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Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Complex numbers are extensions of real numbers, and they make the

number elds complete in the sense that an n-th order polynomial has n-th

roots in a complex eld while it is not always true in the real eld. Complex

numbers are also very useful in time harmonic analysis of engineering and

physical systems, because they considerably simplify the analysis.

A complex number can be represented in cartesian form as

c = a + jb

(1)

p

where j = ;1. a is the real part of c while b is the imaginary part of c.

On the complex plane, c is represented by a point c or sometimes an arrow

oc as shown.

Imaginary Axis

c

b

|c|

Real Axis

0

a

Sometimes it is more convenient to represent c in polar form, i.e.

p

where jcj = a2 + b2 is the magnitude or the absolute value of c.

(2)

tan = ab ) = tan;1 ab

(3)

Addition and subtraction of complex numbers are carried out in Cartesian

forms.

1

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

A vector A can be written as

(1)

(2)

In the above, x^ y^ z^ are unit vectors pointing in the x y z directions respectively. Ax Ay and Az are the components of the vector A in the x y z

directions respectively. The same statement applies to Bx By , and Bz .

Addition

A + B = x^(Ax + Bx) + y^(Ay + By ) + z^(Az + Bz ):

(3)

Multiplication

(a) Dot Product (scalar product)

A B = AxBx + Ay By + Az Bz

A B = B A

commutative property

A (B + C) = A B + A C distributive property

A B = A B cos :

In (7), is the angle between vectors A and B.

jj

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

x^ y^ z^

A B = Ax Ay Az =^x(Ay Bz Az By ) + y^(Az Bx AxBz )

Bx By Bz

+ z^(AxBy Ay Bx)

(8)

A B = u^ A B sin

(9)

where u^ is a unit vector obtained from A and B via the right hand rule.

A (B + C) = A B + A C distributive property (10)

A (B C) 6= (A B) C non-associative property

(11)

A B = ;B A anti-commutative property

(12)

jj

Vector Derivatives

Del

Gradient

Divergent

Curl

@ + y^ @ + z^ @

= x^ @x

@y @z

(13)

@ + y^ @ + z^ @

= x^ @x

@y

@z

@

@

@

A = @x Ax + @y Ay + @z Az

x

^

y

^

z

^

(14)

r

r

A = @x@

@

@y

y

(15)

@

@z

z

Ax A A

@

@

@

@

= x^ @y Az @z Ay + y^ @z Ax @x Az

@

@

(16)

+ z^ @x Ay @y Az :

Divergence Theorem

I

r

AdV = A n^ dS:

(17)

Stokes Theorem

I

(r A) n^dS =

A dl:

(18)

a (b c) = b (c a) = c (a b)

a (b c) = b (a c) c (a b)

a a = 0

a (a b) = 0

(r) = 0

r (r A) = 0

r ( A) = A r + r A

r (A B) = B r A ; A r B

r r A = r(r A) ; r rA

@2 + @2 + @2 :

2

r = rr =

@x2 @y2 @z2

r

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26)

(27)

(28)

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Lossless Medium

In a source free region, Maxwell's equations are

r H = @@tD

r E = ; @B

r B = 0

r D = 0

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

@t

@

r (r E) = ; @t

r H:

(5)

2

r r E = ; @t@ 2 E:

(6)

r r E = r(r E) ; r2 E

we have

Since the region is source free, and r E = 0, we have

2

r2 E = @t@ 2 E

(7)

(8)

(9)

Similarly, we can show that

2

r2H = @t@ 2 H

1

(10)

The condition for arriving at Equation (9) is that r E = 0. We can have

solutions of the form

E = x^Ex(z t)

(11)

E = y^Ey (z t)

(12)

but not

E = z^Ez (z t)

(13)

because (13) violates r E = 0 unless Ez is independent of z. If E is of the

form (11), then

r E = x^

2

with both

@2

@x2

and

@2

@y2

@2

@x2

@2

@y 2

@2

@2

E

(

z

t

)

=

x

^

Ex

x

@z 2

@z 2

(14)

@2

@2

E

(

z

t

)

;

E (z t) = 0:

@z 2 x

@t2 x

(15)

@2

@2

H

(

z

t

)

;

Hy (z t) = 0:

y

@z 2

@t2

(16)

Equations (15) and (16) are scalar, one dimensional wave equations of the

form

1 @ 2 y(z t) = 0

@2

y

(

z

t

)

;

(17)

@z 2

v 2 @t2

show that

@f

@

f = f (z + at)

= af (z + at)

(18)

@z

@t

0

@2

f

@z 2

@ 2f

@t2

= f (z + at)

00

f (z + at) ;

00

= a2f (z + at):

00

a2

f (z + at) = 0

v2

00

(19)

(20)

which is possible only if a = v. Hence, the general solution to the wave

equation is

y = f (z ; vt) + g (z + vt)

(21)

where f and g are arbitrary functions.

2

f(z)

f(z-vt)

t>0

t=0

z=0

z=vt

g(z)

g(z+vt)

t=0

t>0

z

z=0

z=-vt

The solution g(z + vt) moves in the negative z-direction for increasing t.

The shapes of the functions f and g are undistorted as they move along.

We can observe wavelike behavior in a pond when we drop a pebble into it.

Solutions to (9) and (10) that correspond to a plane wave is of the form

E = x^f1 (z ; vt) H = y^f2(z ; vt):

(22)

The wave is propagating in the z-direction, but the electric and magnetic

elds are transverse to the direction of propagation. Such a wave is known

as the Transverse Electro Magnetic wave or TEM wave.

If one substitutes (22) into Equation (2), one has

@

@

Ex = ; H

(23)

r E = y^ @z

@t

or

@

@

f1 (z ; vt) = ; f2 (z ; vt)

(24)

@z

@t

or

f1 (z ; vt) = vf2 (z ; vt)

(25)

or

r

f2 (z ; vt) =

f1 (z ; vt):

(26)

Hence, for a plane TEM wave,

r

0

The quantity

Ex

Hy

=

is also known as the intrinsic impedance of free-space.

Z

(27)

(28)

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

For a time-harmonic (simple harmonic) signal, Maxwell's Equations can

be easily solved using phasor techniques. For example, if we let

H = <eH~ ej!t ]

(1)

E = < E~ j!t]

e

~ j!t ] = <

< r H

e

(2)

@

@t

E~ j!t

e

(3)

we can remove the <e operator and obtain

~ ej!t = j !E~ ej!t

rH

(4)

where ej!t cancels out on both sides.

Equation (4) implies Equation (3). Also, any time dependence cancels out in

the problem. Hence,

~ = j !E~ :

rH

(5)

Similarly,

~

r E~ = ;j !H

(6)

~ = 0

r H

(7)

r E~ = 0:

(8)

Taking the curl of (6) and substituting (5) into it, we have

~ = 2 E~

r r E~ = ; r H

(9)

Again, making use of the identity rr E~ = r(r E~ ) ;r2E~ , and r E~ = 0,

we have

r2E~ = ; 2 E~

(10)

Similarly,

~ = ; 2 H~

r2 H

(11)

These are the Helmholtz's wave equations.

j !

!

!

1

!

Phasor technique is particularly appropriate for solving Maxwell's equations in a lossy medium. In a lossy medium, Equation (3.1) becomes

rH= E +J

(12)

@t

J= E

(13)

~=

rH

=

E~ + E~

j !

j!

E~

(14)

~ = ; j !

(15)

~ = ~E~

rH

(16)

Notice that the only dierence between (16) and (5) is the complex permittivity versus the real permittivity. If one goes about deriving the Helmholtz

wave equations for a lossy medium, the results are

r2E~ = ; 2 ~E~

(17)

j !

!

~ = ; 2 ~H~

r2 H

(18)

Hence, a lossy medium is easily treated using phasor technique by replacing

a real permittivity with a complex permittivity.

If we restrict ourselves to one dimension, Equation (17), for instance,

becomes of the form

2

~ ( ) ; 2 ~x ( ) = 0

(19)

2 x

where

r

p

=

~=

;

= +

(20)

!

dz

j!

j!

E

j

:

~x(z) = C1e;z + C2 e+z :

E

(21)

( ) = <eE~x(z)ej!t ]

= <eC1e;z ej!t] + <eC2ez ej!t]

Ex z t

(23)

If C1 = jC1 j ej1

C2

= jC2j ej2

= + j

, then

( ) = jC1 j cos(!t ;

z + 1 )e;z + j C2 j cos(!t +

z + 2 )ez : (24)

Ex z t

Note that one of the solutions in (24) is decaying with z while another solution

is growing with z. The function cos(!t

z + ) can be written as cos

(z

! t) + ]. Hence, it moves with a velocity

v

= !

:

(25)

In the above, is the propagation constant, is the attenuation constant

while

is the phase constant.

Intrinsic Impedance

The intrinsic impedance can be easily derived also in the phasor world.

The phasor representation of Equation (3.23) is

d

~ = ;j !H~ y :

(26)

~ = ;j !E~x:

(27)

Ex

dz

d

dz

Hy

If we now let E~x = E0e;z , H~ y = H0e;z , and using them in (26) yields

;z

E0 e

= ;j !H0e;z :

=H =

E0

j !

(28)

(29)

For a lossy medium, we replace by the complex permittivity and the intrinsic

impedance becomes

~=

j

!

j !

+ j ! :

(30)

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

5. Transmission Lines

=

= GENERAL

STRIP LINE

COAXIAL

Another place where wave phenomenon is often encountered is on transmission lines. A transmission line consists of two parallel conductors of arbitrary cross-sections that can carry two opposite currents or two opposite

charges. A transmission line has capacitances between the two conductors,

and the conductors have inductances to them. We can characterize this capacitance by a line capacitance C which has the unit of farad m;1, and the

inductance by a line inductance L, which has the unit of henry m;1 . Hence

a transmission line can be approximated by a lumped element equivalent as

1

shown

LZ

LZ V+V LZ

I

CZ

I+I

CZ

V+2V

I+2I

CZ

I

Z

We can derive the voltage equation between nodes (1) and (2) to get

V

or

; (V + V ) = Lz @I

@t

(1)

V = ;Lz @I

:

@t

(2)

:

;I = C z @ (V +@tV ) ' C z @V

@t

(3)

In the limit when we let our discrete or lumped element model become very

small, or z ! 0, we have

@V

@I

=

;

L

(4)

@z

@t

and

@I

@z

= ;C @V

:

@t

(5)

The above are known as the telegrapher's equations. Wave equations can be

easily derived from the above

and

@ 2V

@z 2

; LC @@tV2 = 0

@ 2I

@z 2

; LC @@tI2 = 0:

(6)

(7)

Comparing with Equation (3.17), we deduce that the velocity of the current

and voltage waves on a transmission line is

1

v=p :

(8)

LC

V (z t) = f (z ; vt):

(9)

;L @I

= f 0(z ; vt)

@t

or

I (z t) =

Hence,

V (z t)

I (z t)

(10)

1 f (z ; vt):

Lv

(11)

= Lv =

(12)

rL

C

Z0

rL

(13)

Often time, a transmission line has loss to it. For example, the conductor

has a nite conductivity and hence is a little resistive. The insulation between

the conductors may have current leakage, thus not forming an ideal capacitor.

A more appropriate lumped element model is as follows.

