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You are on page 1of 8

Our project is to consist of Lab #8, Digital Sonar for Localization and

Signaling, from the Labs for Signals and Systems Using Matlab book. We were to

complete the questions from the laboratory preparation and lab experiment sections of the

lab. We were to research journals and patents for information on correlation receivers or

matched filters, and give a summary of this journal or patent. A web page presentation is

required describing our results.

Purpose/Introduction

The purpose of this laboratory is to determine if an actual signal is being sent

from a submarine to a ship. When a signal is sent, noise will corrupt the original signal.

The type of media, nearby machinery, or any other natural or man-made items can cause

this corruption. To remove the signal from this noise/signal corrupted sound a filter is

needed. Using Matlab one can design a filter that will extract the desired signal.

Objective

The objective of this lab is to simply interpret a message from a corrupted noise.

By understanding and using continuous time convolution we can accomplish this goal.

From this project the following things should be accomplished.

Time Domain

1) Identify basic building blocks in digital communication systems.

2) Design a matched filter by specifying the unit impulse response needed

to implement a correlation receiver.

3) Implement a matched filter using continuous time convolution

4) Use your matched filter implementation for estimating sonar signals in

the presence of noise and distances of objects using active

sonar.

Frequency Domain

5) Design a matched filter by specifying its frequency response.

6) Implement a computationally efficient matched filter by using the

radix-2 FFT to perform convolution.

7) Explain how a matched filter works in both the time and frequency

domains.

References

Review Topics

1) Continuous time convolution

2) Fourier transform properties

3) System frequency response

Research Topics

1) Correlation receivers

2) Matched filters

3) Computationally efficient convolution using the FFT

4) Sonar digital communication systems

Research

The journal we chose to review was Correlating matched-filter model for analysis and

optimization of neural networks. This article was found in the IEE proceedings from

June 1989. The article describes the benefits of using matched-filters in neural networks,

rather than the previously used spin-glass techniques.

The authors propose matched-filter modeling to represent the physical processes in a

neural network. Mathematical modeling using matched-filters is shown using a patternrecognition network. A pattern-recognition network is suitable for use with partial or

noisy patterns as inputs.

A pattern-recognition network works only if it is able to distinguish a signal that is

distorted or otherwise affected by noise. The network outputs received signals as a

binary bit. The network example of this journal works well because the unknown input is

multiplied by a known matrix. After being multiplied by this known matrix, the two

operations are toggled until the code settles to a stable binary state. Each bit of the input

is then set to a value of either positive or negative one.

By using an equivalent net of matched filters to replace the neural network, a more

accurate modeling technique has been developed. With the use of orthogonal stored

codes the input convergence is prevented from converging to an incorrect value. The

implementation of an equivalent matched-filter net is easily achieved by using electronic

or optical matched fibers. The increased accuracy and ease of implementation of this

modeling has allowed for networks to work more precisely, even in increased noise

situations.

Laboratory Preparation

For the lab prep section the following questions were assigned. See attached sheet for

answers and graphs.

1)

pulses, p(t) = u(t) u(t T/2), and the logical zeroes are represented by

shifted negative rectangular pulses, -p(t). Assume that the bit rate is T bits

per second.

a) What is the unit impulse response h(t) of a casual, matched filter for

this system?

b) Compute h(t) * p(t) and h(t) * [-p(t)].

c)

and zeros starting with a 1 at t=0, sketch x(t) and y(t) = h(t) * x(t).

If you sample y(t) at T second intervals, determine at what times you

should sample, and find a criterion for determining whether a one or a

zero was sent using these samples.

2)

Assume that you sent out a sonar test signal s(t) = u(t) 2u(t-T/2) + u(t-T)

and receive the signal s(t-Td), where Td >>T.

a) Define h(t) = s(T-t) and sketch y(t) = s(t-Td) * h(t). Assume T=0.1 and

Td=20.

b)

From y(t), how can you determine the time delay Td?

3)

Look up the Matlab function conv. Show how to use this function to

generate a signal y(t) = x(t) * h(t). If x(t) is represented in Matlab by a

vector of length M and h(t) is represented by a vector of length N, then

what will be the length L for the vector, used to represent y(t), that is

returned by the conv function.

4)

Omitted

5)

Omitted

Backround

A correlation receiver acts as tool used to compare two signals and find out how

similar they are. This is accomplished by comparing the time sequences of the two

signals. A correlation coefficient is used to show how similar two signals are alike. If

they are identical the coefficient will be 1, and if they are found to be completely

different it will be 0.

There are two types of correlation, auto-correlation, and cross-correlation. Autocorrelation is when a signal is correlated by itself. This is used when it is not known what

the signal looks like without the noise, and does not return as good results as does crosscorrelation. Cross-correlation is when a signal is correlated with a different signal

(usually a known signal correlated with the known signal and noise) and yields the best

results out of the two.

Recovering sine waves works well with correlation because the energy is

concentrated at a single frequency, but a noisy square wave is not easily recovered due to

its signal bandwidth being too broad. Using a matched filter instead increases the success

of recovering the signal. This is done by time reversing the original signal and convolving

it with the signal buried in noise. Mathematically, correlation and convolution are similar.

For convolution we flip the system impulse response before performing the

multiplication and integration. The correlation receiver basically compares the two

signals.

