
oa r9I. Ilc r.s ldd to bc chr ct(hcd
ft. fchclyprl A mnrn

|rw

.i'r,,,,'i\.,,rslotr, L go' .t..
c.r,'. urn .. rtulli.l.'.J Jul^ cJ 1,. J., " (rf.o\i,,J
'r '.r
r h ,r .ncs lo..s vt ,l',i" n..\.' ..,n iono jr(ro'f",.
hfulc rossiblc. 'Ii! Crlproc m.r iNdu.d r *ons Dridc rtrr hxs sur
i.tr"

vivod hLeorcr, ntioDihido. xnd re{gi.i$tnD. It is r m,nc dDt is
$ill lou.d on mrjor produ.h ol thc raour.
C,r Droc sct !p iB lictory in t6e rglos nr tochc*cr, bdlig&cntly ncrr
Eritn, BPB s fir$ soutioD phnt. Tho rlo.on&ms brtlci fo mrlds
a.r sovLr.l yqrs, {itb r rivrb' rhii sp..rd .ut aroD, rh. rilcr ros.s rll
o\cr thc south orlrnslNd. TIc icsull oifi.l,adentrsurrcoqs(rcJ
b lI(M in rhc
to beso closcthit lor a doe n }as noiatdlctcxr t
rlrtivolyminor'!nks
emploFes \rlr lrdwor, Nhdnrd hkdr orq yhorir.

rc

'1nc oigins olGvproc drtc ftun) 1922 uloi nre l)i*illc6 C,npdny
t@k olcr tnc Lonrlon ne(hlnt housc of IIoncytrill ]rtunrers) yhich

lJdto' tr' . yu'.,.., h.Jliis.'en c.' p.od..F. \hF,.r rrr
n';C-rr:0..', CJt un 1.tr e rno,l.'1,,(i L C"' r .,,1'1"-o-o
dddcd b dlort thdr alreldy-esoblisl.d cj?tuc xrllbor r, liLnopc,

the

oi,

t

I

rhcir crpod rmmsr m le conhd rvnh Eoncf\ ll {ho nnd took dtc
dishibnrior of Glp&c in rinsiaDd and $'dcs. Ilonlydll's. vho $crc
.l'.r'l\ ii,/o,'i g o h- h tr|, r T.r..rl. fl J-.s(d'1..i J. |d.. I
rl'n's. l'. :a':o.ciJ' J lj :.,," e., eJ rl eri.nt,o". t',,.n \1,.
r

dc.utivc, ..drl.tc sith bow tic, ch.ck slirt, x.d hrxt-llkc |ronL.
IIc is ill rcmcmbcr.d rs uiiving rnh i sc6or, l .r rcflrced by r
sof. lclt hrt. fiis nemory, cvcr with thc IssiDg ol scvoml dcctrdcs,
r.m n d |os$Iul, cvokingli ,,r ofarvc, |n_ection, rnd po$iblr soDrc

"
r,
I
Juc'4.r..',o.|tr'r, .i' h.u.e q'e.nBrUl'.r.,q,, tr..f0"r,',,
lor(\u'll l'.u.ol.,r' . H,,,. r.lli!ircrnc.,rnaltr,,. h Do,,n,J
..h. li, ll Cr-t' J D..p'r. h- r. orrLr trdir.lop'rr', J
' Gt r,..a,.,,. h-'.,ror'
. . . i.r.,.'11
l,r'Ji
hi"i . \
at g2r,'r -,f' , "J'r,o...dfl..'
r,nori.i,s D,Loo..o
'h..nd
h y, In Jinuiry r9jo, f nts lcrc hrne to hunch (iDroc hih
,l$te. br\c, rith litdc Ncccs rt n6! isx * rl,le $psum plist( to so
t'h " m l. nor I'c ro .n. r
1') Dr.,J h'.fo.i".6
'\r,.
qlc,
ji.'.1"d
n,J.' In'a,-.
$.'..'-\or:,9 r\" llui !i. r..d .

Thc Drn rvbo \ms to o\rHe thc cisht Drontls olbnildins the Rochee
tcr plant lud bcguD his connection ldth dre gypsuDr tude [y sesiis
plBter brgr \rith ! liend rater school hou$ ud !t weelends in his ndmc
toynolo deld. New Yor*. His fither $orted in ihe 1{,.r1Unilcd Srrtcs
C,ypsun Dh,t. StabG gmAured tom se\ving to rling in tno nill
iaclt I did everything, shcling boxrds, . .innrg, running r hi!.r. . . .'
It ss erident erly io bis &rer thri Sbable h rn rp dd. ior th.
ti.dc. He $$ Icaming rhile the trule nsell \vrs ilso learning. Ec hovcd
lron plint to plint, i.sdlins ncw mrhirdy, r.nolrtnB oU hcbrics,

"1
DxhihnnD rtOlympi!; dmt smc yer thc GypstrD, LimerndAhbr*ine
5ll

I

l.iiritrF rlr sorhrF iidu ,y r{ 6Kdly N hu wN rh, tsnrirF thc ihry
r rrsl (lI\ IL l,'la ri.t.,t tj,,,l n td,'tirrrt" itr rhi,t,,yr trhi,
ln.1 r,n .i I i \rc ,,ht. !,
vs kry h ,,t j {D, nr riom
rL' sr.k.. l,n.JL!i:,r |Yhs\ci!r$
wur :ri ,l;acLn.fu. uu. i- oh,
oNnos $d oriJrL. trd0rltn,rJrol'sooJ r,J rn trvo. rh,n hunn
Jowr- as lor .amd or f'ndu!'ju,.,h( iJc, ot roo rcc, ot t,{rdJ.n,n, .c
$o

rld

ncl,. cd -h I rn LL t,trmlrnc Jrr
!v,o,.
StrAte tra..upc.ikrdcnt ar, tr
tloi.'ull:s pi'8,i.
olrrCaoqum L,m"r1d $b: ,nckrpary.,1.
'q, d\;bcd br, ho6.,g|irc d rhr Lm. I ,Jno ln onc ol rtrs(
b.o

'-c17 o','roushr..
\e tr6ed

cru/y.' He

o.opl, p'.luu'y bom u nn broughr _p', rhc
oyp,am bu.i Ar
i0 rcb,x.,n roJ+. ho'rlJ,,.(, rorlon he,etr
., on boqjrr s,.,,bt.
q L ro'ftl br J ldnc
r-Jlacar tTn Lr ud-. \4rn-; B, sre, slo
"Jrr.irg. i.d.oc -'d, tu., \ o.g5 r t. rou h, nr h_d no,lcj r l
\r,t.
. I \lon . . Tho
rEnr^hip o.,...e Ltr d.rJ cna,r,,r,.s mn_

r edLr, $edcr olB'urnein L$.L rs.rro,4r.so.,nAp t,
.r'
\r.'br I .o'J o, It.,ncslilltrd sr,ir rr/, r;;@-tr,mr h1d
DPfrtpo.i& \. ,hruJs-orcwLrflmor a Het , ,ro..t,ouL,..l
r t"l ro'(L rJn "dJ ocudrd .tL' h- I r-dN j,o.J trp( or [,U,.
"; fh.:Jor ,im, n m. Rr,nJd
t ron \cn o he.', d I mxd J I oe cm.
ru{A. rfpo..rc'J _!

{FeE4

, rot., bm dins
rr.- n_r.rg. ut L, Gprc d\rnd,, Holtsrlr,J.-'ejn.
h-ciry J L. ol G-)nrG n. der.ih.d r,.h reDru,,,
ts rJ.. unrc "'J'ns.o i\! olJo. hJ,d. E$ .r,ou i",mtu ;tocsr.i6t...
do. hL
rrcounLnr rnd t..e. j

r

\or

sl,r, Joar. :n

",

'ld
n i' e tcri

ri

trc,t. R.tJ,ry on ,'u.,. ot ,hur t,, ,,, nn,r
"
s.', e h..oru *orkd r"; l,-\o .siljE. t.,elu, rh.
,t.

!s., tr n6\: .S,. blc m. r - rn.c$,
$e' .,.,1' m"". hn . m. Jt{ !-r} r.L. pcs.,.d fi trhc trJ hqrd rdc
..llc t,. .pot,
r.,rcn n,r1 Eltib b the
..tr,

in.o'

x

mo

n

r1.alir"L r.

drc'dcd ro join

o,atr'. s.

"_rto.:
,
mlself

r

i

eloqu(

tic

\r J(dcJ ,D' +srnturb rt,.tr -u .qp nrvc. men{ rs I s
't, dnorbe,,itr'l ch6, Grlrot kr.tbur€^
to.ru.r,'o ngIrnrwd
n Jc. r B'idn $s n'o. rlh crosxn Dhq,mDoit-diiom r\i A.
'5\ l1o-le.a - p.i !q. *'
.; h, i kor , ,. r.,o. jmtrC,,.. ,
q. nncd r { h \\'{,,o'.0 con
"
& soN nt,o hd ,irr
h;ndtin;
l{ilnies. Thr nlrnris { lh(.s,sRor,ltr R..he+er
Er , ir. I
r tL er ,nit, .qc omD.crd. *irh J',ngh
r,l a i' be Init' \rtrr lne &uh'irhmenr oirh.teu.r,
s"'.1''s 'nir 'lr.
D,it., "
redu, im rt -( q" n6rbt,. rhe rcr belo,". Huch fc.g, ,oj.
h
'
door. \ 116 wr.beFD be,"er. fic
,r

s

rso tumprDs!irh lnrk quanu snen onsted,

oNo rhc ned i{ Np Fi,,n. A nN nhtr,. h s("lltrntt, wi{
n i', NdlRtrn r, n ;\rNi,
R,,(ridu.. ttk Nw sirc vi,
ronghr .r hyJ,{ Sr.,'hlr tr\lRi(l'nJ ) h.r.'l'hcntJ ,Hr,,tlr rt-,,1.
Rollrrr. ,' n.l u*r ini ,L75.o@, s I o bc ot nrJ ,' a\hi(U trJlt. c rrlw,
r uD0lo' r Li( {krbur iu rlirClsgotr Irt'|.i,,1oI r,]8. MrrrEt rc,
brJ pl,'n. rn..\r.\c.F c\fn (iod trr'cundd
l-,ebccn,.,.dhrhrl
it not bccr fo' rl-c ilrcF(flion,,lihc d.tr"rv.l
ir. ralo qh,n C!pm,. set'
rhed olDPB. q,looltr,slo' hlrnocoonl 6"r, Drod_a|ol..'e
hi,ron o' , G'uur trould & veD difle(n.. 1lr. T"$c.,,.ur
remin r i'ipon,Inble qlenion.
. A, nofJ rh.\..C pro! he'J rAhh m.n'.t'..'.ed rronj pts.d
Soon

Ll(iJr,l

i Dor eoko'n I viJ. $.ff rltrdhi,insp'.{r s,'.i..''1.d. rhei,l.6..,
inpolts ncrc rcalmed bv inpors of [trum &on ilo $me sourcc. As
rle Fldr'onship \ -h L"\,' bR
cto,,) T L,,rynn.Fr" morc.nd
h.F i Fc(d in 6bbl'.hn,g 'n.
I pl,r..oojd rndhb.] i" .t-etr oun
co.,\ d'd ir, rojlt/lor rcrn.v.r.u'c q.hn.rcd. :! C,proc
suprlri srl'eLnotr-howLrlfecrnd ronc..,nol'hc quir).'. iLu.^

o,rh.,, bllurrhen.u.in'trlJ,Risjp,nr j pphed oy c Lrnjn
Scrc n.nl rhe Rr$ Com,nr C.nioror. r,. str.Lr a.'' n -,.r
Sscdcn dnenr.omh,i.
&'ly il r)lg. rhe Olna.,umn,tr! de\r"d J er(rd r r,'r,or
nltir'E Pd nd .emenEboun,l qood
.e-r Ro.LaLc,. The
"ooi.ho,
@rpary h'J -'ier r4 rn.d ,.
.or mm..,e-mJ-d Il..JU.
"s.a.l ro j h:!., .o'rquor s unh
slrb' rn trly rqra Caprcc mnLinrd
erd rns-Lrion rnr rou{( mnbul crc..Sb l'h(l.h \r,c, rhJ
rbncd rnr\ira rhr' ,,rn. rl'(y elled 'r qpJjlt.. In .q p. , fr r 0c. r nj.
{6 st up h Wsthoushton; LrncshiE
With thc ouibret oaur, q,nc an adaphlioD ro rvr. so* aor Roclce
t. Thc Gyproc Foplc nlde jetrison hnls aor Spit6r6 out of pape. ud
(

slue,

lqcly yith

aobilc hbour,

,{lthonsl rhc cypmc frctolies esoped signifiont rvar dmrs+surprisingly, sin@ drc Rochest€r plant urs so d6c to tlo ChitLin n.ql
doctl trl rnd rhc Oldgoh rlr RAby rqrUvdcchip\ nd--,oe1unE
{ndi on.m-c.ftdli.u'r'Fdeed Tnbn',.".a n; o"id ro"r_r rnd

tro(DUrhdhootrfl ro't,Jtr, rndnigt-,,(epr.r,lanrgo.,eo,F
ing.ho,cyq'. D:tri.-lrie r,o."r.a91ps.n s\i t- d
ftor L vi,nd qnidr.,md .uDpie.;. $hi, h ncerc'esirF...t
\c.y.,,,.:.
'lhi ss.oupl, J ri', rhedil\, trliy i' (eepirisrtc m. uh.rurJ
p,ht
Ore ol

dr otbo sd

iobs

so' J.onre

htm

on

fi Rodrcro Ms nre seNici.g of

o0 trE -oB'iEiI kor 4n ci. .. 1 t.e.(t ; c)
rn oroN Frr$ l.rd!,ojd heA'tr.:, -,d. .._rgo.

m'@Ed fi gt'ing \chiLl*

'll'ry

trr

r

hNl k) hu rdDN(l ot ilRir uNoir(,'tlt
no
nt nklio
c(tri|nnctrr
ld rh0i 6c i'rnillcrl.
i\,hny otrtu nlcrs litrcxt)rtr\i'u, t)dictrl ly ovcja.N, lnJ LN, Dnr iD

.'L.r

H

rr..l

n'-.'1,

r.'.

l'l.c\

rr'"i,"

,1rr.!(.r,J.,,j.,

i

r.,,,:,,t,(r

\.w,- ll o'lv.1i.', \i.1., r trt,n"r. -r"r. c\rtr' . tr,.Lr R s.
IuIc 1..'.Jr',. L.i - ..-,,.,1b\ | ..'j.t,",,. rnjr,.i,tiJ., 1r
Jukcs (otr kr j{,in Hush ldqusD $ i dirertr or llt,B;nit hc rfrcd

d | 'h dBc' o.rqr.n t{PI rod t')t . t,i
rfl . r.r, } rN-mc'.i r r..e _i.d tr nr.,',,. h .06r t,,,. 1 I
".,J
r.e.. iT\.' J r'-.'rf,', r,,t p..'^ or . \n 1 ,ril ,otr,,.-i
'
,r.rn.i -m
hollvrr.
'5n, ho.rld.!i'cl.i1,le.r..0!6,
'!...t.( r..s r,, r.i'r.,'orp.,i,.i
i ro'sol,nri.,',,
,h\ D.ri.''i'.m..Rr.l..trrJrt-bertr.ci,...ir \ ""c.in,io,
tr,polrrtr'i,
rl"lfl l. p..rn uf'5. omp|y,cj u rh b.o
h.c erc{ n.
'
'i.,ciL.,
S,,,lccndor',".'.(, rl. o, i,,t', o.i Dt' r. i.r Bt,B, ru* .,.
F - ltr

i'-",'

o't .

kd.l,.

, ir.,m.n,n)
orth
rr.i-n'' r.^i(
"t.ror.i
',.;."
. ,,'
lso

'u r..c.. DLi

nr,,n' rli(

'

m.''

I - , .l

ir
'sni,r (nrr,i[,'rro,
e ,lori niu lrairbrnl$ aii'o,lY
ti,!m Robi,iy

oo"*"",.""
D, ANIMSOI{

-.,^,, ,/

&

s0N, LWItD,

S(i$tc Oottf,r Crt Sl'\ drit).
q!!t!

1{r..;
.'.

(

NoN coNDUcaoa

i \ l.\

,1\

i-""
:,., ir,

r)l 'l
,li

l r.'l

E](I4{L

(lo

BE.oRi rnr r939-4j \rtrn, nnv
arcmra rvdc mdc by syp nn conFnics in this .ounhy to cxplnd
tbcir intocss rnd &,nncctioN

ov

scN. Rclarions l"1d hocn cshblish.d,

rob.s.tr. ri'',\o"\ \' ei,... fnc rd. r otrirdbo,J F.rr. ,o h(.'
inpo",J lu r*"U' hJ<'..r.. \(\...,1 \o..h {q.',rat'o r,oc
sig 6ort oDtiihutnd to the i*lmologt and rcchniqtrs oa pla*cF
bEd .rknrg. Throdgh thc r93os, gytsur lmrl ten inpo cd a.om
Camdr to coN plins. 'l he Gn.diin cofpdy, cyFrm, Limc rad
Al'b^ir..l-rd.,tr,,drrd.1r.l " .onne.'rotr \:..r C)p'o. i. rlr

q, irmisl l...idrh ,,i,JnioJJBli.l io.,p.vwr.).'
ljr*1" {r.r oc.elot,m!r,' Blrisl. P'a..,
Fn,1 ^ i,,., rhcl..re r,,o, i.' n'iG I r{tr...htr..,.o(,o. sol',I.tion. Thc GypLoc comp.ry t this time \$- in touclr *ith scvcrl
.nar' i { sourl' {'tu . rd L, .,,re \tr.h rhc (rrprior oj
'
:r.
tr' ro.i'v ir'.'rf
'n, t rerbo-rd ?rn' i' Lx s!.'d) re.,cd b,
'a,os 'n eo rn ror
will'nL

6j

i

pl0ni Muld hivo !o

vift ljndl lo! iho \r[r lo com6 lo fruklon,

Dhtlll.ri CarD0ry. Tho Dlstlllcrr CrNr ry, Dredrmrl y vhh N cyc oi
tf. vo orirg &liriol uli,nitc in liuoDu, r'clr dur h ws no rimc ro tc
v.nrue, so rh[ tlln Msib,ndoncd. c,ntncls
lnvRriis in m
howcvd. li rhc riai opF,runny rfi.r rlf, *n, ncgotei6. rinrinkl."qdt
doMwcrcrdunlcdsirh!i th Aarid. Dy rhis dmc, Gyprm lud bEn ot.tr
otcr. Lr ,r,16 Drnisl l'lnstcr !.nd rcquilcd r 40 pcr ccDl (l.tc. i 49I
Dorcctrr) ir crhr nr rhu SouLh Akic r mn.crn. s(vc lnorh.Nolrh.
CyprocRhnicrl$ I w(E urtrshrcd tu Sudh Afri.r.'b,,u' r\i. 'imr.
Cypsum ProducN sourh Afte \rs tormed erl, ,n Ir29 bJ si
A!d6lhn, R ph Munro 'Big Mrc' M.cdoDld. Mrdoi,lil M

Ore ihcldddchiidin0,,ytuunrry iNcnonshroe0rstrt producrion
in Ihit .oht.y, Ihclc dc srot disdvrntagB in impo ing pl.sr.rbo,rd.
Pl.srobdrdisxbllkyindlowGrbuildinsn criil.'Ihcrnswltrlhr

British omponiG

u\

6y 6Do.rins rhcir lno{-how,

k

lound .n indi-

FnoNildulr) rl-cmrrLsnrrohlc.ubsEn(r,linr(rcniinompaDiur

ody ormting in orlrr omtrics. Irut th va. clouds loomiog, ynn
JDcrnrin,y dbuLr rltr fu'r.n,\rpc oi f;L-ope, rhc un(uinq or a.r
hn6, rh( d{iionr wcrc mosdy lcfr in rh.}rnce,
As {c h.rc sci, om mjd orcdos dnNcrioi *6 Etlblishcd.
Hos.w, ilEr *s ro foundd in th. nilfetuns olur but w b led
to .n inprtant Jcv.lopmcnt.
Tnc @Br cri n ol rlc dar_in l.rNir b'DUbh, Gyproc,n'o@nh(l
uirh r drdoror Slrnslr cmcr'.!c'rilr-l KJ'h1c.rbig.h'i[, rrhfied, gmdlooking Ssede sbo, thmugh tnc ht( dcvclopnent ir
s{d(n. bsmc clo{ly com(re,l
rhc Brirish@opiir
A mmtd atr fic ns @mpiny"nh
in LNii h2d ben oaLd {ith
plBerllid impo c{ fDn Eogland lnd sld undd n ns onpany'r
todc tu*, blt thc phnr h.d hardly shrtcd opcftring vhen s.r lxji.
olt d tie Baltic stit!$ wqe orqru\ liBt by tl[ Rusiins, then by lnc
Ger Mr.. r d nn.lly by'hc Ru,sr.' srgnn sonrc ufrhc l.in'rn on prny's ofticirls c.f,. nlst rnd Briblishcd th.nEelvcs in Wcst Gemnt.
B6dl Kyl6€rs scnt b6.* lo S$€dcn. TIE Dlchiflsy i! Riga s,s .li+
mntlcd and hs rm:rmtly djsppqdd into E$em iusi,. C,mFny
chrirmr, Ricnad Juk6, sJs: 'We still hivo,.l,im on so r6odr for our
ro to ccnt snare ntercd.'
Anoihd ontr.i ol FigDinc.nce thrt s$ mrde sho(ly bcaor the Mr

ln

.upr.mcly

'Ilis ks

Gypsum Products

sourh AFio (Proprictiry), hter Gypsun Indusrics. Pfily to pstet hh own inv6tmcnt, but Dostly to.nonEgc vhit hc bdicvcd to
bc . hishly pmmising industry, Saund.6 deid€d thd pu$d&rrd
lEh.iqE slDuld bc eugnt $reid. Hc vasiEd Brihi" h.c in r9j8 ro
*l (his les-ho{ ltun G}Tc ri R@h6i.r. Thc pmFxirim h€ mdc
!. Rochcsb. us to [uy idvicc. He (ould not at ]iN hcir oa rny Brirish
.onrr y r4kins shrrcs, Th.t snc ydr, Richdd Juks flci to South
Aftici Ly nying-to.t .tr his nrst owBes ssignnEnt ior Gyp@. Thac
hc pqshded $uidc6 thit Gyproc should trle a 5r pcr cmt shire ol
GrFum lndcbiR Hc anc tac! io Brn.ia dd pn rhc prop(Bd lo rlc

undq

tu thc
lhD

pNibihi6

tndc

un.

m

of rnc produd. fh$ohnrd
Rhino. and lvlicdool<l's orfidenc€

L(flRr(J'n,i. r hrrcl,o "flh.@mDroI. dtr.d lr Jrnuiry rq2o.'Thc
Inhcrcnr vrlu. r d,JNrionry ort\ino llord, hc s'.re.'ovo lll orltrr

So{th Afrion sugr h.ron, Edmrd $nndcB, ntrBr.d in
h a rdrticty trs. grTsu

'9r8,. mnd!ry itrdosrriG, inrBr.d
dh."clopins
@mp y rith a rudincnhry bofd phnt.

@nidc

triuhdud

I

64

I
I

rrti.lB uscd fd a situihr pn.pse. h6 now hccn 6bb!sn.d hcyond any
rh.doe ol dont t. 'ric n6i sdrcning rs$ hwc lmhd Rhino loerd to
b tttotg, torsh e,l Jl.libb, ^nt praminmt\ suiEhl. fd eilioss,
i qBl {ills, DanitioG lnd othc sini|lI purpffi.'
O.c of thc rn.id s$s or pldh.bmld, no$ inpolr.nt in South
Africi,Mrcdoiuld,$ed.d,wasthatnsisuot.Fectedlycli,mticch.nss,
MicdoDlld nccded scry onncc olnic conliderce, .s sho ly after thc
founditioo ofhis emprny thc nodd dc,csion ofrhc ody r $6 ldded
ro dE rl@dy dincfi bsk of Mjng or lnc nuliitudc of mnufttunns
pmhlm. The nad {orlotlc sypGur to lwEbly dc.sly poDubkd.rcs isors,@ nrkr rrom lirllr€d, Run or.min. priry is sn\thing fron 9 to 45 lcr ccd, Mlluhctu$ ol rrhstqbmrd {s dotu 6y
hind on ao fet long tabls, M(gi$ for ord ede {id..
In r94r, !rcther AGtr lho. H, G.'Bcrt'Co\ brolshtt good hd*
En's dilcipliE to fi. hcl.ri6 b eublc eoc flh olqodiry o.rol b
ch.rg.. Cot e! r plrncM, lik nir sEodhth.r, *'l$ hid r&i*d lim ro
cnigotc ro Souih Aario in rg3r, 'lx6usc whcrc th.r.'s gold thcy'll
recolcr quiclcl, Brslcn thoo, Mrcdould aM Cox s!cn! m!try y.as
6tonrius up rnd down Soudr lliicr &llins 0 lioduct they b.lieved nr to
r ftdl.tthdrs$eononiollyun@ iin. Ncnhtr oarhen lacled flcrgy,
(, indNd, ingoujiy. l'd iNhm, r,Ginch rvidc stitu s.rc dii 1106
tne no! inoNid@blc imount of hod dlm.s€d in nnuhduE and in
rle movcmcnr by h.nd round tlE fr.tni6, Ttr6e {d u*d rld m
.tiu us&l- o'e|hc \orJ,o,n6rn &ihngr in.oneno-crg. Co\e(onrie
fd mvuing ihe jotu bctsten e,linE ind mll hls sine beome . most
pro6hblc prodoct in South Afrie. Thi! ws inveftcd by in cmploy@
(who eeivcd r {5o bonu, md {d latcr okcn up by Gyprd in the U.K.
rnd by GlTrc-Bcn {u for elc i. Bclgiu,\ Holllnd ,nd fEne.'N.ilil
t5

hirh w( nld( li' rhr fln{r+..r*du{ trtrr rtrtrlkd ur l,y rh(
rull,'li{tr,i'.Hr1.(h,,,J,,r'lr{oi.1ir..l.lt..'t'jr.t.'i'r\s(.u,F(Jru
triil.[.''i'1\ dalrr.rur( r, ]\',..'ll'.J hr...'..( L,') ...L.J t.',iJL(
-Jr..x,rrhi r,i\d l'.n.w.'.'....\i.1" r i'rtr.,.tr,.,r ir, '
tr.lir, I !t
oo-rJ- i.( ,J 1..1- ior$.rl..'.1 i.- ,i \,' ir1,.1.q,'..t';1pi
c,.:16,'., r-nl rhu.F..'xr..u u*rirlT ..l'.,ll-qoi,._,cnce. So nirm DPI nri drcir lirsc houhg nr cypiuD Irdos;.s n,
'qy' Nc .ll"-luJ"l--^.n' rotr. CvD.o, r, Su -! u.. atrd joo'
h.,n,e q. j..,r. bn r,r. r i. r bs.b,;i,0...i .t-'he'c(uo,_o,. -I

h l h0u, hlu, otr i,, ,q48 l'l {n|t hqn (t'l[1h itr rl! ln'N
"hh
y$ou &(tuire,r riyprrn d(tnNil owtrd Ly liis li'rhu)
rM(trrt)
rh
h ltud fr'sl'cdltrs,r rM uonrfuy'\ ld'nll ir NdM (hod$ir
l,ill,

(n," Z

br,!,ro-or.nlrr'Til .dpl.'c.b.,.;.lrl ri, LN to\'. ft'
S,ur'Al'.! .q.o.ui,|- cd Ll R.'doli' p..i'rr.crl..'.'h,1
,-1,Jtr ..e',,ch'i,su'L \iI ' HcLc.Jtri F r.trdor ri.
'li, the ClN
rq53, xnd retircd h r97o. Du;ns his rinrc rhcrc, itGoush
1 ou' J elonren' ct.i,llr
., i... .o -on. Dj'. i. ht J,. \r,Jc
xd\. .rJro\n. 1..\rr. h" .'. ." t.rt'"ovF{.Fr.n'r't
thit EdMrd S.udm hd sought n,r 'ti
so lons.

I.oi"(r.,, ..., '-'rr'l dos

rrn{ ",1J.'rn. pu''h',

int. the .odtx.y sonc vq blenred
drys md irxs rcsFnsiLlc 6r ilting '1,0,
pc^odncl. Thc nrdulr$ hNins s{)ne th$ugh its tcdnng toubtes, harr
iag b,
ooo"

Wn\akrrud l{!*er Bnild.^

Er..

'' - n"

A..ou..o. J .l,re rsr.'c,,d5A.i l.r .' b,ousp,-rn |J
|rGh !o !'.L.lr, I'J1'e' c.pon.rt,.to I' ll',,u.nrJer(.s.
nmy mrjor buildngs in.lohrnncsbnrs. Hc lxrd rlso I d i control[+'
: .'r. rn.'.ali g 1.''n"(u.'',,inPrro.r. \ir "r..e1...,
Gobler rcsmcd bis hlsiness. Hc iouDd rhit dr 1lnutnms ol bond
fen Gpsu,n Irdu$ies rse ,rot croush, so lt sct il,out nr*irs

enomo' sly nrihcl)$ 6F

I r. :onr I'lr.'.r lrodu-. rL'.enl- l'-t . d l,s pid tr.
D -"''r' 6' ..'lvri.r.''" 1' r Iorl,o-.ds'..o'U' -h"d,
N,out the srnc tinc, Gypsum indusbics begflr fccling fir xn
r_
n'.oi' q ld('.Jl ruu J + o.rc. h..r. bt -l.nc fi n .nn
'ls
p.,, in h Ti'r''qorDopuir'o.k',nolu .,rr.\;
suurt'

-,-..
"ih.
hkcn plncc

decxde!,

r\. hiUrB"trdl.\ii""'rn ph.dMry succslul lenturc

Thc ncxt nrin olrne,s nevelop,ncr! nr S$.dcn, sis ihe rcsltt olx
Fvivxl olthc pF\y Lxdirn corLtcs. Thc bd{$rI in Ssodcn nrs
, 'h
tid p'c'oa.n' r '"... nJ i' ,. . ll .\1, -Jns \-.

'

grpsunborrd lor Innsela Ee srn mci {irhsuccss.IIc.rneto Brsn)
ru ., r J.,- oi. ,h. bui'Ji,! .r , -tr.l, ed pt., . ',i pi I,i r I

Lor6t'

l.fldo ppl.'i nrl ', 't
', fl L'Frnr.' 'lh'.
, i.. No'rh rncfl.r
.hb."iL s[.], 1."
'

i only liiccr yciis, is esFcially nohl,lc rin c n h.s oe
curcd nr in rrex {hich h.d ben domjmted by libreb&rd. Tlt usc ol
ill tinds ol horl(l nrs, of.ousc, licihred br ine tlditiod rn bcF
frrnc mcrhod ol conn.uction.
Thc indu$ry v$.$.blishcd nr S\rcdcn rq55.llu!ol.onsc,much
nrd }ul{ nid gonc nno nnroducing plxftrhodl nnlDtd 6'oD dt
U.it d Kidgddn, b SondinNi!,'rher *s nncLicsktlnce liom drc
buildnrg ftdc and it Ms Dor tn qsy t$t t p.$mdc bnild.Ls to s$nch
6om dorc tidnionnl matcrirh.Ju$rs the hrdc$ trit olBIn's hi$ory
hld t con bcsraor rqrT ud uiz whm n !"s worldrs iis $rI into thc
B ritisi hrrkct, so drc h rd$t part ol rhe S{tdish delelop m ent }as pr

'o
Alrio md negoti.ted tle r*rovc oi Iler.uke. Ii \ris ndgimrcd
u.'l Cyn.h 1,J .'r..r..r5o. .id L... c'u.l b-mn c.l.et dr.r
t..e.'d'r. h ir- r or thc r..i rh ( , !rs. ltr h iimcrhlE icdid
mllh
rl-- e"i.:"nt b' s
g,.
." r,o.r' l.'',.

'

o'n.

.gL ''a_0.
|ro.'J .rri' l'.' rh ,'or'1orC.Ir''lnJ''i
I'J
rlc rn'
rnL ,,ao. rrl.up.ol'd.n'o
'-.fingrt(U' I
'c"
t6rd?nd pipcr mills ir Rhodesix,
ad' d(tr l.o'.1.. u'rc i'\
l. ,Jdi"otr .4,r.,a hJ T

'r..ir, d.pJ'tr., Nrr,.
,rli.eI..dJ'.. ri'l .,'r.,.'.rrri i'.i.nc.

",..tusinesB.
le.drcd'o'Ni"
in the nrrd school oldc\tlophg'"ilis oyn
He IEd iiothd nohbb erler oD ll)c conprry's lbdufts,

r9j6. Wl,ilc .rtrpn]g in rhr

lindiuth rhccomprny \vrs gcruincly nrtrcsed in minsils dthor than
sypsun,, hc $ssst.d sonrc Fospccts hc consjdcred nr.d.
Dronr thcsc rtustc.k grclv r mansaoesc oinins rentlio in Zr rbia
yhich prokd vaD pronhblc. Prrt oadE pb6t aruor this veniuc {tnt ro

I.lhel,te rrxos, cypsunl dNics plinncd to esdblish &eir sccond
nodon ph*enro d plmr rt Gcrmi$on, .n indu$rial to!e. ni lnc Rcea
d.r Bur 1,i". he. .n.ld do.o"..
, -{e L'obh, o ll,.
I-utc Grobler sis x nrembcr ol thc

tr[ir) Rhqicsii i', r1r srly
rn

.rhs *il.l contrh'y. l,o nd otlu nrospcoroN
Zrtrrbosi vrllcy
"ho
kiorl tu iNorli hi,n i'r n,i.r,.otlrci rntl orlu mnrcril frospccts.lts$
d&idcd b invcrigitc snnc ol'tluc .hnns iM Ctot,hr froposed rhe
Wnwdrortr rd Univcrsny gcologii lvho hdoughthis d.lshter N thc
nN tu lcrd tho inRdis nrs.'lLc tcrchcr *as Rndolalocliemi, no\r
mrtri[ ]{ Jircd, r,,lc}n{Lnr I rJdtrr c.

".1

a

l,Lny vin

i,

strrll r.