RZ

LZ

GZ

RZ

CZ

LZ

GZ

RZ

CZ

LZ

GZ

CZ

have applied phasor technique to (4) and (5), we would have obtained

dV~

dz

= ;j!LI~

(14)

dI~

= ;j!C V~ :

dz

(15)

Note that j!L is the series impedance per unit length of the lossless line

while j!C is the shunt admittance per unit length of the lossless line. In the

lossy line case, the series impedance per unit length becomes

Z = j!L + R

(16)

while the shunt admittance per unit length becomes

Y = j!C + G

(17)

where R and G are line resistance and line conductance respectively. The

telegraphers equations become

dV~

= ;Z I~

(18)

dz

dI~

= ;Y V~

dz

(19)

d2 V~

; ZY V~ = 0

dz 2

(20)

d2 I~

; ZY I~ = 0:

dz 2

(21)

Z0

j!L

j!C

) Z0 =

j!L + R

j!C + G

rZ

Y

d2 V~

; 2V~ = 0

dz 2

where

d2 I~

;

2 I~ = 0

2

dz

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

The general solution is of the form (4.23). For example,

V~ (z ) = V+ e;z + V; e+z

= V+e;z;jz + V;ez+jz :

(26)

If V+ = jV+j ej+ V; = jV;j e+j; , then the real time representation of

V is

V (z t) = <eV~ (z )ej!t ]

= jV+j e;z cos(!t ; z + 1 ) + jV;j ez cos(!t + z + 2 ): (27)

The rst term corresponds to a decaying wave moving in the positive zdirection while the second term corresponds to a wave decaying and moving

in the negative z-direction. Hence, e;z corresponds to a positive going wave,

while e+z corresponds to a negative going wave.

If the transmission line is lossless, i.e., R = G = 0, then, the attenuation

constant = 0, and the propagation constant becomes = j . In this

case, there is no attenuation, and (26) becomes

V~ (z ) = V+ e;jz + V; e+jz

(28)

and (27) becomes

V (z t) = jV+ j cos(!t ; z + 1 ) + jV; j cos(!t + z + 2 ):

(29)

The velocity of propagation is v = != .

Furthermore, we can derive the current that corresponds to the voltage

in (26) using Equation (18). Hence

1 dV~ = V e;Z ; V e+Z :

I~ = ;

(30)

+

;

Z dz

Z

Z

But

Z

rY

= Z1

(31)

= I+e;Z + I;eZ

(32)

V;

I;

(33)

I~ =

where

V+ ;Z V; Z

e

;Z e

Z0

0

V+

I+

= Z0

= ;Z0 :

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Zo, v

lossless

Z L LOAD

z=0

z = l

.

L A wave traveling to the right will be reected at the termination. In

general, there will be both positive going and negative going waves on the

line. Hence,

~ (z) = V0 e;jz + V1e+jz :

V

(1)

Here, = j , = 0, because of no loss. The corresponding current, as in

(5.32), is

~(z) = V0 e;jz ; V1 e+jz

I

(2)

Z

Z

Z

qL

where Z0 =

At z = 0,

and = !

LC

~ (z = 0)

V0 + V1

=

ZL =

Z0 :

~(z = 0)

V0 ; V1

I

We can solve for V1 in terms of V0 , i.e.

V

V1

; Z0 V :

= ZZL +

0

Z

(4)

; Z0

= ZZL +

Z

(5)

If we dene

v

(3)

~ (z) = V0e;jz + v V0e+jz :

V

(6)

In the above, v is the ratio of the negative going voltage amplitude to the

positive going voltage amplitude at z = 0, and it is known as the voltage

reection coecient.

1

going current to the positive going current at z = 0, and it is

i=

~(z) =

I

I1

I0

V0

Z0

= ; VV1 = ;v :

(7)

;jz ;

V0

Z0

jz :

(8)

The voltage and current in (6) and (8) are not constants of position. We can

dene a generalized impedance at position z to be

;jz + v e+jz

~ (z)

V

e

(9)

Z (z ) =

=

Z0

;jz ; v e+jz :

~(z)

e

I

At z = ;l, this becomes

jl + v e;jl

e

Z (;l ) = Z0

(10)

jl ; e;jl :

e

v

With v dened by (5), we can substitute it into (10) to give after some

simplications,

ZL + j Z0 tan l

:

(11)

Z (;l ) = Z0

Z + j Z tan l

0

Shorted Terminations

If ZL is a short, or ZL = 0, then,

Z (;l ) = j Z0 tan l = j X:

(12)

x

inductive

2

3

2

5

2

capacitive

Open-Circuit Terminations

If ZL is an open circuit, ZL = 1, then

Z (;l ) = ;j Z0 cot l = j X:

2

(13)

inductive

3

2

5

2

capacitive

The positive going wave in Equation (6) is

( ) = V0 e;jz

(14)

V+ z

; (z ) = v V0 e

+jz

(15)

to V;(z) at position z. Hence,

;(z) = VV;((zz)) = v e2jz :

(16)

The magnitude of V (z) is then

(17)

Hence,

j ( )j = j 0 j j1 + ;( )j

V

(18)

Im Axis

dmin

+z

z=0

z

Re Axis

(z)

d1

1+

(z)

3

|V(z)|

Vmax

Vmin

d1

2

dmin

d1

z=0

jV0j (1 ; j;(z)j) jV (z)j jV0j (1 + j;(z)j):

(19)

From (16), j;(z)j = jv j, hence (19) becomes,

jV0j (1 ; jv j) jV (z)j jV0j (1 + jv j):

(20)

The voltage standing wave ratio is dened to be Vmax =Vmin, and from (20),

it is

jv j :

(21)

VSWR = 11 +

; jv j

If v = 0, then VSWR= 1, and we have no reected wave. We say that

the load is matched to the transmission line. Note that v = 0 when ZL = Z0 .

If jv j =1, then VSWR= 1, and we have a badly matched transmission

line. In a passive load,

0 jv j 1:

(22)

jv j =1 only when ZL = 0, or ZL = 1 according to Equation (5). Hence,

1 VSWR < 1:

(23)

VSWR is an indicator of how well a load is being matched to the transmission

line. We can solve (21) for jv j in terms of VSWR, i.e.

VSWR ; 1 :

jv j = VSWR

(24)

+1

Therefore, given the measurement of V S WR on a terminated transmission

line, we can deduce the magnitude of v . Furthermore, if we know the phase

of v , we would be able to derive ZL from (5), or

1 + v

(25)

ZL = Z0

1 ; v

or

1 + jv j ejv

ZL = Z0

(26)

1 ; j j ejv

v

where

Determining

= jv j ejv :

(27)

from j ( )j

V

voltage standing wave pattern is proportional to j1 + ;(z)j, but ;(z) is related

to v as

;(z) = v e2jz :

(28)

Writing the polar representation of v , we have,

v

(29)

However, we know that the rst minimum value of V (z) occurs when ;(z) is

purely negative, or the phase of ;(z) is ;. This occurs at z = ;dmin rst.

In other words,

;2dmin +

v = ;:

(30)

Since dmin can be obtained from the voltage standing wave pattern measurement, and that = 2=, we deduce that

4 d :

= ; +

(31)

v

min

Transmission Coecients

It is sometimes useful to dene a transmission coecient on a transmission line. The transmission coecient may be dened as the ratio of the

voltage on the load to the amplitude of the incident voltage. Since

V

(32)

V

(0) = V0(1 + v ):

V (0)

2ZL :

v =

=

1

+

v =

V0

ZL + Z0

(33)

(34)

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

We have seen from Equation (6.9) that a generalized impedance can be

de ned as

V~ (z )

e;jz + v e+jz

Z (z ) =

=

Z0 ;jz

(1)

e

; v e+jz :

I~(z )

The above can be written as

1 + v e2jz = Z 1 + ;(z)

Z (z ) = Z0

(2)

0

1 ; v e2jz

1 ; ;(z)

where ;(z) is as de ned in (6.16). When z = 0, Z (0) = ZL, and ;(0) = v ,

and (2) becomes (6.25). Hence (6.25) is a special case of (2). We can introduce

a normalized generalized impedance to be

Z (z ) 1 + ;(z )

= 1 ; ;(z) :

(3)

Zn (z ) =

Z0

Similarly,

; 1:

(4)

;(z) = ZZn((zz)) +

1

n

Given ;(z), we can solve for Zn(z) in (3), and given Zn(z), we can solve for

;(z) in (4). It turns out that the mapping of Zn(z) to ;(z) and the mapping

of ;(z) to Zn(z) are one-to-one. We shall next discuss a graphical method to

solve (3) and (4) rapidly using the Smith Chart.

Zn = Rn + jXn

Xn

Rn = .5 Rn = 1

Im

Xn = 1

Rn = 2

Rn = 0

Xn = 1

Rn = 1

Rn = .5

Rn = 2

Xn = 0

Rn = 0

0

0.5

Rn

Re

|| = 1

circle

Xn = 1

0.5

Xn = 1

plane

Zn plane

and ; is a complex number and can be represented by a point on the complex

; plane.

Zn

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

When Zn = 0 ; = ;1.

When Zn = 1, or Rn = 1 Xn = 0 ; = 0.

When Zn ! 1 in any direction, ; ! 1.

When Zn = jXn j;j = 1.

When Zn = j , or Rn = 0 Xn = 1 ; = j .

When Zn = ;j , or Rn = 0 Xn = ;1 ; = ;j .

If one works out the mapping from Zn-plane to ;-plane completely, one

nds that the Rn = 0 line on Zn-plane maps onto the unit-circle on the ;plane. Furthermore, the other Rn = constant lines map into circles as shown.

The Xn = constant lines map into arcs like the Xn 1 lines as shown. Hence,

if one puts grids on the ;-plane, one can read o the Rn and Xn associated

with the corresponding ; immediately, and, given the value of ;, one can

read o the values of Rn and Xn immediately.

The mappings (3) and (4) are known as bilinear transforms. A bilinear

transform always maps a circle onto a circle.

(i) The normalized admittance Yn = 1=Zn, or the reciprocal of Zn, can be

found easily from a Smith Chart, because

;=

Zn ; 1

Zn + 1

1 ; Z1n 1 ; Yn

Yn ; 1

=

=

;

:

1 =

Yn + 1

1 + Zn 1 + Yn

(5)

(ii) The change of impedance along the line is obtained by adding or subtracting phase to ;(z) via the relationship

(iii)

;(z) = v e2jz :

(6)

(7)

since the Smith Chart is a graphical tool to solve Equation (7), and jv j

is real, corresponding to a number on the Xn = 0 line. Notice that

1 < VSWR < 1 always.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

(a) Find the voltages at A on the transmission line.

Z0 = 50 W, v = 1.5 108 ms1

20

Vs =

10 sin t

volts

Zs

B

ZL (30+j25)

z = l = 1 m

25 MHz

z=0

The voltage source sets up a forward going and a backward going wave

on the transmission lines. Hence,

V (z) = V0 e;jz + v V0 ejz :

(1)

The corresponding current is

(2)

I (z) = ZV0 e;jz ; v ZV0 ejz :

0

0

In impedance at position Z is

;jz + v ejz

1 + ;(z)

Z (z) = VI ((zz)) = Z0 ee;jz ;

=

Z

(3)

0

v ejz

1 ; ;(z)

where

;(z) = v e2jz v = ZZL +; ZZ0 :

(4)

l

We can use the Smith Chart to nd Z (;l). To use the Smith Chart, we have

to normalize all the impedances with respect to the characteristic impedance

of the line. Hence,

ZnL = ZZL = 30 +50j 25 = 0:6 + j 0:5:

(5)

0

We can locate ZnL on the Smith Chart which is the complex ; plane. ;(0)

or v can also be deduced from the Smith Chart. Since ;(z) is given by (4),

at z = ;l, we have

;(;l) = v e;2jl :

(6)

1

l = 2 l = 3 l. Therefore,

(7)

;(;l) = v e;j 23 l :

2

At z = ;l = ;1m ;(;1) = v e;j 3 . From the Smith Chart, we can read

Zn(;1) = 2:15 ; j 0:3 or Z(;1) = 107:5 ; j15 :

(8)

So, an equivalent circuit for the point A is:

20

Zs

Vs = 10 sin t

Z(1) (107.5j15)

;j 7:9

107

:

5

;

j

15

108

:

54

e

Z

(

;

1)

VA = VS Z + Z (;1) = ;j 10 127:5 ; j 15 = 128:38e;j6:7 e;j90 10V

S

= 8:5e;j91:2 V:

(9)

Since

VA = V (;1) = V0 ej 1 + ;(;1)]

(10)

we can nd Vo from the above. Once Vo is found, we can nd VB from

VB = V (0) = Vo 1 + v ]:

(11)

j1

j0.5

j2

j0.2

zL

o

120

0

0.2

0.5

(-l)

Z(-l)

j0.2

j0.5

j2

j1

The voltage on the transmission line is

(12)

(13)

Hence the amplitude of the real time voltage is proportional to jV (z)j which

is the voltage standing wave pattern.

|V(z)|

Vmax

Rnmax = 2.5

= VSWR

(z) for

voltage min.

z = dmin

Vmin

5/16

dmin

0

load

2.5

Re

toward

load

For example, we may be given that the VSWR = 2:5 on the line, Zo =

75, and dmin = 5=16, in order to nd ZL.