The convolution integral is as follows:

c(t) =

x() h(t-) d

Where h(t) is the unit impulse response and x(t) is the input. If we select h(t) to be a

flipped version of the expected waveform shape for a logical 1, shifted by a bit period T

to ensure that the system is causal, then h(t) = s1(T-t) for t in [0,T] and the convolution

integral becomes:

T

c(t) =

x() s1(T-t+) d

0

T

c(t)

t=T

x() s1() d

This just happens to be the same operation as the correlation receiver. By defining a

casual CT LTI system to have an impulse response equal to a flipped and shifted version

of the waveform representing a logical 1, we can match a correlation receiver. This is

known as a matched filter.

You are a sonar operator on a submarine and are told to find out where a friendly

ship is with active sonar. Active sonar operates by sending a "ping" of sound and

listening for return echoes from objects. The sonar signal you send is a sinusoid of 0.25second duration. Assuming sound travels 5000 feet per second in water, an object's

distance can be calculated by measuring the return echo time. Unfortunately, a beach is

near, and there is a lot of noise in the water.

Problem 1

Determine how far away the friendly ship is by using a matched filter receiver on

the echo.

The Matlab code to determine the distance is as follows:

%Problem 1

fname='a:/P_8_1.mat';

load(fname);

n=length(y);

Rx=conv(fliplr(x),y)/(n+1);

ndt=(-(n-1):n-1)*0.01;

maximum=0;

time=0;

int=1;

while (int<length(Rx))

if (Rx(int)>=maximum)

maximum=Rx(int);

time=int;

end

int=int+1;

end

ret=time/2*0.01;

distance=(ret*5000);

fprintf('The total distance to the friendly ship is %4.1f feet.\n',distance);

The output reads: The total distance to the friendly ship is 4100.0 feet.

Problem 2

Omitted

Problem 3

Determine binary message stream sent by the friendly ship. Then decode the

message into English language.

The Matlab code to determine the message sent is as follows:

%Problem 3

fname='a:/P_8_4.mat';

load(fname);

Rx=conv(fliplr(x),y);

b=5;

d=102;

while (b>0)

c=7;

a=0;

while c>0

if (Rx(d)>=100),

chr(c)=1;

a=2^(c-1)+a;

else

chr(c)=0;

end

c=c-1;

d=d+51;

end

d=d+51;

res(b)=char(a);

b=b-1;

end

ans=fliplr(res);

fprintf('The message sent by the friendly ship was "%s"\n',ans);

The output reads: The message sent by the friendly ship was " Hi! "

Using matched filters in digital communications is essential. If noise were to be

detected many systems would not operate properly. As one could imagine this could

format, other than binary, the decoding of a message would become extremely difficult.

For example, an analog speech signal has many different values; therefore a sample value

could be slightly off and not give an accurate reading.

Problem 4

Generate a message and encode it in a binary stream. Convert the binary stream to an

analog signal using a triangle wave 0.01-seconds long for a logical 1. Use a sampling rate

of 8 kHz. Add different levels of noise to see if you can decode the message.

The Matlab code to generate a message is as follows:

%Problem 4a

n=1;

char=10;

message='Graduation';

num_rand=double(message);

disp(sprintf('\nThe binary coded message reads: %s',message))

b=dec2bin(message);

d=[0:0.025:1 1:-0.025:0];

bits=char*7;

b=b';

for i = 1:bits,

if (str2num(b(i))==1),

q((i)*80-80+1:80*i)=d(1:80)+n*randn(1,80);

end

if (str2num(b(i))==0),

q((i)*80-80+1:80*i)=-d(1:80)+n*randn(1,80);

end

end

q=[q'];

sound(q)

wavwrite(q,8000,'ee126')

%Problem 4b

y=wavread('ee126');

a=length(y);

d=[0:0.025:1 1:-0.025:0];

Rx=conv(y,fliplr(d));

max=0;

c=1;

while (c<length(Rx))

if (Rx(c)>max)

max=Rx(c);

end

c=c+1;

end

max=max/2.5;

r=(ceil((length(y)-40)/80)/7);

c=82;

while (r>0)

c2=7;

v=0;

while c2>0

if (Rx(c)>=max),

chr(c2)=1;

v=2^(c2-1)+v;

else

chr(c2)=0;

end

c2=c2-1;

c=c+80;

end

res(r)=char(v);

r=r-1;

end

ans=fliplr(res);

fprintf('The message sent was "%s"\n',ans);

As the noise began to increase, the decoded signal started to have various outputs.

The variations are as follows:

Amount of Noise

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

#failed decode

0

0

0

8

10

# correct decode

10

10

10

2

0

When the decoding fails it is obvious that the noise has become too strong for the

message to be extracted. Message reception can be increased by increasing the amplitude

of the signal being sent, alter the sampling rate, or even a totally different waveform.

Problem 5

Omitted

Problem 6

Omitted

Conclusion

From this lab we have learned that noise can be a large variable in the quality of a

signal. A noise can originate from anything in our surroundings. If noise is present, a

filter must be used to remove the corruption from the signal. Using Matlab we were able

to create a filter that would extract a message from a corrupted signal. As we have seen

several times in the past, Matlab is a very powerful tool and can be used to solve many

mathematical problems.

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