Lecture 7 Modelling Second Order Systems and Examples
CL417 Process Control Prof. Kannan M. Moudgalya
IIT Bombay Monday, 6 August 2012
Responses of second order systems Capacitive systems Time delay
T a
The relation between T _{a} and T is second order
What we discussed is of the following form:
u(s)
1
1
y(s)
s + 1
s + 2
Mathematical model:
G(s) =
1
1
=
s + 1 s + 2
1
s ^{2} + 3s + 2
Consider following generalised models:
G(s) =
K
τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1
Y(s) = G(s)U(s), G(s) =
K
τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1
τ is the time constant ζ is the damping coeﬃcient K is the steady state gain
Step response: Y(s) =
=
A s + a
+
B
s + b ^{+}
C
s
K

M

τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Is there a relation between a and b, A and B?

K

M

A

B

C

Y(s) =


=

+
s + b ^{+} s

τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1

s

s + a

Given that y(t) is the output of a plant,
Answer: 4, i.e. a and b are complex conjugates If a and b are not complex conjugates, y(t) will be imaginary, not realistic for a real plant!

K

M

A

B

C


Y(s) =


+
s + b ^{+} s


τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1

s

=

s + a

a and b are roots of τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1 = 0
a = b ^{∗} , A = B ^{∗} −2ζτ ± ^{} 4ζ ^{2} τ ^{2} − 4τ ^{2} a, b =
2τ ^{2}
= −
ζ
±
1
^{} ζ ^{2} − 1
τ ζ ≥ 1, a, b are real
τ
ζ < 1, complex
Y(s) =
K

M

τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Known as an overdamped system (ζ > 1) Its solution is given by
cosh ^{ζ} ^{2} ^{−} ^{1} t + τ
y(t) = KM 1 − e ^{(}^{−}^{ζ}^{t}^{/}^{τ} ^{)} ∗
ζ
− 1 sinh ^{ζ} ^{2} ^{−} ^{1} τ
^{} ζ ^{2}
t }
Y(s) =
K

M

τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Known as critically damped system (ζ = 1)
Its solution is given by
y(t) = KM 1 − 1 +
τ t ^{} _{e} −t/τ ^{}
Y(s) =
K

M

τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Known as underdamped system (ζ < 1)
Its solution is given by
cos ^{1} ^{−} ^{ζ} ^{2} t +
τ
y(t) = KM 1 − e ^{(}^{−}^{ζ}^{t}^{/}^{τ} ^{)} ∗
− ζ _{2} sin ^{1} ^{−} ^{ζ} ^{2}
ζ
τ
^{} 1
t }
G(s) =
K
τ ^{2} s ^{2} + 2ζτ s + 1
will also be written as
G(s) =
ω
s ^{2} + 2ζω _{n} s + ω
K is taken as 1
ω _{n} : natural frequency, ζ: damping factor.
For diﬀerent values of ζ, get underdamped,
critically damped, overdamped systmes
Fit a ﬁrst order transfer function to SBHS
response  demonstrated in the last class
Scilab code will be given for this lab
Fit a second order overdamped model to the
same step response
You will have to modify the Scilab code yourself
First check it out on simulation, check the
code and then try on the lab
Try only one unknown change at a time!
dh
A dt = Q _{i} − Q
In deviational variables,
d∆h
A
dt
= ∆Q _{i} (t) − ∆Q(t)
Taking Laplace transform,
As∆h(s) = ∆Q _{i} (s) − ∆Q(s)
∆h(s) =
1
1
As ∆Q _{i} (s) − As ∆Q(s)

K

a


Y(s) =
τ s

+ 1 U(s),

U(s) =

s _{2} ↔ at


K

a

A

B

C


Y(s) =

τ s + 1

s ^{2}

=
τ s + 1

^{+}

s

+

s ^{2}


Multiply

by
τ s
+ 1, let s

=

−1/τ , A = Kaτ ^{2}

Multiply by s ^{2} :
Ka
=
τ s + 1
A
+ 1 s ^{2} + Bs + C
τ s
By letting s = 0, C = Ka
Diﬀerentiating blue equation w.r.t. s
and letting s = 0, B = −Kaτ
Final value of ramp input to a ﬁrst order system
Y(s) =
Y(s) =
A
τ s + 1 ^{+}
Kaτ ^{2}
−
τ s + 1
Inverting
B
s
+
C
s ^{2}
Kaτ
s
+
Ka
s ^{2}
y(t) = Kaτ ^{} e ^{−}^{t}^{/}^{τ} − 1 ^{} + Kat
y(t = ∞) = Ka(t − τ )
Let K = 1 and plot u(t) and y(t) in the same
plot
Give the following input, u(t):
u(t) = 1(t) × M − 1(t − t _{1} ) × M
1(t) denotes unit step input
u(t) = [1(t) − 1(t − t _{1} )] × M
U(s) = ^{1}
s
−
1
s
_{e} −t _{1} s ^{} _{M}
U(s) = [1 − e ^{−}^{t} ^{1} ^{s} ] ^{M}
s
Change the input by a step
Find out when the output starts changing
Determine the time delay
Check whether the SBHS has any time delay!
Responses of second order systems
Scilab code
Capacitive systems
Time delay