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Lecture 7 Modelling Second Order Systems and Examples

CL-417 Process Control Prof. Kannan M. Moudgalya

IIT Bombay Monday, 6 August 2012

Lecture 7 Modelling Second Order Systems and Examples CL-417 Process Control Prof. Kannan M. Moudgalya IIT

Responses of second order systems Capacitive systems Time delay

Responses of second order systems Capacitive systems Time delay
Q i (t) h(t) h(t) Q(t) = x(t)h(t)
Q i (t)
h(t)
h(t)
Q(t) = x(t)h(t)
T T w
T
T w

T a

The relation between T a and T is second order

T T w T a The relation between T and T is second order

What we discussed is of the following form:

u(s) 1 1 y(s) s + 1 s + 2
u(s)
1
1
y(s)
s + 1
s + 2

Mathematical model:

G(s) =

1

1

=

s + 1 s + 2

1

s 2 + 3s + 2

Consider following generalised models:

G(s) =

K

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

What we discussed is of the following form: u(s) 1 1 y(s) s + 1 s

Y(s) = G(s)U(s), G(s) =

K

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

τ is the time constant ζ is the damping coefficient K is the steady state gain

Step response: Y(s) =

=

A s + a

+

B

s + b +

C

s

K

M

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Is there a relation between a and b, A and B?

Y(s) = G(s)U(s), G(s) = K τ s + 2 ζτ s + 1 τ is
 

K

M

A

B

C

Y(s) =

 

=

+

s + b + s

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

s

s + a

Given that y(t) is the output of a plant,

  • 1. There is no relationship between a and b

  • 2. Either a or b is real

  • 3. a = b

  • 4. a and b are complex conjugates

Answer: 4, i.e. a and b are complex conjugates If a and b are not complex conjugates, y(t) will be imaginary, not realistic for a real plant!

K M A B C Y(s) = = + s + b s τ s +
 

K

M

A

B

C

 

Y(s) =

 

+

s + b + s

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

s

=

s + a

a and b are roots of τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1 = 0

a = b , A = B 2ζτ ± 4ζ 2 τ 2 4τ 2 a, b =

2τ 2

=

ζ

±

1

ζ 2 1

τ ζ 1, a, b are real

τ

ζ < 1, complex

K M A B C Y(s) = + s + b s τ s + 2

Y(s) =

K

M

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Known as an overdamped system (ζ > 1) Its solution is given by

cosh ζ 2 1 t + τ

y(t) = KM 1 e (ζt/τ )

ζ

1 sinh ζ 2 1 τ

Y(s) = K M τ s + 2 ζτ s + 1 s Known as an

ζ 2

t }

Y(s) = K M τ s + 2 ζτ s + 1 s Known as an

Y(s) =

K

M

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Known as critically damped system (ζ = 1)

Its solution is given by

y(t) = KM 1 1 +

τ t e t

Y(s) = K M τ s + 2 ζτ s + 1 s Known as critically

Y(s) =

K

M

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

s

Known as underdamped system (ζ < 1)

Its solution is given by

cos 1 ζ 2 t +

τ

y(t) = KM 1 e (ζt/τ )

ζ 2 sin 1 ζ 2

ζ

τ

Y(s) = K M τ s + 2 ζτ s + 1 s Known as underdamped

1

t }

Y(s) = K M τ s + 2 ζτ s + 1 s Known as underdamped

G(s) =

K

τ 2 s 2 + 2ζτ s + 1

will also be written as

G(s) =

ω

2

n

s 2 + 2ζω n s + ω

2

n

K is taken as 1

ω n : natural frequency, ζ: damping factor.

For different values of ζ, get underdamped,

critically damped, overdamped systmes

G(s) = K τ s + 2 ζτ s + 1 will also be written as

exec ( ’ second . s c i ’ )

 

;

s

=

%s

omegan =

1 ;

t

=

1

:

0 . 1 : 1 5 ;

 

y

=

second ( omegan , 0 . 1

,

t )

;

y

=

second ( omegan , 0 . 5

,

t )

;

y

=

second ( omegan , 1 ,

t )

;

y

=

second ( omegan , 2 ,

t )

;

f u n c t i o n

y

=

second ( omegan , zeta , t )

G = omegan ˆ2/( s ˆ2+2z e t a omegans+

 

omegan ˆ2)

 

y

=

csim ( ’

s t e p ’ , t ,G) ;

 

p l o t 2 d ( t

, y )

e n d f u n c t i o n

exec ( ’ second . s c i ’ ) ; s = %s omegan =

Fit a first order transfer function to SBHS

response - demonstrated in the last class

Scilab code will be given for this lab

Fit a second order overdamped model to the

same step response

You will have to modify the Scilab code yourself

First check it out on simulation, check the

code and then try on the lab

Try only one unknown change at a time!

Fit a first order transfer function to SBHS response - demonstrated in the last class
Q i (t) h(t) Q
Q i (t)
h(t)
Q

dh

A dt = Q i Q

In deviational variables,

d∆h

A

dt

= ∆Q i (t) ∆Q(t)

Taking Laplace transform,

As∆h(s) = ∆Q i (s) ∆Q(s)

∆h(s) =

1

1

As ∆Q i (s) As ∆Q(s)

Q i (t) h(t) Q dh A dt = Q − Q In deviational variables, d∆h
Q i (t) h(t) Q
Q i (t)
h(t)
Q

In

case

of

a

step distur-

bance in

feed flow,

tank

will

1.

overflow

 

2.

run dry

3.

overflow or run dry

4.

stabilise at some

 

suitable value

Answer:

3:

overflow or

run dry

run dry
 

K

a

 

Y(s) =

τ s

+ 1 U(s),

U(s) =

s 2 at

 

K

a

A

B

C

Y(s) =

τ s + 1

s 2

=

τ s + 1

+

s

+

s 2

Multiply

by

τ s

+ 1, let s

=

1, A = Kaτ 2

Multiply by s 2 :

Ka

=

τ s + 1

A

+ 1 s 2 + Bs + C

τ s

By letting s = 0, C = Ka

Differentiating blue equation w.r.t. s

and letting s = 0, B = Kaτ

K a Y(s) = τ s + 1 U(s) , U(s) = s ↔ at K

Final value of ramp input to a first order system

Y(s) =

Y(s) =

A

τ s + 1 +

Kaτ 2

τ s + 1

Inverting

B

s

+

C

s 2

Kaτ

s

+

Ka

s 2

y(t) = Kaτ e t/τ 1 + Kat

y(t = ) = Ka(t τ )

Let K = 1 and plot u(t) and y(t) in the same

plot

Final value of ramp input to a first order system Y(s) = Y(s) = A τ

Give the following input, u(t):

M t = 0 t = t 1
M
t = 0
t = t 1

u(t) = 1(t) × M 1(t t 1 ) × M

1(t) denotes unit step input

u(t) = [1(t) 1(t t 1 )] × M

U(s) = 1

s

1

s

e t 1 s M

U(s) = [1 e t 1 s ] M

s

Give the following input, u(t): M t = 0 t = t 1 u(t) =

From a previous lecture

From a previous lecture

Change the input by a step

Find out when the output starts changing

Determine the time delay

Check whether the SBHS has any time delay!

Change the input by a step Find out when the output starts changing Determine the time

Responses of second order systems

Scilab code

Capacitive systems

Time delay

Responses of second order systems Scilab code Capacitive systems Time delay

Thank you

Thank you