{ nl'Dlri(h.,,nl lNl

hc

nntdrs,l ir

D

\'.urii'., i,

l,LL,1.rli .' sq(.( \..,{",,1'rli, ru.r-i(\f.(rtr,..11.tir't,L
1ij.' fh.r. rr.1r'l \1llui l'.'l
ri sq(tl(tr..ri1 .t,t. 1.,'..j,,.,
'1, t'\l
. r'clr.J lr r {! r'ril Ll i.r,'.,r
. I 1,. .1 r.r', q"n L,,il,r r.
(ctrnr
r'otrr.tr\ r'"- I J. si..r.tr;,,J h,"
S"c r.l' i.h!'.
L. ,T.d ,.r.u'{n h $ rc.Jn.Sq,.Ji.,{J

*ith GlIroc to urangc nnpo solplxscrbord, md in 19.17
lhe$ impo6 scs rcsmed. In thc bcginiing, n ws vcLy rough goiril
TIe nrain tnctio.s for t|e Sredcs, rhoush, ftre thxt pli*crbomd tr $
nro rcsishnt ind thrt nr si,e remhcd stible in rhc rildly vryins
tcfpcQturcs. Thc dimte h$ y.ys h(n the 6uqhu .a thc sltdislr
rod rr, ! rn',i'b'c.'- r,N'r'.u.jh.'I'uL ,o\-\h'd,,c-rlc..
' in "nE.o1rr,J... s,rdr,Ii.': t.'.i i.rirn.,"!r,,'
Th
subsidirrr oI Sk.Dskr Cdnont. ]'he srowth ol drc nnport fi,lc ws
\" . .lo.e.\ .o, B'i .'5,iirhc.cnrlo..-rn'J.r.r.,sl
"-.L,
'i
h^onn.norc...,J,u
tr'
' .\.o ino Ir. crlim'd' onB'i"i
l-:lsq..,,'ror.ojnc'.n.ri \r. .r, Lenjc... 1t.o i r, ",fr,tr
r,9rtj
\..\sneJb s\.'J-C- rnr {c CUro.o.J,ro,"'r ,
"n-;('.
' n 1 {,,...r.sh hrd r. j rr -", ' rc jnd L,yp', 1,.
ri io.nPr',5 pcr ccni. 'Ihe sDierc ofnrflucncc olthe connr.r ms cs$lishcd is
,rBsrrirtioDs

S".den.f ,n, J' lrr.Jrn\oa',.'Ihr trwo1.o.t').Ss, (
\. rr|'ol..s.' u!r',,. q Eqr.rc.r or 8'lr'1r.1 r\\'l t'. or, n s.,.
:' L.r.n.,- I u ..d.\4.ino. x'd d. Sh.'.n"'rd hF ropoinrJ

Gdthenbury, on tb. *c* orst ol S{cdcn, \as .hdsen xs tllc 6rsr sitc
lor? a,dorr-' for tLc ncv @npany. It rv.s . l%icd cnoicc; n vls alrcady
.n itupojhDt indNrhl.itv ind jt hid qmd ll.s ol.onmunic$ion fo;
cxportins plasqbdnd b thc rest ol Scudinavi,. In rqii, hoxvcr, ihc
Swcdisb ccononry ryrs bcconins oveFheitcd md the S\yedish covcijF
ncnl iclnrd DerNi$iod ro S.r\. CrlDroc to bnild Gothenl'urg; rhc

il

6i\. rd .',hor'oTor ru t,u^1., h.r., {.).q. rl'.'nl"
lbur d r J r r- 11 cr.tr,n. ...h J p'.e Lfl r mb hvr.I'I)rr-o
.issr.!l'o.r'. lr
mc'
". ! \iberc. ro.,iF .u n'
'tr",1,,
,'o'1.( h' r soo''1.(tr*r...r.a.',e
'ne "-,n;n,.n,nfJ"rn
mtcr. rtu {is a vcry disoral phcc i.deed'. rec,lls
cxccurivc Butin thc
r..ho

sumDcroirg55! r conrlct *"s signcd \ynh rne toNn olVrbcrgro6ry
rn lrer ol5ojooo s{1. mch6.
Reclamrtion of rnc hnd ms ro rakc $cll int r,r(6,InIunc tqi6, 1hc

b"rJ n...1 I ""i.. r'\-rbers ltrl.r,'.qJ rl-.T.h'.c 1,.'n.d
b- r or.sr"llv iL''."d , \\r..'{I. .y D,(,1.,n do^n. 1|'.r
rneDsi! o..'hrul i' r.o.sr'.rl|| tr . d.d b' - n - nrnr tr,Son'.
{l',drt,.trdc(J L[ u ii h J L€rLored.'p-r d.. ..;s,'. atr,
68

lr

wN ru.rll&l loN rhdo, i,'itr.
thc orhd hrll'{rill
"ith
n J i sLrll(l Vrl,orF.'l[c ll'cnry nl liod,l dn $uc

ir

WrllLNoy,

ftrr p liN,
n rlr.xl.irltrF,LcNr0rctrr.rtricric{r.'lh cisroFyNnnn'S$crlcnrdd
Nutfli.s ncdcrl r) hc nntflul Ir Mrrch rq57, rtu ln{ lldscts
horkl$Npn LrcJ r Virbcrg drt lioN aro slrd it wis srcc.siul TIuc
wcrc hr ly ry tn)dtrdim tnnncDs, lyhich {rs cxccfrioml h rhc
GyFun wis xl still is impotcd nDnny fro.r \huxsutsS.irc in
lfntre, ind v,no cimc rrom Polud. A Dclsutc ol.hc succc$ orthe
Swcdisl, cntc'uisc is thit in 1957 it n'oduccd 3o,72S tons olphsteL
hoird lnd it siscrploins.troui roo pcoplc. In 1969, itntrs.mployins
ibout.loo pcoplo rnd n prcdu.cJ ncarlr,200,6o bns It $rs tdtunxtc
thii the li$1mi.hinc d not nccd r lons runnins in rdd.lndccd, it
is cliimc.l thxt notonosinsle tctth n, oaph*o sar spoilcd.
lrr drccni oa1957, $ntinuous thrccihiat.prLlrion hid benrhrtcd

lh-tJh' fl' \.r{aJ l"rri

'Ifu c,pxcity Ms in.nscJ ti roo,ooo n,.s r )cr. r'hc dir $r\
Iongrl...Jbr'..'io.L.rh' 6tr.'orh..,,.r l)h) H,'i.r..q.n
ni tohl Lngth olg2 s.crioN.I. 1166, r nrwg1psuD niu Ms nrhl.n,
{long wi x p .(ia ly nc\v bor rchnq dvo rcw kcnt s r d i no1
\tcr.whib, n wds d.cidcd thrt rnorlu ptxd $B dc.d.dxs srls nr
Sendi|iritr scrc crrndnB itrpidly, pidcul.rly in Srcdcn. Th(c ss

lons sc.rch ror a suittrblc si.e nc SroctlmlN to rDrly ccDiml iDd
cNern Slrdcn since dr Vdbers flutRisldlsncd todql sith drc
yc$c and souftcm Scmdinrvirn mdkd inchdii,s Drnin k. In 196,1
the E!ki! rhot which lics somc +o tns to drc rcith-ncn oaStocLholN
vas oaicirlly oFned \vith , drrcny oa 5o,ooo ions lrcr aNunr. This
planr vtrs cxt nded in 1968 69 to rooiooo tons lcr.nnum,
srlL{ io Dcnmr* had t den $meyhrr sn,w r, dLaclop b.t x decision
Ms mrdc nr 1968 to insril x lxrge nrldern plx*erlnrrd phnt at
rrlundl,olg \vhich n_ on thc isl ld olzccl?nd ud $sU sitcd tunon\ to
supply tnc D rish nr&ci hrt llso the southotu rns of Sldcn. Thc

r

(rl.tr,ll.o'i0'.nr,,'.ri o.p'r'ioi','lr

r',n,'

By 1954, ilrc Group's phr io exFnd into *coodrry indu*rics and
into ove$$ onerrs \ s {!ll under my. ConinMlly on drc look-ort
for *rys of plitins into efid irs eapusionist plicy, BPB lonnd a
to
"a,
nolc inlo Noith Ameriq, In Febru y r95+, 9PB acquircd \\'cncrn
G$sunr ioCiord., icomp,,ryt6ed or th! Lriric Pro\ nrccs $nlL unns
The discovery oagll,srn

i. ve{dn

(:xmdx Ns aoBha,lorcd

by

r

ii.i(lo,rn rifs o c,,l rhc ('tt{{ riEhr| rw ,odtr(t itr Wi ,jN(.
I),(',i:1"J. i'i.'1,. \ tr',',,t''.,,r,rlk".{t {,r,r \.r'ttr,rt,,,:r.i
ilr\,,,. Ilnir,,,i l'.Lj s,h.- rt.'.tr r..rrrt ttr Irc. \..,,ir1.
rftcNids, rl[ Nortnon, pr.iri. b.ntic ]rl i,tril i s i,,ru.i dxlo,i,
Jolnx,ircr Sl]cr, u u,si|..r,,Iscori$ dlsccNj;s niDq\isijrr (t
nhL ilLlins nt rL hu( H! n.drT,(tl r\ \,Ar q n r !\ r,r' I'

,l.|nd$dr y(tr$ ,,l rlI 1os L n0{ irn xllidr(lr 'lh( irrlustry n$
t)r,Fctriro's, l,o*.ycr, Uorui tusilird. I{i(ours dliulurcy nkiitror
s c n lmL(], is \ydl is .rlnNir. q(rlirv conr'ol ctr{our

sc

rc.... j r tj rti .tr.t.t r,(
Jr"lric-u.'q.,.o,t,."..,
s\r. r.r,,h ornJ
'.rrl" -,1.{tni-j.,[,..r
l,c-l ll,.r;.at .,i,, ,, .,!,motr_rl..n,
I . &.
nrt r tNcllcr

rvho sdd he

Irct..." .loJJ('.i'.d qn6 oionr.l'.J. irn,f
dnrins vdl{l Wlr II aod r.xl drpxnsn,n xns undcr \yiy aat!. thc $ir.
Th.1n,. .5, rc"(Ir[)"..,:,J
n,9],',]5.pcL,.,.€,,
h' u l, ts.e r i1'cf(.tr,1...inJ.'1h..\' \' ( .-r rr.'.L., 1irl
sol.lh\

GnviN.d dxt rhc'micr'nrs, itr fict, sdcnirc, clcir crrshl $psunr,
1i,",
:,.^ ..c

sr.,
io;,. ,.,
le, trr.,.nD"...t
'l( 6l , L r.( Ir. tr lr i..,, nd V . J,
r',(.i
,c
^a,t
Isqqs, rdshLcd out sr(rl cliinrs.
Grp D nrd rlrcidv bcc. dnc.veEd iLr rM cx* rnd Ms bcin6 s

tu tudnn,n,l timt'e irnrc brildn{s, is rrricul{ly suiilllc aoi th*oF
bord (This xs xlre.dy notcd is rtrc, too, ol Scrndinatir) hdccd,
C.mAx u*s mushlr rhc srmc a rount.ltoxrdryc.rsBrihinjdcs e
its popuhliod teins le$ drlo half c siz..
A scco rliser nill lnd boud plMr sas b ilt in 1916 at Crlgry,
Sm.ilcs aroi Ahrmnth. The Drill bunrcd do*n rn,l sas rcbuiltvnhnr
a ye.r. Likc thc 1lin.ipes open tio n r2o nrilcs Irurn lmmnrh, rhe nc*
plmt drcw ns h{ qypsum suDDly arcn rtu o.i'Iidrl nine, Orc an
quickly scc, fic., the bis lrohlcD ficing llc camrlirn indusrryj
extended supply [rcs. Al(housh s}lr ,m is r co mon mrtciil nr

pl.nc'l bv rl[ 6nr{o, Lnnc rnd
irc ConD rv. Ttrc Mlnii.hl
|i.,.. f, , AD1i J,1f . 1 ^]ib!
J\ J,',,...'.J r,,5,'..,, ifrui,-.
".
horr r,,, p'otil \i's .,.r5:1.n...,rti,jh
t(.r.,.t0..
'
y.i
ThdonD !v
h(m orer by i Fofr D;dec srndio,c in reo;. t.
r9o8, Spsir, wlo Ris mrdc n [sc. .a tle nb.- conlDxnr. iook our I
p.
alLo'J' - r.e.jdi r1 o.lr.ntr'o:,r..,r.Jprodd,
''1,r.
1..'.J\
.i o
1,. rr4j !r"tr ro\rd.o \, \\-.rr.r.,1.. B,i h rotr n
"
bn.
rcw p"tr'. ,'
-trI \,.'.r
r\i,i:p+jrrh(fl
'..rr,
'
'.
.er Ly Cjfir, L:n'. J \rb...tr, r. t!,...., au ,u.r,o,
itfiieridk- rnd Sp.t scycrod his corn..ri.n lnd \y.nr in!, seniretiren nt.It{!s to bc. tutrble seni-rctironrent
I', ri. "! ir.6j Sp
n ri . L.h, . tr

C,,.J. r..',o,r.rl'. n.'1.'. rot opo'(rjtro.''t.oL....eo

SbE5 the( irc acs sou(- srtrned dosl ro rh. u rt.,{
In 1949 l)o{slis Mcl-ioghlin died. His {ido\r, Dunic., rnd JohD
Spor. soi orj. R. Sf.ar, .mftedt,Qnyon rhc busnrcs. Il h@nre
cviJeni in the nci. lcw tcrtr thar rhe companr. s ir wN, could not

.Do..''.\..,

I' L J.i,,rs..rt, i..n,
sapsuD chnnsin,\DIrnri,. Thc rlmrof
'l ,.e.r.d o
!, \\.\c.' u1n..r p.oir
'..
YL"..tr,F,n {o'..+,1,\..,tJ. j.$,1.,d.:,r
.\"Jul,
qncl1
in i nhol6.lc
,irn. llc rnoved to Minrlrr. *hcrc hc.nd nis
br.rher huDdcd r gnin bNnrcss $hich, rh cnomous cxpons, be
omct.,Er.l\,u,-..'l..l.
sold'. -r'.n tr. !., ir:8.,nJ
'.
b. r'..,1.r',
\,e.
\'' , .,,a.,, . i . 1.,
i
!o,.ii,J
,.. '.\',cn"..J.'.r
ri i
'..r
";dc slp.rnr
tr ,r 1rtr.i.''.oil (.\l' rol., rJ,,,,tr'.,,n:,t.i.bon
ol.' \!1 a.-!,t|
-- .r. i.p#r,, rrh.
UDncd Shtcs,roDrkorr. ltis 'c..1,.J
lc$tlo.nril$l rgdDdLrhyccn 30ind
.p.ilcs \yide, Ar Amr.nrn n Drcsntcd x rmoo$,lcvd, dri.ts;m, it
llikd {no ldll

!navcagedepthof

rft ic.r. lhcirionrnd.ginsmorraDy lrcn

sxid rhir lhusoch iucrisics hrvc hcon nrsrinrd by hibn

'h
nnklra.J h.rV.l
', 'i'..n,'l,eol'.'. oo.w..qir', Jrl.'
Tfcs'or'l ofrl,.un{ J .n..l qh u...idl, P"i. r.bi'.s

[nc*rnlnd;n yho h.d dis..rcred n]icr
deFsils ncrr rhc Frirloid lnnitn RscN i,,n n$r Lrtc St Nlarijr.

xnd onc I Iitrrr

1r

rtrd rlhr crcn r xy i $Ju$c r Grl) m thnr Drimso vilt ctiim r.
illow onll, r Il* pounJs olplnncr to cscuc nno tu nxNthcE liom
hi.,1,.. ,, .. O ,,.. \.r.. J I c.arp.' r\ !,or .F q .r., br.

.11..,,J,.d l,...r.r.ll) i r.r.
He

lcc.

piopcrly.dnpctc nnd rhit som ncw

erihl

xod hlcnt \vcrc ncclssrry.

\'- .n n.r.r.
.cjf.u
' c./hJl,.\J
'nedi',
'lL.cc .o.a..
\o,n..i.,ii inc r1r\ .i., a,o, qIdo.
m.o.J,
hr&c.. Sir Chirlcs Hinbro,

to LordBcher,

rnenchii.mn olDIB. Tno

idoolcxpxnsbnintoGnidrrpfc cdtdR.S.Ju[cs.Asmrllbutrnid

tcifl lvis scnr .Iom

l,ondoD. Tnc tcin ryis: R. i^. Jukcs d W. S.
joint
Trimble drc two
frrmsins dtucroG, tog.tL$ \ h Hlold Burlo,
R. A. Brorncy Drrctd , xnd Joe Sturblc Wilhi,r Nw, JrF, reuns lor
the ncqunnio! by EPB ol \lre*ern GyNunr y(. rgrccJ. lt us obio{s
thrt io !llo{ rh. .o,npdy nr iecome nmrc pionfubL n n.cdld mon

-J
'1!.xlo..r.
r JLrl ".:.otr )l,rd.'r".re.c.n'9'Trho.l
li l,-.:r /ir.,d :r"J.,,'n.,,
-r. J'.
'., co'h..
dr .'. ts!'. |
, ,"
'o.trr.,'l(r.rf.,,aR',b.n.oi 'rro..1
F' 1.c
c

thclcan

t

ll,i

r I'igl,h nr$r'vr. nr,+'h,,,1"r 'l]i.ur. nh,, trr $urc,l
t,"i[(rtr
11,,1,1r.,..tr1,,..\t'r)il
.t.r',.r{tr r.rrt,.t.}r
.i .l. .rn.,l \\ r.rr+
jtu ,r r .,,, ,
I (.. -1. ' . tr trr lr,lr"1.r..1'rli.,hn.r,trti
'',
''n trJ I o.oooJoll.'. \ r^rr.tuJ".'r,Li"
l'..,.1.,..1.,,.,,J,,.,.
.''\\i n' tt- rl.trv.tr'r.",.'rr"rn..nr.!ii.. , a.i.rt. ,o: !,iri.L
lll. ir.

n rLtr(ditr trr

ol$li.h\yNhisdcrclorhcntolrLcb chkdtlci.rrxconriNronskcrt!
in Nnnipcs, incEming

o.i,r..t-e\.'..'iu'

dr

outpnt hy bdwlrtr 2s inn ro rer ccnl. Thc

l-...r

.r.jp'o. n,

r, nt. . t'r

tJ

:pplic.trioN rh,, ushour rhc \onLl
LpoD 16. (quisition ol lvdtrn cypsln by BPB in r95{, Jick
spor hrd rgrcd b EDain rs lrcsident, bui dicd six m.nths larer I
smw bloa ro thccomFny. His placc (.s tr[c. by[i]lTorgtN0n,lnd

, f-o-or. .hr ..r I (.rrto! J , ci+m h ur.i.ir.-.n.

o rn.r \\ qi h i. 11".. .,.'d 'l- JJ Bu, cr. r.'lt.
qS ra't'
"
' . (
i'trotrl!r'o rr , i a :tro."o" .uh d ,. {.,t1 r-;r.,

ri'

'
phccmcnty c ur$r..eisaul, trcnrurlly, Dcr[ ]rimercll
{6 sht tu,m
DnshDd to tlkc orrol in r95ri, FIc r.jL*cmtcd rhcsares tor.c r.d did
Lrl' t inrpro\e rhc rrc{iqr ui I re (oho n
l' q,..' " ",np. r, ; -",.p0.'rc;trL,i,'.,Lot,,1,,."h.,
..c,'ll. .',. I J- r-"....u,,
."oo(,{, LU.rn.oi'cr..a.
.
-,dL
rs.
t',ce.Lrcn*or
'h.no.(.... .i" ( 1L,1rh.
.l''$'.. ,1'.tr,\
l, d,".,, rn 'l(.o'.prr)''n.'.Lepo..
h^'' e
r.l. b/, i,m
-,1..' u,!,, 1,.,0'' l.eo,
"
"t-,\,,,''
pt,h.on.,
p,
,^
l:,
vr
I
I
r ..d .t.. o,u.ir" r nor
i(re,l
'

(o'o.ri u,.. Dp.n to',t, r' l-'\ rrtt To'.; I .,. Mrdemcrc d.p6l1 thc conp!.y lid bad r, con*rud ir o1r. t2 nile roid.
T\i li.'. Lr , 'nn \eL xnd .da ,:r. h Dl -ov.' 1 \\c rerl
'
Grp\un.
Tlc.olu.'rb'. 6rf. - dHl illtrd,J r - q rru. u'q, i,,
In,l ^,'ics. - \rro' \ r hr .l n.{ir
u'
n,L rool L ut.':,J
, tr ,, s r r..i i rJ'r r.-.rt..,ar^ r.,",f,J.., {,-.t .u o.[ ,,...
. nr I
i,r r.e\D.raror..n' ",.,1,triot., ri,,.
At thc timc'.of 'or
thc rhJg:mrtior, tr dnccror oa\!c*c!n crpsu,n wxs
Solly TLoMIdso\ r (trLocn's Gunsl rnd I rcry sn& l;;l Mani

pokicixn. Hc berD. chairmn in rgss. EcLailtccnirc corpaDj,,s
llRv.., Rnb x succ!$aul locil hw rmctice) rnd hid sc.vd rs r m;mbcr
of drc provincid laniiorent.llc {as in Derek Dancrcll,s ofiicc onc d.y
nr 1958
x clll cure h aro,n Or m. Ir \ts JoLn Diicnt,(cr, rltr
lriinc \'linisto at rhe riore, ybo vrs inynins Tlorv.ldson n,joii thc
Scn{c rs ono ollhc tvo proincirl Semrors. This Ic did, rnd ldcr
bconrc prcsidc.t ol rhc C,nsrvrivc Part, or QD.di, prcsid.nr ot dre
106?

ilu

I

t.l'rnhr d (',

1,+,,t'rlju(r.,ti.rJ,t,r,'rr tr,it,(
Itr'.r-l'rl'..r .'! Ii.r,,. ll,.n'.1,tra..'.1,n1'('. \\.\!-d(,rt,\. r
nn n.r. {n,l1,..

'IhosiL s {rs \uccccdcd $ chnii ru by lld,ld llurl$, i lllll
dncctu.lh(lcr\risrDnnoldcccrrncll ild;une$.idcdi.r(.dDrn
\.1'..r l'ts u$'. ?c. lr L..nrr J 5. vl.cj,arr
' 1r,,,'u 1"-- ohL. l."r;.'s:.c..,.
',,J,,,.,q{.,1c'.'.,'
rl\,
tunrcmhflrrl rl'n o0 rhrr JrJ hr \r chJsc,L bJ r brll.'"
\1,.r.,5'lc
r F,, elop.oB.'fr
.
pl.,(
'.rc.onl, Fiom tie ofiice {indom.l...Lo
'"h
Ms.pcnod in Vuorlcr.
cm te$cn frbcn it
is not minins) drc 'l-ionl-rwid nountain pmks. Thc phnt htrs sine

brn..'.-co rr,ur.\\,.r'nCjf.uabolgn o. i r-.u'1 o
V.',o'.i i i.'c.,ol(d'h, o1,'Jl,, nrroo'.'o o.'E r.i;h'

Gcogrpnid c\plosjoD \rrs {lso undcr Biewmd, h ordcr to rurch
dE.decrn mri{ds, x sitc lor I tlint \Bs toustu rt llisi$argr n.xr
Toron tq O. hio. l his is regffdcd 6 tns he.j1 ol drc grcric( singlc
m't('-r.. :ra. rJ .',,rro".o.trnd,N ib. \h'1, .enr!.co'ol-J

rior",.r, roi \li.'..,"-i'

rr'1. \i'

"\p.. joj.,,i' ,'.
loming 6elr, 8+o fcct

coryo':tes rhc Gronp\ Ionge$ phserborid
i.ns. At drc sMrc drc somc orctirl pr6pcctinA h?d bte. nnder *"v
.,,,. h 1, n...*,ou, r
rh."' glol \4..n'obr r,J r
-ep...',,,'..
ui\\' tr'pc\,.tr\:h- Pl i' ""o.\n.e$J. u (1'a,r .' utround.J
byl rr'.i" .d'.-r.i..0. lk,'amh.r'..rii ,: ,. h -. L'.nd
..,t.'.ru.i,4oor"'rcs
lo eoo' i-.0' -"rnl

b.n., 1a,r,d'l,caird ror:l .

r',l..,ilt ror',

'on,ri,
cqdrrlent h xh.ur roo dcgr.cs bcl{N zero.
In r97o, Gordon Horn(, sho lrd been Nocidcd rvitn fic qrt,any
fortorcrrsrndwholid bcm?lighl) v]lued directoi aM sc.reh.y b thc
compml,, rcrncd He h a d joincd thc omprnJ shorly a arcr its a.rn ion.
He lud bc.n ttu lir* prgidcnr oa fic fimous Mrnitoh'Ihc,ft. Conrc.

Thc''hm:,i' J .I'rdL\c.oDrr r rr,

r Le,c(." ".J
l.greortr,...son"..',,..\- \1..!l'or'',c.'.' r'oe er irr\." r'u
duction ligur.s, snich x.c shsscriDg.Itr 1930,;hen nre firsshilm; s
Bere

nr coutolvinnip.s,

ol rltrstcrhorrd. Iir

19:19,

drc

conpiny produccd25z,ooo squ.r.ler

n \yN producing ius nndd

rn iims

thar

hJd r.,.rr ed on1' ri' u 1.. \o ooo@o,tr.r. o,. In, r,-,.orc,, tr.
40xr \ ic n,!du.rior h.'d in.rLlcLl r rhous.drLl-lotd
Thc,{mxrnth rnrc nxs clMd in rq6r rd.U minins in Manito}r

uis'\,1.' -eqoL. ns'lr.Pr i' \lr.eLlr r.-rLiiuouh
undt' .,\i." J ^.Hl r.., o. .,,.'.e!-b.r .\.,d,0. \ s
'
'

7l

dN(1,'U (trrs,(l,idrhiv!h.etrtiLf(lnINig.ll\(nxl,iId (lliIcRrF
irs cDrn'r\i\ on nu! s {rl liuilLliIF [rrdiik, $tr1' is r irs l]hrc, ri(l
DlNi.con,trn,onrs l ]t |urc r[colf'ulrdirnr ]nyolviirljgytNtrn ws
irotrrd 85 Nr ccnr nr r970.'l'hi\ i\cxfudd r)(tcuc,rscs'rlly.!orrhc
nc{t dccrdc rs Dthu r)ducts rd D{rcriils irc dcvcL('Nn.

nrci,

nu
tu

1r {rs
y rlid rho onn ol rhc iii'at Wo'ld Wr thl Nonitr
Drools, rrunrcrolin lhglish.unc.t ixmiLy, tr)l D inturcs.llmols
vork d tur
Associrtcd lonlmd Ccntrdt Nllnulx.ilrus. \nrich
lis ,rnil]r tian trad hclpcd to forr, rcpr$nting thc cotuplnr_ in ]ris
c yc s inmcJiltcly !,tcr thc
businc$ wN biisk rs I\in c
r"s bcnrg rct,uilt. But ds tlc lrc,r.[ indutuy boglu to rc-osbt lish nsol;
toL tjnslish cement NrDed. Brmk was rlrcrdy irnilim rirh
'lenund
.he \ro
Grc4n .nd it yas by cliDcc d)rt
Brnd oM .hy.
The l.$,er told hi'n dnt Grorcn sB strugglirg Sum.rncd bxct to
Dnshnd hy his 6mr
deeply lttLlcted by FraDcc itseltl B,@ks
retuLn
{is
lilemnD: tu
or stay, tlc iNfcckd Grozon, ca c to rh.
@nclurion thxr ib t fout lqs rcrc c!us. d by thc,r,r/nir. cLdr.t r ol r Lc
Visauni, m exnofierol! tstinre tcchniql idricc, rrd *rycd. Mcrn{hilc, the visc.unt, in r huFy nronent, tcndcrcd lis rcsisn.tion in dr.
qpechtion oa ns bciig reje.ted 1'r penitenr Board, lUuch ro hh
amz,ncni, th.y aceptcd it.
Brools thcn ofcr.d to trkc ov6 lhc gcnchl iunning oatic hcntr!,
in ex.hinge aorr.ohinal srh$ x dnedrship.nd ! share.ft6e pmri6.
'1fu orny Igros \trc r pnnrlem xna ?
L.us tine n,r Gmm.. I'r ihe
qndny
plNt.r
produced
n*t !Lr.c, drc
olrhc
n rs not suihbL tu licnch

]\ l,'rcrch ph*cr coinFry, PlitriamsModcms do cLozoD, is x iclr
drcly sm l bnt cr(gctic $.d,n olllPB Indunrics irrcrc$s ov.iscrs.

In

l his undetr*ing os$ ns bnln ro r snc\ylDr bi?,trc
counti nlned Gllombc D'E.otly. 1'his nohlc ind!*ii|dilcrh.tc
abouL rgoc rt PolisDy, it rhc sontL cnddli2Gmilc lons s_vpsurn dcposit

lrcncLs

Iicl

th. Jur, iLr soufi-os !n..c. D'E.ohy is dscribcd $ ! nrrn ol
on s .hrn.ter, l ith i eitrinknrd olgcn s,butconfldelylackinsin
bihn.c rnd g@d iudsment. Hc had nrluitcJ x coNidcnblc toltunc,
*tnch rr the tum oadrc @ntury Ic }as Lurr Iosing ?r i rapid p& in
lrflous lcntues Ooe such \ns tr scbcm lor ilisnlg toui 6ur so diflicult
atrd urlol rr m\ the yiscouDi rut rhc lilhg$ .ppxrc.t$ shrtcd
poisoDnrghi tort th$ lerlins hi. ilDro ba0krupr.
ll Dcoh).!id.ndy t.sflsed sonr sood judsmc.r aor hc nhdcd tAc
liushtcr 01 r rrisucmtic r.d \othr J!ru ,rmily, x.d tLc r,elc
dorry cnrbl.d lin to ink{ in, ne{rntu'c rhc cxploihrio olrhc

ir!

cnii

[c u

rt

,

r
ro\,g'.',oC..F1',\fLq.r',r.grf

'r.he norih eDd ol thc dctosft, 1t Srlins les Bdx) h!,1 ben Mrkcd
tu mxnr yeus by r linn crllcd Cleheni rnn Co., ryho swcd tr yidc ircr
rfuun! the Jun rnd lclod. Thc r.gn n nrn bcn $orLcd 6r slp\unr
sn,cc Ronun riDls, but trclcr nr gicr rnouns. Clemenls. sccinsd{ir
own section of tbc dQosn ghdu?l! bci.s Norkcd oui, rurcd rltrir
?ftntbn nr thc sonfi ord dr rhc ens timc xs D'ljcob). a.d rho c bcEi r
a slnrr $ru#le benreen rhc syo prni.s. D'Ic.try e*nturlly $n rhc
gslo hr
i,rg lis riql\ chnn fron tLc ilillyrr, lo.ins tncm to
rLmnon rne blildins ofuheir iictorv.
D'Eorry tuik nis i.ctory nr r9r2 rM, coNidonrglis re.ord, plrnncd
his ftcttr), $c11. l'or innuce, hc nNtrllcd m acri,l ropcwry
dry dc
gypsud Iflnn th! nine10 nre hctury, ]vlich is still nr usc mrc thxn hxll
r ccnrurl htcr. But i.lo\i.rtud rynh nen idels res dlc$ olrhci cons eicd lrlLLc, hc nNtuIcd r v{a.n dier, rno\D as i Hlilhrd, to c.lcnrc
sypsunl TLn lftL in .l(imrtd cxptrciiy oa rjooo toDs 01 plNcr pci
Dronrh Lut piovcd 1o 6c .xtunrcly undirble ind to l)rodue M urI oui d '0. '.,.' ,] ir'
aD cxiiemclt piccrions posnio..

f'r',,.'

n.