First, we note that jV (z)j / j1 + ;(z)j where ;(z) = v e2jz . Note that

Vmin occurs when ;(z) is purely negative. When z varies, ;(z) traces out a

constant circle on the Smith Chart, since j;(z)j = jv j is independent of z.

Since the j;(z)j circle must intersect the real ; axis at Rn = 2:5 since the

VSWR= 2:5, we can deduce that magnitude of j;(z)j = jv j. Since z = ;dmin

point corresponds to ;(z) as shown above, and the load is 5=16 from the

dmin point, we can gure out v 's location on the Smith Chart. We can read

o ZnL = 1:4 + j 1:1 on the Smith Chart. Hence ZL = (105 ; j 82:5).

3

j1

j0.5

j2

j0.2

Z=-dmin

0

0.2

0.5

R n=2.5=VSWR

5

16

j0.2

j0.5

j2

j1

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Complex Power

Since we are dealing with phasors, it is convenient to dene a complex

power which has an imaginary part as well as a real part. We shall dene

the meaning of complex power.

A complex power is dened as

P~ = V~ I~

(1)

i.e. the product of a voltage phasor and a current phasor at a given point. If

V~ = jV~ jej I~ = jI~jej

(2)

then

P~ = jV~ jjI~j cos ( V ; I ) + sin ( V ; I )] :

(3)

The corresponding real time voltage and current are

V (t) = jV~ j cos ( !t + V ) I (t) = jI~j cos ( !t + I ) :

(4)

Then, the instantaneous power is

P (t) = V (t)I (t) = jV~ jjI~j cos (!t + V ) cos (!t + V + I ; V )

= jV~ jjI~j cos2( !t + V ) cos (I ; V )

; cos ( !t + V ) sin ( !t + V ) sin (I ; V )]:

(5)

The time average of P (t), dened as

V

Z T

1

hP (t)i = hV (t)I (t)i = Tlim

dtP (t)

!1 T 0

= jV~ jjI~j
hcos2 ( !t + V )i cos (I ; V )

; hcos ( !t + V ) sin ( !t + V )i sin (I ; V )]:

Since

we have

(6)

(7)

(8)

hP (t)i = 12 <e P~ ] :

(9)

The imaginary part of the complex power is proportional to the second term

in (5), and hence, the imaginary part of the complex power is proportional to

a part of the instantaneous power that averages to zero. Consequently, the

imaginary part of the complex power is called reactive power. For example,

a purely reactive device dissipates no power on the average, but instantaneous

power is being constantly absorbed and released by a reactive device. The

current and voltage through a reactive device is 90 out-of-phase, and the

complex power is purely imaginary or purely reactive.

The voltage on a transmission line could be written as

;

V~ (z) = V0 e;jz + v ejz

= V0e;jz 1 + ;(z)] :

The current on the line could be written as

I~(z) = ZV0 e;jz 1 ; ;(z)] :

0

The complex power is given by

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

which reduces to

2

or

transmission line, (i.e., ZL = Z0 ), all the power carried in the forward going

2

wave is dumped into the load. Otherwise, part of the power is reected. The

power carried by the forward going wave is

2

hP+i = j2VZj

(16)

0

and the power carried by the backward going wave is

2

hP;i = j2VZj jv j2 :

(17)

0

Note that hP (z t)i is independent of z because of energy conservation.

hP i = hP+i ; hP;i

(18)

is everywhere the same on the lossless transmission line because the total

power leaving the source all arrive at the load end with no loss on the lossless

transmission line. The transmission line can only absorb reactive power.

Hence, the reactive power in (14) is not a constant of position.

Z0

Vs

VA

Z0

Zs

ZL

Vs

VA IA

Z(l)

Z(l)

z = l

z=0

can rst nd Z (;l) using formula (6.11). Then, we can replace the transmission line circuit with the equivalent circuit for nding VA, and IA. The real

power delivered to Z (;l) would be the same as the real power delivered to

ZL.

2

2

Z (;l) 2 jVS j2

j

V

j

A

~

P = VAIA = Z (;l) = Z + Z (;l) Z (;l) = jZZ (+;lZ)j(V;Slj)j2 : (19)

s

s

The time-average power delivered to the load is

2

hP i = 21 <e P~ ] = 21 jR + jX R+(;Rl();jVlS) j+ jX (;l)j2

(20)

s

S

where we have assumed that ZS = RS + jXS , and Z (;l) = R(;l) + jX (;l).

To optimize hP i, with respect to X (;l), we choose X (;l) = ;XS , hence,

2

hP i = 21 jRR(+;lR)j(V;Slj)j2 :

(21)

s

3

The above is maximum when R(;l) = RS . Hence, maximum power is delivered to the load when

Z (;l) = ZS :

(22)

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

We note that when the impedance of a load is the same as the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, there is no reected wave, and all

the forward going power is dissipated in the load. There are various ways to

achieve this impedance matching and we will discuss some of them below.

(a) Quarter-Wave Transformer

A quarter wave transformer, like low-frequency transformers, changes the

impedance of the load to another value so that matching is possible.

Z0

ZT

Z in

ZL

/4

impedance ZT of 4 long. To have a matching condition, we want Zin = Z0 .

From Equation (6.11) we have

2

Z

Z

L + jZT tan 2

T

(1)

Zin = ZT Z + jZ tan = Z

T

L

L

2

since tan l = tan 2 4 = tan 2 = 1. In order for Zin = Z0 , we need that

(2)

ZT2 = Z0 ZL ) ZT = Z0 Zl :

If Z0 and ZL are both real, then ZT is real, and we can use a lossless line

to perform the matching. If ZL is complex, it can be made real by adding a

section of line to it.

Z0

ZT

Zin

Z0

Z1

/4

1

ZL

Example

Given that ZL = (30 + j 40), Z0 = 50, nd the shortest l and ZT so that

the above circuit is matched. Assume that ZT is real and lossless.

We want Z1 to be real and Zin to be Z0 = 50 in order for ZT to be real

and the matching condition satised. We nd that ZnL = 0:6+ j 0:8. In order

to make Zn1 real, the shortest l from the Smith Chart is 8 . Then Zn1 = 3:0,

and Z1 = 150. Since Zin = 50, we need

in order for matching condition to be satised.

Note that the quarter wave transformer only matches the circuit at one

frequency. Often time, it has a small bandwidth of operation, i.e., it only

works in the frequencies in a small neighborhood of the matching frequency.

Sometimes, a cascade of two or more quarter-wave transformers are used in

order to broaden the bandwidth of operation of the transformer.

j1

j0.5

j2

Z nL

l= 8

j0.2

0.2

0.5

Z n1

j0.2

j0.5

j2

j1

Another device for performing matching is a single stub (either shorted or

opened at one end) which is shunted across the transmission line at z = ;d

from the load.

2

ZS

Y(d)

VSWR > 1 ZL

Zin

VS

Shorted

Stub

l, Z0

the load is Y0 + jB (Y0 = Z10 ). The length l of the shorted stub is chosen so

that its admittance is ;jB . Hence, when the stub is connected in parallel to

the transmission line at z = ;d, the impedance Zin = Z0, so that matching

condition is achieved.

A shorted stub has impedance and admittance given by

(3)

(4)

An open-circuited stub can also be used, and the impedance and admittance

are given by

Zop = ;jZ0 cot l

(5)

Yop = jY0 tan l:

(6)

j1

j0.5

j2

Y(-d)

j0.2

0.216

0.2

Z nL

0.5

Yshort

YnL

j0.2

0.99

j0.5

j2

j1

Example

3

Ystub

Let ZL = (100+ j 85), nd the minimum d and l that will reduce the VSWR

of the main line to 1. Assume that Z0 = 50.

We nd that the normalized load ZnL = 2 + 1:7j as shown on the Smith

Chart. Since this problem involves parallel connections, it is more convenient

to work with admittances. YnL = Z1nL is as shown. When we move toward

the generator, Yn(z) traces out a locus on the Smith Chart as shown. It

intersects the G = 1 circle as shown, after moving through 0:216. Therefore,

d = 0:216.

Now, Yn(;d) = 1 + j 1:4. Hence, Ynstub = ;j 1:4. From the Smith Chart,

we note that the admittance for a short is innity, and is at the right end of

the Smith Chart. To get a Ynstub = ;j 1:4, we move toward the generator for

0:099. Hence, l = 0:099.

Often time, it is not easy to change d, but quite easy to change l. We

note that both in the quarter wave transformer and the single stub tuner, we

have to change 2 parameters for tuning. We can provide these 2 degrees of

freedom by using two stubs, changing their length, but not their positions.

(c) Double Stub Tuning (optional reading)

Both single stub tuning and quarter wave transformer matching require

changing the location of the stub or the transformer. In practice, this is

dicult, and a double stub tuning removes the diculty.

3

Z0

Z0

A

Y1

B

Y2

1, Z 0

2, Z 0

Stub 1

Stub 2

ZL

by changing 2.

YnL

Rotation by

C2

by changing 1.

C1

Yn2

All possible values of Yn2 by

transforming from all possible

values of Yn1 by 3.

P

Yn1 = 1

Yn1 Ynstub1

C3

Q

Yn1 = 1. However, if we change l1 , the possible values of Yn1 trace out a

circle C1 as shown.

(2) If YnL is as shown, by changing l2 , the possible values of Yn2 trace out a

circle C2 as shown.

(3) When l3 is added, all the possible values of Yn1 at A is transformed to B

by a rotation according to the length of l3. This constitute a circle C3

which is all the possible values of Yn2 obtained from Yn1. There are only

two points, P and Q that the two circles C2 and C3 intersect. If we pick

P , then this point should correspond to the value of Yn2.

(25:1)

(4) The length l3 rotates the point P to the point R. Then R has the

impedance Yn1 ; Ynstub1 = 1 ; Ynstub1 . We can gure out Ynstub1 from

the Smith Chart and hence the length l1.

(d) Ferranti Eect

Z o = 50

R L = 25

VS

= 10 V

z=

z=0

. Find VSWR on the line, and if l is allowed to vary arbitrarily, nd the

maximum voltage on the line.

5

; 50 = ; 1

P (0) = Pv = 25

25 + 50

3

+ jPv j = 43 = 2:

VSWR = 11 ;

jPv j 23

|V(z)|

Vmax

/2

Vs

Vmin

z=

dmin

jV (z)j on parts of the transmission line can be longer than jVsj. If l is chosen

so that Vs is at Vmin, then

the VSWR on the line is very high, Vmax can be so large that it reaches the

breakdown voltage of the line. This is something one should be cautious of

in designing transmission line circuits.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

When R and G are not zero, we have a lossy transmission line. In this

case,

V (z) = V0(e;z + v e+z )

(1)

where

p

p

= ZY = (j!L + R)(j!C + G) = + j:

The current is derived using the telegrapher's equation to be

I (z) = ZV0 (e;z ; v ez )

(2)

0

where

s

r

j!L + R :

Z0 = YZ = j!C

+G

When RL = GC , then Z0 becomes frequency independent, and Z0 =

L

C

. Also,

12

p

R

G

(3)

1 + j!L = j! LC 1 + j!L

q

p

From (3), we see that = R CL = ZR0 while = ! LC . Since is

1

is also frequency independent,

frequency independent, and the v = ! = pLC

the transmission line is a distortionless line because any pulse that propagates

on the line will not be distorted. This is because a pulse can be thought of

as a superposition of Fourier harmonics. Each Fourier harmonic is a time

harmonic signal. On a distortionless line, all the Fourier harmonics propagate

at the same velocity and su
er the same attenuation. Hence the pulse is not

distorted but only diminished in amplitude.

