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EE101: Basic Diode Circuits

Subhananda Chakrabarti

Diode Circuits: Introduction


Diode is a two terminal device:
1) Anode: the positive terminal
2) Cathode: the negative terminal
Unidirectional device allowing flow of current
in only one direction depending upon the
biasing
An ideal diode presents a small resistance in
the forward direction (short circuit) and a
large resistance in the reverse direction (open
circuit)

Fig: Diode symbol

Fig: Ideal diode characteristics

Diode Operation
A diode is formed by joining two equally doped P-type and N-type
semiconductors
Doping is a process of introducing impurity atoms to an intrinsic
semiconductor(pure or undoped), changing it to an extrinsic
semiconductor
P-type semiconductor is formed by adding trivalent impurities such as
boron, aluminium or gallium to an intrinsic semiconductor, creating
deficiencies of valence electrons, also called holes
N-type semiconductor is formed by addition of pentavalent impurities
such as antimony, arsenic or phosphorous which contribute free electrons,
increasing the conductivity of the intrinsic semiconductor

Depletion Region
P-type semiconductor has excess holes and N-type
semiconductor has excess electrons
At the point of contact of P and N-type regions, holes in Ptype attract electrons present in N-type material resulting in
diffusion of electrons across the junction and combining
with holes making negative ions
Filling a hole makes a negative ion and leaves behind a
positive ion in the N-side
Due to these positive and negative ions, a space charge
builds up creating a depletion region which prevents any
further electron transfer unless done by putting a forward
bias on the junction

Fig: Depletion region in equilibrium

Equilibrium of Junction: after the formation of depletion region, coulomb


force from ions prevents further migration across the p-n junction. more
electrons can not migrate from the N to P-region because they are
repelled by negative ions in P-region and attracted by positive ions in Nregion thus a state of equilibrium is reached

Reverse bias: if voltage is applied with indicated polarity, making p-side


negative, it drives the electrons away from the junction, preventing the
conduction more

Forward bias: If voltage is applied in forward direction as indicated below, Pside is made more positive and N side is made more negative, assisting
electrons in overcoming the coulomb barrier and electrons start flowing from
right to left which means holes moving from left to right i.e. flow of current
with small resistance in forward direction

Diode Characteristics
Forward bias region:
V>0, Diode current equation in forward bias is given as:

I= current through diode in Amps


Is=diode saturation current
E= electron charge, 1.602*10^-19 C
T= temperature in degree kelvin
Vd= Applied voltage in volts
K= boltzman constant, k=1.380*10^-23 J/K

Diode characteristics:
Reverse bias region:
P- terminal is connected to negative terminal of battery
and N- terminal to positive terminal of battery
V<0, I=-Is( reverse saturation current)
Ideally the reverse current is independent of reverse bias
Practically, it is larger that Is and slightly increases with
reverse bias
It is temperature dependent: doubles for every 10 degree
rise in temperature

Breakdown region:
If reverse voltage keeps on increasing, then when V< Vbr,
the diode enters in breakdown region
In breakdown region, the reverse current increases rapidly
with increase in reverse bias

Zener diode
Zener diode characteristics is same as
normal diode in forward bias and reverse
bias region
In breakdown region, beyond the
breakdown voltage, it is modeled as a
voltage source in series with an
incremental resistance
In fig., the breakdown voltage is -17 volts
It is used as voltage regulator to give
constant output voltage in spite of
variation in supply voltage or current

CLIPPER
a device designed to prevent the output of a circuit from exceeding a
predetermined voltage level
Consist of linear element linear element like resistor and non-linear
element like diode

Fig.: Clipper Circuit

CLAMPER
Adds required DC offset to the input waveform
Contain energy storage element like capacitor
During one cycle(positive or negative) of input, capacitor charges
During another cycle, capacitor discharges which shifts the dc level of input

Fig.: Clamper Circuit

Half Wave Rectifier

A simple Half Wave Rectifier is a single p-n junction diode


connected in series to the load resistor
It rectifies only positive half cycle of the input waveform and
suppressed the negative half, since the diode conducts only in one
direction, thus converting an AC input waveform into unidirectional
pulsating waveform

Full Wave Rectifier

Bridge Rectifier

Full Wave Rectifier


Efficiency of a full wave rectifier is double than that of a half wave
rectifier
Ripple percentage in output voltage is less, which leads to
requirement of smaller and simpler filter to get a constant DC
output compared to HWR
Peak inverse voltage(PIV i.e. max voltage that rectifying diode has to
withstand when reverse-biased) of HWR is equal to the peak
voltage Vp, PIV of bridge FWR is also Vp, but is 2Vp in centertapped FWR

Practice Problems:
Problem 1: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the circuits shown below. Assume that the
diodes are ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
i

(a)

(b)

+
2k
v

1k

2k

5V

(d)

+
v
_

+
_

v
_

(c)

1k

D
C

v
_

1k

(a)
+
v
_

2k

Resulting characteristics

(b)
i
+
v
_

1k

+
_

5V

Due to the presence of the 5V


supply the diode conducts only
for v > 5, R = 1k

First combine diode and resistance then add the voltage source

(c)
i
+
2k
v

1k

Diode B is on for v > 0 and R=1k.


Diode A is on for v < 0 and R=2k.

(d)
i
+

D
C

v
_

1k

Diode D is on for v > 0 and R=1k.


Diode C is on for v < 0 and R=0.

Problem 2 : Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale the transfer characteristics (vo versus
vin) for the circuit shown below.

1k

vin +_

+
1k

vo
3V
_

1k

vin

+
_

+
1k

vo
3V
_

Case I: vin > 0


Both diodes are on, and act as short
circuits. The equivalent circuit is shown
here.
vo = vin

+
vin

+
_

1k

vo
_

Case II: vin < 0


Both diodes are reverse biased and
vo is the sum of the voltage drops
across Zener diode and 1k
resistor.

Case IIa: -3V < vin < 0


vo = vin, because the current through
Zener diode is zero, all negative
voltage drop is across the Zener
diode.

1k

vin +_

+
1k

vo
3V
_

Case IIb: -3V > vin


Zener diode will act as 3V voltage
source
Vo =((Vin+3)/2)-3

3V

vo
1
1

-3V

-3V
1
2

vin

Problem 3 : For the given circuit, draw the output waveform.

Input Waveform

VB1

-VB2
Output Waveform
During positive cycle,
When V1<VB1, D1 become open circuit and Vo=V1
When V1>VB1, D1 become short circuit and Vo=VB1
During negative cycle,
When V1>VB2, D2 become open circuit and Vo=V1
When V1<VB2, D2 become short circuit and Vo=VB2

Problem 4 : For the given circuit, draw the output waveform.

Vm

Input Waveform

Vm

During positive cycle, capacitor is charged,


Vc+Vb-Vs=0
It charge upto peak voltage,Vm
Vc +Vb-Vm=0
Vc=Vm-Vb
During negative cycle, diode become open circuit,
Vo-Vs+Vc=0
Vo=Vs-Vc
Peak voltage of output waveform will be
Vo=Vb

Vb

Output Waveform

END