'
with litdc intcdcrcncc or nodin.xiJn t, scdlg
time. 'l nsre rvxs
litdc dpot knoNlcdgc x,rihblc ro Grozon, xnd aro bool kccfi,rs Lrd
bccn dihtory, to sry thc l.ai. SuruiMl dtrinrg dosc di6.dlt r.xN ivxs
only tNiblc duough r dccGion to r nh.turc Kcens\ cemcnt xt
Grozon.It sB, howclcr, acccptcd tlN drn could onl) tci prllixriycrnd
dut r pli$er {ith rccspt.ble xark g quiliti.s Nrt bc dc\clol cd.
The ln$ver c.nre one nior nisht dnrnrg drc \ t.r ol 1922 r3
Noimro !rcols $xssorliinslaiertth.llaDt{hcD hc hmrd r.rouc rcrl
do{n*airs. He ihen he{d an linslish rcicc shor t : 'ls ryonctluci'Tlr
c lcr $as Redmond G6eri4 wh6e cd hid brokco do(n rmrbr rd
o,t,

i$l

t

'".n!on'p'oJI'.T\" r'(''[ ir :,',

sr,

.

i|

$

hrlily lir\lir'FoN ltc
ur,n!iiuirtr, rl irthmNl'dl
'illr lirntrrirl
h|{u.o. $itL, l,ir s plrnr,
uritr[unr. s vcrc nr c rtrl

poliric,

,oLer',,"' 'rnl.,e'hlr-,.- r.'o.tr( o! ncrgl'Lou "ho
h.od.,{s r 16!1l olthn strng., drq,, nrceti.g. dre (illeDo conen
n,
iN lcd

invc$od in G.ozo. rnd m.dc Nlihhlo k.nnicrl dr(rile
riturllv
sivcd thc fun.h hcrory. Engln_h $lc loiling prns *er
d
G zon 6.gitrro pioducc r turc i hydrlte rlx(cr.
Sho ly iltc$!a.ds, m lgrcc cnt trrs rcrchcd fidreen Gmzon ird
th.i. min ricnch rilx ls, Ldnbcrt. Giozo n nrd hu ilt ur r n e\toft t ade
rnn Dclgium, nr onpetirion sirh Lmrbcfi; dr src co,ntanies nst ur

Ic

o

Scclinsnewcrpn, thcViscou.lapprolchcd thetusinesrnren orrhe
74

I

in Druml'. Bmlt rF.!d rh.r li dchrns! fo!.on6nlnr rfio BcldM
wld x' L , q'. rl( lutrs q ulJ (N.lulilE rsrln,idl $\i,[truu ii
thc Giobn pdrluction ol gyDun di$rr lb. rl'r lidn.h mrl.!Md
Lnn d rcqnircd ! ro Fr ccnr inicrsr ir rhc otrrtdnyTowirds thc cnd oatnc'2os, ir ms uliscd rlft ihlmuRn rcorigi..l
hmi-hydnte product wrs not suitrtrlc lbr thc Frcnch huildirg indu ry,
it ould be us.l B osring pl.scr. A pruto.rie lsrccocnt $as rochcd
*irh Lrnben ,nd vnh th" orhu ruin produeG of Gnr Dlski, Pohc'
rndC.luus{o-.Th:r38yetr. garpGrc/onyo, n.o( im.,dunnurh'...
thc MIcs ol bniltti0g plano nr thc s*dtr rcgion oa lr.rn@ grsv on-

Duing $c 1936, d.spiE ttu .b$.ption of Citrchb's 6, BPD ra
h.or.hcirshr.chouirg,nUmzm.rhepJ{:rionrr
'\c!cb)'G{c
duly improved, Nsv lroducLs serc i.rrcdued-in pdicrld, Muritc,
I n d-wil ,b5tcr-nd ior iit frd tim ! diridcnd ffi !ri.l dt on tlc
ordiniry 3hac. Cjnbcts vcrc mdc in $c Middlc E5t, cFcidly in
Eg}pt, Grozon tool ovs the phsln 6n@$ion of tho Anglo lrinim Oil
Coq)my. So, de$itc ib @np..ativc sn.lltrss, fie Groan compa.y
c.jorcd i hish r.0urdrioa ror iolsin ioi .nd innnd!..
Thcn. i.
eEr Lne Gcrmn
ol Frune. ,lt fi^t, es
'qo,
'nv$'on bu! by r stmngc quirk of
rhoughi rhc vlol. op.Eiion wis inp€illcd
l"t. rhc G o?on rhn_ $-. rlt h.r burldrnJi rne Fre( iloncofl'!ne,

ouBide rh. *dpicd rrd, Ir badmc, ho\sq, drmcu ror Ndmn
BmLs .o say- Hc spcnt nd ofil,€ {.r h S*ivrLnd, His pl.e sB
hkcn by. Emrkolrc Nomn, Mrdenoidlc Denisc Big:]., aonnsly i
sdcriry who h l wortod with Brools it ,{P,C.M- h Piris. Slr
glrdBlly rooh on norc rd nm rdminilhrive dudcs{hc !i url,
kept thc a@ry running during rhe wr, *orting in @lhtodrion snn
thc Rcsist nr.nd rlto In. rir sne bccimc ,i6Dr.siaent, Snc r
tilcd nr rs6q.
,Aftd th. \ur, 8@Ls rcturtrcd, bd rh.rc Berc grdt dificultiB to
ac. B( ,s tn@ us r Lrsc dcm.nd nr building m!.€ri r in rhc pdM. consiNdion, Gro4n bcBltr b pGpcr. In r q5q Gr@on oht incd

lu(

! lienc. to p.odu.c Snosccm, the 6ncnFpd.i.
In r96q Grcmn rcqlircd L6 flatiir.s dn Sxd-Ls! a s rll pLst r
6np.ny h.rd or r sun ,b syl,sum dcAEit .t Srinr Jon d€ ll.uricmc
in S,voy, Tlis lcauisnion provcd to bc ol sret nnpotuocc for rvhcn
lh.oplairc; the odDr lrEnch compiny in *hich llPB is nxclcsted,
deia.d ro bnild 1 s.ond pLstcrtmd unil, ih€ Drine .t St l6n dc
Miuicnnc $as .l'o$. d rlc so@€ ofspply d rhc nN f.dory *{
bnilht nor6, Chio6&y (sc bclos).
In r95r, BPB rcqnired tlE ndiorit, ofthc snrEs in Grczon rnd pre
16

vnhd mrch-Ncd.d lmnl. Tho l lnl ol ci plr0l ciiblcd thc ftnpiiy to
snw tri'l ll i{ n"w i nillish h,tr mliJ sn,|lonc ol lrP! ln.lu ,ics.
lium i nRluc'n,n Dl'.@'oN p.r y6. in ro:2,rtu omFnlsstG
ducins r rfic drly rr?d n6rty 8o,@ toM o(pl.rcr rn'l somc r!5,@o
thc .nd oa rhc SNnd World Wir, dre *a no phsrerbotud
indusry in Fmne. An lnempl hod t .n mdc in ilE intd-ftr yoB ro
i.r.dne rhc mricrid b Fnne brt tnis rttcntt pdcd .bdiw. But,
0s p.t oi rhc po$-vii re@nstruction progri'me, nE Fronch CovcrnmctrJ.ciJcd rhr. r nl.'{ab@rd indrsr} sltudld nN bc loun,lcJ it n
.ppdchd rhc trcnch phst r tunuarduM b lur this decision inro
.fd. A sMiiiun {is @it d 6chrm l..nbd lrilq Polid.nd
Chanson, ind Lcs Pl ri!.s Modcrn* dc Groz.!, iog.ther rvjth ccrtlin
brnknsxtrJ 6u,ld' i'mas. indld'ng rhc $eu-Lro"n pl.i$ mnu's
G2'rndau of Cqmc, ro fum a (u"tu')
f.ffB, trhlA\cmcn,s
lrcq rs PL, opli(rc S.t. Normrn Bm[s ns iltr,ed to bromc pti.
dent . onBidcriblc complimmt to i foEigns, He vN llro aurd.d tho
Lesion ofHoio!. fo. Lis public servies to !6nce. A lcchnislUrec
tunt Br ncgotiit d lnh U,itd StaB Gr?sm C-nndny of Chia8o

,{l

..d tt.

is

ooPlny 16

aoflmd

i! r9d.

The[rcnchbuildingindusiy vithitsfidition usold?ynrtqiils
.od 6n rctrss not easir.to lcnetratc {ith plBterbodd. Mdlcovo,
ture kr. dilficultiG in th€ arly dq:n q!&d 6I rn f.ct thir echnic.l
ptublpms arcqucnrly h,,l robesolrol "nh inaolrution from +o@ mil6
.wry in ChHso, L.S,,A, r\e Loirb:r ricn o'rlcso problo'( br,uBht
rbour i situdion thit bome in.rosingly &{tc i. thc r956. ?lmoplitrc
tho appmched BPB fd fnre lnd r tnov-h*,grcmdL In r952i
B?B bom. .hc DrinciD.l st.Fh6lde.
BPBwNrbk r;rlpr'lj lx rhclsinennsnild.onmcRi-l L,"wlcdse,

fld

rbJough rhe

rh, ,omprny

i.de {ddr pmg(s.I n$ir

Ia66

.lEr rbc end '916
nhnt (rlm..l ro rbde) rE built Cb,mMry Lo
sppon rhc ongnrl rrcrory V.u,ouui r lcw m 6on olP.fl(,
In .hc hrp rq6G, dpnsjor nrs ciu,mcl] EDd r0'l1 'hnd ftcor)
ws rL1n.J'o 6e in 0rodulb1in C,grrc rn rq72. ltr rt,o Pla\oplibe
md (hic(d r tumoro or iN oq [u m'llion and s 6Drbl *r in
.rr.rord,turj su, N ol rhn \ ctror
6cr..d ro tr: t mnlion. I nm or
'hc
ihe
rae
or
i
$sricious
doDcsiic
buildi giiJNty.
in
mildL rg5os, aPB q,! 6rnJy 6ublkhc,l on rhc Euqsn minh.d, \'itn inrcrs in Sddinrvii ,nd Frrne. In tnc Nnd hilf of drc
dccidc, rhe iotcrGts sqe extcrdcd to dE Low Countic ind fron
there .'1 cxtJnd'ns riJo s Lh liin C. mrly n6 dcvcloped.
By thc

n

1957, h w@ dFid.d rhrt rh! cxrlorti ro Botstum ind Hothnd,
,Dy
vlrch
hid h(n I' ih up hy GyDr(, qc( In,K ctrourh (, sunnod ,
nl$rrborr,l nhtrr iD rhcrim, itr,l crnh,rDcn(iux s.A.;,,* ror;.{, rhc
8'lJirtr r",u.,h .c n"n, comtrl. lacilit S.q. hhdg
llcr (;r n
rh ,hr.cs Jn,1 Cr.aq ,! r- dn Srh.,!jcn,ty, ?s
L-1ircd Sh,cr

rii

di.' J.d bcN.c, E caj, BDB.,r.d ( .s.c. A ft, i,ry
bdltr d $ ij+,"
qr h
..,..r L,1, ot u r ii,otr,qureFds pc
g(m.
\c.tr. '.drANco.
{\ ;o Fr-.e r. "n:ni
a.r!
Lne lomnrnr tn;u kred
'he
nr +r trc ..'cs. bu' grudu"
netAd
br \,bsb, ;rl ouic,, ro \ c,r
\,
oc'n r. 'o
. p'oibble d d ".r. "dtr g hu.ine$ s$ flcned. Tte phtr,

\e{

'
Ir b"-.oknd.d.k.eqin-.,\"opani.s
'n

oNntionby

c

cnLIol r97r.

rit

md: l"rf.

n," tu,h, $$

Vhrls h - qselmrmh m drc mnnt.,.d rere,*insp.rr, BpB..
r,ruo.. :.1 5e Brirt! 1 lB "s .inB v mgr\eRd, d; qh s-,, otr

Ihe otl'cr ndc ot rhc

To

Josr
Ioys a toupl
ALABAsi.R ow(FRs

zz,:-il****;;;;,
t /t/"
t,;t o'

Iri\n So

pr.s hd ber: rhn,tr n oi I ior tini, q inrcrio*
I'L' Lrurldh ..r r\er.le0',rh, IheJ, or,t"com.n; pL.,e,q..ot
'qs, . s.nalh indodrced -o rret,rd bJ rb,ur ftt .n(tr and ihrcuCh,\e
Grp.Lh

Drtl. t lwa l0r. rnte^-'.,icno{;: ,s
in,\. eiBhi,rrh
!e'rur). l4r1J t&mpls o',hF wo't "..,chi..ed
rfe 6rrh,nc rorh6 or e
merombe Dub'L GrELn ricniq,lHre rit ,;rv . .h n, cvl
der, i' rc lisl uDiul. The rrdi':o, or m. ptakruo.\ {, {n
b-ied.nr. rhc p'-r1r \enu.j {hnn^.\rapt6o (h!Bd.rnrhc
Eo-q'un.d Fou CruR ri. \4'd. rdr | € G rd k r Vulrlgir

,nd

a,vf

I. wd tn,wo to rr,,sa rh,.,l o
big JeDLr.s,{endrlg
"ere
$u h\d& lrcT cr, tTrrns. Cou-.y Vonrshr:.
The dc?ci6.er;
ra re6,Jed'oor€'setsumiebt"",aor t,,hs6toqi.Jpimo-en,
do..n$ m"rr r3-o. \ secn Kit nrinhatr . nd Ki.A.ou( (5o . ite
l'or D rb'n\. 'r-6cr..d h.J. or Clp.ur Lon lt to ri kd rttr.t. qu e
i.r'he.ur,e M.trt pi.irD.rhg,tt.Jtr.do;eorn |88(b rSqo.rt.o
eY {d $p.x' dep$ib. l 4.to$n ur r su.\er mad.'n,q2orhr r.e
ur deNs.a ot Fp.u rere .o b- tound in C,ur.rs VonrSlun ,no
'
Metn and n1 a mmw srir
dut ds ror 6 miks i!* sutt ;r Kings
.oL,.. Thes.nr) i nslidr\r rhBbeJ.,"rroro;o
t,trr Doinrrb;LL
.\t 'l'h.5'.r
bo

l,d

'

a.ov r|

i-.c r! mr

\o L'ids

tr. ro ,cm,.edtv F,de
lotto\red ro .rpt;i h:s d.fo.

rbd

r9z: rn,t

a.,hn d,fr.ut.

,nr. no, u it ;.0,l r " (..rrt. 1emprsA trkdp. l her !6
\-\dr, rn.hrr. .e.Dri.ing-,i5hmei.V,.n(icl"edon,l"m6
IJno.
78

Dl

This{reodi HNr i'rroic oft8e3 b i
phs{r in sr xidi$s si$. mrsrinftir
-m c,r, is d rh"c*u.re" i,.-d

. ^".r""*

.6.h,-';,p;.",,.

I
li,I

rrN( o,1(.L rnr(,i,

rlr

d$D.ri'

*"

k",

rir.L

rr rrr i\

r),,i,,/

^ .N( ".1r'..r-' i, ,ir,l
r Lr L ,iri,rxuL,ra k L.if,\

i'
80B S0 ',S pATtJ{T flBr-pno0r crMfltr

JosrpH

RoBTNSoN

a Co, LrD.

t
i

rrulrr!'rt ${ in,i,r, , i)ruioJ
!DFIU

Nrans\

'|\Pn,'r

riomr

reroqNi i(r:xlq

n{,i

I

N,ekx,
e^,r .,rr. ,,i,etrr i,;Nd.. ijr

l

I

tunrt, L'ir,,4rrxl'trtriJnd|[f

,n]r[']iLr]
0,!1rFrt

r|{il

ra(r i,r,e6,

iFN

!o0r

u

5l|5:|{ uLjl'

! [Nrur,o+]

u 1.r,/, iiir'iilll,

r16,rinn i)!,!r

rbLr(N
qj Jl]
i!n' i,' j \l\1
'l}, ,rr 1/
&'! ). trL r\., !L rr\ 1/4),,r/
ur

L

rl'r'ioN'1s", rn{F' trl !!

NnlDr hhhk Mrsrio. Miol d Crcdon, r hrsc, wcllluilt omn
hy r liflncr!.llusur8 \ nlRrdLlishtrtrd! $cLrt h,sr'-d$c!ihd
hrl lN, i', th. li,,.h 0h{$ \un(s i l)ul.h . l li. i li,r h,'J h(r.'
x rl,F(rils conllrtry i'1 D,'h.i'. in
o r.r'y l.ulJ . C,(,1,n ii.rtrr'l .T|nn(d
rgrr rrd Lr nF n l,'Iur uv' ,,1
lrlrrc.. llis itr.r,rry nr.
r6no,illc lor sDinc ol rh. [rn, J,u. nJ DL rcr"ort c.nicd our i
rhc {utrk\. i|cl dn'E rln Co'k Cn, Ll'l' .rJ 5e mpo rng nbrc...
(i1rN ol rrJ2.
plrskr Jlt-r n' lhocni\ Parl Io''h ErLn
'i.ri.s Gypsum nnd Bicls,
Tlrc orisinil glpsn comp y, knovn
8,s formcd in 1929, aM hy dortuniuntil 1934NLcn Micbael Crccdon
s.sin.i cd rojorn rhcbc'd oiJ e.'1!r dsd rppoinrc! !l...rrn .'
i5rc, ordeo hlrmetrhFr,(qui.nioN'ncl J J.i. p, (s i.bsro\ rnd
six snovels, Tbey set up a nill to nMlaa.ture scieniiEqlly-onnolled
phster.'Ihe output liom drc,niDc and nil nN incra$d *c ily clcr
8iie. ll vas an *nenrely pdlons poriod in khnd\ (ononic history.
One of the eFeds ol thc prciglg ccononic sluip Ms th3t thc housins
progranme v,t very sloy-moving. Ncverthcles, Gypsun and BicLs
gtrn,

doggcdly continucd to produce not onl, pllster lor thc building indushy

n.uPo
U

,r Er,d ri.Lri,i\[ PL{r
{l.i,mueb rc.mlrheLn,{n;

'

MrGrfslrstrrrr {d o[n;r !\nri.a

i\re(^].'mm[l+rn'll

rr.ior rln" 4e; m',i,dt0oPneltoa rerrsun iodNry

but also gi,luun rek lor the.enrent irdu$ry.
Productlon ms e,ied on thr@sh the s.r, tlc oDproy lanoching
plastd blo.k d this time. Nesotiltions with ctproc sh.rcd i. 1943, rith
a viev to tbe nndish LlnDa.y slins .n in ics nr GrpND itul Bricl{s.

Thi\ no\" q N.'Foq n .r'jl Jne' ,h(
Gpsh lndu.nns.
-'med
"d..
ino-portj rE Gr$um rd In \q a,
A a puoli. comldtr)
in \lal h'r47. Crn G,r\ .r rq n . a,l ( ordinvysll./ ".tr'crntr
for spplylng Ecl[iquo ind tno\r no\ xnd R. S. Jur6 ind loc
Strblc bmm. mcnb6s ofthe lr.ard. Shorly ard thc iNolvc,nc.t ol
thc English co,nrary, it w,s J*ided to instaU tr b..rd pl t rt Kingsmm. Thc rcquirng ol boird phnt michinery aron Amcrca vxs Dot
yithout is dr!m. MiclDcl Crccdon's son Aidrn (nos a dncdo! ofB?B
Indushie, reqls: 'The bmt ,ny rithci md Je strxnle tool io {lnerio
to lool at the phnt ns nnmcd bl' r tmk* on its My thcre. They hld
to t ke to the bmls in dgniddlc olrhe nighr. NIy &ther ariycd in
Amqio in his pyjrD6. He did, tlough, reover ererythins dcept his
undeRerrand !rutch I nad lcnthim.'
C-yproc helped GyFun IMusrics to get their L.ard mxchine into
prodlction, and the developDcnt oa pla$orbofud, lor domc*ic lnd
dport nsei prcred $ccesslnl. Ov6 thc.cxt nve yeas tnc plxstr nrill
ws hodcmised. A Raynond Mi[ ms insrlcd and a kcttlc .crlaced
opcn pdns. A new EhNn mixcr and Bites bqging rdn icrc also
iNhlled. Tne export ma,ket d elopcd aron thh nc rs Imdnction
dacdcd donstic denand. l. iact, the l)rod{cs ol Gypsun Ind siics

hqr

to r. dl[.6r @irlo ln
rnd lh. Mlddlo Er .
Sh,r'md { us. ilh md. n, Nr* Zoli . ABkrlii, (jtrnift al rlr
Unitcrlsuros, rh(,. corr.riri,rl {B uMrioturly xdfl
A ncw trlnr( n,^
Gtrrncy, G nry (nv!tr, in rrjq r ,l n,
"ncn.d
i nnlcr mnk Ms oncncd l ,rutr'EF\ ir Ortrry MunrSlDtr
'qs8
'n
\t rk hucr, GrFunr Ii,lurri,.r Jinn.J
icRs r,rhcFcl lfFnrldcri,r.
olsh (gIt Lnr.whiih I hJ" i' n,,..i'l( r.,lr\h'(J rullrtrtrle ol shi'r
Ir,,hrDitl( nl$kr. l.r tlr i\rl,'n'Tn, irrhc l)run'soNr minci htr!r
qmoiitics oisn $c( wopcd our ro aom i q3t lbrl bclbrc tunndhrx
op.otio6 t srn, thus cn.bli.F ldri6 ro Eu lndugmund ro @llcd rh&
ledr olrccl fiom rhc primry gushci h.nrc rinlsPoniry it to thc rlx
tt (ingscourt ! fcs nrilcs arvay.
T1 t958, Th. Briti+ P'bkr !o-rd (Holdings) rrqun d rlc n\'
oI th. o,,lindy sharc 6piLl of GlArum lndusdG rnd *nhin r r.$
16'\ h.J iiBled,mrhci [r millrcn rodoublc rlrp odu ivcoFflI
ofthc hdid pl.nt lnd phstcr nill, PhDr ms inshllcd fm thc production
ol lighFweight pl!stc6. Ihe nrdor ou tpu t ol thc plNc. ni ll scnt to r lr
b@rd plint sLeE Gyptx w.tlbo.ld and cyrlith plN.rins brsc ycr.

16.lponcd

,

RqtisirB dr gmsnlg inrnrt.ncc ol thcrDil iDuhtion in tuildinss,
Gyps n Indutics b.grtr pioducitrg Fdmtlitl ,ood {ool slabs ir
thc cirly rq5os. Th.s sh6s v€rc o.de lrofl v.od rool nbre b.unn

Rqt

iriny oth( prodlar Im l,m.h.d in lrhnd.
dcv.lop,Ems
nive bccn thc pmduction oa qptx plisticiiad plrnqbmrd and Gypex rcoustic til6. Tinrbcr *ud pdlitions 6nish.d sith Gylt* rnd
Gypscld, o! with Gypicx mllboard, berme stin&rd in Irish buildn$.
Tn€ complny also inl.oduan dc S&cltu sr{@ of r@f in$lrion,
.oNilE of Gypts pLstob@rd sup.ndcd in,luminiuo dlor

*ni

Tne amliny no\e chploys 4oo peoplc, and n6 &dy rccs r,,
Dudilk. F on he!. gypse is *trt to th€ Bitish ciTsum phnt it
Glasgd and b r encnt f.cnry.t Plynourn-

rtung armnr hd;tior \a suriv.d.nd rhu Crcdon d)n$ry n qill
in .\,rg.. Vicnle' Cr(Jor $s:uGeoed by hs so-, C.n, \ho Jic,
4

,tcrrlonEil,ncs.Cnnnr,.roeeJ.d bJ thbotheiAidrn,-ho,o. i
lB6for to the Parent DMd in Lrndoq *s su@dcd by anothd

bdlw,

Gcriy, s6o n .hc

pltdt irmb.nt

nrd

for r cDuDI. ol

rsd. I do ror tnow

rhr

E'on qhr

bur I lound

I

n my ntri'\. As soon s I 'rfrc t! t
i; rdiins ;r .r n; vous p!i1'j$..1.
h q' lile r"mnB \o ne tu vo' '
l. v&k h;e, th(,d1pbinr \r
6,ntu-' str/ knJ. nh N*
a;c or ihc d,6 iDdiBble bv_prcdud or. ulrh hv . l$s'
mr.rc @notlv ol r !tulc.,r;ilv co"cdn :s :e lo* of dq':_v
orrk hro. Dlpi," rle iniusion. 'r , riitrl,'m Er6n mRn$ orrhe
lotrer.m hqk\ ol thc comD v s r *hol., de inrp'ovemcnt< n

r"iiri* ",a ecune. n is uul th{ duiHld tEdiriN dic 6ur'
fnilv slills .nd l@Jri6 ,src 1Mv. Thc amilv Eppo hcsen b.s
.nd ;r[mo'h di(\olv6. Ivlinv co,nDdnios in ,lious scrm or in_
durv halesi Dlys h. rcd isri, rl( 16$ or pmontl idot.fiot'i sid
rh. c;mDrne b.iic the Dd.c nrid tor sri,cr cmciency.
D",niMi, hd*, fi. dp.*rhs rm or BPB hs bsn r NhoUv

s ctl rllitli(ryci[(c rr5r{rtrrr tu vdy dcrilirdyr tir ity.M r
r\.tr, r|J. ir ri.' iitrnlJ,,t't:' rit,({'t tr r mr r J,,u, r;rt nrm jilnih.,
ol'Mugic !r$ sorkponplc sho cr rricclhoir.or r(i,,r{irhlhcltuch1,. tr

0hi, t..,\( t,{ r.t r, r!u L. r,. i.rrr. r ),k,:,tr ty,,t Inr hir i (unF

l.ic !r\i.r rl' rl',,,{rt,. rt. rcs y(,trr.
\,[, i, ,Jd
'),.u
Ln l,' rily \untr.cri,n h t r, Tr{trtrt rBro
'rLu,l
Cul,rc. Pc'.' D..!.Jr'.

.r,B

rtjcpn,n',.t'.(m;,i.r.tiR(,t,.,d..t.

r

rbr.J
trr rot,t, ,,tL(r
'.HcL.'.ll.t;aLd'or.\4r[r,
hr'J.. q.o lih
ro rcr.,r'ber l.otr .h.r bu"l h,,n :,, r t.,v twrt.,[.h
Loy l-hc.,dn .r.or. rrJ 1,..t'\ s', I -,sn,o J,n L t.,i,Fr, 1, I,I
To' Fs h r -ov Jouor u;.,tr,.i,,cLrc. \,,. cn,D.uyr.fl i i
'Col,re,'Ior " . \e mrc5 rtr k:h, i rhc r. i. \\cricpr,l,h.r,,.
v'. epi d, ut\1 rarl.(' Jre \p.{,u Ae,rtodl. I r,l r woid fo, i \,..1
{ngl- nxr | mill. Wh, F hc dio,l c\cntody r, .r{ or. r, t,r
' rL' n J fq (er p.opt. n.edeo ro i.,o hc mil' rtrni.s
l..pr r. orhIvrid1rcmcmbtrR!ns xiJ r;t( o|'ns,
'I h. l,luLiT,6 P.t4
M l [6" h nnte ro he nodh o, \bi rlct,,
o, Lr"

o',$ind:no.n.d oc,ow'Ftllafi.orBr.L,bu . r1,.on ntn tr
{bp,leen In..16sa.r.
I ib-\i.r.ryfu qnhjrlJ.,,
'heapp:os
n.cnhd
bl ,\
iJe.G rj,nn., rrqd- \\ Jstu 'n,lu{rrtpitr,,, .
r.n h.u.. V6, u rh. old ried norr. d;ud, c ni L. rc \av. -.\
lf retr.d Lur!m,oq re' I'r-rL L yrrunnet. . h,,u;d rn@,n.rr,
r m,nurct rrlL ftoh rheir Dic. ol !,trL.
\ld , L',. lon. rnionr' niilr of\i,- he toorion ut

ruq

hc

pt r.

-llriuoqial.r, {mpi,.$ir,Ir hl rtr4tr"1
-Tr.trr.d
'o' :f r.,Ling ' rh, utsh rl c?g .. r r lcd'tu'.Lpptr ot jood \Er, J, ..
8!od loit ncrrby.
T,'" Drd.o' Ln '\ etr. ,lon rhc T".',n. . rel ot qbBJenlhn(
\here rhn 6'n.cd
"no k, rond I hrd n..-r6ts ,n \ool mitb tq rnc
sccond Lll ol thc cighreentlt centuN, Iolu Davi{lson ind his frn,jlv
tru\ed'or5r'BuxI'u'r'-'er H' trsr,a!crLv'r d.rndoucoahLr.trr
.l'l.l!cL C' r,6.si-ftiFeo.6 rmilt.Erstr(.,.ddi.pttred nu.',fr,IJe.or ri'r-.mcJrr rl, Hs o'nLdiflc-rmtbc rirounEd<,,-."
rlr 6!rs 'r.nedL,.r'y D'e,roiL;lhr b ndtr g ot Vrgien.c., h,. i, r
,; tJ bq JU 'h.r rn ,r id. rToo\. L,rt6 D-\'d;n,no x Li.r,
, h "t. ir rh. ioBc he bcg n mihn! p:rc r srotulaouJ,
L
rr,rP'.nhq dD Llexnc.D^n rh,r \,4xric n.\ BG 1* 6"hih
" sood r.,
i-.c
n
UnEi.F N. ln rrio..hcl o(.d.d.lLr
fie m,rkr
'hcy-qL-.d
tr.c
llsr cnorgl lnr bo.l' o.rher o p,; *,..; rh$ inal ro*p,, ak
.rd
a coi, -. ro \ o i dld t;\r sAi.h rte. ci,,r., r_r.i,a.o,
.no'

'...d

yoD tne tos itrd cholc thc snc yhich ms ilie

ncrE

to

Abodeeq {hich

crk, M x' h', rtrJ hc|lntr r" trrkc frt${itlvn.ll rlMc i.r
or n( lisirrl' huL{rtr,rs ,l,s
l,lro.
Lu.ti.'^ l'(Ltr( I'i.d.. h,(.1', 1'.IhiL\.,L,,trw,, l\
n
I' wllli, n , \l uu,rJu, n , l]rd c'n'ir. G,"'[" "irli"'rq "rr'J
lhorhrtr ih I i'al,^rj rtrxl".u' r{{o,'rJ\\ill.rI,i J.r,i,'!.j
ly!i!,

lii r

Lr'rr.

horn or D. id\oi. uco.g. sr.
h. J$e.ofc,l br.lh.'.rl),,n id.r ro'
g htgs hy richinc, nrhcr than br hrnd. This \as r tc.ndous
plirwmlr rl opr.t]fi,rtu J,,l'rh,,ed,J,1ro or .b7s Lrnrd,on!
ro rh( hEer tr'rl"F o''nrhinr n -" b'". n r.r qorlo therr!roUot str$ irr rcn d co[nd tb,t elesnen rs such NeE not neessar] . Elcry
nbulN rtr Jd\c'rL lrcnr trorl,l h. pr' . , 7'1, /!,.. 'nJ. oi.e o. .nc
r orel . , l o,oon, or
rvlJ{unc would t'c .uvini i , .u"h
kDiryhJm. o. ulAgor. rtul troulJ !. gF.,n. j p',' e.'u'c,rne {,J
hnnuhr

r.J

ro rhc

h.ihin$"rh i'nri,."b.n',.rq'

ll

'.

.u.

dhd in 1875 r' the con,prrortre I e,lJ .,j.or t8. Dl h. in r \., i. J, n
bfir mc\incs erenrodu.irlgn r.peed [rmr. h.r o"cb"'n- ...0n,
tnd it is bclicvcd thlr there rvere rbont 18 ol ilcd in thc one dol)'rbent,
lurniu out rclI over xvo nrilliotr b.gs nr a yek.

IrIA75rher'murcon.erhdrnrorhni',dnh

iry.odll'yqi,

noriMl eniLl or lro,!o rnLJ Inrner lqrenor{, sere ooc.cd ab.J'
lhh dro h Ln.'I'0,1. \.a.F ., C|lsoN, Ldrnb-rLn r;d \NdNtr

. n,"h'Fe,"l.chb. no" qqeprod.!trg0.,'
'
to.rorLpc'unL.wh€p,bl,,,rm (i.L lel prps. u edrn.her.r,.r .'.
Oncot'\orqo

I cffpd unddliy dd

ra innd linins fo! suitqses and han,lbaBs. A
in'..du 1nr , i. ra - L Ina.re
uniquc dc\.lop. rco' bm r F
'nc
on lhis machinc, so tbrt Dupl.x t pc prpea ould be n e, l)le 6Bt
ud most fanous ol t[s Dup]d qu,lides wrs Gdlr Feh. {hich rms
tolcntcd.hrcughou' c *o,ld. L dr F I \F bs'. r J g.1r.'pp{
[ur lincd sr.h r rl..n L)cr o'r di|u..' ,.,1J , L] J N@Jrulp I
hodJ beruutr.h 'cl'-hhg&rJI shicl :r'.','n J :' nr ) " . i
'J
dolcoted notbs ud prc,ented dust lrorn coni.s thioush rhc ImrLoards
irrto o .irpct, One ol th. sret Dircis olCcdff Fdt $6 thc larc quccr
M!!y and beaorc Knrs Gorge V {ent ro cotrvdscc lognor Rcgis
ottq nir scvse illnc$, she insisted tlDt evtry roon md l)lsr$ nr thc
I$ns should hNe Ocd( !'el! under the cules. Thc fcli t dc {N so
buoyint in tne hte. prjl of the ninereenrh ccmry dnt thc cornpuy
opcncd a hdc! in ABtr ia 3nd rhis poved r prohhble ventuE {hile
8.1

rh

outrr y s s ,ld (l,,Iir'[. M(I L,tcr, s hun t[rrirnrl r(nr Au{ t,,,
irrirl'(n rrv,irl.wl'il( t,',{,^'ri' r, ir \,Fntrr,-,il,l(r,(,{rtr
rtr.rt,

i, rt,( Liani, wr{ d,F(.l.
l'lc(trdur rh.,i'.(rL{d.rrcn.trJ.js rl'(l\rirnrij,8,,t'., I,js!t,r.["
.tr rh.l''{.orq ul r 1..1tri.'tir'S. \[-,lt,.lt, $,'r hu u r',,.tr.r.t {.!((.,,
jr at'..trii.;r ,y.Fi,L,\'''.j.
n l) al nc.c'ri
p rlp { J ot .,'bs'rFi.'r!.'xtr"..ni.
r...r t.i! tun,nt'..h r,Fr trL,L; n,,,',, tr L,
prod i.r. rl - (r. n'o1g j rrJ mor. nn., i\". cLr
q1"ri,.r t jt,
"t
I $'L, ro.d... \.4"ei. " ro c ro,l' * Ttr('
r'.i " i.;\.,
"
lrnd trr 1 .trs.n*LLJr,
'-Lcql'nqr"(.d1.rtrj..t,., b..,/lt
oJ V.G. rp.'. fl.( nhol, r'n\rn nt rh( nr,' rnJ. s..:.i r.,r;,r',.
lnfl c p-s^ llt .nrr p ion'i I'u"rr.. in |r | +ih r r our rc.,L,,t',.
"
rrtr r,,c,,I l,L',t'trI,

Fn$

w..l,l\,v-

l.

^\.a.ks..l-eeloc{.l'.'r d.u in'o/oJ !,,.,r.
mcnrioin
o'li.-,
11r87i. i.l- d.ed .8o7 n,lJrt'(orn(,t,
"q'_ Daq.d r,i Aa"ds
q-c.r{l(u\e.r; r b',,... ur.,t .,
\lu"i.r.iN, "'J Alnrnds I LlnJun .\'so ' Lun!,r s.b , ur ,.
C\r' A. rh e1 ol,,,r \r VJEj. trE.
\\'nillh r D IJ.,n, . tr,.'
{".' d.r-j.d Coloocl l o'.', r..nn,I "eR
D'.'d. Totr',nh,t n t*.' .,
'
. rh, i. r.!.nflr.b. .r'hc fernori"
&mL or rhmc i.(.1r .i ... t .
"
student daJs, yxs elcd rp iDmedi.ely ani Villim rcm,incd
r Musi!rN to help Drlid. Drid died itr !o;, so Wllhm ss tcft oi his;n
{1.
h.r iq ot .o tr,e, i,. Lh. h4'r (, h! hrhtinJ Dn,,,,
'd*n
,5crc
co' my r d
s+ [.-r. -"orl m.d. .o
n ar;n. Lo.n j .ir trr
O.'0,

Dorr

lloms NlIcBd ilong vhh rh! to{t ol tho*u eho vcrc hfi ind
wrori' d Bhd rtrly xn( nlrIu IIr( tri.'.In'A \nul,1h( ru'r'ii,x
tr..j.
, Ju uu\i lly. rhr {h,,1(,ll w,{'l.l 1,.'v( L,l'u.l.{J l,n r
y( Br\ Ir'ilL, rl'( h'{u trtr,1. r' i J.hl,r.'( |Dl,,). n i+ frh
rnrillM'(l lrnh .ur(lL,q'rrl$n(\lial'r'rnirn.I'\.!.
owtr liut fu cvuryonc ir rtu n,ill n,tr i ]nr, l'{r cfl plc, sould
clo&.1 rM nrill lb! s!od, Snn,[ins*as *i.tly prohilrtd Nnlb dr
tur trn u.Fy.li..it'linc'ir h.c'. rur i' L n,.n rJ' rld ar.\on(

ciFrLdtc Diid . 6r' inb tnc Rcd cros 6ox for ttrc 6sr
un
irdrrrly dnmi$J 1,tr 1*1"tu10116{.
netrtrrl
Ahrnrrl( Ih\ .otr .licil ,n r9)o J"J Wil-'r 1' 1J r lcd ev.
br, l$vilr|r'Ion t, ory o. in Ab.rd.dr, ild CIErles to look lfter thc
ndDn (tr'i,,1' rl-. .u rnh., shnh by rt.. rn r ac hr.' .ub.'n'-l
Until rq21, tic Drvidson finily lircd nr Mnsien6Housc vhicl is
rlr hr,',] o,no ol _hc D idson Rrdc.rie O'oup.'lh. "l-,i_nJn
nd witb

i

',.rr roi',i. \n.t,ob r..,
bcm

no$ @npy roons wlich had ben thc billixrds rcon
thc ho@ .nd dr nuscry is now the bmrdrconr, The hous ts
no* in thc ccnkc olrho Idge co,nplex on dE Musiemosr snc and yhcn
lh. &mily livcd fiuc, it rm o.ly. soDerhrow rronr ihe papo n'chi..s
led llon Musiencs
and rhc hig dcpdtmcna. A short teelined
gltes
of tne nonsc. Thc closc
Loid to tbc sat6 of the nill and lhe
gmrinnry ol
o'60
hou* ro'he il'. ou"l.J hi! rh( ''
'\e
l'h.
motry losl p6pk rn r\e Ftrn $otrd \\f,,,,,1", Fr
r,p.J
h
l''r+
{'
C-1"'
n
l'otr
s
rynrprihy.rd under.Lnd,,s
:rs
on,
?0"
he- r ,e b J
fimilyrnd rl'e pmpe r' the

si ofproblln.
B lo'e mu.h .oul, F do' e abour
plr . .h" ro)' \ utr,t.
.t'-{ror.he
'on.r
'ns
qi..tumot.dov
sen.vi\.1 cnlc.dcc'.
nidhr 11
o ri, r J ro .trnbl,. O c snde o sEnnirg p.Dcr ull. I'r'hir

tepins th€ vhels turning. Hc isrgcooaanin,agcndr
{ah
such r plsent mannd' .q[s onc cmploycc. 'IIc \as xs
mr\
noight .s thal eys lnothd Bnh nis i.dor nng.. tuiglt W h tl[ iir.
rYou nse' tbousnt olhin as foudal' slys a thnd. 'l-Ic had r maNcuons
militrry be ng, yet you ndd tbouglit thai Ie {s ovcrbsriDg. You
lnc$ the fimily roo i.d vdc invncd to thc wcddings Dd so oD.' His
lMellry of nin, ycm icoc,nhcs, 'Ec oblioNly took it lud rvhen he
hod to p.y oF$dc olthc bcn; hc kdN tncn I pesoDnlly.nd then
froiliE tud Mrked fo. his forcboirs. Hc rcrlly mised dren soinsi I
u6cd b se nim ldy nFet nrded wnen he llid bccn fored to closc some
Idrr olGc tlr tr lo" (e( o'Mo. Tl'seFnodoJl'trh!rh.Da.o,liv
of rle Colon l 'rd mdch ro do uilr se''ins Dr'rcson s ,h'ouBh r ,e

h. Fdcc\.\c.