R

= j! LC 1 + j!L

12

where

;(z)

Z (z) = VI ((zz)) = Z0 11 +

; ;(z)

(4)

;(z) = v e2z :

(5)

Z0 = Zn(z) ; 1 :

;(z) = ZZ ((zz)) ;

(6)

+ Z0 Zn(z) + 1

Equations (4) and (6) can be solved using a Smith Chart. However, now we

have

j;(z)j = jv j e2z :

(7)

The amplitude of j;(z)j is diminishing when we move from the load to the

source. From (5), we note that ;(z) ! 0 when z ! ;1, Z (z) ! Z0 when

z ! ;1. Hence, a long lossy transmission line is always matched. The locus

traced out by (7) is a spiral converging on the origin of the Smith Chart when

we move from the load to the source.

Also, the voltage standing wave pattern is given by

jV (z)j = jV0j e;z j1 + ;(z)j :

(8)

A plot of ;(z) and jV (z)j are as shown. Furthermore, we can dene an ad

hoc VSWR given to be

+ j;(z)j = 1 + jv j e2z

VSWR = 11 ;

(9)

j;(z)j 1 ; jv j e2z

which is dependent on z.

x ZnL

V(z) , VSWR

V(z)

VSWR

With V (z) and I (z) given by (1) and (2), one can dene a complex power

on a lossy line to be

P (z) = V (z)I ?(z)

(10)

where

;

V (z) = V0e;z 1 + ;(z)

(11)

and

;z ;

I (z) = V0Ze 1 ; ;(z) :

(12)

0

Hence,

2

;

j

V

0 j ;z ; ? z ;

P (z ) = Z ? e

1 + ;(z) 1 ; ;? (z)

(13)

0

which is equal to

2

P (z) = jVZ0?j e;2 z 1 ; j;(z)j2 + 2j =m;(z) :

0

2

j

V

0 j ;2 z

P (z ) = Z ? e

1 ; jv j2 e4 z + 2j =m;(z) :

0

3

(14)

(15)

We see that both the real part and the imaginary part of the complex power

are functions of position. This is because real power is dissipated as the wave

propagates. Hence, the real power at one point is not equal to the real power

at another point.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

When we do not have a time harmonic signal on a transmission line, we

have to use transient analysis to understand the waves on a transmission line.

A pulse waveform is an example of a transient waveform.

We have shown previously that if we have a forward going wave for a

voltage on a transmission line, the voltage is

V

(z t) = f (z ; vt):

(1)

1 f (z ; vt):

I (z t) =

(2)

Z0

V

1 g(z + vt):

I (z t) = ;

Z0

(3)

(4)

Hence, in general, if

(z t) = V+(z t) + V;(z t)

I (z t) = Y0 V+ (z t) ; V; (z t)

(5)

(6)

where Y0 = Z10 , and the subscript + indicates a positive going wave, while

the subscript ; indicates a negative going wave.

Z 0, v

+

V0

z=0

z=L

z = 0 has the form

V

(z = 0 t) = V0 U (t):

(7)

will create a wave front propagating to the right as t increases.

L

t< v

V(z, t)

V+

V0

z=0

z = vt

z=L

I(z, t)

V0 Y0

I+

v

z=0

z = vt

z=L

When the wave reaches the right end termination, the voltage and the

current wave fronts will be reected. However, the short at z = L requires

that V (z = L t) = 0 always. Hence the reected voltage wave, which is

negative going, has an amplitude of ;V0 . The corresponding current can be

derived from (4) and is as shown.

2

V+(z, t)

V+

t>L

v

V0

z=0

z=L

z

t>L

v

V(z, t)

V0

V

V(z, t) = V+ + V

L

t> v

V0

z=L

I+(z, t)

I+

Y0 V0

z=L

z=0

I

I(z, t)

Y0 V0

z=L

I(z, t)

2Y0 V0

Y0 V0

z=0

z=L

When the signal reaches the source end, it is being reected again. A

voltage source looks like a short circuit because the reected voltage must

cancel the incident voltage in order for the voltage across the voltage source

remains unchanged. Hence the negative going voltage and current are again

reected like a short. Hence, if one is to measure the voltage at z = 0, it will

always be V0 . However, the current at z = 0 will increase indenitely with

time as shown.

I(z = 0, t)

7 Y0 V0

5 Y0 V 0

3 Y 0 V0

3 Y 0 V0

Y0 V0

0

t = 2L/v

t = 4L/v

t = 6L/v

The current will eventually become innitely large because the transmission line will become like a short circuit to the D.C. voltage source. Therefore,

the current becomes innite.

(b) Open-Circuited Termination

If we have an open-circuited termination at z = L, then the current has

to be zero always. In this case, the reected current is negative that of the

incident current such that I (z = L t) = 0 always. For example, if the source

waveform looks like as shown below, the reected waveform will behave as

shown.

VS(t)

V0

t1

0

V(z, t)

t < L/v

V+

V0

z

z=0

I(z, t)

V0 Y0

z=0

z = v(tt1)

z = vt

z=L

I+

z = v(tt1)

t < L/v

z = vt

z=L

I(z, t)

I+

t > L/v

Y0 V0

z

z=L

0

I

V(z, t)

t > L/v

2 V0

V0

V+

I

z

We can think of transient signals as superpositions of time harmonic

signals. This is a consequence of Fourier analysis. We see that the voltage

reection coecient is ;1 for a shorted termination for all frequencies. Hence,

the voltage reection coecient is ;1 for a transient signal. By a similar

argument, the voltage reection coecient for an open-circuited termination

is +1.

When the termination is resistive on a lossless transmission line, we recall

that the voltage reection coecient is

; Z0 = RL ; Z0 :

= ZZL +

Z

R + Z

L

(8)

Hence, the reection coecient is frequency independent. All frequency components in a transient signal will experience the same reection. Hence, v is

also the reection coecient for a voltage pulse.

R

Z0 , v

+

V0

Z in

z=0

z=L

Consider, for example, a transmission line being driven via a source resistance R and a load termination R. If R = 12 Z0, let us see what happens

when we turn on the switch.

For t < VL , the transmission line appears to be innitely long to the

source. Hence, Zin looks like Z0 to the source. Hence, VA = Z0Z+0 R V0 = 23 V0

for R = 21 Z0. Hence, we have a wavefront of 23 V0 propagating to the right for

L

t <

V.

6

V(z, t)

V+

2 V0/3

4 V0/9

z

z=L

V = 2 V0/9

8 Y0 V0/9

0

2 V0/9

I(z, t)

2 Y0 V0/3

I+

0

I = 2 V0 Y0/9

z=L

its amplitude is 23 v V0. v = ; 31 for this termination.

2L/v > t > L/v

V(z, t)

V+

4 V0

9

2 V0 /3

0

2 V0 /9

z=L

V =

I(z, t)

2 Y0 V0 /3

2 V0

8 Y0 V0 /9

9

I+

I = 2 V0 Y0 /9 z = L

For t > 2 VL , a voltage source looks like a short to the transient signal. The

reection from the left is again ; 31 for the voltage and + 13 for the current.

7

14 V0

27

V(z, t)

2 V0 /3

2

V1+ = 3 V0

V2+ = 2 V0/27

z

V = 2 V0 /9

I(z, t)

4 V0

9

26 Y V0

27 0

z=L

8YV

9 0 0

I 1+ = 2 Y0 V0 /3

z

z

=

L

I = 2 Y0 V0 /9

0

I 2+ = 2 Y0 V0 /27

When t ! 1, the voltage and current on the line will settle down to a

steady state. In that case, we have only DC signal on the line, and we need

only to use DC circuit analysis to nd the steady state solution. At DC, the

transmission line becomes rst two pieces of wires, VA = VB = 2RR V0 = 12 V0 .

The current through the circuit is ZV00 . If one is to measure VA as a function

of time, it will look like

VA(t)

2 V0/3

2 V0

3

14 V0/27

V0/2

t

2L/v

4L/v

6L/v

IA(t)

V0 Y0

2 V Y

3 0 0

26 V0 Y0/27

t

0

2L/v

4L/v

6L/v

note that when we switch on a circuit with a delay line, we do not immediately

arrive at the desired steady state value when we have a transmission line or

a delay line. The settling time depends on the length of the line involved.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

The eld or wave in a transmission line is TEM (Transmission ElectroMagnetic) because both the H-eld and the E-eld are transverse to the

direction of propagation. If the wave is propagating in the z^-direction, then

both Ez and Hz are zero for such a wave. In such a case, the elds are

E = Es H = Hs

(1)

where we have used the subscript s to denote elds transverse to the direction

of propagation. We can also dene a del operation such that

r = rs + ^

z

@

@z

(2)

rs = x^ @x@ + y^ @y@ . From

(3)

r H = @@Et

or

@

(4)

rs + z^@ z Hs = @@Et :

Since rs Hs points in the z^-direction, z^ @z@ Hs is z^-directed, we have

rs Hs = 0

(^ Hs) = Es

(5)

(6)

@z

@t

rs Es = 0

(^ Es) = ; Hs

@z

@t

(7)

(8)

Equations (5) and (7) shows that the transverse curl of the elds are zero.

This implies that the elds in the transverse directions of a transmission

line resembles that of the electrostatic elds. Furthermore, Equations (6)

and (8) couple the Es and Hs elds together. These two equations are the

electromagnetic eld analogues of the telegrapher's equations.

1

H

Contour

C

I

a

b

direction. From Ampere's Law, we have

or

Hs = J =

dl

ds

2

(9)

I

= I:

(10)

dH

Hence,

( ):

(11)

2

If we assume that the inner conductor in theH coaxial line is charged up with

the line charge Q in coulomb=m, then from E n^ ds = Q, we have

( z t) =

I z t

2E = Q

or

=

(12)

2 :

R

Since the potential between a and b is ab E d, we have

E

Hence,

Q

V

d =

2 ln

Q

b

(z t) = Q(z t) :

b

2

ln( )

a

is the capacitance per unit length, and it is

E

The ratio

( z t) =

= 2b :

ln( a )

2

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

@

@z

@

@z

= ; @@Et

= ;

:

@H

@t

@

2 @ V

I (z t) = ;

@z

ln( ab ) @ t

and

(17)

(18)

(19)

b

ln( ) @ I

a

(

z t) = ;

(20)

@z

2 @ t :

This is just the telegrapher's equations derived from Maxwell's equations.

C is given by (16) while the inductance per unit length L is obtained by

comparing (20) with the telegrapher's equations

@

ln( b )

= 2a :

Note that the velocity of the wave on a transmission line is

1 = 1

v = p

L

LC

(21)

(22)

which is independent of the dimensions of the line. This is because all TEM

waves have velocity given by p1 .

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

We learn earlier that in a lossy medium, J = E, and from

(1)

r H = j!E + E = j!E

(2)

= ;j

!

(3)

r E = ;j!H

(4)

where

and that r H = 0, r E = 0, we can show that

r2 E = ;!2E

(5)

2

2

(6)

r H = ;! H:

Refer to x 4 for details]. If we assume that E = x^Ex(z), then, we can show

that

where

d2

Ex(z ) ; 2 Ex(z ) = 0

2

dz

(7)

= j! = + j

:

(7a)

(8)

If we assume that c2 = 0, we have only

Ex(z ) = c1 e;z :

(9)

We can convert the above into a real time quantity using phasor techniques,

or

Ex(z t) = jc1 j <ee;z;jz+j1+j!t ]

= jc1j e;z cos(!t ;

z + 1 )

1

(10)

where we have assumed that c1 = jc1 j ej1 . Hence, we see that Ex(z t) is

a wave that propagates to the right with velocity v = ! and attenuation

constant . We can nd from equation (7a), and

r

r

= + j

= j! ; j

=

j! 1 ; j

:

!

!

