You are on page 1of 5

Endospore Key facts

-Are Unique to bacteria
-highly durable dehydrated cells with thick walls
and additional layers, formed internally to the bacterial cell
membrane
When released Endospores can Survive
[RELM]
-RADIATION
-EXTREME HEAT
-LACK OF WATER
-MANY TOXIC CHEMICALS
Sporulation
Process of endospore formation that consist of 6 stages
[SP] First Stage
-DNA IS REPLICATED
-The spore septum begins to isolate the newly replicated DNA
and a SMALL PORTION OF THE CYTOPLASM
[SP] Second stage
The PLASMA MEMBRANE starts to surround the replicated
DNA and cytoplasm
[SP] Third stage
The spore septum surrounds the isolate portion forming a
forespore
[SP] Fourth Stage
The peptidoglycan layer forms btwn the 2 membranes
[SP] Fifth Stage
-THiCK spore coat forms around the outside membrane,
making endospores resistant to many harsh chemicals
-The new spore loses its water and becomes highly dehydrated
to the point that all that remains in the spore is:
~DNA ; SMALL AMNTS OF RNA ; RIBOSOMES; ENZYMES;
FEW IMPORTANT MOLECULES
[SP] Sixth Stage
-THE ENDOSPORE IS RELEASED FROM THE CELL AND
CAN REMAIN DORMANT FOR 1000 OF YEARS
-Germination ( the process where the endospores return to a
vegetative state) is triggered by PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL
damage to the endospores coat.

The sporulation process has been well studied in Bacillus subtilis. The process is stimulated
by starvation. Typically, sporulation is a "last resort," when other options fail (e.g.,
movement to seek new food, production of enzymes to degrade surrounding material,
production of antimicrobial agents to wipe out other microbes competing for the food source,
etc.). The genetic grounding for the commitment to form a spore is a protein called SpoA.
This protein functions to promote the transcription of genes that are required for the

the duplicated DNA migrates next to a region on the inner surface of the cell membrane and then a bud forms. As the mother cell dies and degrades. the same rigid material that forms the stress-bearing network in the bacterial cell wall. the process is irreversible. Desiccation. Genetic regulation of prokaryotic cells. the metabolic machinery within the spore will sense the change and a reverse process will be initiated to transform the spore into a vegetative cell. As the bud protrudes further outward. the spore will be freed. Genetic identification of microorganisms. Sporulation begins with the duplication of the bacterial genome. Extraterrestrial microbiology. and can be used as a feature to identify the bacteria. Bacterial membranes and cell wall. The above spore is technically termed an endospore. The formation of an active SpoA protein is controlled by a series of reactions that are themselves responsive to the environmental conditions. Examples of endospore forming bacteria include those in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. The result is a nearly impregnable sphere. and are used in the normal reproduction cycle of the microorganisms . andMicrosporidia. the activation of SpoA comes only after a number of checkpoints have been passed. genetic regulation of. In a so-called exospore. See also Asexual generation and reproduction. Thus. Bacterial adaptation. Bacterial growth and division." Another membrane layer is laid down around the daughter cell. Bacterial sporulation is an emergency protective and survival strategy. Extremophiles. Bacterial kingdoms. because the formation of the membraneenclosed daughter cell occurs inside the mother cell. Endospore forming bacteria include Methylosinus. Radiation resistant bacteria . The little cell is referred to as the "daughter cell" and the original bacterium is now called the "mother cell. the DNA is drawn inside the bud. A similar series of reactions has been identified as a means of regulating the degree of host damage caused by a Bordetella pertussis. Cell cycle (prokaryotic). Once committed to sporulation. as well as in the response of the yeast Saccharomyces cervesiae to osmotic pressure. Life. near one end or at one pole) is often a distinctive feature for a particular species of bacteria. Finally. in the center. The latter spores are essentially seeds. The second copy and some of the cytoplasm is then enveloped in an in-growth of the membrane that surrounds the bacterium. When conditions become more hospital. the bacterium that causes pertussis . Between these two membranes lies a layer of peptidoglycan material.. When still in the mother cell.g. a coat of proteins is layered around the outside of the daughter cell.conversion of the actively growing bacterium to a spore. the location of the spore (e. Cyanobacteria. The result is essentially a little spherical cell inside the larger bacterium. origin of. Fossilization of bacteria. In this way a bacterium has a number of opportunities to opt out of the sporulation process. The type of sporulation described here is different from the sporulation process that occurs in many kinds of fungi and in the bacteria calledActinomyces.

The two most common are gram-positive rods: the obligately aerobic genus Bacillus and the obligately anaerobic genusClostridium.Sporulation and Germination Members of several bacterial genera are capable of formingendospores. enzymes. . When returned to favorable nutritional conditions and activated. and the products of these genes are determining the composition and the form of the spore. the spore germinates to produce a single vegetative cell. And Germination is when they want to wake up and multiply. Each cell forms a single internal spore that is liberated when the mother cell undergoes autolysis. The spore is a resting cell. Sporulation involves the production of many new structures. and metabolites along with the disappearance of many vegetative cell components. or phosphorous). and chemical agents. These organisms undergo a cycle of differentiation in response to environmental conditions: The process is called sporulation. The other bacteria known to form endospores arenot important pathogens. highly resistant to desiccation. Imagine it like: Sporulation when they can’t multiply so they sleep to stay alive. It occurs when there is depletion of several nutrients (carbon. nitrogen. These changes represent a true process of differentiation.Post 11: Endospores . heat. New genes are activated. Sporulation: The sporulation process begins when nutritional conditions become unfavorable.

and its autolysis plays a role in spore germination. and an energy-generating system based on glycolysis. Stage IV “Cortex synthesis”. It contains a complete nucleus (chromosome). Stage II “Asymmetric septation”. Spores contain no ATP. Cortex peptidoglycan is extremely sensitive to lysozyme. Stage III “Engulfment”. all of the components of the protein-synthesizing apparatus. It contains normal peptidoglycan and becomes the cell wall of the germinating vegetative cell.Core: The core is the spore protoplast. to finally have Stage VII “Free spore" Properties of Endospores: 1. The energy for germination is stored as 3-phosphoglycerate rather than as ATP. Stage V “Coat synthesis”.Cortex: The cortex is the thickest layer of the spore envelope. The heat resistance of spores is due in part to their dehydrated state and in part to the presence in the core of large amounts of calcium dipicolinate. Stage VI “Lysis of the mother cell by autolysin action”.Steps: Stage I “Bacterial division”. 2. 3. dipicolinic acid synthetase).Spore Wall: The innermost layer surrounding the inner spore membrane is called the spore wall. A number of unique enzymes are formed (eg. .

3.Coat: The coat is composed of a keratin-like protein. 1. Autolysin will be activated and it will rapidly degrade the cortex peptidoglycan. calcium dipicolinate is released. the cell can multiply again. Germination: The germination process occurs in three stages: activation. 5. initiation. a spore will initiate germination if the environmental conditions are favorable. but they can germinate after they have rested for several days.Outgrowth: Degradation of the cortex and outer layers results in the emergence of a new vegetative cell consisting of the spore protoplast with its surrounding wall. Now.4. Water is taken up.Exosporium: The exosporium is a lipoprotein membrane containing some carbohydrate. They need certain conditions to be activated.Activation:Endospores cannot germinate immediately after they have formed. and outgrowth. . The impermeability of this layer confers on spores their relative resistance to antibacterial chemical agents. 2.Initiation: Once activated. and a variety of spore constituents are degraded by hydrolytic enzymes. using nutrients around.