\i!dr.

hotrsh rh

y mr,

h_ve

V."ien.o.. ns J.'i eJ o. i's rounq ." ,.a ..r ,oo . I
"
b."tu'n ro.hci' hor,rr-r.l.eir \o.( I' h. m.. trA kprL.ir.
rbroJgt'\e\.rburn.q raJ'.o'cnsr Dlr $."t'joto.o,n;b;.tr.t
ine mi, $a l.nr.1Emo.c rhr, ;'1 k .d.d vt en Lhit.,,
-se dcmob:i,d r9.o drJ rob;nd a'-m., ru "rdjc6rn.lrhc.oo ptr,. ,.
. n.oioq.(, -- I
h . ;.u.jjy itr ,. , br. .oo
,
"o;J-t.
'uin-u,nti",.
.u'mshorol.rt " rrdDrpnolr..'r
n'J.nnm, 1tr,....t
r" n.ds..'ls |J, d n 1 \-y higl "abeir,L
pnce. 'l l'. pc ion I r ..,J tr
l.''th\ ind or o Jq, heDrpu 1 n. {r. or I oFo.n
" ro r-r't .
hrlcd

Krfi
I'

drcpmd lronr

r'o1 flronroabo /,o'ronqiihnr.rr'
.o

ur +- b.srni.tr.6 olT

s

n\ .ern )s
tr prDe. u.,do rn,,,n_,,
' n Bxuitr !lo,u,l rnd.
mu,\ n.-e rlxn J d".rJr'. o\er , l-nd'.d -ill,
doos, mve. to open thon rgrin.
84

nd lis

s(fth.y

rc

' r.r
'
.Ir'" "u'..
\\\ ]{
i J,
rrll l
.trd the J6. he G.rns rhr Colonr .or ..Ur.r1d hxl i gr..r iF
nucn@ in
and

The dimcufties {crc not dinl.ishcd b rLe introduction of the Legrl
Net Weigbt Ad in rhc cdly '26. ,eIore ihis, shop-kecpeB h.d liked to
buy hcaq blgs, $ dre {tisht oarhe bas Ms inchded in the *eisnt oathc

{d. Unil$ rlt nr, Aci, rtr trri(ht ,,t hr hr8 { r!
u\(l'r'lrJ,{,rhr{i,},ltrFr.(nlHtn r hinuh/hnrrt(,r,,trr.lii.^r
+n.n[.ri.'.:hr,,rl ,"(i,.r,.'t]nn,fl rtn s,it.,i nNdrh. r+! i...
mrnn \lirv fnrcl

-'.n1.1,.'F\ Lr whirh lr,'!hh,,.i. \{( Lunnht, ti, jrutv rtl+ tr.;,.
xhh tu dmpdc r,, sodhwt,ilu cxtd i,, rho trcw nyti ol.i)rF N
nrcLiks fixd ben S
soun rricr ttrc M.G. m.hi,rc"sis irjrlt(t,
'shiso,n(,,trhc
$hi. r coul,lmrlc Jr hlt
qtrrt,nc\.
,' .q2G, rrc rl.c G,r-nt s.rit,.,,\t.tr(*
r, h,, r, rt.tr..trF,ic. I,l,rt i..

1 lor'i'\.rqh6i1rohcJin,n.{.o,rtJi.r,u,c. \.ilr:(q,r.
!,..q, n I ijr,\, Ti I J.k.J.,oncl,l'tu, t,( n. !J rJLt,(.
rl''. rdkllrr"rh".n"uatt,bou' rh\h"JiJ..hnitrl,,,ilr.nr
ol qo,d.pllp i' i . !.rd. T\e mil'5Ercd ,sri,, rh,.nsr,hih i d, rt,r
rJ.'hndnb+nnooro-od€,,J u or, .. ,d ,r,,t ri . , ,, ,.,r .
I'r' ir. .rri5l.d rr Lh" un.oN, rd Dur rh^i,,o r i,,,, J\r .,"J
f, '.n.b'r ir rehrncly.mll'n.lr.ui. I f, tr' d, suc I \1,(, (n.l'l ... .nrld g.,
". nt,( r,J
fan dqr:no o- h c ro d. \ r rt,.l
(ou.h
.1-"
Lv i Js i$h,, t trctr nu',irg j d,r.r., tc* L,u. li!,,1

(.-

SnrhdlnnJi

n

No. I M.chirc. r[ic. running ror some r@ ]rca6-, \qs
olvn xl vitb it, unfotunarcly, died Cedr lrelt, rvhich could

srcsnully on rh( ndv m hinc.
On ln( l)lp$ sidc, m intcrcsing delelopncnt dning thc thiftiB
I llr i roduction ol lbcm Piper+ srons Kftfi rippins p?per
hkh vs p quoolcd tbroush tLc inrmdrtion of i titrdcn en!ln i,to tbc beter. This ,rDc. hid aI sorb oa intercdins po$ibilitic
rdo

m

projcds s rn undohy or th. onddc
ci
on ihc odsin lr6rl.nmshnc ro.d ond thc WcNbky Io tu.L
on it Ms thc Ecommended blrclout p.pc. lor vindorvs, LBUght by so
mtny in 1938 and.n throush thc mr.
Mugicn6s Ms rell ph@d to mcet thc Scmnd World W.r, $ tlrcn
mr.lines oNld male nuy oilhc p.per.nd p.pc.bmrd rcqnircmcnts
lhrt yde coNidered estnid b ihe national cFort, Mulsc'ncnt, tm,
rcmcnbcftd the erpeiences of the comp.ny aater the r9r4 18 Wa.
rnd vcre detmined th"t tnis *rte oliltiis snouE not occu asain, Nev
lnd gmd sondb,nd pli.i ws pn(hxsed shcn Nan.tlc xnd enoush
L.y oen rce rhi.ed ro allow tle wt€els t, turn erlecticly dnins thosc

anl il3 nimc Ms

Mlllp.inting and boxtukins dcprfrn,or
rrs.olmd:botrr.hn..meii,lrnerooineh.depi.I r.. .q,r) [,,. $
I rl ( Ol,l T..r Mi", qhr\ hsl bccn r;c. uih Lun.he,l t" 1,,., ,t,..
E--. . or inqcd .o h r r tzn rinnrs. or u.e,t, t"nr t,.
r,rrrireq t.Ecdn r c. ,or,r'doibnJtJ hetped..["epDnir.I,lr.,.l
tr
|fld .\o\e
t'tr,D(Jo,un
rt,h.mdihnd \" I
"d.rrn'l,\eco,nnrnl
\:\ q ri( rnihlc
rocun,ider ,nr -mim-,i,"
A- JwJ.. i"..d'a.ih rrqo"-.Unghi.",.
,,,
,nr.ls 1o o.ld li.e,r,rlinL tJrni ih"ur rrdu..o.rt.c{Si
rno
ir
"or.tJ...
,,'{es5,n)n'look,J rorir.d rh rndor,}c,1,...hc.csrrIrc^
t..,
c, .,o.,sDi.' 1. E'..' red r$,, r n, h. L:. \e,r o, n\i I n...,,r
i','moi on r r.or.
resor Ln- Dn.
".b 1,Ft. rtr rG o, I c.(t, !i
",'
J,r,mor,.
hlc.
or
rh.
I
-.hou..
r., triihr,.. r.. rFhi' r r.1
"rh^i
+.S''sl.po.-nr"ot'\crt ee noot." r.cn U:re,chor,. Do..
roJs qr, _h. l.r and w.Fr
\s Or'v I c ti.h i,, hc

r.iror.

kr

Tlr

a

or Colonel Ton.
or n,
;"t jnd o,.
"Jr_tp.
''r'e'.r1,, l'c0r rFe"l,hc,ul.oi,a
ompr1y.. I olrh. 1tr .1 o'e coufl A T.

rhc Ihndotr lvlill

DI.itdlr 'J l'(r ri,nn MuLi{1,,*. l'd(, D$id.on. "l'o n+l rotric,l
glnrniiry iD 116. n,R, rl'..r rimr tr'u. h rnv, hcd'r'h. n rlc'1J
i.llirgiidrolrh.hn\i'\a..rntl,.dll.rh r h" tr Jlimn[ w'll''n.n'
Itlttr'{ Srdhl, lirr q-r."cb.r'u' Jn',ln.Clr Eotr on'hee\c t of dk ,lny h., r\ n'{,,J'*..orlcoL'.C\p'"cTT,'u.l
n!g.d n, ur(h rht h{ krin hr.[ h Ab deen rt r ]o I m.l
'

16.1.

pro6lenrl
& Neills_oalins tass,

rln fu,

l,,itr nuw qsc
Tii Nnc n'R$lully !, rl'( JnrF:r' Rf,ridiRllr nl-tri,'lsr.
nl Williitrfdr, j,,hul rh unnpi,,y, rnd in ,er6 No. 4 Mnchi,rc
It nr, Dy,rlTlhuCy|x)c flint it Shicldhiu, GlNgol, vs bnylng
I

r

Soo.

e oD such

L

ms o!cr, the conpany beg,n 10 a.qdie nutueiors
convcrtins lusine$es ircl i,s ri- G. snith's (Boxm.kes), a frfrily
conceln m dng @ntuiDers rnd toxcs id rhc London rrea; libr.bodd
Boxs, uho mde mrtainm on Ty.csidc, a.d Chrh Uniod Mill,
*ho mde spinl rvound tubs rt Rrdclitrc, in La.casbirc. The onpin) had rlrqd\ Iormed rc on1 trE c pr?( ollc'ig o'grnisr:on
olkd The Northqn Waste Paper Co., iDd nr r95o fomed Abcrtay
Pipe! qcr. i, D, ,de 'n pdme^li,p Ei,h oo or ,hc l,,ss rur
enpuiB {ho h.d ben astomen ofDavidson's for mny yes. Thc
tvo jute @npui* vithdEw in 1953 and Abcri.y ,noved to thc Music
ho$ site. whq€ tlxy hNe d{eloped to b{come one ol tbc m6t inF
portmt !.ck-D.ting pllnts in Europe,
There hrd been maio! chanses on the DavidsoD Bo!!d. In Ndcnber

$,,,.1
n,r.,t

J\,.o,,

ul,o.. ir1.\ hrJ ,I -sr sh-T5n'dnq i, i b;r16. id ioin*trt,' drpFd J.ep In,o , -,
Dord i , o:u anJ bo'n h. rJ C..orot 'rnn

pn\f,rc pnckets ro k(p tr'c lonFn\ $rvur
1t vas at this timc that ine bnvc decaion {6 mde to entcfunoih.r
.idc or he urdc. rtr cI rtr ,. L,ng ot ppcrbo.,rd T, qD
e
!. ., ,tu/ ur'\e enp' r *.r r .h Bd anJ Lc., uoi, tmloiru_J r,
,lr-crd ' ..n.uhi' c 6pu ci6-d ..m Jhr,J ,n 6000 ,,,ndiuoh , J

"

t

tcr tbc var

87

,046. Glond T.m l.llEd 1106 rh. ldlrlo of chllnnrn rnd nrmFinr Jih.u, rnfi I'd tr[ rh. tu n y.ru. J. (:. l)u[ \ i |trtr)r.
nr rUtnl$n. who lul lx{tr on rtu llnrJ Ni'r$
onil *!s ol,l
'0t6nc chnir N' !l
lriotr,l.lrhc lhvidsr lirnrily md rhc corllnry,I&
IrtMk Williflnv j{inqlthc ll,'srl, A.'1,l)r$vn h d rcrircrl ri,h
drIn, mrlicr rhar yer. h,riry lBn I rc.y,divc NnrlEr for 20 trxh
Hcnr bccn s'cc.cdcd by his $tr,hnrcs M.l)r{$i,r, rd rh rih(
also, W. R. S. Mcllis, tr lool bnsincss r.N. ud trmrhcr old lirnily
r!ic.d, IEd so bc$n. r dncctu, Chids I}!id$n hd diul, rill
lc'ivcly m6rd in tll. oftI,rnlt tNins, ir Junc x[r, lml i! is r :rl
-cn((.Dn otr rhc rtf $ c nd rnrtrcnr rurJ'e prot\\r ol rlr trt
ildr-nn b-svccn rL. rrd. rhrL ncnhlr ChrnGDIiJ\unin, ,u,.,
rllc ;tre soN ot wirriim Drlids. anE into rhc husins. li t
"r
Willi Ds.n lclt.t rhc cnd ofr94, to bnild ond opcrdrc r burin,illii
Southcrn llcli d ind lclcr D.vi.Lsn, ftw ilto a coloncl, $ae rptonnr,l
hrnlging di@to.. Colmel Ton nins€ll dir.d in r95
'.
DurinBrll rhEtm,thcrnofmrt'nEp2ll.rrnd IIarf,
'berd
thnugh a nrirkcd Ddod ofchlrlgc. It used to bc i cftlt
tut "rss.trtrr:
row *rs
bccoDlnrg a mcchrniql s.ime. Evcn in tnc r 936 nu* mius .onsidlrul
thf it ldlbou! 20 yad bdm. mn cflnd Elv h. cla$cd 6 r lB'G
m.n on hrchiion.n, Thc ba&. of cou6c v6 tnc Lcy to gDdl lIF.
makiilg. This is snc.e thc sizing lnd thc dyeing rcrc done atrd xls,
{h@ lhc 6bai src natcd ro mh tne p.,ricuhr qudity of poIcr $rr
aN to m o. rh. pap.r tuchinc. D6pirc lhe inrod@ion oa innnF
mcnB, theold bstcd,n useA to tustc iEl, tolis sns oftoncl rl
vcrx vcrt, seldoin .ude ! nilhkc, Novldar, serythhs is @ntroild
Eicntiliouy rnd, s oft of t6€ old prFrmkeE M.rlcd, 'fou otrlr
n6n Io be rblc to play thc pirno rodiy aid you on bc . dlnrn sfrtrl
p.pcrDaker in no tnnc dt rll'. But rcrnc indennitle in$ti'rct still pb.vs i
r{t in rhe mv*iquc or pipcrmJinginJ on. ol ryoungs!{rinn.nddrs rl Mugicm6 eid this: 'Th. smll a.d L.t otr ma.hin€ em otr
bc sligltdy nroflg. thc *mD is hadlv pcrepiibly dsing in i dillcrtrr
r..! r'J jou lno\ enrrh,ng i! \rong bu,oL donl {r'r tc i'!
nrchin6 to pis whcn you s .hc pit tull of hmle rnd i[c dd dosn

go rnd hrre r mp oft6 or r \"lL by ths riv.r ind cotu l,rd
rhcio$y6;itis instioctiDplicd scicne atr'l intuirionind r ItlL
o'J ldr olldcl.ljro')rb,ng I Lo$.6our iN grne Eould he.h,hh[ n,
anyhoJrirl tndsh i Bbul n!iN. h(L b( otrmthing rnrh.

rsdn, Yon
wnh

T][ oning

togcthe! ol Dividson's and

lPB

is onc oa inos stofts

wn pN into ihc nyfiology of ! cmrony. Wiih thc rnqlg.mtiotr
rcfcftd b cftlicr bd{En Gy'Ixum Indu$ri6 South AGio, and
th.t

[.

PmducF

sml

s Jul.x
r*itcrn

.r(.1, R.

trid I

rh onrhkr drrrqcJ

Rhotr.ih ror
iir*.ii i. i.t'*.,it
nr'l
rhc ''l'\
i,niio *n*,1. l'tu{n cF "crc ln,mi'irrs
" ir Silhl'u'v hr'!u' t, Lln -!'Ld bn\nr(*' UJJ's tr
oDblNltr.l
r. b thdu ss m Plinr nut.
ivrti"tt". rr^x"
!"r
"*r*.i
rh' sdD
l rhc \u nncr or
rmr or mfr'bmr,i

Si, r*,ii'ir'., .

trtrI!

sn(h.i

'95'Lmhhdc us
^kEn
in
rhii
rln
rh
sscincd
.."t,r,rcur un dr. rr

1'''1",mrkcr urllcd

iiil",ii,,r*^
'",'*ir,y
":''i,tt
* I FBibkrm* oI dblishins
.'.,i5,"*
ii''t
BPc rtrctr D*rr$n\
lii".,J"ii* "ri""'.^-.,t'" Rh;dFir'.
be.,$nrlvi
h.J
ti it'i' ,i.". * lt'si"ncs $dcs ulsl sibs som{-of
iri
clp'r
".ii
,*y ua;ilc '
ri'or."i,
"i"*Dufus lnd
"'""iror7.
ow m

Drv'ds fr{ intiral ro lroro'h
mcnb.,.,ir'c BPt, "nJclns,n
iii"i*" "i'i-t,t,.,nJ o,\c'
in \'rrmh rr5' rnd
,i,
I
,ii-r,*i".,",i"i r,. ri'"
'oI nhcc
s cmp'n) nus
L*hhalc
ir! daidcd'lo so rhod r Rhod@

Oli

n ci mrll BPB
ui,. 't n" e."cmlruru$rnrLhL
Lic' 15 pq
,iIi *, *,. t-r..*^, r" p., ccnr r ,r G,r'um ltr'itr rtumsord
itir".q"iiy.l,r.' *.r..,r tc tr: mrltins h'ut n JchvRl
usr,t,,J r'"

t ,* *,h Dutrus. Ihrj h'Ll bc
i- . ir,"L"1,w ,
".,.gh, "',1crs:T roJ\h 'nd "rcdr((hii"'i
i";n
"t,i. it..;.poa I LG k' *o :tu-r r iullos":
tr,,tt'i"g,-".t
ifri. r.r,'iii.iao.
ii-ii.i'i*" inei- ,t" .pp*innv io Pur ro J c rb6' vc sh"ulil
i,i.i .ts i\c ;&cJ eund rh' drclJ ir
ii-.,"t* ""i
"^,'i""'"tit
"wli'
..'.'t",. o.,_ \fri€n ''Uh$ I imllr $rJ
'*_*
"i"
ftrL
br n'
xr'r
i*;ii,*"., u.,"* "ur tuo omnrnisr"
it",i.i' "iir,"'.
ii* * i.rri*.a tr r..,t *soutiom k?ming r r$ sek' l''6
htheU('
msln lxnd ro'dP rd-

oNi'lloni hrlpl
ii'r'.i-""r*,"
u.",.t *rbrfr, papcr iuchinc rnd $nr ot rhe
r.,i-i,.i* ." a""*".'*.
rh*
i "s ,at Posiblc ro rpccd upr)urr'
-i,.ini"e ao,n."'s,."0
N'mbs d'rcil'
a*r"""i,.',"t'. 'tri, nt.*,ho orci.
a"a
d""u"rllqts $e* sa 'nc no'p'
' "r'tc'
"i"r:"r-".*a.
i,,n""r.^.h-d. rn rhc6 snri< m''rmdcd
ii-"I'.,ri;,JD'rrnnc to nuk n,r,rrs ld bo''d
iil*iii^ i^"'t,. *i.r,*!d
i-.i .i*i".*,ia ii'* ,:,p.* d quJr J rn'.r . d mu(r, ;k r.r )P"'J
li$i.'m
ii'"'.i".,r'," *,t'." -i"-nonjl' . or m,+i''t'h'
rd
$hniqus
*-"a ,i.i "o *tt ". *p r.nmrd ; FI'crruUDs
:aJJJ
ihc
rbour
unlv
n"';ii.'" ,',, ,t" n." m,ll In smtl.,rd ',iJ,
;,r,irr:",r,. *.U.. *" tl- *s mc' ood ulfo'ming 1r\eor ofPrpo'
ft hopd 'nd
#ii. r.r.. r -.1'i* *"a ,p in '9o' d h s iNihcd
rhc
e'h
1076'hn
ln
.+.", ";*."a' u "*r -; ib;.im{ion.

89

rochin. wii sucsfully ort nd.d Md

I

nos

rqlftq

Dh.r.

r

td

Iin$!r ri nrrtlt hio l|lo!* ro ftf{ Fr nonr.
Mc ni'lli rlt orllcr lirh oi lll'll'r DDcr l|lout wcrc no' nrirtr
ft{rloc(d rnd lbdrtiy nr D riculu $ns bqtiturirg b trfllL its {try r,r
b{.ontug, a1n is nos, ond ol'rh.l6dcs ir rltr lElxr scl itul'Nrl
Ahn'l\nEr, rtumnigirsdn$!tr, ind his r.a olcnrln6iisN hnilr ut,
ovcr rhe yes i closc liiiHnr sidr r Gcrmrtr drpiry whosNciLrliNr i[
lhc mrnutrctuc ol sck-mlkirg nrchincry lnd b{rwccn rhco rh(y

srhl

quitc rcvolutiorry id6 i,r mcrlnls ol mnur'i(r.
DioneEd
Md of th6c hNc hen outssndinsly sucBsful ind rlbsriy dri[
todiy, sid) istilimtioq thrt tlEir ,runolicxtring ptucrs i\ nrnc InlLy
aurouEd rhi! thd of.ny othf scl m.kr in lnc wond. 'l hc orlw
onvdinp @mponis.re di*u$d b'c in ihL clup.cr.
It my still$cn nthc! siang€ rlMt tnc mrilsurtlicr of IiNr li'r rhi

plastuboardi'ictoiesisruckcd. 0yintliscomFativdyrcm.tu.or'(
or Scotlind, bu tlmld l'@n, {ho 6@ne matuging dndor oa rl'r
Dr. ds R/dclioi.Crcup i1 969, oys,'Wc hltc rr s novql uur nrir'
opdtion fron horc 6c6usc vc [Nr built trt I prerty odicicDt unit hi!(
god mln,gencnt "l,ov-hoB" ind gpod opclltos. W. do h.vc dill'oiti6 olou* siG Enspnr lrom oN to ne.5 .hc @thcr is kr
alft)s ncbfnl. Thm h6, nr fact, bEn no buk in co'trmuniciti{ms hy
woithc! {hi.n I.s €Bcd sdioN dimculti6, rnd to oflset drc rclitivcl,
hish @ts oa hispdr, Bc ja niw to bc 1bov. lva.gt .frcic( in thr
mr of rlE op.ntim. But one ofthc n in dvrntls6 Ica ir tnc ivril
atlc ind loyrl labour aorcc, the quality ol {lich h6 rlMys 6en qccpdo"alt high. Natuoun wc hare orr llsumcnts a.on ti c ro tifrc btrri irr
1 iim of aisis, dcryonc otrGncd tqls rirclBly vitlont (g.rd (,
houls o. sleA utrtil things !rc bacl to nomil.'
Pcrhips ihe sccret of thc su(]s of MugidlB !nd.r tho Div s,r
fsily, whoe rollcd its dstiiiB for e mty yd\ Ii6 io thc words ol'
thc old dmr:'lf I i.d my [re i]l ov6 igrin, I rvdld wU righr ir lhs
r

P.Fmrling is r cnfr &r Jl:o cB had wml enrri6 in rh(
-o h-*6' of EnsL d 'lhc 5^r ,cm{ ofr piper mill rn Lrnorhtr.

Tnc Bnry ad R0ddilrc ds, to thc lorth of Mrn
clE t(, h"s sen thc op.nins of no fry6 ih.n 25 mius sioce !6 . Th.ic
N sdll 14 wling md, in .n .g mly zbout cisht nilce br 6!. nil6,
tncy fo.m one oathc hBvic* onconknio,s olplpq hills in the suntiyScEnI &dH havc podued rhG situ{ion, The miur re clo$ to
rtc old srM milh thit glv€ thm lhc nv MtEi.l Id ,[ d. i8in,l
lopd th.t ws prcdua{ by h.nd in sn.I pl.Dls in rhc nlion. I hs. sas

drt6 tom

1617,

q{1, rh' h(r
.hund..t Nnnlv ot qE .nd fu.l in rh. lirm of
'
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orn rlll n'
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r'(irhrNtrrh
ilili:i'"ii. "ii ,i'i*,it'" t*t"*itrr Rooruu';,
hrrin nr rn
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tn

d

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iiil,i iiiiiiin"ii ;i.t'i.t'
o,i h, BPB r-iaor G i3
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Rdclmc ','kcn

Ffl or,h; D$id$n

" 9'f'* 91,:yi1:l'::
m is
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t'"."s b..n'ound'd in rets' rb oJhs
+" *., 't'"
r" ",t*.

fiirirri*..*ii

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oucr, drio6 rrom

o(
n, null i.,l$ri,l ,@n. .n t t.s,lddins isimcni
n is eren mNjoned m rhc
lfirri" ""4 ' r""c i"a"xna*' hiroD
(ry"muh
p or rhc ormuli.rhe
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h thc
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or
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recordca

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't

r

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\"on

rhe prcsc

n

wi6

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paPe! tudr

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Bs

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-j
bv;s su arrcd Pipc Mirr
i".liii.t*-iii. "C'*
"rtd;,6
usi d o.s\ rhc ri.kc'rh
f;;; i {i;;. +d s-*'i\crv
6rruv. r
,lliii *l i'. "*L. , tr"'.t'i"s so.G, a(htsmrr pin*Gt'c'o'r'
@ *a G
Uanrrupt. Dud.g
rr.r
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i
brn
i;P66
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#ft.;;;;
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shi"l
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ffii,,-..iirL" J*t.,.,

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d oscBir'
- i.-,li ndmc
1* -"*- q up shop on th' sirc in'ooe'nd
-*"",t
i'
thc ourb@r or
d;;;;r;'"; i; ,o';. rh"' 'ne v;r'
"'i,h
"'r'
rclr
mbns
lhs
paPer mils
o6id€rcd

fd
i i*nJ "r,i il"i" *",*'.'v
M""h or n qmc rm
;;-ii;;a,r'i -,* [ng roi;p;nc'r'
*' "wi*.lv sioP. At dr' cod o' 'q'a rhre
trJ'"',. ir,1

;n .nir.nrn "'ol
ds,muelN6biLJohnR.scddonridAinoldc'wrrF]
iir'. rj,,ilii.. il1i"" u-t"*t"-t ;1, au dincmdv enncdcd sirh the
Pdpq rvlill co'
ii*i.C". .."","""t.. *a r;cd &c R dali0.
NGrir
'or'rnnic'
tTJ uii*ii ir,. Ji*SJ -in, "t"ns $,rh an 8t,,ndr
i Lrnci'h'n
iLi,"i. i ii":i,iiii".*t',i'., ,*"c rotsry du€'ns andr9's'
w
bo,ls.'fi. (m;-t *s inorpomrcd in ltbrurt
"Fnn
$.,t6 ${e itrdlcd, tlotrs $irn a sram rcPledogcngrac

hrBlIjly.trfis^

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-m r .2o r.b - ,glc r ,JD,hie"iLh(+JrrcT,"m-(:,
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f
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rn prp- rur'ns u ir i.ro r Lr-t p.Tr m,hi e thl.,Bm[

J

lfrol cni.y lnto rho ,ntrlri.vrr lriDdbo0d lndn,try.
. rlN, lhc rn{ Nq nirl r{trri,,utrits#rtrr n

(

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d i.rrF,trri,n.
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hh.tr.( tr t,.r, \('iJor
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'
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thc miyurcst
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WIlh rlrc Srcn,l \4o'U n, ih,
lon.,nLolq op('ario
'red
',
rn,.4rrhe{Jrto.thctrnilo
Iuftrcruriris mlcrirl ld _h. $,
I,.'.1
ll'! irc'm trhnrl( trJ" rho{r by ,1"
hon r s . , iiHr:d
!,n. 'fhc nill *6 disruptcd $rcr.I tin6 duins tle rvd, one whcn a
rior firc bm(. ou rhc nq $o'c. A'o'hc ,'me \8" ste., a biBce
.llmn h'o(-ln. r'"mt Doorinss xrd bktrc pn,r' alcd
ro\ci-

l,l,

*

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Ti {

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r

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Gi

In to4r, Arnold Wilby dicd.nd ms fldccdcd
0. Wlby, rnen reNins in tlre aflny aod tno{n up
.r M0ior Wilby, or noie comno y'TlE Mrior.
Towr,l\ o, nd " rhe qr r.rre q,s J rho.rgr or .'r.s..E
'' n,il'.b rJ ro, .e.rrs,f r r rl'('r'.,. 1,'. {
m.tqiak. so'h.
rpcd
vc.y snonly afu. the e.d ofthe ur, !s it ms found that thc cfilucnt lron
lhc cinw digsii.g drnt Mi in the vords ol rnc Rhcs Dodd, 'cqual
to tlE rohl pouutio.led offie City olLondon'. Thc $oncn vno nid
ryod€d in t]lc mill dudng the wE Rerepaidofas thc ncn cimo hone,
In thc .utumn ol 1947, thc chaiftrn, John SeddoD, who had ben dse
ciotod sith th€ comp Iy si,u ia aorn tio!, died, .nd Mijor wilhy bcc.he chairmu !s rell $ min,sins diftctor,
In r95o th€ @nprry.cquncd ihe L6mxx Bank Mill ar Lirtlc Lcvc.
This vs to be tnown s thc No. 2 bill. Oddly cnoush, thc N[ vas
houghi fron BPB, which h.d acquircd r ?listorbord matins concern
(Plizhond) connetcd with it.
The Litdc Lever site dfts bick to r8r4. Shnding risht hsidc thc
Bliclshiw B.ook, itout hall r milc frcm Little Lser. thc nilt had
.lEngcd owndship evenl tim6 rhrcugh the ninetentn entuy. The
stitc on uhic! n stood ryas Lonw Fold. ,{ lanily housc tuilt on

thcchR
lhc honc

x borrrbesinni6ol .h.nnoFr" i.,',.1 ,,oU.en
o''!.W'lbJ r"m'lr ro..ometer^phc1d.' il "-. r.1

The mrl. rrJ been m. tun',.d ibu, hlll-.q. rhrou h rl. e..trJ
B, -8oo n belon.ed ro o. H.n'J \\llrin.on'., p**a .o ti. -^
Thoms Jnd Rrh-rd in r87o. l' lrd u." ?-jn..r inrlhinc, \l i, h ",.
producins ghzed lnd m,mon 6io{ns. This machinc h $id to hNc
6en in {tnt is n u dE hasr.fi

y|

Ily toor rh.. rf rofrfi.mlllsd{ori,.r!eet.ov$rhos
,
I rrh (citrry, rrcn\ivc lci i,N w(c trnJc. Srru.l N$hr,
"hD
llrJ lRtr,runultrurKr, 'naiFncJ n'
ir" h \l'itt,J
,d ri\lLl,' , R,',l r[c. I rqio \r'rrt.h,i'dr,I
y{
tl({il(.| h'
ut' r n,l}n'Fv
rx'v. PIrh,n,tl, h Drtr NnJ.'1,'.f,,I, , rl I nrw hurlJiIu tr,,. f r
.'t',' l.rrl,.Lr\t'. l o.r.r. r.v..rcs ,
vrn.t; L.n lt,r
pild nrhir. 4rd rwo scs -hinil L ',{letirLt(^
ushnc boit.B ki,licd rtr

r9ls,rh.l,l,lx'ndutrn $ r, t, \r,l ,j,,\ r
trpc'mJ(irc yJL D'i.F.t'i"n.,,,t
Orlrl DnB hd rllo r-quir(J. hy hhng v(r \.JcFnn'. tuu.tril t,l'
one'nin Manrlero.'hc :o Fr\cnrhoUi'E'1 RrLttitlu trri M,[
rh{ Andeen hrd houshr $mc yeubtr.'c.
whm Rrddift
or.r rhc p,p€r s c in ro\o, rlry ({c,d!J
'oot
'tr,
prpcr n rl nchuusc
romi\c rtuT tor nrdcd.Jiis hi,luh.Tti r.,tr
rrt5srwrheinnrlhLiotrotrhyJ rnul0{ritLnrfuLcrcr.
McJntrhi.e. hrl ir RrJcli(., ir .qio, rc mo,"J4rq.y.indc^ *-,
idJRl ro th. Nn' mi!hin., n:linE r snnd ro'uJ ot r,]r'l so rt.,,\
ln.r, r emJ h!'dnNlpcr $rs.d.Ld R (trfic.In Seiimhs;rr,r,
v,np.ry "ufi.ni . &vcrc Ulo* br rhc
irsilunD. ,,..t
'l-c
'lo'\ ". by hi mtr.ir,
nrrl.Jins dir.iror.
V:rcr W,lby. Hc u,F $@c,trJ
BPD boL ovcr

irr lodr

Jifrr\

bir

WilUNn\

DIrl, kcpr on

rn

rlr

Witby.