(11)

The rst term on the RHS of (1) is the displacement current term, while the

second term is the conduction current term. From (2), we see that the ratio

! is the ratio of the conduction current to the displacement current in a lossy

medium. ! is also known as the loss tangent of a lossy medium.

(i) When ! 1, the loss tangent is small, and the conduction current compared to the displacement current is small. The medium behaves more

like a dielectric medium. In this case, we can use binomial expansions to

approximate (11) to obtain

p

1

= j! 1 ; j

= 1

2 !

where

p

+

j!

1

= !p:

=

2

(12)

(13)

(ii) When ! 1, the loss tangent is large because there is more conduction current than displacement current in the medium. In this case, the

medium is conductive. According to equation (11), when ! 1, we

have

r

= j! ;j

!

r

p

= j! = (1 + j ) ! :

Hence

=

=

1:

=

2

!

(14)

(15)

If we substitute =

= 1 into (10), we have

Ex (z t) = jc1 j e

;z

cos

z

!t ;

+ 1 :

(16)

Ex(z,t), t=0.,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,2.5

1

0.8

0.6

1.5

0.4

2.

Ex(z,t)

0.2

2.5

1.

.5

t=0.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

z

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

is also known as the penetration depth or the skin depth of a conductive

medium. For other media, the penetration is 1 , but for a conductive medium,

it is

r

r

2

1 :

=

(17)

=

!

f

This skin depth decreases with increasing frequencies and increasing conductivities.

complex arithmatics to nd and

.

If we square (11), we have

2 ;

2 + 2j

= ;! 2 ( ; j

or

2 ;

2 = ;! 2

2

= !:

)

!

( 2 ;

2 )2 + (2

)2 = ( 2 +

2 )2 = !42 2 + !22 2

or

p

2 +

2 = ! ! 2 2 + 2 :

Combining with (19a), we deduce that

1 p

2 = (! ! 2 2 + 2 ; ! 2 )

2

3

(18)

(19a)

(19b)

(20)

(21)

(22a)

1 (!p!22 + 2 + !2)

2

Notice that when = 0, = 0.

2 =

(22b)

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

15. Group and Phase Velocities.

If we have two waves that are slightly dierent in frequency ! and phase

constant , a linear superposition of them is still a solution of the wave

equation

Ex = E0 cos(!1t ; 1 z) + E0 cos(!2t ; 2 z):

(1)

If !1 = ! ; !, 1 = ; , !2 = ! + !, 2 = + , then

Ex = E0 cos
!t ; z ; (!t ; z)] + E0 cos
!t ; z + (!t ; z)]: (2)

Using the fact that cos(A ; B ) + cos(A + B ) = 2 cos A cos B , we have

Ex = 2E0 cos(!t ; z) cos(!t ; z)

(3)

or

!

!

Ex(z t) = 2E0 cos t ; z cos t ; z :

(4)

At t = 0, we have Ex = 2E0 cos z cos z which is sketched below.

Ex(z,t), t=1., omega=0.5, beta=0.4, domega=0.01, dbeta=0.02

2

1.5

Ex(z,t)

0.5

0.5

1.5

2

0

50

100

150

z

200

250

300

The rst factor in (4) is rapidly varying while the second factor is slowly

varying. The slowly varying term amplitude-modulates the rapidly varying

term giving rise to the picture as shown.

We have learnt that a function of the form f (vt ; z) propagates in the

positive z-direction with velocity v. From (10.5), we see that the rapidly

1

varying term propagates with velocity ! . Since this represents the propagation of the phases in the rapidly oscillating part in the gure, this is also

known as phase velocity,

vp = ! :

(5)

The slowly varying part propagates with the velocity ! , which is d!

d in the

limit that ! and ! 0. This represents the velocity on the envelope in

the picture and hence, it is known as the group velocity,

;1 d :

vg = d!

or

v

g =

d

d!

(6)

If = !p, the phase velocity vp = ! = p1 , the group velocity from (6)

is also p1 . Hence, the group and the phase velocities are the same is is a

linear function of !.

If is not a linear function of !, then, the phase velocity and the group

velocities are functions of frequencies, and the medium is known to be dispersive. In a dispersive medium, a pulse propagates with subsequent distortions

because the dierent harmonics in the pulse propagate with dierent phase

velocity. pExample of a dispersive medium is a conductive medium where

= 1 = !

2 , is not a linear function of ! .

In a distortionless line, the phase velocity is made to be frequency independent so that a pulse propagates without distortions.

Furthermore, a phase velocity can be larger than the velocity of light

while the group velocity is always less than the speed of light. This is because

energy propagates with the group velocity so that special relativity is not

violated.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Since E H has the dimension of watts=m2 , we can study its divergence

property and its conservative property. Using the vector identity in (1.26),

we have,

r (E H) = H r E ; E r H:

(1)

From Maxwell's equations, we can replace r E by ; @@tB and r H by

@ D + J. Hence,

@t

r (E H) = ;H @@tB ; E @@tD ; E J

= ;H @ H ; E @ E ; E J:

Hence,

@t

1 @ jHj2 = H @ H :

2 @t

@t

@t

(2)

(3)

1

@

1

2

2

r (E H) = ; @t 2 jHj + 2 jEj ; E J:

(4)

We can dene

S = E H Poynting vector (Power Flow Density watt m;2) (5)

(6)

UH = 21 jHj2 Magnetic Energy Density (joule m;3)

UE = 21 jEj2 Electric Energy Density(joule m;3)

(7)

E J = Energy Dissipation Density(watt m;3):

(8)

UH and UE represent the energy stored in the magnetic eld and electric eld

respectively. Alternatively, (4) becomes

r S = ; @t@ (UH + UE ) ; E J:

(9)

I

Z

Z

@

S n^ dA = ; @t (UH + UE ) dV ; E J dV:

(10)

A

V

V

S

A

The equation says that the LHS will be positive only if there is a net

outow of the ux due to the vector eld S. If there is no current inside V so

that E J = 0, then this is only possible if the stored energy UH + UE inside

V decreases with time.

2

If J = E, then the last term

H is ; jEj dV is always negative. Hence,

the last term tends to make S S n^ dA negative, because energy dissipation

has to be compensated by power ux owing into V . The Poynting theorems

(9) and (10) are statements of energy conservation. For example, for a plane

wave,

r

(11)

E = x^f (z ; vt) H = y^ f (z ; vt)

then

Also,

Therefore,

r

S = E H = z^ f 2(z ; vt):

(12)

(13)

(14)

Hence, the velocity times the total energy density stored equals the power

density ow in a plane wave.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

The complex Poynting vector is dened to be

S = E H:

(1)

ow of complex power.

(We have used underbars to denote complex vectors).

Before we proceed further, let us look at Maxwell's equations for the

phasor eld. In phasor representation, Maxwell's equations become

r H = J + j!E

r E = ;j!H:

(2)

(3)

r (E H) = H r E ; E r H :

(4)

r (E H ) = ;j!H H + j!E E ; E J

= ;j! jHj2 ; jEj2 ] ; E J:

(5)

Comparing with (16.4), (5) involves the dierence of the stored energy terms

rather than the sum.

We have shown that for two quantities,

A(z t) = <eA(z)ej!t ]

B(z t) = <eB(z)ej!t ]:

The time average of A(z t)B (z t), denoted by hA B i is given by

Therefore,

(6)

(7)

hA B i = 21 <eA(z)B(z)]:

(8)

(9)

The imaginary part of S corresponds to instantaneous power that time averages to zero. It is also known as the reactive power. We can also convert (5)

into integral from using the divergence theorem,

I

jEj2 dV

(10)

where we have assumed that J = E. If , , and are all real, then

I

and

(11)

(12)

We see that the real part of the power corresponds to power dissipated in

V while the imaginary part of the power corresponds to dierence in the

magnetic energy stored and the electric energy stored. Hence, if a system

has equal amount of magnetic and electric energy stored, it does not consume

any reactive power.

Ig

I2

I1

Vg

proportional to !(jHj2 ; jEj2 ). It is zero when jHj2 = jEj2, or when

the stored magnetic eld energy equals the stored electric eld energy. To

comprehend this further, we look at a simple LC circuit driven by a timeharmonic voltage source.

p

At the resonant frequency of the tank circuit, ! = 1= LC , its input

impedance is innite, and hence Ig = 0. Therefore, there is no power delivered from the generator, be it real or reactive. However, I1 = ;I2 6= 0 at

resonance, and as the tank circuit is resonating, the electric eld energy stored

in C is being converted into the magnetic eld energy stored in L. Therefore,

2

precisely the case mentioned above.

Away from resonance,

1 ) = j!CV (1 ; 1 ):

Ig = Vg (j!C + j!L

g

!2LC

Ig is at 90 out-of-phase with Vg , and the complex power, Vg Ig is purely

imaginary. This implies that there is no time average power delivered by the

source Vg , but it delivers nonzero reactive power. Away from resonance, the

magnetic and electric stored energies are not in perfect balance with respect

to each other, and we need to augment the system with external reactive

power.

1

2

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

18. Wave Polarization.

We learnt that

(1)

E = y^Ey = y^E2 cos(!t ; z + )

(2)

is also a solution to the wave equation. Solutions (1) and (2) are known as

linearly polarized waves, because the electric
eld or the magnetic
eld are

polarized in only one direction. However, a linear superposition of (1) and

(2) are still a solution to Maxwell's equation

E = x^Ex(z t) + y^Ey (z t):

(3)

E = x^E1 cos !t + y^E2 cos(!t + ):

(4)

(5)

E1 E = ; pE2 :

When !t = 45 Ex = p

y

2

2

When !t = 90 Ex = 0 Ey = ;E2:

E1 E = ; pE2 :

When !t = 135 Ex = ; p

y

2

2

When !t = 180 Ex = ;E1 Ey = 0:

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

When = 90,

If we continue further, we can sketch out the tip of the vector
eld E. It

traces out an ellipse as shown when E1 6= E2. Such a wave is known as an

elliptically polarized wave.

1

y

t=225

t=270

t=315

E2

E1

t=0

E1

t=180

t=135

E2 t=90

t=45

When E1 = E2, the ellipse becomes a circle, and the wave is known as

a circularly polarized wave. When is ;90 , the vector E rotates in the

counter-clockwise direction.

A wave is classi
ed as left hand elliptically (circularly) polarized when

the wave is approaching the viewer. A counterclockwise rotation is classi
ed

as right hand elliptically (circularly) polarized.

When 6= 90 , the tip of the vector E traces out a tilted ellipse. We

can show this by expanding Ey in (5).

" 2 #

E

x

= E2 Ex cos ; E2 1 ; E

sin :

E

1

1

1

2

(11)

where

(12)

1 b = 2 cos c = 1 :

a = E 2 sin

2

E1E2 sin2

E22 sin2

1

(13)

which is the equation of a tilted ellipse.

2

(14)

(x, y)

(x, y)

y

B

0 2

x + y0 2 = 1

A

B

(15)

x0 = x cos ; y sin

y0 = x sin + y cos

(16)

(17)

we have

2

2

2

2

sin

1

1

cos

2 cos

2 sin

x A2 + B 2 ; xy sin 2 A2 ; B 2 + y A2 + B 2 = 1:

(18)

Equating (14) and (18), we can deduce that

E1 E2

= 21 tan;1 2 cos

2

E2 ; E12

where

+

AR = 11 ;

12

(19)

(20)

1

2

2 2

2

2 sin

= 1 ; 4EE1 E

:

(21)

2

2

1 + E2

AR is the axial ratio which is the ratio of the two axes of the ellipse. It is

de
ned to be larger than one always.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

19. Representation of a Plane Wave.

2

2

r E + E = 0

(1)

where 2 = !2. We have learnt that one of the many possible solutions to

the above equation is

E = x^E0 e;jz :

(2)

;

jz

The expression e , when viewed in three dimensions, has constant phase

planes or wave fronts which are orthogonal to the z-axis.

