Hannah Marshall L6LK IB-H

DETROIT, MICHIGAN, USA. Population (yr2000) : 951,270 Est. Population, July 2004 : 900,198 (-5.4% change) Males – 448,319 (47.1%) Females – 502,951 (52.9%) Median resident age: 30.9 years Median household income: $29,526 (yr2000) Median house value: $63,600 (year2000) Mean travel time to work: 28.4 minutes.

Hannah Marshall L6LK IB-H

Detroit, MI MSA Population
and Components of Change
(1999 MSA Definition)

Components of Change InterTotal national Net % Population Immigra- Domestic Date Population Change Change Births Deaths tion Migration 1970 4,495,299 1971 4,520,000 1972 4,513,000 1973 4,490,400 1974 4,473,000 1975 4,444,300 1976 4,408,800 1977 4,397,200 1978 4,398,200 1979 4,394,500 1980 4,387,735 1981 4,308,531 1982 4,254,735 1983 4,216,206 1984 4,213,371 1985 4,224,649 1986 4,247,055 1987 4,265,993 1988 4,255,913 1989 4,258,047 1990 4,266,654 1991 4,300,800 1992 4,332,479 1993 4,354,631 1994 4,372,551 1995 4,404,207 0.5 -0.2 -0.5 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -0.3 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 -1.8 -1.2 -0.9 -0.1 0.3 0.5 0.4 -0.2 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.7 24,701 -7,000 -22,600 -17,400 -28,700 -35,500 -11,600 1,000 -3,700 -6,765 4,886 6,341 6,365 5,702 7,083 -34,725 -26,786 -32,553 -32,679 -20,360

-79,204 80,632 46,449 -53,796 62,211 37,373 -38,529 60,565 37,324 -2,835 60,258 37,409 11,278 61,728 37,985 22,406 62,888 38,872 18,938 64,598 38,883 -10,080 65,407 38,739 2,134 67,974 38,484 8,607 53,021 28,602 34,146 91,376 46,762 31,679 70,128 37,899 22,152 67,801 38,380 17,920 65,574 39,625 31,656 64,892 38,831

Hannah Marshall L6LK IB-H 1996 4,434,395 1997 4,439,050 1998 4,436,918 1999 4,439,141 2000 4,441,551 2001 4,456,762 2002 4,457,751 2003 4,463,408 2004 4,464,703 2005 4,460,753 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 -0.1 30,188 62,776 38,853 4,655 62,746 38,881 -2,132 61,951 39,170 2,223 62,895 39,775 2,410 15,211 78,682 49,835 989 60,521 39,815 5,657 59,944 39,707 1,295 60,064 38,888 -3,950 59,036 38,636 8,616 10,821 9,412 9,223 18,386 14,894 14,169 12,887 11,701 -20,981 -25,906 -30,018 -26,996 -30,824 -33,657 -27,685 -31,542 -36,385

Source: U.S. Bureau of Census

What is Urbanisation? Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. What causes urbanisation? Urbanisation occurs because people move from rural areas to urban areas.
Levels of urbanisation in 1950 and 1990

1950 World MEDCs LEDCs 30% 53% 17%

1990 51% 74% 34%

Prior to 1950 the majority of urbanisation occurred in MEDCs. Rapid urbanisation took place during the period of industrialisation that took place in Europe and North America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Many people moved from rural to urban areas to get jobs in the rapidly expanding industries in many large towns and cities. Since 1950 urbanisation has slowed in most MEDCs, and now some of the biggest cities are losing

Hannah Marshall L6LK IB-H

population as people move away from the city to rural environments. This is known as counter-urbanisation. Counter-urbanisation Counter-urbanisation is the movement of people out of cities, to the surrounding areas. Since 1950 this proccess has been occurring in MEDCs. There are four main reasons for counter-urbanisation: 1. The increase in car ownership over the last 40 years means people are more mobile. This has led to an increase in commuting. Also, the growth in information technology (E-mail, faxes and video conferencing) means more people can work from home. 2. Urban areas are becoming increasing unpleasant place to live. This is the result of pollution, crime and traffic congestion. 3. More people tend to move when they retire. 4. New business parks on the edge of cities (on Greenfield sites) mean people no longer have to travel to the city centre. People now prefer to live on the outskirts of the city to be near where they work. Urban problems in MEDCs Urban areas in MEDCs have experienced a range of problems in recent years. These include:  Traffic problems. Car ownership and commuting means an increase in congestion and pollution.  Decline in industry. As older manufacturing industries have closed they have left empty, derelict buildings towards the centre of the city. Modern industries need more space so tend to locate on the edge of the city.  High unemployment in inner city areas (where the old industries were once located) leads to social problems.

Hannah Marshall L6LK IB-H

Changes in shopping have also caused problems. City centre locations are no longer favoured. There has been a recent growth in out of town shopping centres, which has led to the decline of many CBDs (central business districts).  COUNTERURBANISATION IN DETROIT.

 As the data from the US census statistics show, the population of Detroit is decreasing, and this is due to counter urbanisation, as the population are moving from the city into rural areas.  Due to various reasons, such as, an increase in car ownership, out of town shopping facilities meaning one doesn’t need to be near the CBD, and people choosing to leave the city as Detroit is known for a high crime rate, and also cities are highly polluted, and people would prefer to live in cleaner more pleasant areas.  THE WHITE FLIGHT  The white population of Detroit began to move away from the inner city after World War 1, to new suburban communities.  Major cities had experienced tight housing markets during the war years along with an influx of blacks seeking war work. Whites with the means to leave did so in some cases to escape the increasing racial tensions they observed on television news reports of the volatile Civil rights movement, which generated crime in inner cities between radical racists and new black residents, but in other cases simply because they were promised by real estate agents that suburban communities, with their new housing stock, roads and schools, were more desirable places to live.  Even those who couldn't afford to leave moved to transitional housing awaiting affordable prospects in the newer white enclaves. Most white families found in the early years that these suburban outposts were converted farmland, which lacked personality and services and conveniences of the cities they left, but were compelled to stay at the behest of their

Hannah Marshall L6LK IB-H

children, who would later spark the new urbanism of the 1990s.  Whites quickly took their tax and investment dollars and services, such as teachers, grocery stores and clothing retail, with them, abandoning the cities to the ill-equipped, poorest Americans, black and some white. With no local jobs or businesses the neighbourhoods disintegrated and ultimately turned into increasingly poverty-stricken and crime-ridden slums with failing and dilapidated public schools.

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