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MATERI KULIAH

KIMIA DASAR
untuk JURUSAN
FISIKA dan MATEMATIKA

Referensi
Sisler, H.H., R.D. Dresdner, and W.T. Mooney, 1980,
Chemistry: Systematic Approach, Oxford University Press,
New York.
Stenko, M.J., R.A. Plane, and S. Marcus, 1987,
Experimental Chemistry, McGraw Hill Book Co. New York
Brady, J.E., 1996, General Chemistry, John Wiley and
Sons, New York.
Steven S. Zumdahl, 1996, Chemistry, D.C. Heath and
Company, Toronto.
James F. Hall, 1996, Instructors Resource Guide for
Experimental Chemistry, D.C. Heath and Company,
Toronto.
Knneth C. Brooks, 1996, Instructors Guide in Chemistry,
D.C. Heath and Company, Toronto.

Struktur atom
Sifat atom dalam sistem periodik
Stoikiometri
Kesetimbangan kimia
Ikatan kimia
Termokimia
Kinetika kimia
Kimia larutan dan terapan

Sistem Penilaian

Tugas
Quiz
Aktivitas Kelas
Ujian Akhir
Praktikum

20%
20%
20%
20%
20%

MATERI
Wujud materi: solid, liquid, gas (ref.1.3/1.7)
Unsur: substansi murni yang mengandung
hanya satu tipe atom
111 unsur yang telah diketahui: 90 ada
secara alami, sisanya buatan.
Unsur kimia didaftar dalam tabel sistem
periodik unsur.

Senyawa: substansi murni yang


mengandung lebih dari satu tipe atom
Contoh: H2O
Memiliki sifat yang berbeda dari atom-atom
penyusunnya. (ref. 1.6)
Tidak dapat dipisahkan menjadi substansi yg lebih
kecil dengan perlakuan fisik.

Campuran: gabungan dua atau lebih


substansi murni (ref. 1.13)
Campuran heterogen: tidak memiliki penampakan yg
seragam karena komponen tidak tersebar merata
Campuran homogen: penampakan yg seragam
karena komponennya bercampur merata.

HISTORY OF THE ATOM

STRUKTUR ATOM
Perkembangan dr 1800 1900:
Teori radiasi elektromagnetik
Analisis spektrum garis emisi dari hidrogen
Teori kulit elektron
Validasi perilaku kuantum oleh efek
fotolistrik
Perkembangan model atom hidrogen Bohr
Perkembangan teori kuantum untuk
deskripsi partikel.
Jelasnya: ref. 7.2

460 BC

Democritus develops the idea of atoms

he pounded up materials in his pestle and


mortar until he had reduced them to smaller
and smaller particles which he called

ATOMA
(greek for indivisible)

Teori Atom DALTON

HISTORY OF THE ATOM

Atom merupakan building block materi.


1808

John Dalton

suggested that all matter was made up of

tiny spheres that were able to bounce around


with perfect elasticity and called them

ATOMS

Semua atom dari suatu unsur adalah identik. Atom


dari unsur yang berbeda memiliki masa dan sifat
yang berbeda pula.
Selama perubahan kimia, atom tidak diciptakan,
dihancurkan ataupun diubah menjadi tipe atom
lainnya.
Senyawa dibentuk melalui kombinasi sejumlah
atom dari unsur-unsur yang berbeda. Pasangan
unsur yang sama kemungkinan membentuk lebih
dari satu senyawa.

Hukum konservasi materi, hukum komposisi konstant


dan perbandingan ganda. (ref. 2.3)
Postulat Dalton

Listrik
Benjamin Franklin 1760: muatan listrik:
positif (+) dan negatif (-)
Eksperimen dg elektroskop: muatan
yang sama akan tolak menolak,
muatan yang berbeda akan tarik
menarik.
Ref. 2.4

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


1898

Joseph John Thompson

found that atoms could sometimes eject a far


smaller negative particle which he called an

ELECTRON
History of electron

HISTORY OF THE ATOM

HISTORY OF THE ATOM

1904
Thompson develops the idea that an atom was made up of

Ernest Rutherford

1910

electrons scattered unevenly within an elastic sphere surrounded

oversaw Geiger and Marsden carrying out his

by a soup of positive charge to balance the electron's charge

famous experiment.

like plums surrounded by pudding.

they fired Helium nuclei at a piece of gold foil


which was only a few atoms thick.