Constant phase

planes

0

z

E = a^E0 e;jxx;jy y;jz z

(3)

where a^ is a constant unit vector, and E0 a constant. If we substitute (3)

into (1), we obtain

;x2 ; y2 ; z2 + 2 ]E0 = 0:

(4)

In order for (3) to satisfy (1) and that E0 6= 0, we require that

x2 + y2 + z2 = 2 = !2:

(5)

If we dene a vector = x^x + y^y + z^z , and r = x^x + y^y + z^z, then (3)

can be written as

E = a^E0 e;j r

(6)

where the magnitude of is

2

2

2 1

j j = x + y + z ] 2 = :

(7)

1

(3), we note that

E = ;j ^xx + y^y + z^z ] a^E0 e;j r :

Therefore, in order for r E = 0, we require that

(8)

r

a^ = 0:

(9)

;

j

r

To explore further how the function e

look like, we assume to be

pointing in a direction as shown in the gure. The value of r is constant

on a plane that is orthogonal to .

r

r

A

Constant phase

planes

That is

(10)

for all r on the plane S that is orthogonal to . Hence, S is the constant

phase plane of e;jr = e;j(OA). As one moves progressively in the direction, the function e;jr has a phase that is linearly decreasing with distance.

Therefore, e;jr denotes a plane wave that is propagating in the direction.

When is pointing in the z-direction, such that = z^ , then e;jr = e;jz ,

which is our familiar solution of a plane wave propagating in the z-direction.

is

E = y^E0 e;jxx;jz z

(11)

where x + z = . The corresponding magnetic eld can be derived using

Maxwell's equations.

r E = ;j!H:

(12)

Hence,

@

;1

@

H=

j! z^@x Ey ; x^ @z Ey

2

E0 e;jxx;jz z :

= (^z x ; x^z ) !

2

(13)

it transforms into ;j . This is obvious also from Equation (8). Therefore,

from (12), we can express

1 E:

H=

(14)

!

H = 0, in addition to E = 0. Furthermore, E H points in the direction

of . Therefore, for a plane electromagnetic wave, E, H, and form a righthanded orthogonal system. It is also a transverse electromagnetic (TEM)

wave.

E

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Interface.

We have learnt that in an innite free space, a simple plane wave solution

exists that is given by

E = ^ x( ) = ^

H = ^ y( ) = ^

;j0 z

xE

xE0 e

yH

y H0 e

;j0 z

(1)

= y^ E 0 e;j0z

0

wavenumber. Also, 0 = 2= 0 where 0 is the free space wavelength.

p

Region 1

1, 1

Region 0

0, 0

When the simple plane wave is normally incident on a
at material interface, we expect to have a re
ected wave in Region 0, and a transmitted wave

in Region 1.

In Region 0, we can write the total elds as

E0 = ^

H0 = ^

y

;j0z + E ;e+j0 z

E0 e

E0

0

;j0z ;

e

E0 = ^

E0

0

;j1 z

xE1 e

+j0 z

:

(3)

(4)

H0 = ^ 1 ;j z

(5)

1

p . There are two unknowns in the

1 and 1 =

1 1

;

+

+

x

(2)

E

where 1 = 1=

!

above expressions, E0 and H0 . E0 is known because it is the amplitude

1

if the incident eld. We can set up two equations to nd two unknowns by

matching boundary conditions at z = 0. The requisite boundary conditions

are that the tangential components of the E eld and H eld should be

continuous.

By imposing tangential E continuous, we arrive at

+

E0

+ E0; = E1+

(6)

+

E0

0

E0

0

E1

1

(7)

Solving these two equations expresses E0; and E1+ in terms of E0+:

;=

1

0

+ 0

21 E +:

;

E1 =

0

1 + 0

We dene the re
ection coecient to be

E0

1

E0

; 0

; = 1 +

1

(8)

(9)

(10)

T

= 2+1

1

(11)

Notice that 1 + ; = T .

When there is a mismatch at the interface, we expect most of the wave

to be re
ected. This occurs when 1 0 . In this case, ; ' ;1, and T ' 0.

It also occurs when 1 0 , for which case, ; ' +1, T ' 2.

The above derivation also holds true when Region 1 is a conductive lossy

region. In this case, we replace 1 with a comlex permittivity ~1 which is

given by

~1 = 1 ; j !1 :

(12)

p

1 = j !

1

~1 = 1 + j 1 which is a complex number also.

For a highlypconductive medium like copper, 1=! 1 , ~1 ' ;j 1=!,

and 1 = (1 + j ) !1 =(21). Consequently, 1 0 and ; ' ;1, T '= 0.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Date:November 7, 1997

Hr

Ei

Er

medium 1

Hi

i

1 , 1

2 , 2

medium 2

z

t

Ht

Et

When an incident wave impinges on a dielectric interface, a re

ected wave

as well as a transmitted wave is generated. We can express the three waves

as

Ei = y^E0e;j r

(1)

;

j r

Er = y^?E0e

(2)

;

j r

Et = y^?E0e :

(3)

The electric eld is perpendicular to the xz plane, and i, r , and t are their

respective directions of propagation. The 's are also known as propagation

vectors. In particular,

i = x^ix + z^iz

(4)

r = x^rx ; z^rz

(5)

tx = x^tx + z^tz :

(6)

Since Ei and Er are in medium 1, we have

(7)

ix2 + iz2 = 12 = !21 1

2

2

2

2

rx + rz = 1 = ! 1 1

(8)

i

tx2 + tz2 = 22 = !222 :

(9)

(7), (8), and (9) are known as the dispersion relations for the components

of the propagation vectors. From the gure, we note that

ix = 1 sin i iz = 1 cos i

(10)

rx = 1 sin r rz = 1 cos r

(11)

tx = 2 sin t tz = 2 cos t :

(12)

To nd the unknown ? and ?, we need to match boundary conditions for

the elds at the dielectric interface. The boundary conditions are the equality

of the tangential electric and magnetic elds on both sides of the interface.

The magnetic elds can be derived via Maxwell's equations.

H = r Ei = i Ei = (^z ; x^ ) E0 e;j r:

(13)

i

Similarly,

;j!1

!1

ix

iz

!1

?E0 e;j r

Hr = (^z rx + x^rz ) !

(14)

Ht = (^z tx ; x^tz ) !

(15)

E0e;j x + ?E0e;j x = ?E0e;j x:

(16)

The above equation is to be satised for all x. This is only possible if

ix = rx = tx = x :

(17)

This condition is known as phase matching. From (10), (11), and (12), we

know that (17) implies

1 sin i = 1 sin r = 2 sin t:

(18)

The above implies that r = i. Furthermore,

p sin = p sin :

(19a)

1 1

i

2 2

t

rx

ix

q

i i

0 0

tx

n1 sin i = n2 sin t

(19b)

which is the well known Snell's Law. Consequently, equation (16) becomes

1 + ? = ?:

(20)

2

E0 + ?E0 = ; ?E0 :

;iz !

rz

tz

!

!

1

(21)

1 ; ? = 1 tz ?:

2

(22)

iz

; 1tz

? = 2iz +

1tz

2 iz

2

? = +2 iz :

2 iz

1 tz

(23)

(24)

cos i ;

1 cos t

? =

2 cos

i +

1 cos t

2

2

? =

cos 2 +cos

icos :

2

(25)

(26)

rewrite (25) as

q 2

2 cos i ;

1 1 ; 12 sin i

q

? =

:

(27)

2 cos i +

1 1 ; 12 sin2 i

If 12 sin i > 1, which is possible if 12 > 1, when i < 2 , then ? is of the

form

; jB

(28)

? = AA +

jB

which always has a magnitude of 1. In this case, all energy will be re

ected.

This isqknown as a total internal reection. This occurs when i > c

where 12 sin c = 1. or

= sin;1

r

2

1 2 < 1 :

(29)

When i = c, t = 90 from (19). The gure below denotes the phenomenon.

less than

critical angle

larger than

critical angle

at critical angle

x

t

less than critical angle

p

1

2

tz = ! 0 2 1 ; sin i :

1

2

(30)

tz = ;j tz

(31)

Et = y^?E0e;j x; z :

x

(32)

tz

a wave an evanescent wave, or an inhomogeneous wave as opposed to

uniform plane wave. The magnitude of a uniform plane wave is a constant

of space while the magnitude of an evanescent wave or an inhomogeneous

wave is not a constant of space. The corresponding magnetic eld is

?E0 e;j x; z :

Ht = (^z x + x^j tz ) !

x

tz

(33)

j2 jE0j2 e;2 z :

S = Et Ht = (^xx + z^j
tz ) j?!

(34)

tz

We note that S x is pure real implying the presence of net time average power

power that is

owing in the z^-direction is purely reactive. Hence, no net time

average power is

owing in the z^-direction.

In this case, the electric eld is parallel to the xz plane that contains the

plane of incidence.

Ei

Hi

Hr

i

r

Er

medium 1

1 , 1

i

as

2 , 2

medium 2

Et

Ht

The magnetic eld is polarized in the y direction, and they can be written

Hi = y^ E

0 e;j r

i

Hr = ;y^k E

0 e;j r

r

Ht = y^k E

0 e;j r:

t

(35)

(36)

(37)

transmission line theory, where re

ection coecients are dened for voltages,

and hence has a negative sign when used for currents. The magnetic eld is

the analogue of a current in transmission theory.

5

In this case, the electric eld has to be orthogonal to and y^, and they

can be derived using

Hi

Ei = ; i!

to be

i

(38)

(39)

(40)

1 + k = tz 1 k

2

1

(41)

iz

1 ; k =

k:

(42)

and

; 2 iz =

2 cos t ;

1 cos i

k = 1 tz +

1 tz

2 cos t +

1 cos i

2 iz

(43)

k = 2+2 iz

2 =

cos2

2 +cos

icos :

2 iz

1 tz 1

2

t

1

i

(44)

22 cos2 t =

12 cos2 i:

(45)

Using Snell's Law, or (19), cos2 t = 1 ; sin2 i, and (45) becomes

1 ; 11 sin2 i = 12 cos2 i:

(46)

2 2

2 1

1 1

2 2

sin i =

1 ; 21 12

1 1

2 2

! 12

;

1 2

2 1

(47)

r

sin i = +2 :

2

1

6

(48)

given by

r

r

2

;

1

;

1

ib = sin + = tan 2 :

(49)

2

ected but totally transmitted. Furthermore, we can show that

sin2 ib + sin2 tb = 1

(50)

implying that

(51)

ib + tb = 2 :

On the contrary,? can never be zero for = 0 or non-magnetic materials.

Hence, a plot of k as a function of i goes through a zero while the plot of

j?j is always larger than zero for non-magnetic materials.

, or

1 < 2

90

between

perpendicular and parallel

polarizations. When i = 90, j?j =

k = 1. On the whole, j?j k for non-magnetic materials.

The above equations are dened for lossless media. However, for lossy

media, if we dene a complex permittivity = ; j ! , Maxwell's equations

remain unchanged. Hence, the expressions for ?, ?, k, and k remain the

same, except that we replace real permittivities with complex permittivities.

q

For example, if medium 2 is metallic so that ! 1, then,

2 = 22 ! 0,

and ? = ;1, and ? = 0. Similarly, k = ;1 and k = 0.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

x

y

z

x=0

x=b

pieces of parallel conductors in the transmission line theory. We shall study

other kinds of waves between two innite parallel plates, or planes. We have

learnt earlier that for a plane wave incident on a plane interface, the wave

can be categorized into TE (transverse electric) with electric eld polarized in

the y-direction. Hence, between a parallel plate waveguide, we shall look for

solutions of TE type with E = y^Ey , or TM (transverse magnetic) type with

H = y^@Hy . We shall assume that the eld does not vary in the y-direction so

that @y = 0.

We have shown earlier that if r E = 0, the equation for the E eld in a

source region is

(r2 + !2)E = 0:

If r H = 0, the equation for the H eld is

(r2 + !2)H = 0:

Since @y@ = 0, r2 = @x@22 + @z@22 in these two equations.