On
BPA purhdd rhc 16r ot itc,hr( ,:n it,i
'l tuNr".yeB
'941, Lh, Rrd(lifrcekhEr,l ic hllracnrun't't,t
R Jclifcand
nriFitrrl JUly lllodufti,n ol rhaut :,mo bn\ h.d s.nn h ;qr,l
.omnund8o.o@-.r.
65.000

lrhb:inegro"'

t. .hi$mcr,i,d,rt,.

irhl g.uindnMrsc.'o..h.hui.dir!6!h-Jcxl:ndcd t.omohou.,,5@

srlurrc rAl
rO's. ro rbour 160,@sqdJE t(r rn ro{,r.'l
'n
nIl.nd in Rrdchffc,
o\kd rnd *ncd br rhc

h

roul rn.r

*De;] h infr,c,t

kd.i8c l,rpcr V.l. lrtc l)rv'd.on\. noq oniirc four p.,.-, ,
r,.,rrFbor.J nr.hin. bur b.mus d rhi rur;i hcir Drodud, rtr.t
(hcir rurLcq hrrl ouDut is only :hour ula lh ol uuc,;rN
T{o onMing 6mDenj.\ ltu! r ssr n,n.i 6mdnv onc un,](
thc

Ridclilt hr.nu.

X-Jchflc PrN-Tuhsq(o.:si rllJ r su[.i'li,yconDrnr o. Dril
sotr\, qho hlJ r(ql:md ir ijr roa7. h
in ihr t;d u ,r bm r
"ntrrs
prF€! MiU'Th( omprtr\,
etrilc 1l'_rignt.cr offi ro RrJ.liRe
tmen odsinJ[y 6 the Ch,u Union r4i[; mdc d,Jb&rJ ;,
Rt rpMf pq,cu, bild roth lnd spiElly Mund entbord tubs ann
contiins, G.idu.Uy, an othcr lotirirics serc drcpped rnd tltc conrpDl
mncork d on dE manurlcnne oa spimlly v.und and snight Munt

9l

xr+o--h min!(;
dqmri r',Brr:n.1lp"r!ii

trrrt!

Iilhr.n;'rL'i,qlsuGlr...r ii
R.chJnr N r'. urmItun.

i'nn.ry.nddr..

l!lL]lIi!rL'will|0s:$11}91!((ri)

rai)(,! i r{r!\)

ii$xl$un u

I

,U

I'n r tr'nlri,nJ" ,l'i'rl'aF,'l F rt-^d r1J
.,r. nr,i. r. i, r,,l(..!,. r, tr tri.rl,.
u,,n +
lllitlc. !|Mn rhc l)ivnlsn, li clillc (irorf rrN Jiirtrrc,l

s.'lhr,r ruhs r.r.\(l

(i',r(.

su(
rr
t
hrxr
! n'ri.r

I

In r045, likuillc l'rNr'lirlN { o o ol'rIc iimrbrr c0nmni!\ bur
lldr ot'dnriors $q. N, (ill!.onr lion, rh! orlu .onrFrics in tlrc
r,AJ,.i.r,rLrl'."1i() }li' trl,l!on,( t n'.1.
Dc(kr{.trs,Lv.{,,"
'r
'
ittcr i,r',,1 !ii',,,,1'.'rlrrhLill'r.
nro. o,rd\, r im, \ u' h Nhi Lrrbo,r
cnlEhnkr!m trjt$.R ar r;doNd

ln"ill l'rod!.h hitl ber ftirncd br tso bDthqs, J@ rnd Eri.
lltudhtrry. xtrn Fnhcctt ill kiNls oi r'lncy o,vosl lnd sh?pcd 6o\cs.
Ir

rhu lnrc

rgjd,

rLc

Rrd.lillc Bond

and

thcBrldbury brcthe$ docidcd

!rdlolic ch i ncv,cnnrc, to hc cilled ihe Consletin u.dd Co. Lr
ordcr h lituNc rldr prd ot the new renturc, the lrxdhuy brotl.6
mldr50r(ccnrsircofBox loRrd.lillc.'lheConglctonBoddCo.
rd prcd-.eJ I'0. J r, rh',\l, jrr(r
rl]t(i,'n J i' h",

l1|..t,cron'nT hi .J'd i. hoIJ li cd
oi. '5.
'rrJc
*irli.'ior.prpq'.lorL'c,nrlel,Jn'.[ri'g'J d\."''irdu*rics. Thcy ile nov one oathe lexdi.g lroduccrs nr the coutry oi
lvixcd l nnrikd bords for deie*ent rn,l food eitons. Joc ludbury
diLd ind, nr Mrrch 1968, lii. retircd rtul sold ihc ftnly tueiests to
Rddclific. A chansc ii nre lxttern ol la.kiging nudc it nee$rry to
rlmn,rn

dos dosn lox.ll rt ConsktD in
octivniG io Landor

C

1972

ind tmsfcr iE nore prolitable

tnrs.

J. AnNMrth & Co. (Bolioi) ws srtd in rD, Iy Joh. Ain:
wonh ind his lorcelul iili M?r, lrtcr to bccom Lrdy Nlayor oi lolton.
It ms ! e*c prper .ompxnL coll.cdng r.d tr.cc$iog $6te iruo ill
rt{elling it 1o pr r rd houd milh. Radclifie
ovcr thc counhy
'n,l nnp. ini .unonrs ud lud qs h i su]}
wls onc oaineir no$
shntirl sh?rno[ing ih th. coq) ry. Ir April r97o, RrdcliFc *dc
offcrd ]nd toughl thc An$worth fanily drares, so it is noR r sholly
o{ned inJ very succ.sf{l srbsidirry.
Lrndor cMoN is r oopr'ltircly mode.n d$clopncnt but its
roos 1rc lons. Thc nlne came into use in rqa, but xU thc four oN
0mics thr *crc nersed to rorm r,andor ditc b,cl rt Lx$ io itrc nrn
of rhc ccDtrry. L.ndor Epr$ena rhe nnding .r on dirision ol thc
Drvidson Rldclire Gruuf rnd compriscs Jcdn6 r.d Gill orlirmirslrin, dre Brihnnii tddi,rg Bo{ Ci. olLo.don, rlr old E. G. Smnh
bnsiires *lich hid moved aron Dfivich to Eritl\ and the c ion md
printins dep.frment oi C. D idson & SoN r Nhgicno$.
Jenner rnd Gill Ms fomcd h rq49 fron J. 1V. Gill & So.s) crrton
9S

ind onlhoffil hor mrhEt rnd J.nM !. c.!., hhol ldnhfl, J. w.
Girl & soN wei fi,unJc,l in lr'irninxl[tr i[ !ri76 hy ldr wliin,
Cill.rrxnl(h Mdl! ii rllo qN fnfl lni*bl. shcB l!. h llN rtr
vcr!((r i1 u rl rl'r l,{trr'$\ trnrirx lq un(trh nl I.,. S. & \
'
R.'hnv,n (,'lru y h.F( rh, ntrr hur nrl\r,l (trrly !, b , u otrr,,t
rhc I'iFsst printifl riJ 6'r,n ltrms r rl( rxNfr) Oill unsirlh
!md!&d johbins l)rn iry i.d ir qs qri .n ir rlrc bick n ol .'
liilttc fiousc Likc nr ry otbu l]irnrnuhm husirts{ncn, tu bccrrr
inrercann,n.nhs6.lJs.rproJ (ri,tr'-s,,.hr\rhcrh$insbiqrlu. nl
e.lc r6\ory indNirs rhouFh rh6c orxHrion\ diJ nor tmtu
J. W, Gill's cld6t son, Wllirm Vilcntinc cill, Qnrc into rlr l$irrs
Md tDdd lis oltorts pmgrs ms m cj unril r movc into l.rs.r sor(!
Ms Dde necsry. Thc bu'ld'ng chu{cn $rs in Lu\.dry sr,{.
Bnminghrm.ind hdrrco hurh,r rx4r b) rhcChdiir. $hotDd hnr
dcnisd rh, -\c olLh.'Io\h PJllli.r rl'cir trlc(rir 8.. Gill. ,r(J i ,,I
'
in roo:an,i n Lrc.hdrr" lno\r r\ Lnc P$ple! lLllso'L\
At lbor th. tim ol rhe mIc, .h. mltrny *ftd b dc$lop dRl
bord cidons. Foldi.g c0rtds ftlc becofrirs nore rnd mor. popuh'
bodt ftcre md on dte Coniircnt- Prcliously, the mrlct had b$nsovd
bJ riEid bo\6 G l hrd mrd. lnnrcd dc6 ror rh. nsid bdc{
W'lli:m Vilcnnn.Gill

ial bcnt.
b,trift.\

ss

Lry

flnis!run qrni

nronEnrLh, -

tlr

ID nddition to hcnrg lirgcly iesFDsi6le for fie runDiug of
hc aLn de\clol.d r ruchbe tor bninmg hnJi6 rnJ p{f,'

ind rmrher for @nbs Eds ol ordherd
sh(6 Thc sor\ l[,.
mny buildings of the snc ptriod, o,si*.d'nro
of i t Nctneni, . 6Ft noor
Thc bBincs d*lop.d s th{ rh. grlldiG had io be n*d for pG
du.tion. Sonc lir.nt mdi!.ry }as insklld, tnougb dl mw dlrcrials
acr.ceieau!rndtheliiishcdworkcdricd doMhylmid. In rr29 30,
{hcn thc aoundcls griodson, C. W. Gill j.incd inc 6m, iddnnnrl
0m slre hr rqtrn.d n.tt aw and .n claEic lifi {5 ichllcd.
GEdurlly thc jobbing printing *$ dccMsed md rhe nrn conon
rakJ on ,olJ:rE d r^nr. l4or ph m, rqumd lnd Jn lgFrc$.r
el6 tElict pu6*d, so lh d onl, did rhc @Dprny senc rh.,m(
dn(c r@ $hich hd sn ,n c.r@c srNih rn rnDoncnrs J'l

n'hc.rrti!lcqoisnlld.iztrhi rtr(cdd;rn io-aoin,.k,ging tiu.
rho ollic industi.l n6s, including London. During tnis pcrio<l ol'
gto{h, nucy E ploughed b.d into the brsics ro'c hish I dcsR
a p6ibk (no noney vs boro"ld r anr tinc) rnd {ncn of dru oldo
sN &pliced. tie nranmr ol 8loyth rvas on ly nnFdcd by dtc
besi.ning ofthc 1939 {5 mL
ln ro$. Willhm sh.* had ioind tn. film. Ak[oud n noalcb,c
eq

96

u

ip Ncn t

lltirrl *0 tlill uis.irly tuluid ld
drup,, ulrtrnl dsinP\ d(. ind *'m L,r OorMuEnr
tnr (nai'r cftnr,

n

lot3, tr lrFydHl.l hor, sho lrd hccn disnritscd
. mlidcmm ;;. {' rni x'rrh torrs.'l'hc oltl li.rtrv hJrncJ
.nd in !1,'( rhrN loda rlr hul( orttr buruins lnd nruch ol
i hld ho,lcr. Ahh shrln\tr-.r,r,,ib.eoloq bunn6{us
on r m r w rL B$ l'ri,icJ out r"J !,m( sconLl'hrnd mr hin$)
ulid rnd iN.lhd in thc *o*s oajenM & Co.
rh. nd ol rlrc Mr cinc ilt druntins Drosper of Ebuildins.
thhrn{ dDNihlc'ob.ryl.l r'\ d . omhrnc d. Nn ULs"lhds .k ni;. ,,1 J.rmr & ArU. Thc ri6id hd Ploduom
iounrl un. Mucl,.lrhi pnnung pb oul,! t u*d cqEllv scU
Elntins cirh( 'o.r ry lJbels. lrny ot rhr old cr d- 1{omr'
iihlr"rn.t nunr.t, ," trret t *.mc. rscd cnoo, 'o rl' mrrus"

dk oi Ir

;dig in ,oas -iih 1b.u'
.lldri-c,l rnJ i{p} dcd

e

onplorc6 rhc amPr) sridu'll)
t95o,'l P'inrins*.'hv

onset h(ha d.n{rmcn(
tnc'rii.ni6.l,ph

hlg

ind
Ms
'ddcJ
Mr'ny's adiviiis msidcablv. Furrho
ncnr oi rhc-oflet lirho iintins sidc fouwed, tostthd wnh
cxpinsion nntil, in t963, ;ver 3oo enployes reoc ruking r'r
MF;y, *hith hid p.oiB s'.h flmr spae of rtuund r@'@
rhcn rr ih{
*d.n;d rh. spc ol tbc

jn
a
vqr,,ftr
i;ntrci & Gill joined BIB ANI.I963 Th€ re* &
qdc
G'll
ink'6ri
,B 66n
Oriuo tlei,ion ti,
l"nnd
^rn.ldorls
itr t ndd Sret Bn'n'nshrm' Thc
tttmil in@ dt nimr
aouD\ !6ou,dm'Je iI nNibk ro rur i'b.fd Ihe 4mI v''rlins
tu JuB:o r i. ' .;DJmti\di s\o ' poriod. rnds mc uslous
\inu.llv
i;;hiD ol w'llih shr; -d w;le, Gill, th. mFn,
(ftn
com_
owins
lr hkd ii volumc uf nlinut rnd beqdc h. I stB!+,
h.
hnv'nrhcmulkv lr robTitqrd€idcdronrDrPtrdrdL CmuPi
I

i'.,i,. i"..*s

-" *."

rhis lcd .o !h. ro' mruo" or Llndor
"nd
The BnunnE [o]diis Ddv Co. n1 the Old Ford r!$ ol Londo '
Mr bcl'N.d b bc rhe old6_ ctrhn-mrhng co-cdn in th'.ounbv'
Oriri llv BbblisM.\ I W. Pdmcnrfl & Corn 1889. itsrmwere
mia .i rn -,n,ne on of bsin6 s n,nurrtulcF ,trd sll6 or
6d.d. 6rdb@ J.;o;d or D,rr hnx$, r.€l.n6, c'-. Th.y norc J'o
irliot*tc,.a *rrit.uuonci" s tlr I'liltinsrnd bmk-bindng bulins
rtu hcd. The diFn.l Bm(u sm ! qrup.f Amcirqns who om" ro
Bnbin i1 hr dr'ij ' o. i, tr\ ro $U I rrcfilnc sli"h nould ot n'It

"i,1.

tLm ihrlur rhr N,w,\ tru d$rh lin,l rh nws$rhr
lntiNlh{rn, rF,1.N, d . M.'r'( .$.I)r.rl.,d.li ll,trl
lllI!.I ins,l.N, c r [{'x.i a\,n' ^ I(,a s r,J"'.c r.i
|tl$cr h(q(, r1,( r" , Wdl,l w'ri ir'y |,,'ih nf r - {trllr..F
vrnullcrr rh \hi.l'.r'(J. rhr ixin.l,rrlinrn J.. A r.cr
llu ws ({,rlonl rii' ,l n \rro.1,{'D,r.J.ai'..'.,nnns i,, .r(r
lhonnlr irh{ |."J .Ftr.\.r, JcJro. .lu,lcr]rcncnH \tc
trrhNrloon$nu. 'l h hrrkct tor hctrly conriin s did not dcvelop
y ,niihnlil, c{,n, .i irc trorrl.{r.r ol S.o'
r1d '\"-ts
'no
ldul -uu e'trllcri,nc r'|tr to,nour"l,.L's.. ''s.rJ i
I frrtho sonth, thcy vdc ol cousc, chshins wth ihe Grtcshcrd

{K(* itr rhi' ricld. llkj rtilrd rlBir tr rinc!,
!'1lh,ur!lt,{( 1.rhnrlir r,rri rl'ron,t'.,ny(l .'ll(l \ . rrL,
tlt Nrrid,xl lddirg lru(i,
l .r h rlu&!n. y.rr ii strsohtrtr$l
irlh b rhc lrritinnix li,ldnrg lri'x (n.
StcnJy pn,sus us Ndc nnril ,9r9, wl!tr n {s iiltctr Dvu l,y rll
prpcr o.c , chrls lrikci rnn iliur thc cnd ol'rM rrr4 r8 \r
itr h.
(u'

{. Il.NitrF lirrlc

it tr6 dc.idod tbrt ro.otuNny slu li coNnt conrMnr nrli.rrr
of aolding critons rnd dissndruc ns nruliadrousorlw idivnics.'l[.
conliny son bo&nc on oa thc bctcdno*n crro. nrinuli0rr nrs

I| r94o, thc fictory \vs b ltdimagcdbybonrbinslndDNcholrlr
pld.. ws d..r'olco i. on( O.ob( nrg... rh ).r''lrnli,'.'J't1."
vere m c to tho buildnrg aDd the mchines nhidr Rrc shrscJ ll un
the wcckage rere soon in production aslin. Obvious!. .ntput trs on tr
DuchEducedsolelndthisshteoi liirscontinued until itMsposil,n
io lesin reblildios rt&r dE ord of tne war. By !9i2, n htlc progr$s
had ben mde.nd, i. 196r, Britunil wde bnrcnt by DPB. Adjoiri (
remis.s $se purcn*ed xnd tumou Fdv slowly but sureU tns'rlr
the brget ol Ir millio. Ier rnnnn. But cconomic conditions nr
h
London ir$ trerc diLing n noio and morc di6c t aor tron ni crs'hr
rhiove \vo.th\vhile pro6t lnd in r97o ir rvf dccidcd to sll thc oltl
Fold tiol'dry and co..onhrc mdon,nrNtuctorc in rhe Landor Sncd
plant in Dirninghid, trhde lhdc vns mrlc space rihbl€ li,r eiprF
h.

C h.

(Bo\ \'b1.,) " h ore oi ,hr

tN ,o ri'r t , *

p.rics plichlscd' by Dalidson's rfter dE 1939 45 rr,'I hey \1crc1n rll
e$rblisbcd 6m, hrring begun 6 0rinters in 1864. 'thoy nou lnl
prerncs in thc LindoD .ia d l{thm lnd coNerted r usanl tnnrxF.
of the qu ities of bmrd then mdeat Musiemds to yIidtrs typcs ol
contai.ers. inclldiqs,iuii baskct, Crdbold lytc aruit b6kcs rcrc r
n$v delelopmelt nr pachgins.nd !t H. G. Snith tlty dcrclopcd r
l'& \ r
\,, u'J b..t.. It. rhur -\ n; r;.c.
alJp
'\e,rpeand eE.ted"h"
in ! ouplo ol noncnrs bcforc 6lling.'Ih(
dsl oasplce,
d*ign inorpdrted the ur ol a trTo ol likx *hich *icks to itsclf bu
dEs not siicl{ 10 ! pl,inNIlx&. The Nc ol lrtcr bccmrc onc of tlE Dx}r
inpon^ni dcvclolncnt nt thc I L G. Smith C,nprny md sls thc bnn,
cllnd ofAithur M. Iermck, vho bec nc scncral manryq, fqv yc :
.ftd D.lidson's tool ovo. Thc fxctory Peckhln v$ in i rcsidcntirl
fuk md hcn,ncd in on iil fonr sidcs. As extcnsion *!s qunc inposihlc,
ir ms docidcd 10 build x ncw lNdory in . mmer oi tbc B?B snc rt lrrnn
ild thc ,norc rh.rc ms.onplctcd nr i95S. 'Ihis pllnt still oFrrt.s
flccsstully ns thc Eritb Bnncn or Iindo! Crtons.
98

t, It sis d0cidcd to ccise conriincr prcduc.ion at Nlugicnos,nd
E nrc or o ons md job pintirs. tu Ms nltuml. therfore, th
I hMor Grtons 16 lbrned in 1967, ihis dctdtncnt oa ltugic

rhould bc iNorponted in thc new dnision.
bc $cn froor vhrt 16 becn \vrnicn clrlicr in this .nxptd lnat,
itu P..i'g
rr+5, borh DaL d.on :anJ Rd.l'{e I'o \rc r t n"
'
qt
i'pu"o
flpa.L.g...o
rl
L
J
in
cotr\c,nLp-'r
o
lni.
f
Rdclirc 6c.amc r nc.rbcr olBI!. tlc
llo octu ofvnious kinds. AIic.
alru don bcome soneshit dmplcx ind to avoid a clal ol intcr6s,
Itv s deidcd in 1965 to forn tnc Diddson Rrdcliffc Group which
orgrni*d into liyc dnisions. As sdl as C. D.vidson & Sons d
,iftc Plpo Mill Co., &dc {crc r Cnnuinr Dilision (Chambers
D.c dsins), i Cdton Dilisio. (L.ndoi Gnons), .nd . tard ?rodus
Div rion (Abuhy !ij,n Smrs).
r

vill

'fc''

h

{

ld

Chfuttrt

Pt.tqi,[

At thc etrd ofv.rld W,r lI, a vcry largc proponion ol ihc paDcrburd
Dm.lL.ed b\ x-.Jildc wi- ue.l iL tk nn na.rur. o, so d lih'c,"'l
ionrt'n"^ i,a r't, t,n- h'ec,. nnql. ru' on'c' " F R Li, u _ :,'.
of D6borough, North ns. Ir 1947, R.dc1i6e xnd Rigid Conhinc6
lg@d to trt r ncw joint voluro io thc Noith xnd r hctory was
lcquircd on rlo K'rkby lMu$liil li$rtc ncd Li\rcryool. A ncR compony ms fomcd, Rigid Conbinos {Lnrery.ol), tne shde epihl
bcing ovftd cqually by Radclilic lnd Risid (Jntlincs. 'l her \ue .onemcd only vitL the mlnnrrcturc ol solid libBberd conr.nrs aDd
mct oi rhe oisiul mrcnincry ms h.nsaoftd lron thc Dsl{rough
&dory. In ihc hfiies, corruB:tcd conrxincrs 6ogan ro makc lcry lirse
inrords inro {nrt h!,1 bcen rcgrrded a thc solid corunu 6cld. The
dw n si lor comgnlcd contrincs ome hrgc\ fion ov(s6 and
rs beconins lEihblc rt rcry snpcritive pricB. Thc RidcliEe mem
Bm'd trcrc.'.tr.o.,.oc0'e-ir L'u"'g
br'. o' rh Ltrr nuul

"mprny\

ri{ld htrr rh. l)slkr!tr1[h ,li'..nnr (rn
N rhcy htrr,s
'l h.tr,
.,rrt, i,,',r\ .tr ..i trt(.rri' rr i.r rl'. t'.t1r
i,t
rit.r.,,,.t,ti i,
-\.'"r

.1. $
i1t
,' J i,i\i .' tir" I r. L
'.-r.'l.i .h lr,Ll.l'i..
T(. Ir J.r.,'. .,n,..]I1.'r,
"rl .!tti..,i. rt,. 1. r,,,rt,
J ri,.l, i'.' tr, '1,. l.-r'r,, t,1.tr' .".,
nr.r.r, r.h
t.l
'1,J .,.irtr_,,.trl n
'.i t, .
li.['! ,'tr'ri'" . \1.n"-]r,.ll. \ ,irr' .|"
"-. r,.,.1.,1.,i,, . h{1..".r11r.,,Jtr'...1. t,,{[.'.. rti.,,', tr i..
l,

iii. 'rnr, ' \

,",,,'qLi:.,\
\,.u(1(i'l,i.li,.
,'r,.
\tr,rhltridh{cii,rt.nr,rLt
tlr
| ,r.?xJ.l:I ,t i'ql-ro'',
,,r(
\,
rlanh.\ d Cu ,r'lir.r, 0.r.o.,,',ir
\or r,,',,1r.,..,t
t,!t .i..\ !t,,
n-'n...ry,.'.!r 1.n\J' 1,.,,,,'..,, .r,. .t"rt,
iri(,
eDD'....n,.11iJ'o .' ! iC(jr,l..rl , nr'l t,c. J, ".. .t ,,,
(,'.'1.1r-. P,.(
q1.. .r D\'c,or.n.J.'rt.L',,'n\.. ,tr,,t
^r.!
.rL5 .\n, h..!1 p..l .t'., J.n'o r h trb r. l,'
1.'.
' ir,lL,o
" a,i
c. L('.o.Li.tJ o._fr,.. ',
,L.,,
ortrr,
'J
I Er'.",'r^
r..Dll\') i,,7,1'.d.
,rprp".o'. JLRo..; rD tr,,r'.n
-rrntr..'rtlr'
r".
rr ('rjTi,.L,,t..nrt..\\.,1"n(,..,. I
e.. ll..:
..
h. tr..L
. \..t ,ln-r,' .r._
\r'J,cno,,'1,,
t\.".'c\1
,o,.,i'r,
.,0,.. ,,i,Lrh'L,',,r
^,
.\
a'r, n'n.ar- tri' L
n . ..n ,\r. \r.,
.' -r n i .. -' ' - J."De..'
Jr. r!.'r,. !, '.td I r. \ ,1,r r \r fir

Lrser strh,trrr

i'.'c..iF.,,,\., r -,oa-.J14 r'. .. id r.c lro hr'r,,, .'t..
'o'J.r'.^o.r.4.'
h.
otr
^b.. ursr i.,J N 'ri,,t " h.]\f,cj
of, 'r.ro'.dIi. '.r
l,- ' J-.
\ri r'l
i..
.ooo qi-r t ' . r . o. ' , I a.',J.'..,orri.
.
r".c,orrt,,.',t
'
'
u'._o'r
a .. rd 1. ..1.,.. , ri me.(d
.' i'
o \rrL,\. ,.,,..
hcrd yere clo{d doyr in the siDc 'lf
ycxr but',,NottinghD run.,i,,.(
,

cnrnt on 2r Jnlr- r93s, J N.l)crbyshi'e hld nuch ro tcll DIB'S
NhircLoldcs. Aricr cotrs cQblc teahins ifouller, drc phster mill url
hond plint it lirifi $cre runnins satistuctorily !'olnnvins the mrlsrnrrion vith dre Goihin Clmpry, thc Gyrrsum llnrcs. tLDusb its
chiim r, l.ord !e\rer, hrd slggr(cd jonring t'orccs, xnd lll]l hxd

LctrJ -u'rq','.'i
el.- (.,r rl',u I 'h...,1 i.ir:r,
Ilcnry l\iftnxon, xnd rmling a.lt mnuficturo rhnug]r Bli.k*dk
od Nrdonil Loolings. \\'nh so rtrucL ro r{od, only d shod piflgrryli
vis dcloicd o tlL. httcr: "fte rcqnisition ofBhck\rcus ud NrtioMl
kmnrgs cniuc us to dcvclof i rcrv liFthc nwNhcturc rd distitrdon oi rooling fclts md drmpcouscs. Thcy Lrvc bccn long essbIishcd, iic {cll ud Ixlouirbly tno{n, xrd w. td src tlc busine$
is crp6lc ol onsidcmblc dcvllopDrcnt and cxpmsion. They are rlso
m.rlactures olRi\cn lliE.oboard.'

(

R,dn$,'rn ltl dLsrrrlxnnl m lorh n\ ( iro orrin ons NlRn
litrft(l lr rtrd i \ri(llhs kl rrhrrtt o ly c l,' rqtrid |.tr[rl'r
lr!rI n .rixhx'c di rilrrcd rlrr0trAh htrilllln'nr.rh s,
\\.rl''hN rl'nL\ ,,, n ,i,, Ln,{ntrt,'i.i',frh,
n(tr' ..,
l:'\r o,lDul,l h",{n..trFrlu,l n h,{h'tr,|N'ih lr 'l(\.
\.F rl'" !,{,t!
ri rl+, nh!l\,ll, !n,ll Lrlrr f',n Lr,F It,'t i rt,'.n'hi,i,.t.

r.. l.i i'i I'i.1q\1,f.1rr(t,{lrl,lr'll'. 1..tr.',,...
.l'1,Jvi, n (rr'l,rt\.. li,' lrl.. l'.r'r."s ,'r,,[r1.. tr,
,na v,f J \,,r lt. i. r.rjr,*
$,r nltr,!-rrJ $i'. ,ti,
",r
lLr.rrrc
l-i(, ,,.d md.h .rc(r
in
i1r t' .\ rJ"c, ( S,,,
'ui,r
lf, r:o JBr rh( hrn,.t D. \nJ.h,tr',\ S,n h.'s tnnd ir. (n14,.,
r:' ,).1, , rl'n

nn, nxtinq rh'. palud trhict, l,tc rl,'r,.\,.'d, tr u{ ktr..trtr 1r, .
or lAj u.kno{n ro illl,u ho bdldcr.'l}. b?sic ftNridrs ol rnrtrll
rul'hx.( br lr .',.tr1..J in |nn
.' (.r.u'J
'l
(nse
Dow loduc.s ? wholc
oa roofirg cornponenrs, flrn lish$ ,nrl
drflrt'-roolbumes, tlxn'gh rhc cmth$is is $ill \rI m$ch.o ns [irtr
minised rmfins ftli rn cconomiol, con\uic.r rnd tlcriblccor(nrg t',
nrnr didcrcnt lla or rd,t
'IIN lnundc' ul ,\r.0tr.1n\. '), rJ.\-J(ron. h,"rtr n..tr'. ,' L .

, u...rJ0tr r'J .tri' D,lr{n.r'r, He,oot'l.r',11. m.r
',.1
H!0d, ier thc rdJirnml syhl,ol of Ulsto.. Thc tfrde m kissillNrl
IhLr( $erc itr DriJ \rd,N",.. !.r .nerul .nnnr.'i\ ir llcl....
mrli"F ,Jrrd fli\ i[.: rlr! tud r rrir \upph ot rl,'\ rnu $, \{\
'r

cl,Fc r, rh.sh,pqrJ\ rhn llourhr mcr rlrt'riDrcdui h (\'!inrrtt. rt,.
lch \rxs used in rhc coNnction of.oppcFnoromcd \rmdcn shir\

Llvdsoll3ltwcrc6rcd he6vc.ntnc$oodx.d theconpcrd .s.
It is not kooxr lor co trtu \rhcn AtrdcN,n he$r sutplyi rE l'olts i,
rh. trilding h'dc. It is Iirobxble thrt ihc house bnitdcrs ottlc pui,trL
$u. lin,ihtr $rh rlK ,uLhniqR us,l itr hneFh\ r.Nnu.rrq
indu{rics in S€ nd nr\ir. 'I herc rhc n,,ls oa los €hi.s rc.c $crrJ
i. hlcrs ol silrcr bnch [i* belorc rhc rurlrdrl$6liid.!. TIis m,
\iLlrJ i nlirhl q. i ii'$.r. r-proqrr. titr'l'c' ii' I' h [r' ntr'ti t.
drc dnc oi the Criinc r Wrr, lffsc q r nics .l Atrdcryr fclt \ r
Lciirg shimcd our to t|u ur,!nc tu bc nscd in the rooli',s.rDilir \

In r8$, D,rid lndcen t@k his n,' J!m6 inro prn..rship. 'll(
.otr,t n\ rnter. r, hrc flou,' hed i[.^r ton''.. ir..].riun lIi
n hrd ro!', L' {r.r rn, \'crr rl,, \,dss,Iu,'.i{l r l..
'\.o,
iom u..,.!i I'u
l,',l
i.. J Tcnplcl.r i'. Url..r,,
'htr 1.d
' "ru J ll rj.. .r! Il- trr ,1.,,
ic . ,,nI I LnnJ I {f.-. t,r. .'
.\1r
AndcN,n died inrt[ hr. 1866, rnd rlt businss las uri.don hv h^
\on. l'h. Ldnn'rr. ijrn cr(TJnl. \\l'i1'Jrmc.trJ.d,,n dn.J
'; "tr

* rirrlsJrcrftqio(\nIircst
r mnsit'h!rrcv,kd j!,htrr0rs\
s (liLryins\). l rlrPlr(irtrr's,trd!

::i.',; =.:;a!

'. i '+i
.=-1--.-,

=a=112

:ra::=:

1: --!=

a.:-4.

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acqunilrhc .h,ft unnil r
rnJ,hu. ({(1'lul \
'ddN!
in tho ompdnnr nftld of ^nJcN(i!,
efing ,n[ hrntrf!.n&. tlusl' lrqrw
hemc thc chridhn. 1wo joint ronigi.e diNr,s wrc ilp'n eJ.
Thcy w.r Chflor Cxuch rnd Lcslic Rcid, Bnoic l'irhc.) \l]illii!,, nrl
retircd 6 ssiftnl mniging didtu ir1 r9lo. On IIuFh |crg!s{'l
deln in r9+7, Ch.rl6 Cullcn b.um. clEirmin sith Lsli. Rrii r\
mmgins didor. Ttu omhiMtiih oa Islic Rciil itrd ClDrlG (i'lh tr
\"s n good onc. Rcid ms Dorc prcducrioForicntitcd, whilc (;ullci nN
sllclo ent tcditusctherthcynridc.mu\tloiturrtL,{cu-bxhtuldtN'i
Llrrl6C{llcn hid b.cmc.snrn. ro rhc romndny's m'inc rr.nr n,
W6t Hmtlepol in ,9r r, wh€n hc s6 lhout 20, lnd hrcr novcrl n irl'
rhc igcnt to Londo! In r9t7 he bcemc the co,nplny's salo| rupi.:r L
btivc foi Sodind, erc hc stared u il 1928,In r9:8 hc flv,vcd r,
V-nchsb, trh6( hc bcehc 6snt ro me of the ,hctr mrn+tritr
diEro6. H€ dicd
a loor iU6 in rq(r. Ialie Rcid ioincd rlr
'fE
cdhp.ny in liclf6t in r9a ind le b@nc {orts Dnasq !1 lfitrclc{er 0t ihe end oa thit yed. l+ .etircd Gon ex.cutive dutns i'r d'.r
rah! I lons eEer durbs *hkh !e 6.d t cmone of lhe mct influcori:
{d 6p.el 6gnc in th. @Cng fch inddry. I6lie lcid's str,
Dcnir sd wiit thc cmpory lor nony ,aars .nd ned rc suces
sivdy n:iuging diKror and chdrnan.
Vhcn B?B bok ovcr AndcMn's, vnikt the gypsun depdiB lormd
! elublc lddition to thc omp.nt's rerrs, it ws aclt th an additioMl phsd mill .nd bmrd pl.nt seflcd no usctut purposc nr rl,(
Group, s tlc dont at Buntry ms closcd rnd disD.med, nuoh ol thr
qchinoy goins ro the Jqicho vo*s of Gtrtrrh,s n6r Nesilr.
Thc @, dich innrcdi cly follorcd thc.mlg.mtion, ftldc h$r
dero ds on thc company. In odundion with thc phstcrbmrd induerr,
lrye quntities ol conponenN consistiiE oa.ool lclt bonded o ph*d l,mrd $c( prodrccd aor humcnE. !!ct briqted bituninous sunicir(
E inforlued ld hnd;ns dnps a mllB Thc.detc€l imhlql (.cl
deding ,nd Tndnrold rluminiun ool dccking. To idd to tlc ltrUJtroti.n oblirB, dE adoiy w6 bmbed scvel tincs.
'Inc 6rly p6t-w. ttes wee ch.mdcised by ligh d.nEnd rn,t
shfrgG ofhoth sw midi s rnd fnisM p&lodr Gndeuy sppliG
rose to met dmdd md in thc middle tiftis intcnsq comFriiion \irh
ursiblc p.ics Jsclnpcd. Ande6ont nN michinc coning nm f',.