PLUM PUDDING

they found that although most of them

MODEL

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


helium nuclei

gold foil

passed through. About 1 in 10,000 hit

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


Rutherfords new evidence allowed him to propose a more
detailed model with a central nucleus.

He suggested that the positive charge was all in a central

Simulation

nucleus. With this holding the electrons in place by electrical

Ref. 2.9

helium nuclei

attraction.
Aplication

They found that while most of the helium nuclei passed


through the foil, a small number were deflected and, to their

However, this was not the end of the story.

surprise, some helium nuclei bounced straight back.

Bohrs Atom

HISTORY OF THE ATOM

electrons in orbits
1913

Niels Bohr
studied under Rutherford at the Victoria
University in Manchester.
Bohr refined Rutherford's idea by adding
nucleus

that the electrons were in orbits. Rather


like planets orbiting the sun. With each
orbit only able to contain a set number of
electrons.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

HELIUM ATOM
Shell

proton

+
-

electron

neutron

Particle

Charge

Mass

proton

+ ve charge

neutron

No charge

electron

-ve charge

nil

What do these particles consist of?

Elektron dan Proton


Michael Faraday: partikel dasar peralatan listrik ~
elektron (1891).
Robert Millikan:
massa elektron 9.109389 x 10-28 g.
muatan elektron 1.602 x 10-19 C.
ref. 2.7
Ernest Rutherford, 1886:
Partikel positif: proton
1800 x lebih berat daripada elektron
1.672623 x 10-24 g.
muatan = elektron, tapi berlawanan

Kelemahan teori Dalton


Atom dapat dipecah lagi menjadi partikel
subatom: proton, elektron, neutron.
Atom dari suatu unsur dapat memiliki jumlah
neutron yang berbeda: ~ nomor massanya
pun berbeda isotop.
Atom dari suatu unsur dapat mengalami
perubahan kimia. Misalnya proses
peluruhan. Uranium/polonium?

Partikel Subatom
Henri Bequerel dan Marie Curie: sinar
yg dpt mengekspose lempengan foto
berasal dari peluruhan spontan unsur
radioaktif tertentu.
Ernest Rutherford: 3 tipe sinar
Sinar bermuatan positif
Sinar bermuatan negatif
Sinar tak bermuatan.

Isotop
Semua atom dalam suatu unsur
X proton & neutron yang
memiliki jumlah
sama.
Isotop: atom dari unsur yg sama yg
memiliki massa berbeda karena
memiliki jumlah neutron yg berbeda.
Contoh: ref. 2.10
Sifat kimiawi isotop tidak berbeda,
namun laju reaksinya kemungkinan
berbeda.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

He

2
4

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Electrons are arranged in Energy Levels or

Atomic number
the number of protons in an atom

Atomic mass
the number of protons and
neutrons in an atom

number of electrons = number of protons

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Shells around the nucleus of an atom.

first shell

a maximum of 2 electrons

second shell

a maximum of 8 electrons

third shell

a maximum of 8 electrons

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION

There are two ways to represent the atomic

With electronic configuration elements are represented

structure of an element or compound;

numerically by the number of electrons in their shells


and number of shells. For example;

1.

Electronic Configuration
Nitrogen
2 in 1st shell

2.

Dot & Cross Diagrams

5 in 2nd shell

configuration = 2 , 5

5 = 7

14

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION
Write the electronic configuration for the following
elements;
20

a)

Ca

b)

Na

Cl

c)

23

40

2,8,8,2
d)

11

17

2,8,1
e)

35

2,8,7

Si

14
28

2,8,4

DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS


With Dot & Cross diagrams elements and compounds
are represented by Dots or Crosses to show electrons,
and circles to show the shells. For example;

16

2,6
f)

Nitrogen

X X

X X

11

2,3

14

XX

MEKANIKA STRUKTUR LEWIS

DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS


Draw the Dot & Cross diagrams for the following
elements;
X
8
17
X
a) O
b)
Cl 35 X
16
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X X Cl X X
X
X
X
O
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Atom diwakili dengan simbol yang


mengelilingi elektron valensi.

Pasangan elektron menyendiri (6 x)

Pasangan elektron antara atomatom menunjukkan adanya


pembentukan ikatan.

Pasangan elektron ikatan