(1)

(2)

I. TM Case, H = y^Hy .

In this case,

@2 @2

2

@x2 + @z2 + ! Hy = 0:

1

(3)

If we assume that

Hy = A(x)e;jzz

(4)

substituting (4) into (3), we have

d2

2

2

(5)

dx2 + ! z A(x) = 0:

Letting x2 = !2 z2 , (5) becomes

d2

2

(6)

dx2 + x A(x) = 0

where the independent solutions are

cos x

(7)

A(x) = sin xx :

x

Hence, Hy is of the form

cos x

Hy = H0 sin xx e;jz z

(8)

x

where

x2 + z2 = !2 = 2

(9)

which are the dispersion relation for plane waves. We can also dene

x = cos , z = sin so that (9) is automatically satised.

;

for the E-eld at the metallic plates. From r H = j!E, we have

@H ; @H

j!Ex = @y

(10)

z

@z y

(where @y@ Hz = 0 in the above equation) or

cos x

z

Ex = ! H0 sin xx e;jz z

x

and

@H @H

j!Ez = @x

y

@y x

(where @y@ Hx = 0 in the above equation) or

sin x

x

Ez = j! H0 cos x x e;jz z :

x

;

(11)

(12)

(13)

rst solution gives Ez (x = 0) = 0. Hence, we eliminate the second solution,

or

x H sin( x)e;jz z :

Ez = ; j!

(14)

0

x

In order for Ez (x = b) = 0, we require that

sin xb = 0

(15)

or

xb = m m = 0 1 2 3 : : :

(16)

and consequently,

x = m

(17)

b m = 0 1 2 3 : : : :

This is known as the guidance condition for the waveguide. Finally, we

have

;j z

z

x

(18)

Hy = H0 cos m

b e

z H cos m x e;jz z

Ex = !

(19)

0

b

m H sin m x e;jz z

(20)

Ez = ; j!b

0

b

where

m 2 21

2

z = !

b

;

(21)

which is the dispersion relation for the parallel plate waveguide. Equation

(18) can be written as

(22)

Hy = H20 ejxx + e;jxx]e;jz z = H20 ejxx;jzz + e;jxx;jzz ]:

The rst term in the above represents a plane wave propagating in the positive

z^-direction and the negative x^-direction, while the second term corresponds

to a wave propagating in the positive x and z directions. Hence, the eld in

between a parallel plate waveguide consists of a plane wave bouncing back

and forth between the two plates, as shown.

= ^x x+ ^z z

= x^ x + ^z z

Since we dene x = cos , z = sin , the wave propagates in a direction making an angle with the x^-direction. Since the guidance condition

requires that x = mb = cos , the plane wave can be guided only for

discrete values of .

From (21), we note p

that for dierent m's, z will assume dierent values.

When m = 0, z = ! , Ez = 0, and we have a TEM mode. When

m > 0, we have a TM mode of order m we call it a TMm mode. Hence,

there are innitely many solutions to Maxwell's equations between a parallel

plate waveguide with the eld given by (18), (19), (20), and the dispersion

relation given by (21) where m = 0 1 2 3 : : : .

From (21), for a given TMm mode, if !p < mb , then z is pure imaginary. In this case, the wave is purely decaying in the z^-direction, and it is

evanescent and non-propagating. For a given TMm mode, we can always

lower the frequency so that this occurs. When this happens, we say that the

mode is cut o. The cuto frequency is the frequency for which a given

TMm mode becomes cuto when the frequency of the TMm mode is lower

than this cuto frequency. Hence,

m

mv :

!mc = bm

or

f

(23)

p

mc = p =

2b 2b

When

(m + 1)v > f > mv > (m ; 1)v > (m ; 2)v > : : : > 0

(24)

2b

2b

2b

2b

the TEM mode plus all the TMn modes, where 0 < n m are propagating

or guided while the TMm+1 and higher order modes are evanescent or

cuto. For the parallel plate waveguide, there is one mode with zero cuto

frequency and hence is guided for all frequencies. This is the TEM mode

which is equivalent to the transmission line mode.

The wavelength that corresponds to the cuto frequency is known as the

cuto wavelength, i.e.,

mc = fv = 2mb :

(25)

mc

When < mc, the corresponding TMm mode will be guided. You can think

of as some kind of the \size" of the wave, and that only when the \size" of

the wave is less than mc can a wave \enter" the waveguide. Notice that mc

is proportional to the physical size of the waveguide.

4

The eld for the TE case can be derived similarly to the TM case. The

electric eld is polarized in the y^-direction, and satises

@2 @2

2

(26)

@x2 + @z2 + ! Ey = 0:

The elds can be shown in a similar fashion to be

Ey = E0 sin(xx)e;jzz

(27)

z E sin( x)e;jzz

Hx = ; !

(28)

0

x

x E cos( x)e;jzz :

Hz = ; j!

(29)

0

x

The boundary conditions are

Ey (x = 0) = 0 Ey (x = b) = 0:

(30)

This gives

x = m

(31)

b

as before, where x2 + z2 = !2. Hence, the TEm modes have the same

dispersion relation and cut-o frequency as the TMm mode. However, when

m = 0, x = 0, and (27){(29) imply that we have zero eld. Therefore, TE0

mode does not exist. We say that TEm and TMm modes are degenerate

when they have the same cuto frequencies.

We can decompose (27) into plane waves, i.e.,

(32)

Ey = E2j0 ejxx;jzz ; e;jxx;jz z ]

and interpret the above as bouncing waves. Compared to (22), we see that

the two bouncing waves in (32) are of the opposite signs whereas that in (22)

are of the same sign. This is because the electric eld has to vanish on the

plates while the magnetic eld need not.

H-field

E-field

H-field

z

E-field

The sketch of the elds for TM1 and TE1 modes are as shown above.

For the TM mode, Hz = 0, and Ez 6= 0, while for the TE mode, Ez = 0,

and Hz 6= 0. Tangential electric eld is zero on the plates while tangential

magnetic eld is not zero on the plates. The above is the instantaneous eld

plots. E H is in the direction of propagation of the waves.

The phase velocity in the z^-direction of a wave in a waveguide is dened

to be

!

1

vp = ! = h

(33)

1 =

i

f 2 21

; m

2 2 p

z

2

! ; b

1 ; mc

f

which is always larger than the speed of light for f > fmc. The group velocity

is

; m

2i 12

d ;1 !2 b

d!

vg = d = d!z =

!

z

which is always less than the speed of light.

;

1;

f 2 12

mc

=

z

2c

1c

vg =

vp = / z

d

d z

z

0c

=C

(34)

i1

z ! 0, the group velocity becomes zero while the phase velocity approaches

innity. When z ! 1, or ! ! 1, the group and phase velocities both

approach the velocity of light in free-space which is the TEM wave velocity.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

can guide waves. The elds inside a hollow waveguide can guide waves of

both TE and TM types. When the eld is of TE type, the electric eld is

purely transverse to the direction of wave propagation z Hence Ez = 0. For

TM elds, the magnetic eld is purely transverse to the z-axis and hence,

Hz = 0. Therefore, the eld components of TE elds are

Ex Ey Hx Hy Hz

and for TM elds, they are

Hx Hy Ex Ey Ez :

We can hence characterize TE elds as having Ez = 0 Hz 6= 0, and TM

elds as Hz = 0 Ez 6= 0. Hence, the z-component of the H eld can be used

to characterize TE elds, while the z-component of the E eld can be used

to characterize TM elds in a hollow waveguide. Given Ez , and Hz , it will be

desirable to derive the transverse components of the elds. We shall denote a

vector transverse to z^ by a subscript s. In this notation, Maxwell's equations

become

@

rs + z^ @z (Hs + z^Hz ) = j!(Es + z^Ez )

(1)

@

(2)

rs + z^ @z (Es + z^Ez ) = ;j!(Hs + z^Hz )

where rs = x^ @x@ + y^ @y@ , and Es and Hs are the electric eld and the magnetic eld, respectively, transverse to the z directon. Equating the transverse

components in (1) and (2), we have

@ z^ H = j!E

rs z^Hz + @z

(3)

s

s

@ z^ E = ;j!H :

rs z^Ez + @z

(4)

s

s

1

@

j

@

rs z^Hz + @z z^ ! rs z^Ez + @z z^ Es = j!Es:

(5)

Using the vector identity

A (B C) = B(A C) ; C(A B)

(6)

we can show that

z^ rs z^Ez = rs(^z z^Ez ) ; z^Ez (^z rs) = rsEz

(7)

and

z^ (^z Es) = z^(^z Es) ; Es(^z z^) = ;Es :

(8)

Hence, (5) becomes

j @ r E ; j @ 2 E = j!E :

(9)

rs z^Hz + !

s

@z s z ! @z2 s

If E is of the form Ae;jz z + Bejz z , then @z@22 = ;z2 and (9) becomes

@

1

Es = !2 ; 2 @z rsEz ; j!rs z^Hz :

(10)

z

In a similar fashion, we obtain

@

1

(11)

Hs = !2 ; 2 @z rsHz + j!rs z^Ez :

z

The above equations can be used to derive the transverse components of the

elds given the z^-components. Hence, in general, we only need to know the

z^-components of the elds.

I. Rectangular Waveguides

Rectangular waveguides are a special case of cylindrical waveguides with

uniform rectangular cross section. Hence, we can divide the waves inside the

waveguide into TM and TE types.

y

b

0

2

TM Case, Hz = 0 Ez 6= 0

Inside the waveguide, we have a source free region, therefore

r2 + !2]E = 0

(12)

r2 + !2]Ez = 0:

Equation (13) admits solutions of the form

(13)

or

sin x sin y

Ez = E0 cos xx cos y y e;jz z

y

x

since

@ 2 sin x x = 2 sin xx

x cos x

@x2 cos x x

x

@ 2 sin y y = ; 2 sin y y @ 2 e;jz z = ; 2 ejz z :

y cos y

z

@y2 cos y y

@z2

y

Therefore

(r2 + !2)Ez = (;x2 ; y2 ; z2 + !2)Ez = 0:

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

which is the dispersion relation. The boundary conditions require that

Ez (x = 0) = 0

Ez (y = 0) = 0:

(19)

(20)

Ez (x = a) = 0

Ez (y = b) = 0:

(21)

xa = m m = 0 1 2 : : :

y b = n n = 0 1 2 3 : : : :

n n 1

x = m

m

1

y=

a

b

3

(22)

(23)

which are the guidance conditions. To get the transverse E and H elds,

we use (10) and (11)

@ @ E = ;jxz E cos( x) sin( y)e;jzz

Ex = !21; 2 @z

x

y

@x z x2 + y2 0

z

(24)

1

@

@

;

j

Ey = !2 ; 2 @z @y Ez = 2 +xz2 E0 sin(xx) cos(y y)e;jzz

z

x

y

(25)

@ E = j!y E sin( x) cos( y)e;jzz

Hx = !2j!; 2 @y

(26)

z

x

y

2 + 2 0

z

Hy = !2;j!

x

y

2

; z @x z x2 + y2 0

(27)

We note that the electric elds satisfy their boundary conditions. From the

dispersion relation (18), we have

r

2 n 2

z = !2 ; m

a ; b :

(28)

is known as the TMmn mode. For a given TMmn mode, z will be pure

imaginary if

m 2 n 2

2

! < a + b

(29)

or

m 2 n 2 21

1

:

(30)

! < p a + b

In this case, the mode is cuto, and the elds decay in the z^-direction and

become purely evanescent. We dene the cuto frequency for the TMmn

mode to be

m 2 n 2 12 2 n 2 12

1

!mnc = p a + b

= v m

:

a + b

(31)

(32)

!

where fmnc = !mnc

2 , f = 2 . The corresponding cuto wavelength is

m 2 n 2; 12

mnc = 2 a + b

:

(31a)

Only when the wavelength

is smaller than this \size" can the wave \enter"

the waveguide and be guided as the TMmn mode.

4

To nd the power owing in the waveguide, we use the Poynting theorem.