;i

h hon,!c,l t, rihrdLss inul'riun,.tr'l lmmrlk inrmdu.ri"nol
innsc or rurr^x .cirroun. *hnh {rbt,l irrd cl'im rhd.n
ln Ih
ncc.lrJ ro- r n1I
sr.rrl,ir
iitcd
'oot
196r?r rhc comnrny\ n'lcc ilmo{ doubl.J.

i

*",y.".s'y

r,i.

di'""ineuon, t0 m'ior ntududim lin'
-^'.I";bt;
cn rclE. b6ed on n( hbrc, irb6rc or sl's hbrc TLc
iflbr. rhrl rcnNnhsr rcu'{hblor.rnslifc..s fflicd rroin neF
i i.t.lir. t't-'; nor.ru.kd. rhen c@kd \trh bhmf ind
hal,nh J mn sricl rFfl. chsbkdsnd A nunrh$ot(6ne

t'r l;i"" ;
;i; bnu

n hivc l,En inhJued {nd rhne rF nN mnl difrctcnr bmrdson
[. Virinri.n., , , hc rlr,N hhntre. €eleldIns on rh. cosi"rcn'venro(
i bnum(n. !o L\ anod ls, tr,h ictuur nn rhoL. ro ner
e trher
rt prcdu.tim. on ( lricd sdding t, 'h.-lu€l climrt'de*lord
N. d,r or thc Mjddlc Ea$ tr of lehnd- A haltnv srde hd
pi!s,
Lih thc oil @mpanics in r $nplirs reii, usd aor Lnduground
rndnccnrrt,*ir,cscc- a nrim Ino osc ,n Pin. s I\rh''" ftured
Nofln Sa 343 prp.lins.
rL .Loa-, nirin. in ,ot r srs houqh, rhc ouchndm8 80 pcr enr or
Ridclir. P1'F \,ti . vhl. h uei bccJme ttt n'rl'c o.'vidsol R..dcl'd(

-

eurh.rn ftddn rt Old Fnd i. rhc CN End of London

m^na.m'\
clGd in rhe ro0or bu, r ;cw d much oor nnp"ronrprcducti'n
lEk inrhesodh m!obriled hcn BIB I,urchiscd rhc(hrc,Iitrlo'
fd$ .nd Dinpouscs in 196ll, vhicn hod a nod.nr Phnt urder
rmhne f.h minur.ciurins mp,ni6 .\n{k@nt
66bLi.hc,i ;'o ,linq onr *: ti.g ,lcDrr renr b prc.ide i lied inrrl$ fo.
tu .6dud5. Thr ;NntJ . ,l ni u' rl rlc ior nJrv ves b-r " i'h
rh. mnhinhadmoioudeB fd rhcom@nv s Dnnuds this ied nrrkcr
I q7 '
m no to;$ aound to b. oGqrv ,nd n sis cl6.J d(M 'n'h.
'
Rir}h
Belli{
n.r
A i.bs;fit' rnd *orc c still ;airai lcd in
GvDsumoliec.hfl, bur roe orisim s.r olthc ftrno.v il SF'n StrrJ
8;li6r, h.r ben sld to B.lrst CdPom'jm.

Li!. Mnv 6ths

il

When BPB rml ov{ lohn Pcrks & Son {Fo'sinsi)
Bhc! C,Lnrn scrllohnc.
roor 2 dccrl brEr ol

pir

1948. Llcv
ous

T\c cu

cddqncnu,frtB rtind iktkrtnl{rd {riltv.ry clntcnr
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11. er.rro'J ,r'ilt Jur.bie 1.,,r,hv un.i,, b;sd,hr$rL\,.
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bes..?. hL \o r r .oo{i.t,(
Id.,.,,
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l.nd'lr,so'k.I,".'.er{ tJo..u
produ., hc oxn.*Lti. r
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ttur r Pr . rJ.ln.- Jotr n, I h.,1. h,, u,,r,J"n or
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ftnsc ots;o{L.

!' irdo lirruB lhr oruol'cq unk, 0i ,ing$, bnnrgh ns
'l'[c
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ruN.
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I s rln\(|. 1..'L ru, ,v,,,'uLl i'i '.q JNs' Lr num;i. !' dF
.{ w Ik1r{,{r \ sr''.d k.
ri(.'. L, }uiLl, Rs'u rl
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hln I'clks $hblishM r trorlts, {nL ro ompn,}ccs, in Lyc itsell in
.filondud

olotirg.s hc (quircd.'Uhe w.j these pe
ordd ov( rM rm6 wN sligh J conicrl, md ultin eb

urch Snaot, in r couplc

llcr woo c
rnhMJnl. Ad o. rii,E p'. ri \ Nou'J t..orsF"i
''\' L L-'l S 'r I
lll trr'l $N(rd ro rl'c ( tr.6b' ld.n+.Ev( ullJ,rto.$u. -Four
'
aodiftrclr floorlc\cls. "i.ichdr"r'(r*a) 'r\ lo'.r.. o''o$.
lly drc tcginriE ot rlE First lvorld \vlr, 'ty Rnicl tnnc Jolr's son,
!8l,olways reIlrrcd to 6 the 'youDg IN' crctr $hcn t1c rvas in his
6!i, i,{TJ h's lr5.r ' r hm. r rr"nrnen' Sa-. gr.rd'.'( d.on
' ' thr qs r remenool. s/e. s.rb rdr.\i g
lunm$ l-,d becn'"brleJ
*Ircl ol22 aeot in di?ncta'.
A cielognc lor rgo4 sho*s rhat rhe Dnsc oFered inclu,led lBest b$t
l1l. v'Jl 'LlCrILII'trl
[ric] W'oughr Lou ,, u'.L, '\rl.
Shrll
l.
an+.',on
k"iir!
H.rJ..
R,,,
I ". J, e \6' \ .upro.
lshl
du@d wcrc tcntunooks tu ihc tdtilc indu*rx !11 n.nner oI hob nrls,
mop naik, spoot mils, shp mils, monns nrils, uilMy !pik6, decontnr
hon nilings, bull chiiN rnd bimscs.
DurinR drc r9r4 r8 Br., ilc ftctory pi.du..d cogs itul iL tnr thc
Dnglsn lnd Frcnch ciralry, .Dd als. shcu discs lor th. sr oltart, nui n
ws obyious by ihis tinc drit thc tuurc of rmspo laj i. l!. rot .
vchbl€, lhoush it ms not unil ilto tk mr 6it ldls 6.grn prdlu.ing

It Ms this pcriod {hicL tansronncd Pc*s lron a mnDr, birdy.stluisned conpany, into a rcll{ct-up cntrprisc. Ttu po$-mr
de\el"f' ,enr "l'' m. ro. . du F, B.r( o.rqs a I'uL. .' .r.{* ir p.oT
"
du.a. he bmprny conccnerted oD producins httings loi mnnciciil
vebiclcs ?nd dcvclopcd typcs ol dctrchablc @rncr nons a.d ccnrc
pilliis with 6rsic dcsisns thlr Nrc ro hs aor m!.y rr.rs. Inded, miny
ofthc lincs devcloped in thrt peri.d rre still nscd in m.rc or ls ihe snrc
foim iodry. Doiing i[e 1936, thc txditioml ho$-drtr{n tEmc dcclincd 1od so, ohcnknblly, 6eg:n thc dcclinc ol tmdnioul bhcksmithing. GndullJ? this supdb brced oa mcn, ao i6cd snn 'sr@ty
puddn.g'Jtrdqm1f V'd'rtul rl..
, qFl,rd r*,,r Jr B
"i'
' tbcir qu6;
pi$on rnd r nnc hlcnt lor gro"ing'lwi)!
onio6 inJ lctuccs, ht
aristmntic asccndincr .s n$IrDhidor swcpl i.. Thci rmrrd rnd

tp.ah, {
inl,n (hi

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lid{.ndcN .f .h.ncle .nd hl'rhnN

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nrvirr $ritur(ri i$,,1lE&
'l'lk.(qu.riri.tr,,IJ,,hnl,uhhyIll,rl ncnlauriIdn(
"hv.lx,q+(, ty. Ii rr{r,
BPlr tdl ovcr rhu dn'nrny ur IL Cill Shn,Iingi i'r lriinn'gt,ri".
This omn{try hr.l lE.n rdndt{
hy r it,,rrnt Citt. nh"
'9o?
rontcd i solll lactry nr Bnnriirslmr'nlor,
&Durdly, ar. 61, I rcclt. I n

proJuiud,al. aDi tlics [" r,ru r(u(ltcry ni,tc. ttis bu{trs\.Uht,rt
duringi,r li.r W{l'l \,1n
rJhrncrtid
I rn,r, r,,,,,
'nrr r.dc. FromtroJu\hrnLl
rBumc.l woil fm rhc,sdhry
Jiniculr h$inn'ng\. h.
sndully 6bbl6hsl h6 hbin6. mamg inh hrral huit,l;s\ in.l L,
r gr^r \r'icd of lrodud\
hd bm{r {impinA, 1,,'l .ru,lrn"l
'nr1i peJ' rurhcr oa\-hs.'1,, llu[l'
.i5('n oc\l. H. r[o p'odurc.l
Fergu$n. L cq mrlrg'nsdrrRd, orBPB. rhs !eh,nLlr .tr,p'r'cItr{h
burinN rcp,Nnr.d r sed inrGrmenrr d6n c G hcin(u otrn,ll(t
snh In mlh inrrNrr. sohca!qLncd.h.Nucdepnrl ufrhc o,mFnJ
A corrciJu. rnd dq ourb;'r-or or Fsgiloii's. L@ 1,si',,.
*'pc( nom rh lu$iJn re.olurDnor 19'7,r cJmDany nron,odF 1,.u,
Eho hid bcLn hs\ily.nr{ekJ in6mprni6r(n 6 Polyh4 rtuL \,r
the mJnlg"n€nl Lsn trcrEdpd ludi]frJr Jnd fiiscrRm.ll rbh
Fr
stursisunr. V^r Jsr srhurs. h@m.'J ditu! Mss !clu,.: (.,
Cr dr.'n "no hid {udiJ I trc Sorbona,li('me, r.'{ thc
a
'.\c '
ofFhr Pu( . rhc mrmgins dtrcctor n Lyc. PolG. r tr hm,ty.!.,ch. em.1o d0,orio orBPB rhtuqh r d$omFotC I SEmpinE\
Th*wrro,btRuohUy 6eBP!6@rd.('Ihcsh,-r {rtt rotdotrt,r
vi5n i"in,r irscndIi-dDclp€r,rhe!hdn n,hrd Ji,rDBr!c'j.\,...,1,
phiB $.nru'.ly ruutrd ,i , in derr.nd hiqhly F+. i.,'1r,1\oqri,,
witn tnc c6todiln ol thc conFny ,ig, wnich v6 being bfrd by e scLcr
h.nJ of rorl6 sirh I high d.s,e ot Lyc qrn i*. Orc €n onl gN\
s b wls qA sNhns rh. sd\i<c of sho.b.) i:ol,o$:rq rhF \br r,tr

1 tutr'r'.ri.n,\(\u'llSEmpi'gs. Pcrls&dcddsclopir gI

ou.F

ns in rluminium .lluy\,
{.k Drlly b.ina Bbbl'stud rn 0r
omrcirl khi.l. in,rBEv."hich
Th.ihdsnbss rqeobviou,: rhey si\u
'elnds. lo"- unlxdo. ";ct., ild $... b._.orinq s,, noDut"..'FFr
expdmonul begiDnings, rhis hid. nN 6c@mc

_rnillfl;S**'*"

t,ru,

one

ofthe

Iistc{+Iorvifrj

b LM.I., burJo!tr psksE

tuind

PcrLt p_cmbcsn Cru'.\Skccrsercrolldn\.be rqoosbbrh.orng itucrrinsll unnrMEerole. In rn' a.c, th! onjEnv q$ Nr'ncd
ih-r rh.ir ardon ssiniclEEnerRr sorn.$ si,e;d r;ruu.n h.
gmxndi uar dmolnf,d bnd\odsrc bought Md r n.s rdor! buitr

ilr

i.* ficlortr
lnrployinS ,nufiirS likc

v

I
!& 0d' dd qoro'.lddirionil
ot'ci?d ln 10[,6.nd

t

{d in cxlcnrioi wN
coh|,lny u*d tl us rhc sl'{!n:'lfn irr$dscoido ir'.
r dvc an's li'r
",\:'ll !Du.hn', s(, i', A,mr'D I'ul"' lr \

ldon qra(c

rhm

kfnlilthdu h r.dhr

li'

nd

n,l'.

trccNrry

u,ml)'lry Bnlucin! qriic rhc sin& (nsc of
'l
ln thir d,unty, hc tidc, sinc. rhc DPll i.kNvo, hNcrpind.d
iro.r..rl, ift, riring\ in.l isvtric\ la' ,'Frnuhu'rl N'rrsu'. ind
tbrly int, rlk Em{ int d{ rincrli(lJ. N$ lind rrc on(inurlly hcing
lroduccd trtr,]rhcol'l u. fhTc,l onr.
Thoc ir tr tri,, andri in r[.tr l'sk\, {rir rotrHh
lmcnt olvomcn would, rnd probruy did, bring
cr. of limily PanthuBt, should hirc r womn a\
lllrfily inkllisent .nd ilricuht, Jen Sctua! h6
htcNt n drc u nion of rtc irci slrc wo&s ir
bujnGs \lill lnd mr srm(nt s[c hr\ Ei,ned tlN

il rs sEr 1n:uud{ uqd Plmq
nL" ru qlrulids{L'r rtalntl
ri$uo oqrLODUr Fdd ! q!E$x)
sd8 ill! u rutr Prllq dtrx,u,u rw

apNu

.nNn6iqr
ur

r

Nrirr {)r,, iw \uos n msl)ruc :)
I'u $u:'ltrw Jr n rul'ltrru Prmq
rd u{lDrur:tnq i'rxo fu' J4,.{J

ro

(

r[,1

rl r)tridlr&soN

lrtd\, rr\,.,ru, i,lr

NrrL! itr,Ns

rnio

ln!(ri)if or!,h. rr\auNi

.r'a( 1a.. r\ N \-r ( !r la'!h !.Fnq

R ! i0!P4s\1rLao, Ninrtrg.Ttr

iiili
$a
I

h

ud tnJr

huini r!29 fli{crboud \rrs
b.rcly $r.l,lis|rd ,n cirl. l[r xtrs onlv onc licr.,! ur
i'npotrioe, \\ rll.sq, md troltrdnm irl tl t yor Lrs b.or.nnn&d rr
hrcnrydl

nilli Ns rid

'r'llr

t'
I

Ixid nt thc r9zos,

'l

Dorcofe millionsquucIuds T[c.r\t dccidr \N r crhxordioi'r
J!!o1,,[nenr, rnr ]tr r!r9 rodLtrri.o hxd .ikn t, oo l.ss rh r d,i,!
n,illi.o squnre Jnds tionr scr.n Ii.r.ics: {hrco bolorgiN tu Irl,B
(wrlhser', Ir'iih !trd C.rlislc qrmcd nr r936rtr!.Oiclhlies*or[s.r
tnc Gorhin (i,orl]xD!), ( irpro wo (R@[!sr( rnl Gl[soy), 1.C.1. onc
(lrilhrgnrm) n l,L*u P'lduch ofc ((ncon)nlc). DPB, rlblgl rc
l$gc$ r,nxlu.u. \rxs chxlfung.d b! srofo conllxlitior lroD c)'ptuc,
1.C.1., rtrlP.?.C.llI ,139, llPll coDtdlcd Incrimlltr tu (lDt ol rc
ftuLudid, .l mitr'al sfnsun,, ns conr|cnros nsinB .nlu i1.t,onc.t
FyNUD or byrmdtrft s,lTsunr nlor ihe chcnricrl l rsrr (LC.L).

i

l*. 1io

lq,

i..t

'"Jh.tr.t..c,,,d

tr-',,.,

BPn,o,nrmlkd rlE,lmh ofrhc tmducli,r ofFytlunr h itdi$ntdci{
r rr F Nhi i,t rlt FyN' itr,tnnry i,I wht( n, ,h( I,.ro. u r

a{' rtr\oN i"tr.,t{at(,,t rtn.d,hkrh.n.iiR,n{
n(ri riatr r,, rlt{r,,,1, rr,,grs\,,t.rrcvn,L\.tt\.rt.a
,r nrl, LLnru.n aiiLl'rll w,h rr5,ltq rijr. rr!.t .rr7.174: rr:.,

rr\j,1,'al,lr.l.r

I u,,r.

|,trr.,'

4r) t77. d Jrr.014 ljrs.o.:i.rsl,ih,,n,lN,,nri,,tnfl \r.Jt,{.rt.,.1
by rhc nc! nhscrhuJLi trdtraa

o,'f.'l.AiolJ.r$ar.'tcl{pnC. nqc.,t.,,.(s!,.i nr,t
on mn.cs ri rn.iallt

onrottt tn, r ho'J,,r mn,l1r,). shi-t. f,,{i.t, I
or ) "Jud r-' .N.r'alo.gmi.' in1. lrs," ho\c\r,, rt.o.tr .,..,(.,u0n or etr'hxi4. uc r,d,blc mrr. hcnr or nr 5nrc.t i
''Ju.r-y-"hni F,d b" F s_8r.:.nrtJ hct'o,J 'or n,,ia or rt, u, _
' rqu{o ir0n'rden'\.e4tury.o"rr\trc Ihp'e,dcr otrt,,,moJutr$
i.s r .em" n q. Sr u'r I';,nbt, rno bv .ola pron.,.. h:d -t,..,,,j\
ber r.dc. tu'bl io i ,provitrg , in,ns rno,\ud. ih.
b,, u.,t,r

"". ,.'h.
di'up.ror qhThhrd1,bed€tr hirh.c
-nd DPtr ern..o.d ron'\e oi/let m rL.eJ arJ
nurtr r,
" t, r i"r I tK
trn I Trlrr o-n, J,d I ew sr$ ot n. ,4Frsibit..r
-r,tr,
enorr.. probi r

and

r,- *r. hetr rhq - formrnc period tnr rt,. DpHU,rr,,
,J. ri.i
:ns ql .h L to, rN
id. iN itr rh.-t;ronot,
I 'hev r',,,e aou' .ls d.. /- .otd o.i, Jnrdu. t , d\rndso1,,ol,t,.,i
o.," .,.. c
",h
to kep ll.duction goins duins rhc drtesr yerrs.
I5eE'i,\f', .q.Donho ...m1'i1.,otrr\..s(,iou.tr Li
,L'l trlrhJ lo\.f.irnrtq r J Bnod-Iu o,,rEd\ ,'j
,,r
"ortmnr,"*
-rou rhe ?]rJi, l L r,o r. u-o rh,.. l.L onr, n, duc
:,..,.,,
on uruer
rtr. rhe nor rd bei -\ereh drn ,F.1. \rr- ,,r
i-a.[. r]ie 'te.rs
hosrd pln.. \. .o hrJtr dj.as. J,hrr q"\ n,"r o,., irn
Li
C..

o,ri.

r r,!a
Ih., r",:nitrcNo.,h
mrh
I t)it(
"e,,nr
\rW"UJ e/. ns, o|to.. nor e..i 8.1r. c x, ed
ro"cr.rc,r;
(\5c'c. i' rh. H, n c u.k'J. Ar
b""innir q o"d,e * tr,
'.. or s m nteo $ h rnre
".. ",,.,.,,
il,h. n w-lL. t T|c,o,s.
in r,tr
',hou'
honi. u' dd .1{ .h-r lij4e n. w. Ictr .o JeeD L \\rrtNv. .\(
o nn"nde o,rh. Haae c",io ' qs h. Borcrsh T,;s tr.,. 4 mjn,L.,,
,e.rmb1. Hc s solli g ,r' rr n"r 3r No o'ctGt I I rh. nDn,i;l
lh ! \tr"'hen.\pe.rdrot. !nr2\o r-tBo\.$eco.pt,i ed,b I
rdi

d

e.t lc r' d.rfi

r.ial.-rFol\.
'

wo,rcF u-on, s\n

Jro.c,r rt-. pli rL, ctre,,he irch

m c h trni B !in. Bcv'n our DT..u,c on r
^
wsrUflrlc,,nd n c5cd on i lnik '
BrcL on tne Mcdwrn thc Rocnc$cr
,lant or cJ?rrc nas rlso undcr
q

uius

k,v
dr

I

llr

usc,

h tlr niFnid

vdtri,,ur

'd
nDIqooN tur ir lrg notrB ol'liro-w ruhirg
oror(trriv(rdulls:',4nurlu.lll nrw0ro
d. It wdr rhc con{rtrt iNotrlLlahn iht srs
rdi

I

, ho$avor, bcco0rc uscd to it,

piiticrhly

nlc of lrrniin, shcn thcrc rc ly vcrc d ly
tu n$t disutuing riDc sis wlcn it Pls

|l

l,]I'

lop l'illrl'ii. dcrc $.b1licou(rr..nd qrdcsD.cro'urr

rL

o.(ro

{d! nntcrilbDrodudi"n, SomciN!rccs havc llrcldy bcen
lhNLl tr J. in rJJ'rin. pir, r.r.arcd nd'. rc[ ,",o.d,o
l$bosd wN eidrly uscd nr temror.y nonsins. gypsun Rrs
arl fttr thc lfusc quintitics .l lortlmd ccmcnt ns.n in runs2ys urd,
OurNc, tltic sis1dcmndfo.Ijrmrcr imonnN olsnqi.rl r.d denbl
13$ n,

Tho hlildns indBry it$lr ws id r nrtc ol not u.natufil inrdnr, ltr rq,rr, rd Dclpcr midc r rhron,: in whi.h he e : 'Th.
Itrnchs ol rhc I'u drrg ir dun'y rn shi.l. s. rrc mair..l nrre,cd
'(Ycr. su'prisi'.gl). rra+
rh.
Ond,ruc to IJc pr.'cucr.. J' J shnd{rll
rdcnd )
,r rNj rtr[ \er r.!r BIB l.rlcd b qm d.or.gtr io 6\.r i s dr "rc
Locil Folrlem" rLre srcn, but so "cr rl'. prob.cm- l..rng rl'.
lidu{q N r vholc. To help thc GovqnnEnt in ns co{rdin.tion of
Dlodu(lion.nd di"'flb|on r,d p.o\Fon or pnon.r supplcs o- pi!-

t

holrotrga rri",,li',|otune r, e p r' r-,nrrd '' orirj \ ,lu'r' lJ
formld, nr rqao, r lir:,"' arri' e,, an,.rd nl-n'Nr r'.-.,,'r r
lorr n.in produci.g comprnies. 'l he comnriitee \:s lat xnytrned into
lhc Phsobodd Induty Dxecutive Committee, r seni omcirL hody
opcniing in close co-opention unh the Mini*ry ol lvorts. These $!
ll)mmittcB aunctioned rll through the sr nnder tne ch,imxnshil, ol
Thc @nmitte sNcd . nighly i,npo(ant roLe in thc {ff cilort and
sithh thc pla$rbmrd 1ldosry. Ir h di@dy h.d a bBis h thc
immcdhtely prc-{tr ym6 in dre Gr?su,n Bnildi.g Prcducb Associrtion

vhich ws lom€d br DIB, Gy!ff, Ph$d ftoducB (CEen[ith4,
rlld l.C l lrsAdc.esn..korn rltr,rl. lo'm,d'h..\GUr..r.onrn.rrc.
A {!y omnert @ms fron Riq\lrd tutes: 'The isociltion us formed
!t I tine when n yis @Nidqed a $ ice to rhe nnion fo! companGs to
gtt togethe! .nd make arBns€mefts lor the pdce ol then produds.'
This ds@iation had gown oul olthe depressjon of the rq3os and nis
bded on thc ned to edu@ tl]e curthrEt omp*ition. k lle hrd the
efd oreriing ne{ st.ndlrds oaqulity,llul it ms not
-time
rnar any cxchi.go of &cnniel inlomition took Dh&. lrec$e oa tne

util$

ut

coap.d rltnN ofrhc tlotclhdnl In'lulry rnd fic .mdci.y oI rh.
ir oryinied ns disrihri{,i, n *rPtd rlE lirc ottrhiy,{lE iidN,iu
vh0so ilriirN sc& l nlcd olcr rtr Govc nncit (lq ncnr,,
It wN i rr+8 rhit rh dcdrriv.6 !'itte-$hi.lt ii rhc FNLws
Friod hd o{inucd t, nukc wElly dliDin,n$ of DlNqlxurd t, lN$
nU, Nf d.ntrgc r+ii$ .tu1 o rr lriu , nsdr-vis $utrnd Ul' A srn.mort issKl in Nov.nrhs 1943 *'id: ',]\ll cqromy nB nrcs whidh w.ru
idt6cd on thc us ol dst rborrd in udf to d{trc thit sulli.i.trl
ppli6 wcrc.uitablu ro nNr Nntiil rcquirn.nB, [i\r tros bratr
rctuovcd atrd bodr hirdvrll plist$ ind pldcrtoid nriy nos bc rrc(ly
spdlicd lor nU suirblc ,u rpo$s.'
Bot dui.g its eish yoB otlitc, rh€ conoi&c did mu.tr t, dDN.l.ftna oa thc indNry egcdEr. N)t only *u rh@ i dn ng !,sdl8
olonprnics i,t rn abttrd myi nore tingitlc dcvol)pnrctrts ratu in
A hriasc ,a fcmcd bch,en BPB and Gypoc during ihc ur t, rl'.
mdc or&ichdd Jur6 rrun thc ldrkr to rlc foncr. Ai1er snrc lcrs,hy
negbtiations, Grroc es trken olo 1,, 3?L ir rq44. Thc bllrorci, I
d. ees ol Rich:d Joka, wrc ro be cidcndy .rucirl to t6c G'orlr
A60r thc emc rift a thc bl@vd, gmwing intGt m hl.n h rlr
oncc!tr in Soufi Afiid ind in dr ReNblic oflchnd. llrns scrc
shning to bc mdc fo! iltft thc mr. Tle 6r$ mio! ddsion lbr poiyir dcv.lopmc sd mdc b\Erls the cnd ot $e wr This s6 t,
ph.s out thc Wlldcy opmtion ! l to build . r6y l{9. phnr in rtr
ccnrc of lritiin, in rhc Nottnrghln m.4 to scrc &c heaviLy popuhtul
ds in thc Midl.ods and al$ to hclp tu scrving th. rcst ol drc counry

lis ol
'pt
i(Do .d gyDsun not o.lyrron thc Th,m6sidcdr$crbed frctoics
In spib ofdimculrt\
but .ko fion tltc Po.thnd @cit
tne n.cds of tnc tiNc rd Nl6cicnr
of nhny linds, lhc ll'D Gmup mcr'Mnof!ctu6gynsu!
lrodned 5o tlat th. enent Md ph{(bodd thdt ms *,
d6pcEtly Mdcd in rhe J@s @'rid be prodndd.
'Ihcsitorioni &e.trd o.GcwndrtuDdod: vcry h-gi inaN i,
the output of thc English mincr, to Nmly the neods of thc buildnrs
proSllmm. This ms met by progEnm€ of minc explNion d
mhlnb.rim, whi.[ inaeffil dmrdic ouQu6 to lNcb hnhc.to unTltr innedi

c e6rct of hGtilitics had b@tr to

at

oE

the

w

I

Tne min pst-wr inrourions includcd the iftoducdon of'dusns',
tust at Mounti€ld, tncn !r cdh.n- Thc s)Etcm vo.lcd dr.ugh r
@ntiouo6 bcl! rlons thc fie. Roch vhicn h.d ben drilcd rn{ bl,st al

trnv

mr ott"crcrt

bv

r huctd

on

! tirc ron *h'ch tli

tjSi:1i:'ilirfi i;l'i'Jiiilriiffi ;i TiJfr xil ll
m*jfl
ll.nd cl,lirlc w@trls n-,l{ni"d.
E6tlv.mJ rhn,urhlhc rq{$, nKhrnisrion ru5 urr srorlv
[au.d; lh",lircr;un "r l. R. ounn.l]t't] Dtrcdur in chrry.

l';ft f 1*';
f[",t"';lliilll;s ;i*',lt;i:li:\il'":"'
n Ms producins mmctlinc lilc
5.ld

dmc. lt

rorc rhc

u.,

',t@
frrot. By rqs,. rt. ourr. "* rurirtrs uf ro r:.ooo Ior's r "cct'
6rri outnirt ,ii rtrc o tr* -i.* n nm'rleps..n rol7,LoulProht from Ei(lirh minc\ Ms 7@,8t8 bN. In rel7. n B 3r0.r5r
lillit ordrsh orrhc intodudon or
;r 1060.,i-rh rhc.d,jition'l
lboqirinmcnt, r q," muna,.73Jooor"ns.r' 'o,o $ruf t0
i& dN rrc.l(.,,w o inpi.v.d \sdv l' .95t,nrak4'o
;m& rhc Mdntfrdd minc: bv t969 rhcr m onlv r2o m'n

.ddthreo rn6 MN

licld

'tu1

Brishttins.

lound Lne :ndu'Ev in, $ onc puB n r m'ntslv t(r]
.up raii, bur phFielly complckly unP(p,rd. Aldsugl Pe
{Ac'l rtrv'"hLR, n 'as vcr,
iarton or ou"r"'t,i,,i r"a not
"cNdllv
+ riu'nrg rc
iEh cutuihd. P@n'e who hJd vncd i,, thc fo(cs
6
trdurv rl"q rl"i,,sl' "t'".os. rnd snd contoh w5 in emc die
_arfly.
much g*8. (h.n ,hc indudrv 6uld.mer d
dm;id
i;:It ir 6timt d irlrt rhc bsi tbe iildusEv could ninigc it dDt ri$c
; ro3uDDn Jbour 80 Nr ccnr o'tne Jemr 'd.'rhis $ uarion d$.lop'd
lnto. vililiv 0uflldnrdmnd, which @ra@ndcd ar la$ onc @norn'
nr @6r Drcbl.ms mrc !h. shorhqe ol reFr mrcnlk.nd PJpc!:
hc*;in!h ;mcn \ Drcduc d. but e-.dj conEollcd. At l'c '$'c
rlm. *lti u. oost-*i. -to* t r crnf,.nr in noss. b.k w' 'hish rnd
{id.r .bour Lh; pNrb'lrty oI Mtionrl&iion. Thu ld sd 'n inmnriv' u
diEsitv ,nto orils udu nns Id rocrrlnd into! he ' outrr:e ''lr ns
iit c'haotc ouire tronsrtv, tys on. dirdor. \ ' hrdir snv idd
i,t';.i' *, rtr <jovcmmnr uould iumD. w. scE soins n r 6'' ro Nd
rh. d.;J rid we EF b.trhns .sliNt ontul\.
A Ltr@ nunbsof DrieEh uam( smd,ait.d ii o rh i0duJry lor
emD[. uobticld qs emDlovins lbout 25o Ocnn.n nrhoncd {L
buildins ol tnc io
ed i;c. r eroi. ,mte i'@ bans usd on ihc(b.
ir,'t "nd h thc nebv m,ne. Ir is !;alled rhrt n dnung rlf
laii"inai,,s g",",
-ines hrd ben rhe lerd(rolrhc nc'lih

,ar to.r

\

fi;

,;

-i

Dunng

"i,1.
the mr, Nch thougtt h.d b*d

Sivm

b

Pbnning rhc

if rhc irilury wlich ukl l,c n(c{iiy h tlB ydn rfru.rt,r
qrr.rrlN. \l.rllEr rrl, L, "hil,li t,L{d.unt rt{nurtn,,ntttu.
l-r{ ldt,. r..'. \,{r.trrl'. t'h\w,{.t.t ,., rt,r tri.r fh,r ir ti,,[t,ht
'. '11( J,sl,,nru rtn, t:d
1 \( Luil' d r ryt-r.tr Ll,,l"trir.
i,(,,t,
rl tr- r.'. r.u, trii,i. \ rol,l,' F \ n( /7+.o0o tr..."i d(rr., [y \t,.
0n r T. rcc..o.' ul rlji. lr,. orv. (,i Fr'u.ri. c.{\. \,, uJ..t't,,
t,,,,r
qr
cxtmntinn

n,n.u.'.lv bd ,,", ..; d ,-r rm,\ rh" t..(+r r,t.,.n i,,t,(
C'ou.. lonc ol il r',, 00,6'. t(h rt .,,1o.dr ri."ihn,,.r,.,
odor[ onc d'v conlLl hr'dneir rl,]Ji!Edr rrr r!rl
{s.l-adv;o io'.J. E L$r Lr'[cJ\'cluptrxtr,s,r,h(h,.'.,t ,
',BI''rp,n qJn('ioJ.',
*ri^s !i tr
'jordevclonn
to go on tnrouBh tlE r95os rn'l 1066, s thc coorDrnv brL !c nnnr

cen.r.LirJ. ,ad c\enrurly b dmei,o ift"r -ddoh-," .. kt. Lorn ioD JiJ !^c rL s..dd- iJe, (ho
P r J D;.. or.h J(,,.n,
'sh.
'
r. oprtr r ltroc roJfl oir.i' rhcVdtrJr$..r;.cr
, atrh".,,., tr I
p-rr r $'sIL ! 3L ;48 \' r,$.rDl,J,d rbout roo \,r,, tr .tr\
,,1
hrJ h r h l. rl c, nmntrr troi' rh.. !r1 e.... d.,i,.,,i.,J...,,t
"lio..r
:u.r.!
k' 'h, rq a ,8 \r.. \ , :'., nr r.'.oi\.J ; .hc "itrdi J ,,, ..,r
WJl..e' .)a: l.,r,eJ[ . \c.J JiFilut..hi.; ru J. lrur uL., n".,.,.
' J + ue $e .i, J r,, hc A c4r,, u. r! DGro[. N ,J
do
'.djlfr.ulr
h'.,,
\r
.hcr
d hdtrron -' \\"'lr5c,
n,rnLimen-',otr ti-.
dJ i qc.-tu''l no.iEh' mrb. ro -J
-to-. 'r.' t'he.t;tr. n,,.

Br' rre truii 6l'u.I b, rhe lon|J. tr p6' $r, r.tu\c.J t,....
o.. u', I h. vc.r b 1o.,. rr..J i,,,qa., I,ueh'.sFcrx I nn,li. J .tr ss,,
eroi o i o(l .i!.Ic q..r !h I Jor hrtrrs !h ,r 1...,c, ,.,,, r
dn.oo'. H" h.d M,l - .'o...U as trJ trd unJ.rgu. ., lcerr . .,
Londo' l-' r.rl. tuI h J,eerrcd'o br .ri\t_.rot .J F"s! on t.,.t
*em(d ro r r \Fi'ins t F ru be t.ow'i * Bu iic dr,t .nJi,
,,.
. s,r. '.r.i ts'5c{tr.pr,y n"\erL.ofu..,,.r.. ln rl, h'r"nt!
F,...
de,pi', hr s.n...roL L d
pr q,orrt,,J;-r rt,.

'Lebrro'c.rirn'
BPBCrrpm.e uU cNadllj
dqcrrr'iyd.4
.,.,
'".o,,;,,i".
rhqrow'.e'rd.i.d h. o,ir in{ru' e o cHr.li.-rion
n.r rrL,t
lerg-.o \iF.dr. l. Ir ld n ell .h I l-tr"u,onc,atur

",i,,
,egoti,tion and acquisition snd not rlhr ol .onsolid.tioD ind'e.,
.einli,remeni Id l&t, n wls sonctincs his yay to ralc rccods on tlc [rLs ol
envelopc rnd on slips oa pilci, {hici nNc tdnd rhen {ry ido ttr
6jins$n.m. Ti. c'e or eihl pouer rn'hcerrr 4 L N h..d
", I
rerguson\ ,.Bdnrl,q
At this iuncture, n us inded fortuoate aor rhe.ompuy thlt tkrc
\rr - rhr ba Leu,nd.q S,.'. uho nid.o' Jrr., o.cn dornsnu I
r\uunu'n','d li.rnre of .hc G'u
fh'. q\

'n

'1,.

..crcr0ry, R, c, &, yrl, r nnxr lilmhlc nrtr, *ho vm rhlo
Wtrlli$y,lttrnyrh
doMtrc uonrirriry rhanr(h rh
aallrcuoi ro47rtrrl tumnulh olffs. olrlt G(rp lilNres
l$.1vlH I'o r0rrdrl mrl ws sccr0drd hy rorhor notihlc S&t.

i

{usohri

h..,ihnkJ"ihrh( l'(i;hr or rl.L rcml lc "' r ' .l
ehh iri r,s.is rU. .F p"c' c n.. jtr'mob,l,F r'l 5,'ab..
'f,houtrr trar(s'nJrAc'n rl.c'inc\'r.' lrcn'crl,c' .c' irL
! llm rhu rhtl: rh, sol o. n1F4 'hiu on( oo(.1n.Trc' N_

unli

c,

$dll'drnernd I icncDrberasonisns ord $netns
rh kl hrll iL or nor. \\c drd, rr rl.c L\crr, o' 'h jc !q. r s-ar
llfl ol gurqil unetlitrty hrnsins ovcr !s,
Thc qBtiotr oasucssion to Fcrsxson \v,s no osy mstter. FdgMn
r not ( trL r, ',lci rc Jru' 'l 5.n 1o.. ro l'1 {t long,li+
' snonld b. two ioint mrnxgins' dncctoa,
l'\ ir wls dccidcd thlt thqc
hhi!'lJ srnJikr r r_ nhrc, !tn ri'idinf.Ell lu'r.l 4r,l.
Tthnbh vis a srong nan, iid ms also rn cfdive leidcr ud vcll-likcdlL vm s$nthlly r coont lnii, relon ollcagucs, and h.d lud . closc
aontrslion vnh tbc opcntio.s i. dr Noith-Rcs for mrny rrds. 'Durins
tho ysr or so aatq Fdsict dutL Stcud Trinblc ..d I rvorkcd wry
hd togdhs', rmlkJukc. 'Thcrc werc ,nuy tupoihrt problcms to hc
hcklcd, sonc of thcm ol grer urgcncr, rDd $ith Srcnait livirg in Cumb..l!nd, mc ncff hndoo, rrd sircs nr mny p.ds oltlc U.K. Dccding to
bo vhitcd, ir Dont . lot of talclliDg aor bodr ol $. Fodunatcly, Sieullt
li 0 mm oaonsidcmblc chadD and wc both cnjoycd an oE$ion.] botlc
of l)oii I What is p€rlqs noE ro thc poiN, [c is ilso 1 mm ol cnormous
oNrgy ind oplblc ofrtrlid dccisioD, so ir spite ol DucI l6s ofslccp, we
vcrc rblc to sol,c tbc problcns rclrtivcly qnickly .nd succgslully. I loot
rltouL to hold d

hlck to thar pcriod with vcry greit plcdurc indeed.'
Mov6 nid b@n in.dc to nnplcmcnt dr phn to divqsilr at honc (in
thc icquisirionof]obn Pcrks & Son, rhc drop aorsing mmpann nr 1948)
ind toeaTrndownes(C,yT m Industi€s, South Aariq, io rq46, and r
prrt intse* in Grrsur Industrics, Eirc, i. r94r) tnt n sas clear tnlt
DPB itsclayouu nr\rc to undcrso a thoroush consolidftion rt none. It
muld bc mny ycm ol cvolution belorc the present olgxnisrtion muLd
bc rchicvcd. 'rne innediite hst, hosdcr, ms to rmove tho moe
0no6dlous obsclcs to tno conp,ny's growrn ind to inprovq rnd iepair
*hcrc nec*iry, tne phnt xtuund tic ountry.
One oa tnc norc ormboFnt brushcs {ith inc Lxtou GovcrDncnl
one in t95r. Alto tbc dccutivc comnitte ol ine *:r ycrri lrd 6ccn
{onnJ up, nssurc of volunbry contol wrs continucd. }icc in
crescs ucrc voncd 6y t[c Mini,srci ofvorks, tlcn R. R. Stotcs.

i

rrjr,

. OowrnN .sc.l firt Pb c Pr.drcr (ONe
Inh) l.(:.1. sln,uld insos rlrir prilr otrlslcfin by,.rB,
Nqnec yrd. lr rdnscd i ni ilir i,,uos ipdicd li,, by lll,ll. I)iusrirtrr,
i ed irg(ncnh,Icrc goi[[ on vni SfulB, qh( hc wN npuirtr(l
In ddy

I-ord PrivyScil,rtrd rcDlicc.l hyotrcGu,gullroen, C$rEc ItBwtr rxfl
no lsstsrn.linc *nh IIPII rllln his rl.!.rsor rnd h. iNisrcd rlrr
lhce should lE no inc@\c. '1 fu Bcrd ol lll,B md nr i o,lncil ol M.
lod it *6 d.ridcd thr it rlDuld padicipd{c no lo.gd
w'lunr y
pde
nrytment. l hu Gov.rnmcnfr rcspo.sc urs !''y hy buftrr
Prrli.ment o(lc$ prcventins
lron imrcisini its pri.q. sucl u,lo r

in

onhl

llll

ravbeJuull.Jtrihj lo(, drrioL whari.lnrstrrrnrs, n.p',,(hr!
rhmby. m,ion i, hhl.d pByins Lh. mo.rch ro:nnul rlx D'th ll

uBtul,
i prrru

thccda

lIe

b

llk
I

cif.d-

So. orEh

.htJ sl,c(l,L

qould b. ilto,lueJ
0u.eniglrttrhcnrlrG,rdhtr.rIq
no, on i6 Lur!'.I. utr. nChr irJdl r9sr, r.r( pEter *,\.lchnrJ \L,n
fc"
ILDI$ ncrc riebh rhc Cnrn.oer rnJ vdy t(" tr'.
trb.u m.mbcr DrMt. tu ih. rDDroDnrc mumcnr. rh( Chrhln s.N
nodcd by rhc'l di6 md th. D6yd
6ricd by r57 rus ro rl L I I
m, in f,o, onc ol ttc Kry fw tin6 thc kbou. covqnDon Bas

r'

i

.

E

dclcd,d t qsrlso GmEcBmsis 6N mjoro\Terienesx nitri.hr
lMcr Atds, Of couM, it ms I noninil ,idory, 6 rsisd ordcm wcrc
Li,l hj s ro( w,rj Cr"cmncnr tnc tr dJy. Lr'cr rtur y€r, rCj.\'virivc Corsnm( B cldcd, rad 'in Ddhbn rq<|, rhc ords $rn.
rchl.i.'tic llrie ol BPBt plstdbmrd @ ro -. /. r ,ard. lr n.
miincd -r rhltlc\.I eruilly ir snl bclo, n6.\c'J [flF unll rr.7
rnd i' innGcd.nU m{s,Nlly un''llhc n :ddlc ,oms. rlMx ncs prn.
skuctuc ss iffloducsd. Tnis rcmid of pricc dahilitr h6 ben ! sour..
WhiL BPA us i, poliriol .odlid *ni thc ljtour cormmd,
dcvctolhents in fi. Grcu? v@ glrhaing Dre. By rhe .rrly r95os, rl)u
oountry iv6 ftll on t6c way 1o pcFffi n$vcryi nlioning hid nroily
dhrppcdrd, rcstictions otr building suc Ucnrg cised, lyN dlmrs.
Eprir s.s giving wry slorly to new nousins piogilnftcs, lnd rlr
loundatim for dD mnonic h..n ot rhe hro rgtc y.o inB I!iJ.
T*o highly
movc wc mJc wnhin rh. omFn, rl'(
'n
€+'oG.Arrhcc-Jo'hc$ .rLemsl{cso'crpddirgrlc6.r\trtr

imFft

t

i&lu*!y scmcd slisht. Whilc dE bult of fi ,hnrg cmrr rorc cxccurd
i'r ;n. um pl,!t r.. lio hd.rioi 1l or' eri-h for brcltrrc ors r.r rin.J r
ri\rLrcor etrnr,limornJ s d. rnd d.+irc yqsolcflm o
thN {i'h mnt6 ofdJdcJ hmi hydEk syrEum Dlsrd.nd'l"Ln
sn,l,
vcry litde trcg$ nrd bM mdc i. tlut diBdion and thclc s*ncd
r

litilc pnspect ol betrcr srcocs in rhc autue,

.nd of rh.

frr,

d

rhl phsicrbdnliidc ottlE lllrinctr,

ilrrc

I'h $lud hd i vhnml 6onoF'ly ol rlr
h lou{{ hnustrL.N rdl n xn (rrc \ivc m'tct irr trLri0brt dE I(Ro Dilkct lh! ldriti n* dnd rhc iincml lirintjs ol
rl erlh qN Jdud r, i' llr' rhr ...',liri,ml nJr('.rl\ l{trl.s,

t*n

nrgndior.

ard bE* hl.ds .n.ld \$iy.'lhissnursun q5 chrngi.l.In.lccLl
doni&{ (s bclos), by rhc inimdncrion or No ourshndins ns
|xi. in rhD cldy roid-Gllirc Dl6ta and l'lFnourt d!, Fnnion.
l mc timc, vdious co$nmics htd 6ccn cxpcrnncnting witn
rlnr kin& ol lishFwcisnt issrcsrtB lr gyp rm pl!*cs,llut noth
hd Edly rn,v(,1 $rl\hcn,ry.
rdi thc cnJ ol rhc rgJs, horffir, .fl id6l misi.l va dre
in .uff.icnr qu,nliry rn sard'nu ThB ea lrrlih, r voleDn
, which coxld hc cxpindcd 6y heit to ! rcry low dcnsny n\d.cd md
lch, yhcn milcd with slpsum tl6ts, volld produ& i liShFstiBht
lis cGr. Pclitc pl6&r {ould bc consid€obly noe eri,.Bivc tlDn
lndniond nitci.h, bul eould go nuch tadbcr. Iis 6r !o vlu{€
oa rurf.@ onpo€d flvouably viit' Etditio.al badins uts. It
dy d lishi for rhe ph$elq lo use rnd ! 8rc{u afoxnr oa sdk
Ould h. donc BnL ir i' J d.r thr wi'h rh_ old ntrhod.. Li . qete
6rmcd s h srdmD, r d ,mou B or [e'li'e ftrc i.lpokJ. ln rgta,
EPB housht rorosh r {9 !tre1r i.rc's in Pdlitc S.p.A.. rc6!r$(J 11
MlLn thqum'6r t rlsrJ'nir. h B rh. Gdhm comNny rnd
d.kloD.d ,nd ddrol rhc hm.trdouily se$tul Grlk pusrn.
ThD con,w nn ofrh' buil,jins indary nnd nore pro\c'l tr hc.
Droblcm. A\,le gytqum,mtrnki hrderp.rirnctJ nur r'mb. n'r rd
ary ro eU " .ew Droducr r" bL Uc$ Bn 3 \cry t..n qlc"<rtrprign
ru @ndued by Gorh,n Thc sl6 figu6 sp6t lbr 6onshs. ln
slcs ol pl$tcr $m
rea9, t aor rhc tiShF*tiglu scr€
'nEodusi.
yer.
ms.eLirg
25!ooo
totrs
r
IJ,
r9t9,
BPB
a@nd
,9,ooo rons r
q27,odo
toDi, Nith i
!qr. By 1969, th. rnu.l sils rclc runniry .t
'l
miuion tons a ya! dhin sEsp. hig drnitic inceise urs vcly hrsdy
dG to the inaqsing ue ol light-tcrglt rhsds.
As mtil rhow llrc dhs mtior dcveloptunt va tne Lunching of
P.Emount d.y pr..ition. Tiis p.nidon, togcthq witn tn ehniqu6 of
h.nding phscrbo d b nlrd slrlirccs, bolc thc los-wtu dcidlock in
rhc pcnehition ofph*qbord into drc Bitish m4rk t. Thc l'iNrount
dry pdrtition y* dselopcd *nh grcat sue$ by thc BPB (litcr BPB
M"nuhduing) slB oryroFtion. Tnc ltrodud vs qnib si,nplc. It ms
rhc bondins togpthcr of tm stets of pldsbdrd *ith . hon yomb of
prp.r be!ren thcm Bertr rh. conirg ol rhc Pramounr !ruuon\,
pirrnions wqe nostly mddc 016 cks or brc% block. TlBc hid to be

rlB {\lc{ nr hi{ fitrhsm L\ rlk l,NlN I' iN,'lvo r
.lt rr,i'n* ilnn,nsti,,{ tyu hr J$il, tr E '( nl'N!,n'l
tlmdrt ,Lllnucd,n', !l willk, conrr.l rhirss. 'l hcrc i, L er tr
divr
h osdNnr (hun(Lirs rlNr os* nxtrc t, rhu 0xigutrr cnrlvnNrv

lh r nt Eriri i t{i ir{ {tNl "I
lr
iih\hcJ .y rh{s[ i' (r,,lnn
otrl.l
,

NNar,l. I'hr rlv{trhsc nl

ndi' 1.,,'JJnn
linirlld $iin i skiD coit.ltlNrcr rtrrl ir $i$ liFht.'lhu pnrliriin $u
LucLcd ir rr52.It is trowclcrrsiv0ly usc.l li,rn.n-ldl-llc itr[$nliro r,n Jllryr(. nl hnu\injr
|tr tr 'or..nc. / ht,'rBt.J,'..'lnNtnr'(. rnnrltuivr'{'trt,1'shrir
' trr.h ...c 'l ,i.'1,'llorJ (\.'.trr (qhrh h, J'J nhJ('r, .'J 1,
Torrl.(r
luil rh@, md rvith tho iiacisc nr rlE housing ogfl nncs, rlrv
ptsodc..l upNrgc ol pllncr lnd lhsctlrr(t ri|.r
Bcrd ,6.'p"JI'om52.27s.@o\qutr.)"J"rrr. i'' {r.

rccouted lbr the
Uie

b

a'

in 1967. (ln I9?.. srld $crc

ro2,774ooo $quie

it Io8,lr,,oo.

'ids

rufl ,e' n, i c or r.oqh r n' ir rhc arly ,56. , 'r'( n.,i rl,,
icqdsition olc. Dividsoi& Sons in 1953 Ge Chptcr S),'lhis rc$h
in gret nurul bocfir. Di dson's s dcnly found new tcchnnrl ,F
sotrr@s dd capital at tbcir disp.sal, {idl i lffgc ticd m kct, ind lrl'lr
lad in xsurcd supply oaplper 6r pl,*abdrd.
' r 'I. lortunc\ o r.l,rL \l.I
.\;;'htr'' ii
s. l"r ",q'o.,LoiqMcsh'dh J.n.'{1.rr t'1r
with l.C.L to supply rnilydrnc. Frot this, rlphuriclcid{.uldto .
with amcri clinker as i by-pmduct. This trdc hsted.nly rb.( rNo
v.r^ niiilT cI onened thei osn ircintleNoth as.Inthcc lv

.

'

,,

,so ,

r

c* mn.Jn . , r"rtnncdsrlpl.'r c.i" C/'Io'r'io,.
lisns, l.C.l., cou aulds lnd M.Iiecnnic Brothcis

foriled" by

".i
nl

othes. Bl,B {on i long tcm o.trut to supply annydritc fron Long Nlc[
T'he
inbydrnc v$ slirPd
to the olpomtions ncw pLnt rt l\ridNs.
((hoc
mensive snlirys
dircct by nil tne 80 nilcs froor Inns Meg
rvere de\rloped) io widncs. vciy quickly, outpnt iochcd too,@o nn,s

i

In N,lrrcb 1954 it an cxtnordin.ry genel metirg, one the 6rs ol

'ro.sallrroN oi'l-.."apry. BoB\ h.l',a nlni'i..
'k'
,(.'. scp..r.J l.on rl'c hnrdi,s o nply rd 'rken u' \) , tr,-l)
lirTd -ub.ioh'!. Ih. Bn, h PJ.'d Bmrd (\,h'u ,-u',9,. .i.,
R. \ B'or, r DrcoDonl. r JtuB n-, i'e rct. Thc nrn" o Ln.h'l I tr,'
.,nrr, *."r,aci|o'tl-c B"i!l Dl^r' Bord (lloJ'nel. l'li,
rL. n..'

otbcr

miil

G)Tie

L, Biggs in .luryo ol
Bypsnn subsididics continued,
"ith grDup.
Danqcll lsdi.g the Gotham

and D. V.

mn rvho hls bcen rt tnc hctn ol BPB lor nelrly 1 +infi.i r
," r'.,, L"nc..liurel! r6pn .ihrc'u' rl'.h. truorpos sr'lr1l.tF i ,nr'nj'ior..l Aroup, n t,n{n (i,','l
n-,'. ir rh' iop'11
jn
rl.rou!.Dn rh.gI
L" mplt Rsl'.Tlrs)1.! R.S.JuLe l,;r
The

ih|!l u

rhc

lnrlu*ry tlun tomrt rarnt. wdunio, Nhouh rhtl,irc brcn
lutlrhlisk(lswhsc,'1 ho cluinrrtrrollll'lJIklu* !sccNnrulylnxls
lnu| citi,,{ !"d M nudy romrdn,s or Ploisu hlo. lt is rhis
m cx(nctrmt tlrr rltr ncEon mdnrs hitr, flrc"unrrr\.
Rlchtr.l s Jul+ M' bo in \", 'h Voui'riir. o{. r Onr$. 'tr
6.0, llc s$ rn( !,n rl r nrlon, ul',hinrlr w.a l'' i af .' clcrL\tr' I

;deh holi\1$ol li'msrbrorJ. lliscrrlr.,ildh'",1tr...m'l'il''.
fh. lhnrily,r.J'o rl'c t ra.i, \Ionr'.'irr}'tr rl. l .'nrd Sh':.,nJ
t,l.n t, l'rir", n PusLo n-",,, l'q'trrcd . L,A'r.rJ ijr rror'l''''
lhlv rcmriNd

on

tlrcourbrokollhc !,rra

tqt{.

$1iirg
arfinrcmcdtD'"'qra,irr6r.h.pii , n.r s r'l6Fr.'l
ql6i1.lri
Mr_,)
\onI ilrn,. H. dii i, rororn
'l l[ v"rncRirhrr.l luLc\',cn s. ro sr r' JTU rdl \cn i', C.i',r,,,ior
Pe
ilc' 1. !o .Jrp. xJ rll' I
Uurv, n-""L"it
',
'o,
'tt".t.rsr
rea"n
oainc
n,. l hiJ r firr h'
kri;ncnninshinr tht i Nohed

lukcd
onJc( in

modurnd*re;...'h"u(h. l0'nosedas,_\.'opie" FoI'lcinall:.'l'
lsN -qcee(.u to hio up rhc Crsi.. C 1e*-nd I tr!.Totr.ysrr'
lou t ws nruu,p i" rorio. tne r..er icd *hool r' d t 'a.ly sc'''q"
irriricht or o(r hu J .d tr Lrcct.,A L w mi1u.6lar.', I sr h.'Llco ur

t;nt of fi. schml lor smqns reu rl mirLs m(h\'
Lulrnl sh@l r 17, h- rcn eo h. u iplj o' .h:p!:r'g rL ri'.
Dc$hr \ r(hcr,'.w acns $ e F'. J ,d Ulo.en Hc s.."c (n' r LJ
oflcrcd. tobrb'ord, i,r tldir, o, t\d.'l..id(d h | ' ,' shotrl4 -n' ' '[ '
"
c'.c',rl''''
it.l$k;.he\q,tu'icl,dLor hrn"'r.mJ,hnB'n'o''
BL.(|.' -lo
hc comDlere,l hi, rcou'..,n'l r1iai.g. \ rireiJ H,
Itr

Jon r. 'ou' 'r ..)
\rd'oroe,l . L". 'ol,l
6rn, Mo,eu,sorrno w"t-",:ndsrEst,te,l JJ Rrha'dJuL ' o.r.
him.Thdqo'[.d roKrh(rro snhi.c.Tnen,rfi o rhre]er' ..,.'.'hc

ht66;r." iroo..r tvF B'3
ofl

sor,iob riri d;Dn,i+,

comprny,

"ho!0'.,on rs

o

inr,)

'I renmbc thlt {hen I 6st wcnt dorvn to Rochstcr, mchinfy rv$
rrJ
iun sEnins h rm\c 'rr ofi(e m' s ln'|, cun'h ro . h r. I
'B' mRJns "h
Len.u.aiqnrrc. Loraon'ornrrcd 'N rlsel,.
ol'hi' i'rlc nu ' J
$ ,cn h. iuq s@d il rl-.dm.qrl^rj
Ioe Surble
"s
_tr
rd E"r mb rhb uP c 'hr, Eo r rigl't m. . ro
tia,
rcu
'ry
r';utrst
d.re.op.t, bd, 'c 'ere L.rr'ns r.o\her'. 'oI
GLdi. A
,r

,ibhradjoumo'l'.Btr..\aerr'
,ussBred rh.
* R. s. Iulcs dird s chrirED in July

"c

'e73.

n i'h.dhc'

vur{li.sirI.. nntw(h( n(r tr!lin l{ntr,ilhrJi

iir

n(rrar'

.1trl.\rr nJ.'\ ja.s,'.r,"., ['(, trr't'nr(,+ ri. i.,,h.n...,t Lh. 1t,.
1,,....1 .1,'.;,r.,,t,." s,,tr'. \ li,'l\n(.r..nnnx,.,1,,tr.',lli,,Fr,,, ,{,.

nn1,r..tr]r1..tri,!f,,rni\'r,',iL ll\,'.,f,|.n'ir.n','.\.,'trin' r',{,

him.llc us i v.Ly rough l,os,l,nt i voy wcll-lik&l h'ss. llem rlir ri'
drghront l drjoycd lio rhc l,cginnnrs. lvcusuudrllrlrc riitrc.,
It has in lpril r9r+rhdt luk!rjoi.cd (jyp'oc.lluicr0d $ r.cor n.rtrr/
sc.rddy.]{ yorr or tM hrcr, hc l,ccrmc scncril mrniscroloy0n).I trl
oltu b ildinsnratciilssidcof tlonoy*ill&Strir;JocSriuc\fur p,,F
ducrion himger !t Gyproc rt tlis rinrc.
Sonc kn yars ldorc thc wd, Jul{* Iorrcd ro fly sirh rfu ll l li
R.scrv.. Itc or'eql to \rhnrccr lor tho R.A.lr .t thc bcginriDs rl rt"
*"r bnr 6u.J tne.e {ere tm Drny pilo6 aor rD acrv phrcs, i h. $ Lr
olicrcd c.pLo)mentasrnlccour6 oln&i.TlisdidnorlDrcrl r'hi',

soash.msrjrcadyinIresc^tdoc.uprtionLcsFntrhcsnriIi 0!'\.
In lacr, bc h$ n.cly pilorcd I rir.rlr $rcc. 'lt is usurlty n h( I I
shouldn'r,' lr si)s. ije oncc rook thc o.k!L ola DC6 orur (io .Lt
4Iiici. Anodro dnc, nc sr)s, it \"s impofirnt ro gct lronr ono plicr tr
CrmJtr ro anotlt.r i nurJ, so hc md Sn cralu tII?ynrnrn,lI)u.lt
DrmcEll chatcrcd r sdill lh.e. 'T[c ot]rcr ttro ncr.ly lcll our ol rh.
planc vhen they siy rhlt rt.ne point dE pilot lhd lnmlcd olor rh.

By ihe ady r9+.s, thcrc yere nrious difiiculiicsand di*ci..dn. Grr
Gypruc rnd r erilin
ol lru$fttion. S. Ju[cs rold drc Disti]tur
CorDrrny llrt iathc diRtalties ladnl b.en stmightened ont
cDd ol'
tlc ),Lar hc sluld lei\€. And lmvc hc did in the Apil oa r9,t3. ,Wh$ ]
nd {cnt tu Bl'8, I aound d)r rh6e iedly tusn't r iob aor mc. I hr
strggu{cd to Grhlnr H.rDrN whcn I vls t$yins, diit G}proc shoul(L
rcgrrd nc xs r lind o[ bridse bctwccn tfu $o .onp]nics, ind so I s|r
i lor ol dnc in thxi n$t yed drinking rboui dr luture of the ntdu*ry,
ibout LoR n (ould dcvelop fter dr mr. I t]1cn icted as sc.ond{ifn,F
ncgotirtor to Htrgb Fcrguson.'

inou

-rqin, q!,

,n,lu

bedlr,'1..o'h..nrio'

ltlc

i'Jun'i",h ri il

Juks cdly lilc. 'l goi to lnolv hin pictty rvcll. Ai lha t dmq rnerc '\yrs
only dt Gyt$q LC,l. ind P,l.G. plNtcrbodd.pehtions oursido l,is
coDptrry. IIe rvas x tmendously aorcetul chmeEr and x 6iilli r
limNir. I lnc$ Inn to be te(iblr rutlncs, brt I hNc xl$ s(n lirn
rccitnrs BunN \dtl tcls runnins down bis f.@. rlc !"s a mi yu

T'r. , o. "-. -'.r o',\\il Eri,, . 'Ne .'d @nhden.L tr. otrF
.l\e..o'.,mn Idou' tr^Jdc.W-a-e"oidhe.p- dr'b-. rd1. tr.,
u',, L, O ( ! nio r,idcL ! in lh- ni Lo , ol G,n uc r lrn,,J

!fu mmrur wl,tn (;y|$'( tr N $'l,r' lrl'lr,,h' l '',ll''uunrJ
IiJl,\.tr1, l.ntr'
lrl llli tr sd,l ,l 'r'ni I|', t'..r u' rtrr,'.'.'L('!,r,,r
.rr' tr'llv
fnJ Ahh,trr.h. h,',1 i l,l rlrr.lo t.1 i r'.., 1,'i'f i'
Itah lrr,ooo. n:r, t,.r i.'r,ooo N,i .''s,,1'l'l'r',r'lnI'l
tr' ril .r,r,'r'.'i"(1is'uJ,..
th.y h l h(',1 '{ L, rlidr '1,
'.,
,
b$n,flh ! 'u,1,' ,x n 'r kri ',,1 l\oo,om!
lr r!sr, J.'tu. h.'.tr r '.,, tr.r..'r,ln('or:n, I'iah','' tr.'i((l$
I rrr57.
dlDhty (l'trirnrn, tr'iLl, \
L1J l',|n.'\.l. rmn.l nr r.'d..ncr..
1r r{(,.,1(r, hn u-l' '(rtr(trtrr

Lngcsnr rh. hktorl ofthe clmlxny. Thc oficc oa
oh{inMn isr lcNmrl.nc, cich holdcrbinsiogton his om patic u
{iulirn', nr ' ,, ,J !vlc. Dl n l'..' ]'ccn -.. n) ndrrir|c..5'.."(.

torhol'2r yo

a, tbc

l'.',j'r..(rrr-,rJJ \ lr'l-l.hi' ( rlJlndr
Juk$ t'!rs;,r u..ur..d xr 'tr. ',.'1.1'g\r.r...(oq.'J
ilcr.un,u, o ro'l "dc\..ot r..c' r,,'r " .,trr, ry.' oc..-. J...
yhcld. Oldr tltrcc ror+xmtive chxinren, dc lns ms kc Hudn.,
who rorvcd liom tbc aormation oa tne oq)rtl nntil 1927. Litdc is
wh"trr llurli

Lmwn rbout Lcc Hudson, HeNs cnrirreo olMcchi.\ rt thc ncoa
thc fitrmntion ol Bl'B and ii $as n11uftl t[.t hc slolld becomo .Mn_
Din olthc nerv comprny. A slicito. by proiession, thcr .rn bc no
douht thrt lrc brousht xn element.Ishhiliq to, ud i.Tirod conndcre
ir, s Bmrd thrt Ms nr the cirly ddys conpGed ldscly ol unt.o{n rnd
utricd nren.T h1ae exrly dxts ous hrvc seveEly iest d his aanl h drc
ncq cntcryrise, and thdc is .o rcord or rhe lensn,.s rit nNt hNa
dcvcnDcd behind tbc s*ncs, thc coDtol oJ rvhich {ould Isvc rcquircd a
rnd sladamt nnrd. Wc cnr only suss rvnrt wxs dcNndcd ol
't
hnn, 6ut $c cN r.grct rllt he slered his c@nccti.n wnl drc coNpany
un thc cve of fic tnnc of its risnrg stn,
Lr I-Indson {$ sucecded by Hugh liryuson (1927 35), -ho madc
sry lor J. N. Dcrbyshne oo dre xmrlgititio. Rith drc Gotham Com_
prny. Dobyshire only held ofice nJ. lcrv .Dnrhs, unril thc o"ls,m}
"
tsclper trccxme cnaimtn
ion Bnh The C.ypsun n'lin$, {hm
G9u5 56).l.rdlelpe! bruught tothcorlccdrp(ri$ ola lrccr ofdre
relm and ol a sqt lindonner. lvith his lotrg cxpcricne ol thc sl]rsun

*i*

ln

-"

J'.hrlo,rir.ion..l .l

^"1\'"1'
"T.c.i'_
'ndu$'r
ins!detrchcdlnd.d illgnrqucrcconthc$idcuictjolpcsoirfti.s
{no iomed thc B rd. Throughout tho Group hc b.dm kno{n aor dE
clo* i.tc&st hc took ni its acti,ities ud for r hoyish 2c* {lich cn-

tIM with wlo,n Ie onrc in contrct rt ?ny lcvcl.
Lnrd
lcho's
dc h, Sn Grlhan Hirmrn tortu cl rmn
On
0956-65). At thh tnnc, Si. Grolnm Ms ?Gsid.nt ol tbc Fcdcrition ol
Britis[ lndustry and Chiimun oa thc Mrn4]unont Cirnr.rittcc oi the
derrcd hio to

ry,, shld,
unnEry hchiq hRnNo(hnnur
lrr,xrt i,(J rhc ,i, n nttlrFE4r
rt,. (jt|i,r irntn*r.ui,n,,",,rrc,,r ,t,,.
un s.
',.I!r\1r, rs, ,tu "r\ r nHtr,,t.srt. i,nhh,, i,,t r\ |Er irn.,
Sr,.',"J'.'Trtrvli.'J\.t)u,'trCtri.h1n,,it((,h(B,arhh.L,t,lng,h.\
(xf -k tr,,,, b$ i'..'.r,i,,,.r r,,
Latri, a{\ trt.r t, Lutrtr,tr (J i; rh.
'ontr rtr tr ot B'nFL cJpyrn,, j0,,t rd,r" tr(,t ii rt,"",({,, nr,lr;,.
Di{rillcH CouII

m(nr{'urur(olrh

GrouD.

qr o con'fam.. ne,l,u.. he hr'u.\,
. \ c'rt'/Fo,
"pn.r.J i,. ,o57, t .,r ,i.l
,rnr
s Dr,crd i,{t,o dpB h,oDi. \i :h,t,c d..rr
loin,.,.
1.c.1. n' 1968, BIB b(rme a ro" Er e;t
--.-lv
B'B' r. c(, tur m.' r r...,i..ro,",,.,"'1, ao,," po..r.,,
a\ h br. lir o{cii, lpL ,,..".., nonopot). ,nd h,hc h.r d ",, .).,tr.
i,
h.6 f.a.', rr{tun' o,o,\ qr cer d ot uo. d \tl r rt. rhd
n,,,..
w.J lJ held blkr I { $\. er p .-re,n,nopotr+
rc.,.r..h
t r\ by , dc,r b.pro6. pubti"ere
;rq!r ,nd r tu
,onototj- \s(
.
s00d ru \\u oDcEhd 3uon,,.ic r'n .h. n,bll n.c es I L n.r,,(
mononi\ t.gr{m r dr, rd ot , \tr q. dhrhd \o t) r, r(
"
innLror o' pnhre aoD
foli6. tn, ".\ 1,h. *,deh._\ t. b.,., f ,n..,t
lr lrciou.. l'rlri r o o.,, e. h tre pro\r o-9. L o or1 \t Jn.r (,,,

T{.r\ .peN\.' irca,D,. roci.u,e,ldms.urrL ireFcr,l
mr.,r\ bJpptvx rhcd,,ed,,ft.,.J,JFJrkr,,
' \A bc,'
p"trr.
5rb rs proud iir. i, \o .,,t rh.J; ,ppftqnoot,nr,nJ otr
lli :1.: 1,1., ., d!r-i ir \a r,v r,..ord u.n,reirr_i h. 5oo'
n
poi urh, p,iflk nn,op.ir,rn:;JIo-J 1,.
's l bru
'o t n.h,,r
op.nrd
u rie nub
Tli \i.u \rc,oni. ,ed qhu,.
J tnr

P,ic

rff 1,,(so g'p.u"p-odu.6
ui

Lhc

B?!

P P.u..

rs

Group.

i,

,rus,

1nd tnron cs, inJDDrorina.,n In, rEen.
em' urro. ns
o oaicrhccjri i.n.j

r r. -.urll) dlted.

rJ

qr

to,, .d In,9t, bl J sroupor 1,h..,

u', aF,, mirh. \. **n U..uo.a,"o C,""i-a, on,r..
rhc ,rJ ,rbrr? hiniri!.t p, rh.6,,, or st.th hr,t benen,lb
b.1cd
l'udo. inj .. 'lhe N. .o_\c. ru!t,(dbtr r,Lngs\il,
'
$red a oEcB. 1.]]c pi.nr ms s* !p, likc thN { Drnh d Rocier;.
rr

,r'

nr

\rL..r

or

r

nnNs., rl'r I'I.'tr
d ii' dFi[tr
|,tr,.\ F {'(.sttrl.y hui.r , tr,t \i.hi.r r
TIF fl'*runn,.r'.1
onr ol Cnr.lh' l'.. 4,r.{ tor rl', rl..rc.
ar lltr{(l',, J

lt..h'ri,

"r.,min;
lu rlrc qt.riotr o'

lll scB drlNarJ

urr orlj rtro u iB tr, rt,.rrp,ur rnnuJ,) ,, i,\
J1rh. 'iio\otrh(r
'le,,o,'rot
BPB. O.e qA rtr rt..r.M.J ;,.i"..rdc ;t I ( I,
{h !h. Nd'lu\n i, .06o. U r,.
r5r, rt,. ort,T \ F rh. nrtrr.t t,, rrr
r.nr
\h:ch ss uh, o(, b) BpD rh rc.,.
rc".
iil,:"
o-

rb \.'.o Ll lor

alml} cdfv|Bnntn Crri,h I rhhd{, rhcnr llyirx(anF
sN lhr Li'rlc \,tr',,s{ (iyNtr (nrF1y IN,,v,'\d i.r. ( iluh
D, wh,, hrlhi,l ("nr.un"r\ rh lrl,ll $nll"{\
Iinl',qi\

r939-4j w
lchiMd lm,n lllrncc but

rrliltoftlt

h, .ill q,h no !o ipkl; uh r
ovcrtook dr ncy' comDmy. PImd n 6en

durirg.nd to thc mr nas obttrircd aron
lh*cr
D
{'J
1n..rs.,uil'a.co.l,m.
Vr,t-esh. K tr6\ro..
lftfih
fid cvctr kam t'i,h. n,l ko.l-c'kr. son( o'rh" {':Dme;, ior 'hc m-l
fi. rol.l to G]'proc dfiirg the ilr iDd thc sdy{clds sar Ioe Stmtlo
alltitutlbrscrup'oB' ir,, ror rh^picr.re Ti..onnr'1,'o'dftnlr

llmo \urrrlE rl'c r9+or, h,'
{-fl p.:c..onr ,l \ il..o\ ot
"r
Prodn(lion $rs i(adrly nklinE.
D t lhc @npxnv su^'iv"d. iN .lFr. r{ll us b.il' 'n 19 ,,, d
ItFttrr(d r,'nc pr itr'l c h'q nn s-.amc or porivr hii'Ji' s re\ produ.rion
cotr{rr,rirn lr
r l trrlhon\qr.,.)
"...on
'".r5.
ycr.,,l-.ie
J"ub'ed
ir
Thc floduc_i,,n
tcr
F"' drRr\ul.i,. 'J.
,{r 6bour the sDe tinre !s BPB sis dc\clo ns its Er* Lerlc ttanr,
P,P.G. is.lrJo id.,l roe Ebhc\rsonJ rl.'. 'rl-ep1n sr.ro\uid
frctory n Bndg,v 'n SonrRr, ro
-I..un tlom lreLnd. D.P.c.'
'
'rkc
vcnt public ln 1946 b 6n.ncc rlrc dcvclopdmt. Ils oplcity ms sd ir
t,@o squn tnrds an ho... Bnt tho di1nculd6 sh ed. The gr?sun
from Ireland rm out and P.P.G. had to mkc ada.grm€ds to rle
gnsur rock non BPB. Tnere sere *o tedrnlg Eoblems nnh rhe
phnt, which iNmpor.kd tne fist di.cct-6rcd drid in thc.onntlr, But
then clme i crushing blow. Sir Slrdo.d Cripps an.omc.d 2 dnstic at
in the nouins DroF",.,nrn }is to bc lDlvcdad wnhin r aey
nont66 derond sinply {oul.l not sustrin thc ri@ry rt Dridg{rtd. Sq
trlh n yer or producrrcn,
H disn:nrlLd in rorrl .rJ.he
'I. pi
mchi'.'J bt.n b C-ec-hirh,
lo' drr-e \4uc.,o.rl.pi qr.p
m.cJ in ro(r r"1n Jddr o to rhe Grecnh'fic EcroN.
By 1952, P.tG, had rc-Boblhhed ibeli dspite ihc srtrL, rid
rccomtcd for rbont ro pcr ccni ol the tohl ph*erbod mrkct. It [,d
been in t\e'niddl. ol'h.,n'en,c 1\.'lrt in rhe s, u. aN bc \(fl . r,\.
Roc.'e.rcr n d LnJ ainr. 'lle cotrccrr ss boloi' i
by BPD.
'gtsthc sitc of
The pllnt yas disnrndod and trusfncd b Ei$ LcrLc ind
tte fictory ms sold ro r snip o(n{ lnd .n cnsincding conen.
\o' kr r, rorgs rh. rs. ( or P P C. qas trs gonqrl nr,," -, F ..
Fl"od Fm.l ro'ncd PP.G.
qa,, rnn I ws i,.. r 0,. 0.,r.
'n
slilaul mmscmcnt thn rhc mnlany
Niyed thc diflicult ]lostjEr

yc r, Sins. j0inir[rhr (ir.nD, L (]. ll,nrlhi{ krv ir i nunrl'.r,'l
qNciri(, nohUJ rsNrtr,girFdi'ccrn ol lh(i,rh r(nht'tri,dtr'ir I
' ,( s1"'h t\iii.l ,{' I ,' l.r. t,1,h1... r1.".. {i(.r$.(ly ,.
'.,tr.'rxrt
dnccrtr 0l lJrnirh l,hucr r n l,,, ns r nl lr'.ilisl' (jlp{r , 'rnJ
s n,,
1969 rs.hri hn ol rM GtuLtJ Nlitrrgu'rDi (nDnrirrcc.

Inrh.[ -rris,nncs

it

LoDrc

rcDrn,p]r srsn,c'{sltr( !tr0dr[((;'otrr,
,{ {4o6,om l)n,F.rnn( hcor h r9j4, r' .{urd r|c l)r
'Ll

,,/li

dnd ill xt Er$ Lcrkc. '1'hc )cxr l[tur x h77,ooo s.hcnr I'rl
bcsun, to inshll d Loiitl Mlinc rr
rr n$v fh{cr nrilLlrL,
i',.'lhd. C.rt. , ' ,6r ,'/ t..ooDi.,
^l,(,lccn
i'h(1,1.",tr ',,.M.uDilicld,
york begrn m dr.N Brigllling nrnrc ncr
rtrd
dpxnsior ol d)c c]rlnc ?lNcr pla ts rr Cocthhes wl Knkl)J 'l 'rt,n
lr! r
phtrt

tr

took plicc bcnyeen rgSS rnd 196r.
The stc y work ol plint expl$ioD or thc gyt, n sidc ol lll,lr's
6usinc$ th'lush thc rgsos yasr pr{rntion lbrj lnd x
! n,,In
mrid DuLet plndurion
took rlncc
drc r96os. ]\ Ilo$o
r*crrch dcl tmcnt Ms set up !t Ei$ Lc.te to iDtroe. thc qurln!,i
rho prodtrct, rnd rn rgrccDc.t Ns lctrchcd in 1962 yitL thc unir(tl
Surcs G/psuD Comprny n,r rn cychansc olrcchniql kDorvllrlgc. l'1,(
cxp sior nr thc lrto rgjos in tnc nL(et rnd nr phnt opncny lis fn

th

i|

p t

Tl'. tr,xr.r.o'gr,i.'i', irfr",, r" J 1i t ph,e.' rrb, tri. tr i'
. oirdcn r o 8..' sr Phs.f rrJ Bc,J (vhi.' u i. rl,Tr A.r',,t

\

lrPB (Nilnuricnuins), Gotlun rnd Sh.pp*d's) ?ud Gnmc (\ rich ii!
,'uJrd G1-.. Cn!,rn.
,r e, .F
ann Gllqral). 4 ru''
'
tion o.eftd {hcn thcsc hrc conprris ncc consoliJrcn 'tinbB'nish
T
GyFUm in 1964 vith Gsn-rct, Flood .s ninagi,Ig dnlrh. \is rvls r h(
ond of thcperiod oaiDtcFcompanycompcrilionj
is.trr
it,
which
du.i's
bnildc$'n)crcliDs
hrd
ro
soch
dilI.rcnt
l'inD(ls
tua
sold b, rcprcscntltircs lioN difcrcrr @rccnrs all csutirllv ownrd

\lo-

r

r'hllrnrdd'

thc

\

she n lJing dmpuy. Thc p €nt coinp y ms rc.rdcd lll,ll

Tnrongn nrc @rly r96os, 6nc ! serics ol lcrps foi\rrd. ln ]\l,crdou,,
grmt nex lnvelIom (No. S) prpcFnr*ins maclhc }"s inshlld irr
rq6t 62. Its cxpacity would bc nrncsed nr r969. Tirc i.linc originxlh
o$ ow.12 nillion md dr cxtcnsion sonrc
nriltion.
Ticpioducdonoipla{crtorrdatErnLcr[cyxs,loublcd in ]16+.,!l

tl[

r 50pcr ccot.ddition to.,prcnv

& rr6u,

{rl
xttr n\asn .!lntlclitcr.

giosth oi Cdlilc lldor hrd bccomc so mp tlmr it \yrs
d{idcd ro bnild x nc$ phsrcr dil ir rhc Norh {c*. The snc dr6dt ls
ihe eiistnrg tlNcr mill oa'tI6. I4ccnic & Sons lby thcn piit of drr
Gotlxm Comp ry) rt KirkLy TIDrc, \'IcB thc.isin pl,(o Dpli!!
c

?

l

n Ca nrs, nnmi^g
Innir$I$torLi
-"1@.
i r (lNrs ! Jdt ol liu<oronr adoro
,r/dr. GqngcTulrd d

i!

orrrir-

triitrdrn\ trorurirsillori e i.hni.ca

l. nloebusscrt,\hetuoiodltinh.

Rm'n,r rfl ,r
('u7 tf)'rnhrt
11l.

llur'll',ri

'i{
L!ltrlN,

(,fl{ \' /,r,,\,,'.r,, rr",,"
inL,,rlr \
l

lr(r

l,r.r'rrr rn ,
lh,rh,r(,!,r rr), ,,rt N r)or\r,,1

lid ryd ,(hqhrltp(srll\ sii( 4a
rhru,rryin!nr\lrdlnn$NrL
tu(i'[i,s\i,"ronlctundortr!]

i' n
hr rlr W,'lld,'v rli{(1ry,Irh lnllt 'n r' Kkkhy 't'hntu
('.rL''"
(,{'."''"
S.,r,'h
n.Ll,''.'r
Jr\
|'{r
."
rl"
.\1r
vrll,"rr
rNrll
'llt(v'll,'(r'{r, r r,''', ll'r'.''('.rr''t,tr.r'.'l jr.n.ri'r"l'\
rl'L r$ rl.r'
trtrlir, vr',.nn. l'1,{rl'...' l',.r',rr.,if r't'!i'"

hus,(l r.r, .rl ilor lr I'J '.'.h1. ''li1r!q,it' l'r Lri h"JL
d".*,r",r;"J,, trr."n'',\' ir.\'' r..tr"..,urkrl'..r"'JLr"r rl
''l'li.n. Dl,t' n l'...J,ncr.ulr'tr' rilr rorrud'cc l' nrl.'.1
(nrlirc rl.h,:.., w.rl, i i' iri.l. ri,.,.rl or ao.mo'or. P.' rr u " i I
c"r,li rr'(r'ilvn('c."J $l lcrl.cr,l'. r'lusn h'c''r rrg
ol'druori,m. it;$ d.{idcJ to.dd r lh$cruoard pllnt }itn rddidoml
k( l$,,'. t,r rl,.r ri'.r,h'c l-.J. . r hrc.nrl,-ubl i,,l'v'i".os
wh(h.1,! rl.r- ".rli tr iasc.i'I "hod":rEproB',a' '.*^''r'i''b-r
D nircrr1"J"...'d o' n"f,c'bo.trd CrrA.pl..r' nl.r-'
*"' I r.,Uo.o -,a'l'e pl^"hdrJ p.. .c'i!i,J'o'nr.t'lr

\iu.ft r
illi
'l'n.,c;crc

LlspGrnnumjsn

ooal{'

milllun.

'dd,
jr.o.tr{. Drcbn' .ltr.he
'
l,,r-(r..'L,l'"h,- lm !. rl''. n .'oq' r r.-'!pL,",inr'ro'
rN d r:''. (lL i''.-'d.h.rr,
s;,.,,.rc_ 1, r.l' roo rr h., T\.0 nce.'ui i'r''rl o'nrad$,'1. /;.mo r.'rh tr.d ,; r no".' ro,. n lby und.,sro,ad.Jl'l .

ti"

ru.,tt . i,

roq nl ni,,Ibon '.tr{ ,p"'ir\or.do(.c '
ol': '-. dbedu.'ir"inrc.,ofou L,J_g
nrl lb.rr,.1ri" r..dnr . .,.n.'byJno""tr- dsisr'th,
lr.de o' rh, o,q n r t'bo-rd b'il, i, qs s r.lised br p'n-r.'tj'g po'
brichwork insertio*. 'l cchDimlly, also, the lh$er nil
t6Ds yith
'rrcy
qi.
o.''fl "' nio' xl .l .isn. Ris n'..r.r',1.i 6 s'' u rd r
huilLh'd
ruiu,mro,r ro., " clr.'o r l' ,rrnJ pr lr lorn.d rr.\"ll ol'l'
,'dl. Ti,. oroe..e. E.'. n'srh r-,o'n.'nl, 'o rl, e h, n.rnrrctunnrp;0."s " IdIc.o'",ll.-b) rs.ror.rJ ren, 'l orr'o'.
un ro thc nr.kins srse
richt
-On
d d Ri. lti',,rc"{rh(rr" r ', llytir'd o
aoD or r
"
1.. ",p tr'.d'ly
r,ro4. f ^. ws.';r.rr..j,,l'if,
b ili.',
'.rc
*
s(l' .{d
qu'!
I
ro'r
Jong
rl-c
du.ineri.n nu,l. 91
'o\.\!.j
Fu8,
son'c
h
o
d' .i_
oro.l,i.i,: c5 ."n'lv. ln 'q'
llos.oe '.. f,
'
!.ILi"o'
l Kl\Lv'lto'. /rd n'
;.'io. ,J D .. ,e r. " -h Do
1068, r scmn,l plNerbolrd ?rcducrion line dl r8 nrillior squrc ynds
Dd .rnun s E con!ru(cd * x cct ol 1"8i8,ooo.
' ln rqo' 0PB u\ovr.{n rP'"dLL(V.rlr&rurire,.,or"' v
nxd 1,r.. $(lr (' n(' .o BPlj lo' onc'rm.. Ar cr I s l'"r' d "
'hr
ftibcdirolNi. r.i'ri'.n'"' p'opr.vkr'ncopLh''.oal",J.
i\cD, "i 1,. "'.vcn'\.'"rn'o,.,.'l' -doc.'.",.iirsi
wucdfi

iuNgtrrd'ru.Lr: ihsnd'Biidirins
trrtr frur lh!

rnr

( c.r)

r,*ins an

hc

$u'

.n..,-r.J ,ro.u,lerl,"'J'r o\nl.Lld'lle,,,.1

Li

'
trnoldRor r -i(

v l nlchcrl i,, rhc )td. Wirh Ail* urBtlc ot tleicri,,[
t0rttrcJ f r!i,,s otr ccih,ss, sytNun hor li,,ixh dn$rd h rtun,irr
rhlc rivrl. lr ns brctr chnncd rh Arl0x is usd ir Jo tu uutr r'l rll
ncw lDuscs bnilr nr rhis counny,
'lltr conr0my \ru lbu&lcd by r cllirv$cctrt trl urcrgcri.li8r'(,
S. J. NliddlctoD. Middlcton nid bosun by tuvcllirs tho conr!'y is i
si,,cc

it

pldic@mpoundrppliotor. HetEvcucd eud iLrdD rcicnt,{u{ir7

cnmNr cdintorvm.Itissridthltthchrstenpl,)yccollisli rwrsr
[iklnr.n {no hrd nilkcd lll the my lionr thc Ithotrfi Villcy r,

Litdchmpton loolins for a job. Middlltn himsclitrlk his coml]orD(l
.o ouldn's r.6ro' ''d r\c.on',ol I nLl rJ ri i',
.J ", rtr'u tr 1.
'1,.
@ntacr yiih Dxvid Simon olaPll \vho Ms tncn sclln$ rhncnnr n'
the sanc ucr. Ilastrb&rd \rs tnB nxtunl taclgrolnd 1'or MiJdlck r
prcduct,Thesalcoll dwrsst*dy,t ty 1960 n Ms iiu o.ly ih
'l
ISo,ooo wo,1h r ycr. Ercn b, it rdout.d to I pr.nhtk lit eSusn,rss.
ln 1966, ,rrtd novcd into nev proDies Nc{hircn cLsc n, J,!
pl,m oMed hy irs dsochtc cornpuy, H. Colg.tc ud Gny, \ebicn lrd
bmn uufacturing slitnrs sine 1882. Shortly alter thjs oyc, Itl'lJ
tmk ilc o,npa,y ovcr. By r97o, its sl6 serc running !t {600,000 vonh
a ycrr, .nd thc pldtr.t Nctrhm) wd emlloying ibout ?5 pcoplc.
Bd's'iu
s?,.io l'.d o. rr.4nor.d. To tr,' . .
'io''o'lodo\
tlo ouput of?la$crborrd )rcr furthu,' n ms dccidcd o crat x rcu boraL
plrr r_ Sl, hun. n Yort.l'n.. Ii, .165. r $o-(r I5,r.ooo
dcvdo!,ncDt pmgramne n6 iniiiired io cxploit ihe vcry sood,'ni'r
bur
ditncult, dcposit of gyp$m in thc aro ]'hcn, in 1969, a ncw bo&l
pld, co*i.g tr2,235,o0o, ms qeded. Cuiolsly e.o!st, drc *ci vxs
,ot uraaniliar pcMnally io RiclDrd luLcs, by no\y chdrDin. Iror
shordy bclorc thc su hc had ticd to pe!$rde thc Distillcs Gnpa ry n,
allot {2,ooo to prGprct the Selby irer .lse t}. The allotncnt r$
rfusd but, of c@se, dre glTrm Ms sdll thde 30 yea6 latcr.

Ir rq67, B?B toot ovo xn unnsurl riil, Bdlroc! 6}1)sum IndustLirs.
Le€' ,pd' , "6ldrcJ: ' rq"7 o oodut' d.c D"UroL! \uildi,s p. n"
.n,l \'d b"g', n.odu ns pLs e,boud in 1957. tu r inrelopfl inb'\.

ficld dooin.ted ty BPB, it otrcd ns not inconsidmble snE$ to in
energelic tcaf,, who mrc impircd by a Sot ndncd Noiran Gr@nl6s
Wei Loudon.
In thc {rly r93os, London, rn accouftnt aion C.mpteltovn, hc
ome bord idr {counhcy. Ho ns Ltcr to sry: 'So,no dditors spcnd
a wnot veck sorynlg aboni cightpcncc.' Loudor's iftpaticne rnh
peftitbgsing lcd him lxt$ to fotrnd r British 6ln sudio, lrtd sill n,
fdud Belrock Gt?sum Indushis,

rrift'(ic(nov D(drsl,ir
w[, hc. ctrsrs,Hrk, rL[!i(l lica* rilirllr [(oori,irisi c Tcntr
(ir i ort. l lc l'xruhl onu [&[ rnd!d uDn, hri',rss s.lhrI rlidr.
|r.h ut rr.u.!n':..'f(,'lr(rtr''l.'hrl'i.tr'l'i,ni.,: l.i'arl,'.i, ..
bo${h' old Nrrr hrsc il Shcprro on. Rcxlisi'rs Loth rhc tfe
Aftcl (tunrins odtrrr'trr.y, ho rtr lc n

nonlou| ,irtuo ihcid ind ttu x $itior ol arc cmcrginli cnrcina F
duiry, lk rt.rn .. {trdi, sh"tF.'oi. bu..Ji rg lo's ..r..1 trs r,
hllhu rh n,n r, hlm cnmn. cs
I&u(rr'ssldlldstdD{iudion.inctodrnoticcofolfi ci ciicl.sand
during tlrc r91{) .ts \vr hc \ar niking rlunmt airicldsrnd instalhtiois
.rtoNtrrdccoF-,lsins plxso ln{k. LIis il$cdiv.rcssi,cn lull rcin,
ho sn$ cycn Di[ins pl,*d shc.p, p]i$o Spitnres ud plder bedse
ros|, IIc oncc cliimcd tnrt r ltrll ro lcr ant ofrlrc GcimaD bombs thit
foll on this @nn&y duing tbc m. fcl or hG extrordinary dunmics.
In ,r+t, nc s.lJ hi..to, i.h Sl q-.uidcr (ordr,"lio -,. o .
' 1 l-'
Sh nctur c.er r'r. l,'nous i.'\. p6'\ar (ireturr. mna)'la
nE
ncxi ic.r l-. [' .. d B,l''o.[ C]T.um lnorskis ro L.Dloi' r b'
phnt
pmeh,
smll
C[dS$cd
on
lnd
built
hios€lfu
iylrcm
Dldter
ey, Suflcy. Tlc Dcllrock Buildirs Puel, nxmed ftd i6 invcnroi Pcrcy
1,.U, consised oa tvo * nElihict smooth &es .f nmi hcnihldfttc

Brrumrl,r- {.nrone.ls'iht''o.6brr'd". r",,lhr_oorl.i\
'flrc Ps.cl. - r lo,o-bL-':ns nd h n lern.l'^,Lio1 iJ 6J,l'on rion q.rl'n6.'l I'e dr'q 'oD.d,c'.r'l! ln'.l J blo.la rhar

on ,nc acv.n. Ltcr. nJi o. snc on a
..'dc\.i
bu"J'nJr ls. Lor.donrrsu.d
rirrhhflJnr).or,rorJ
i\ql
i',
rhr rh(r (-. up ro
'yIo'q 'rrh't,'1l-lorl.n,l
rcdued drynrg
anr rcdudion in vrtr contcrt
ihc ph$c6ork, and'.!@"
plohlcns. The blocls were uscd lor conplctc co.stuciioD, rccdirs
orly an ofde b' .nc $rrrt.r'g'orr[.r-.rp.dor..,nou-l'
pmlr!.'l diin!trl'c' ,Fc 1
lor rnt rfl'hd. U'l'ru,.rl/,
'iny

mnl,l Ii. J.n.d inr. er h

"rher

muoteled ind, ia spnc of in inlrdsivc list of liccnscs, thc systenr

nd

By rhe time Ionn R.d6rvq ht r mnisnrg dnabr, joi'rd BellFct
in r0t7, r.F€mptr, h .utrLnn,d.otr''l-o,oooo lo'A, ,u' i' I' n

'

icqrirmr ' F jlpld ,,lcro<r rr Sr' ro.-ir-.ne\..c \n'' ' h I
shi;r. s F lhuid,dr'.ol rpprrc-'r rrrTn*n'
-'J l'.1
ben bonght and r qufty flrd ftctory estiblishod duc. l nc ph$( r' odued frod Siluniotr vcDt not only i o thc lcuEl pincls, tut rle 1o

the genehl bniunrg hdc. In rri7, lrced rvith the continunrg hihc ol
the Bellr.ck l'ncl to rnrke prcfittblc heldwtrn thc cory,rny drcni.d ro
go intorliscrboird oduction. ?lut rms bousht and c.c.t.d id. bnilling660 lcct long.
r t'rc rrcrs) rhc comprny $rs suppltnrg rbont 2

\vd

f .cnr,'l'rl,r.oi

rryls

tr(tllitr

fl lu'llr

,lly

rua.r,

irrvs

rDnr

Ir wis i'r ,,)(i7, wirl' rho Jdrh !'l N,trr tr litrkl,n,,rlr n rrN litr !
n.co\\rry n,scllrl,o utrnNry ln irnliciti,n, ol ns sL..rrs \riirh c(r
oisiml shmh)Ud i.tciv.d ri riDu\ rho nrtrnr ol .i$irl rhry lk

'fhcsi.rv.f BIB Indnsri.s hrs 6Lu onccsscnriillv.ltusni{tr,. lr rl
bc senahrt6 qch phlsordcvclor.trtclo{d, i trcsirl ovu',{r
('diig p(nod sr. ge--.' d lrr'rl''.'./lolrl r'o.'\'.r'r:,, I
1",, r, .r
oJ. drlsD'.d._.' dDL cDU.'Ji'rurl,.nn'.(r"..,
'hi
. 1..,.
a.
n'
n
i
r.cr.'.
ini
J
a
r
lor.rill
I
trrl-e-.\r.
.....ni s,
"1.,
,l
n@ersry
k
etl
rdfs
thse DltciiL. n {rs lelt norc dmn cv{

q Fnsion i. to . cn 6clds. Into, aor nstince) the nrinnl g oi or hcr mnN'r l\.
srqrcr use olsyl)sonr in xdcuiurc G g. iI $edins), nN sbcd,ndd irl\.
rennemonh in nining tdhn iqu6 rnd nsuu nrenirtion g.n nl \', i n d i n ! '
other

mx! olthc t niunB

d

honeD insind!*rits.

In Junc r96q, DPB Lrlu$rics t oL oler the oFfrrn,r ol ScothrJ,
.rtors ol lrood cliplmrd, bscd o. Jrvi.c, on the soudF\ee$ --{ ,
]\r,slir S.otLofud \vrs shtcd in Mxr.b 1966, oo thc crest or ! m\ c ol
d.nund lor mtdhk lor hctoy]uilt n.usi.g. TIE !h.t vrs \vithnr .L
rc onluc {lishcc olsuit blc iin,ber itnr for.sty Comrissin nood
Iinds rnd i1 is also clos o rhc indu$dal hcholScodmd.nd, ihcrn'(,
ru Jtl.it tr (c o, kts LndJrcrnl \untl) ,,llrlour.
W", r,\ipoo.trd r. tr',d"'1"'r ",,l,hir r.,d rr he r ".itr h
' , tr u'..i.,r '{,1 '1 r :nL. .,1 {ti i'Li. .no rlrl" i r . ll'
rpplicitio.s oa rood ch\,b.rrd hive bccn gtrdy expudd, xnd n ir
rscd i.crcNirsly in tlrcL.usirg,shirbuil.ling, tuflriture and sin{ ntirrl
nrdu$rics \v@d chipbox .rn be Drdc nrc-rsistnnt. 1hc \rml n
ll'i ''e "! ' . .f' 'J \ l'.'
l..o)c,, dir d 'ni )'J:
'.',.1.
.,;-,.",.,,,1
'. \n.1'hrri hon 5u,'' ni.'(\.,r.'i
prc$cd nndcr h.xt. All tlDt is lcft is todn tosi^, m rcitN.dsrtr(lro
icknc$. Thc rlxnt.am tmtu Hcimd I lol^crledclu,$ G.m.b.+L rr
Munich, rho xlso t'itul keypmornel.
Nnh thc sm$i,rg rc.ct ranc. .l wood chipb.r id.r'PMdins nndt
h.y nrdu$ris, Sco$ord is poised ao. i gtii tunrc.

.- J.n....i.c...rrc Ii

qu, :in
'l-,
".o,,'l l"r.i
,h" P''..t.',...,.eoir.\,,1',F,r1h,Lroj'r,\\'in
(\Io lnl b.m x scotish rusby irtdndioial) and le Dss.n (rvho lftl
J roo'brl' ror P'crn' N rh t d\. !?B \xl .'rc. ' 'o | ".'
r'r)
'
:'- rltr,o.ip.nr".,en: usl,'r,di' q6s.Thi.,r'I
rIo
pi'
; ih'n.' ir rgq'rliri(.b'rJ . . rnr"',rhr,. o'
Juo da' o-rd
\i,,.r

\{,'t, i,, ,,,h1uiFnn,ill' lrrlllrtr'
i[ nu( h$q, rfllltr'nHNh]
(.r
l'-'rr s.\
r'l'ri,'r-

r,{ nl rd
hhtr' 1l r1.".,,'u \.. rr. l'l, .nnl Jnl' I :rr.\1.'(".'i\ l' nnl "irl,
ti. [rNr.'l'h6L l'" r'l( * s, '.x'Ll.',llt{,h(l,. .nri iJ ' r i' I', drtio'initr it\. 1 t',t,1'u'.. l.r.i'r .' ( afi 0r rr.. l'l c l'h-+,''',un 1..
lar|Irly {Jt,{,,I'rl .,,i]'t.i,l{,i1.'.n"',. ' L'. . .\. nld I l'(. I

ttI{,

rl'r'(

Jiil' trj..r\'l l'-

lni,l' i,.,L, **,,

.,i.,1,,.!i1',c,,.1t(,i'''"rii'.trstrr'(r
l r ,lirl,a.' J' , i:,,, r'.1. r.( .tr-J- 01 l{l'U i , r toEhok
lr',,.n..,'|.cqi'('i,n rJ.r.ctrn h
lfli {.,r1r., trn
'''
tiio, llllr l!,
Ll'i',.','.hr u.' t' 'p r':. ort]r!.rhe
ir..1r.L. d(\!.op'.rr.1.-pa''li.irume'
ni(cnrirl' \'\L
ir,r F"rr. , "."-l 'om..r.c'' . 'll-. n'"'.. rn .!D '
.
|t! ,fi'I''(.'l .tr\ - ',r'J'r'bo,.prnr,",F"nrlr,.i(rd.dd.
n, rldcl't' I'urch,ic l,l|jBins t(Iniq res riihin th. Gruup.
'lhr n;ir ufle " ', . n -a'rE i. o locc' i r'oi, lyc rn.o
i lDrlioh. l'.,f lr'r'{n'o'1...r-...'irbu ' nr.iJoD,l o
rlt (rrh penctmtcd trc rcorde,l. This tchniquc, which hls ben
sirlclv uscd in the oil dusty, is beins qrrrlicd 6y ilt! ro gIFsn, coil
rl,;rllr m'am.. '.. I'e s'e,.J\r 'sr',loLvk.Ins. i1 TrJ
odncc orcs to x\scss thc .ortcnts oi boreholes.
rtrrcs, ttc neod t
't his sidc oa tho busincss IN excitins intsmtioml prospccs md suti .r 'dr r.d \u{11'r DHI
riillr ,.nria
.',.
L',
J v,'on',.' L'n n.lL [- Jle. l,'B'l)
In,lu.ri. tl'' rlr =1' )
h, r nh$olnrd in,I rrrpir inJun n5.
:'l l{PBi' :.d
l'h,i,quos u"'. ., ne o,l d''n J -nr !o r n n q'
tr$cA...m'dtdr. h. .lr" l, '.x.*r'on,..r'-:ioni 19'o
n, {17 s nillion nr 19rr, and llous tl)c rcal \alu6 oatne rsols Bctc
i.rr dcrlmor Thr r ' " !r,'l$4!benr'-i 'r' "'r\,'ighr
ir;'c..trdo-;oG'r'm l-'.8., n'.i'ly qn nrl_J.\1") ol 'he
dircctor in chrgc ol dtun.., N. It. Bircw, Bxn.\v ioined drc Gop 6
(counr-r r' \4. I u"'J'i ra8n,l.c_cd',r .'.a''o R C. Tor ! 5
n \4,Us\ un' Ir -'rn''.' i'.ner. tr'rh8.H.M."mo'nred'orl-e
DMrd ofilP! in th y.r, ard then in 1969 nc u,s irpoitrtcd deputl
The cendd cortol oaBPE I usdi6 is rov in the hrnds ofa
1,

corpict orgNis io! it Fcrsusotr House, Lordor. In .ddition to N, M.
B.tros is chanmm. !'. G. Fl@d. chaimm oa thc MMrseDrenl Con
cbiel cxeutivc oi ifu G$up, cxe(n$ .t Fers!$n Uousc
nrittee.
'nd
r'.Fr
r$i"c'a<olCo,p'n',.,,o\.1i"^nrEl'c,
Dr"\io
vi.c".,nd
n
rq'd,'q
1,nrn-.
*ma.", ,".c c.mrmq

n or0 Eslod of.s!|ulon !ndr, .nod$r b!rll|t. At ono m.t6thl h
d.vclopcd lo ih fuuo! oxt nt, riorhci L found. Ar t chnlqud In ino
6dd d. DEft(cd, n.v.ic6 s. ctplorcd. In 1971, BPB lndu ricr
€nredng d ph.s *c!y hit a *iuns d oby in in hiitory.
so,

it r**u",r,*"
C D.d&od&

s@ltd., q, @

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,k'rdvdb[rfuGbq4j

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trlMm, Dli

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llrl'idlrorl tn ld,, trtrI..r
htumlnrn rir rc Adr lnun

fto'lnd!(M urrduh8) L,r.

Nrtioi.lcrlryG.,5I

&triddiEdglidcnj*liilqldb,

M

DiS,L,M6,DIGDreC1 ..'4
nisbid, Roc( ndbrerq, {c*Lrr!

turd PqlN* (M'N'roduhd Ltl., 17

Lll*los,nrduri6L/,E4
C, LrrYid,o,t & son

BE@ rdil.i rlii.d ty ,. w.
vhr. t D N, eibdoE hr (,Fu

A&qS6dL,,l}eid{ldus,cydtrh

mqe{ [D Aidgstr&s Lld., {l
Bld,BoLiPodfutrDnsl,{!{('

uoEllPred!.sLd''rouddbyBgJbq
BPB

Bib, Ijd{ ioid ..uird d \t6dl

Lid.,qi
!d..33. cc uo

!.lhmhrokioskG

Indsrils

jli

(ns0d.)

100&6

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d 64rcd

Dn.

&tih fln,ci Ldir (MnF

|alidstdPh(Plfr,sA,,
Breuc.Nomm.fl6uosgio,llki
!u.l*b@,Abqdqqlil.ofMql@$
Bdd ! Ftrl, BJ'c' &atrp'M ud

nuu;i[,d$6]'tEo cFtrre .r
pr
J, PEll & sd LPo4i4") Li ,
rl{d Indud (crshni!) rd , 4
ErdkqModqns l} Grcrco s I,76
Irdcl,fc Prp&

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'!rrtr; rrcr mnr<nFy onE'irhi,
Dkh. sq.io, Aa cFDc, hd.4 6
Bfu, ndo4 sricitq, a$odnc or
iliis Gtr<r!

B|rcm;s.

& co.

Ld.,

F

Berun d@n,:t

Bcttsigudl,idl.dtfuF@N.'
cry'lvshnc{psnr,d'*@dehli,

dhfuqdB4qusc{'sn'*6
E.U'P(qut{,&'Ld(bu]ld4Fq!'.
aridsnaddBqd (E ldiis) ,rd , r4
Edftn flff B6rd (Molretoliq) Lrd.,

cq,,lvshmc4PMLtdlw€ko

r}lrrhh}h eDoirDr,Nro n,Nrlry,,

rirr r unrol,rt
Ory*.,,10 rhC,,{,tuMy,,

o.lnid Hd,
Ircdwk

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,r!fto@rl', NMlun( tlrld C.ihlitrr

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(ltliotrgll,Nd6ge4&LLIquncd

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cDfdel&smLtd.dlpl.iFFl'33

ubrc lilh Gi.dlG

!t

tudsri,

&En cf4nmi, c. Duidq &

cdlMr, hre0h nobiEor & co.

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