Sz = ExHy ; Ey Hx

(33)

2

!y2 z

!

z

2

x

2

2

= ( 2 + 2 )2 jE0j cos (xx) sin (y y) + ( 2 + 2 )2 jE0j2 sin2 (xx) cos2(y y)

x

y

x

y

z

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

= ( 2!

j

E

(34)

0 j x cos (x x) sin (y y ) + y sin (x x) cos (y y )]:

2

2

x + y )

The total power

Zb Za

2

!z ab jE0j2 :

z ab jE0 j 2

2

(

+

)

=

(35)

Pz = dy dxSz = !

4(x2 + y2 )2 x y

4(x2 + y2 )

0

0

When f < fmnc, z is purely imaginary and the power becomes purely reactive. No real power or time average power ows down a waveguide when all

the modes are cuto.

TE Case, Ez = 0 Hz 6= 0.

In this case,

so that from equations (10) and (11), we have,

j! @ H = j!y H cos( x) sin( y)e;jzz

Ex = ; !2

x

y

; z2 @y z x2 + y2 0

j! @ H = ;j!x H sin( x) cos( y)e;jzz

Ey = !2

x

y

; z2 @x z x2 + y2 0

@ @ H = jxz H sin( x) cos( y)e;jzz

Hx = !21; 2 @z

x

y

@x z x2 + y2 0

z

@ @ H = jy z H cos( x) sin( y)e;jz z

Hy = !21; 2 @z

x

y

@y z x2 + y2 0

z

(36)

(37)

(38)

(39)

(40)

where x2 + y2 + z2 = 2 = !2. Matching boundary conditions for the

tangential electric eld requires that

n n = 0 1 2 3 : : : :

x = m

m

=

0

1

2

3

:

:

:

(41)

y=

a

b

Unlike the TM case, the TE case can have either m or n equal to zero.

Hence, TEm0 or TE0n modes exist. However, when both m and n are zero,

Hz = H0e;jz z , Hx = Hy = 0, and r H 6= 0, therefore, TE00 mode cannot

exist.

For the TEmn modes, the subscript m is associated with the longer side

of the rectangular waveguide, while n is associated with the shorter side. In

5

Hx 6= 0, Hz 6= 0. The elds resemble that of the TEm mode in a parallel

plate waveguide. For the general TEmn mode, the dispersion relation is

2 n 2

z = !2 ; m

(42)

a ; b :

Hence, the TEmn mode and the TMmn mode have the same cuto frequency

and they are degenerate.

The cuto frequency of a TMmn or a TEmn mode is given by

2 2 12

1

n

:

!mnc = p m

+

a

b

(43)

Usually, a is assumed to be larger than b so that TE10 mode has the lowest

cuto frequency, which is given by

f10c = 2va or

10c = 2a

(44)

where v = p1 , and f10c = !210c . The next higher cuto frequency is either

f20c or f01c depending on the ratio of a to b.

f20c = va f01c = 2vb :

(45)

If a > 2b, f20c < f01c, and if a < 2b, f20c > f01c. f20c = f01c if a = 2b. When

a = 2b, and we want a waveguide to carry only the TE10 mode between 10

GHz and 20 GHz. Therefore, we want f10c = 10 GHz, and f20c = f01c =

20GHz. If the waveguide is lled with air, then v = 3 108 ms , and we deduce

that

a = 2fv = 1:5cm b = 2fv = 0:75:

(46)

10c

01c

In such a rectangular waveguide, only the TE10 will propagate above 10 GHz

and below 20 GHz. The other modes are all cuto. Note that no mode could

propagate below 10 GHz.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

23. Cavity Resonator.

y

b

d

of a rectangular waveguide with metallic walls, we have a rectangular cavity

resonator. In this case, the wave propagating in the z^-direction will bounce

o the two walls resulting in a standing wave in the z^-direction. For the TM

case, we have

(1)

;

j

(2)

Ex = 2 +xz2 E0 cos(xx) sin(y y)(e;jzz ; ejz z )

x

y

Ey = ;2j+y z2 E0 sin(xx) cos(y y)(e;jzz ; ejz z ):

(3)

x

y

For the boundary conditions to be satised, we require that Ex(z = 0) =

Ey (z = 0) = 0. Hence, = 1, and

Ez = 2E0 sin(xx) sin(y y) cos(z z)

(4)

xz E cos( x) sin( y) sin( z)

Ex = ;22+

(5)

x

y

z

2 0

x y

Ey = ;22+yz2 E0 sin(xx) cos(y y) sin(z z):

(6)

x

y

Furthermore, Ex(z = ;d) = Ey (z = ;d) = 0, implying that

(7)

z = p

d p = 0 1 2 3 : : : :

The guidance conditions for a waveguide demand that x = ma and y = nb ,

where for TM case, neither m or n can be zero. Now that z has to satisfy

(7), the TM mode in a cavity is classied as TMmnp mode. We note from (4)

1

that p can be zero while Ez 6= 0. Hence, the TMmn0 cavity mode can exist.

In order for (4), (5), and (6) to be solutions to the wave equation, we require

that

m 2 n 2 p 2

2

2

2

2

! = x + y + z = a + b + d :

(8)

For a given choice of m, n, and p, only a single frequency can satisfy (8).

This frequency is the resonant frequency of the cavity. It is only at this

frequency that the cavity can sustain a free oscillation. At other frequencies,

the elds interfere destructively and the free oscillation is not sustained. From

(8), we gather that the resonant frequency for the TMmnp mode is

1

2 n 2 p 2 2

!mnp = p1 m

:

a + b + d

For the TE case, similar derivation shows that

Hz = H0 cos(xx) cos(y y) sin(z z)

y

H cos(xx) sin(y y) sin(z z)

Ex = j!

2 + 2 0

x

(9)

(10)

(11)

x

H sin(xx) cos(y y) sin(z z):

Ey = ; j!

2 + 2 0

x

y

Similarly, the boundary conditions require that

n = p :

x = m

y=

a

b z d

(12)

(13)

TEm0p modes can exist. The resonant frequency formula is as given in (9).

If a > b > d, the lowest resonant frequency is the TM110 mode. In this case,

1

2 2 2

!110 = p1 a + b

(14)

and Ez 6= 0, Hx 6= 0, Hy 6= 0, Ex = Ey = 0. A sketch of the eld is as shown.

y

b

H-field

E-field

TM110

mode

z

We can decompose the wave into plane waves bouncing o the four walls

of the cavity.

2

y

b

frequency of the TM110 mode is

s

2f110 = 3 108 4(10

;2 )2 2 10;2

or

(15)

p

(16)

f110 = 43 1010 5Hz = 1:68 1010 Hz = 16:8GHz:

Cavity resonators are useful as lters and tuners in microwave circuits, as LC

resonators are in RF circuits. Cavity resonators can also be used to measure

the frequency of an electromagnetic signal.

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

When a wave is incident from a medium with higher dielectric constant

at an interface of two dielectric media, total internal reection occurs

when the angle of incident is larger than the critical angle. This fact can

be used to make waves bouncing between two interfaces of a dielectric slab

to be guided

x

0, 0

d/2

1, 1

2, 2

d/2

region 0

z

region 1

region 2

Since total internal reection occurs for both TE and TM waves, guidance

is possible for both types of waves

I. TE Case E = y^Ey

Ey is a solution to the wave equation in each region. In region 0, we

assume a solution of the form

E0y = E0e;j0xx;jz z

(1)

where

02x + z2 = !200 = 02 :

(1a)

In region 1, we assume a solution of the form

E1y =
A1e;j1xx + B1ej1xx]e;jz z

(2)

where

12x + z2 = !211 = 12 :

(2a)

In region 2, the solution is of the form

E2y = E2ej2xx;jzz

(3)

where

22x + z2 = !222 = 22 :

(3a)

1

We assume that all the solutions in the three regions to have the same zvariation of e;jz z by the phase matching condition.

In region 1, we have an up-going wave as well as a down-going wave. The

two waves have to be related by the reection coecient ? for the electric

eld at the boundaries. ? is derived earlier in the course. Therefore at

x = d2 , we have

(4)

B1ej1x d2 = 10?A1e;j1x d2

where 10? is the reection coecient at the regions 1 and 0 interface. At

x = ; d2 , we have

(5)

A1 ej1x d2 = 12?B1e;j1x d2

where 12? is the reection coecient at the regions 1 and 2 interface. Multiplying equations (4) and (5) together, we have,

A1B1ej1xd = 12?10?A1B1e;j1xd:

(6)

A1 and B1 are non-zero only if

1 = 12?10?e;2j1xd :

(7)

The above is known as the guidance condition of a dielectric slab waveguide. If medium 3 is equal to medium 1, then 12? = 10?, and the guidance

condition becomes

1 = 210?e;2j1xd:

(8)

From before, for a wave incident at an angle ,

cos ; 1 cos 00 :

10? = 0 cos

(9)

+ 1 cos 00

0

Since 1x = 1 cos , 0x = 0 cos 00 , (9) could be written as

0

1

; 10x :

1 1x ; 0 0x

10? = 0 + 1 = 0 1x +

(10)

10x

0 1x

1 1x 0 0x

Taking the square root of (8), we have

10?e;j1xd = 1:

When we choose the plus sign, B1 = A1 from (4), and from (2)

E1y = 2A1 cos(1xx)e;jz z ) even in x:

When we choose the minus sign in (11) we have B1 = ;A1, and

E1y = ;2jA1 sin(1xx)e;jz z ) odd in x:

2

(11)

(12)

(13)

0 d tan d = j d even solutions

0x

1 1x 2 1x 2

2

0 d cot d = j d odd solutions:

1x

0x

1x 2

2

2

(14)

(15)

(16)

In order for (14) and (15) to be satised, 0x has to be pure imaginary. In

other words, the waves in region 0 and 3 have to be evanescent and decay

exponentially away from the slab. Hence

0x = ;j

0x = ;j !2(11 ; 00 ) ; 12x] 21

(17)

and (14) and (15) become

s

0 d tan d =

d = !2( ; ) d2 ; d 2 even solutions

1x

1x

1 1

0 0

1 1x 2

2 0x 2

4

2

(18)

s

2

2

; 0 1x d2 cot 1x d2 =

0x d2 = !2(11 ; 00 ) d4 ; 1x d2 odd solutions:

1

(19)

We can solve the above graphically by plotting

d

d

0

y1 = 1x 2 tan 1x 2 even solutions

(20)

1

d

0

(21)

y2 = ; 1x 2 cot 1x d2 odd solutions

1

"

d 2# 12

2

d

y3 = !2(11 ; 00 ) 4 ; 1x 2

=

0x d2 :

(22)

TE0

/2

ev

y2

odd

y1

od

d

y3

y2

en

y1 even

(1 1 0 0) d/2

TE1

0

1

3

2

1x

d

2

!(11 ; 00 ) 12 d2 :

(23)

The solutions to (18) and (19) are given by the intersections of y3 with y1 and

y2. We note from (23) that the radius of the circle can be increased in three

ways (i) by increasing the frequency, (ii) by increasing the contrast 10 10 , and

(iii) by increasing the thickness d of the slab.

When 0x = ;j

0x, the reection coecient is

0 1x + j1

0x

;

1 1

0x

(24)

10? = ; j

= exp +2j tan

0 1x

1 0x

0 1x

and j10?j = 1. Hence there is total internal reections and the wave is

guided by total internal reections. Cut-o occurs when the total internal

reection ceases to occur, i.e. when the frequency decreases such that

0x = 0.

From the diagram, we see that

0x = 0 when

!(11 ; 00 ) 21 d2 = m

m = 0 1 2 3 : : :

(25)

2

or

m

!mc =

m = 0 1 2 3 : : : :

(26)

d(11 ; 00 ) 21

The mode that corresponds to the m-th cut-o frequency above is labeled

the TEm mode. TE0 mode is the mode that has no cut-o or propagates at

all frequencies.

At cut-o,

0x = 0, and from (1a),

z = !p0 0

(27)

for all the modes. Hence, both the group and the phase velocities are that of

the outer region. This is because when

0x = 0, the wave is not evanescent

outside, and most of the energy of the mode is carried by the exterior eld.

When ! ! 1, 1x ! nd from the diagram for all the modes. From (2a),

q

z = !21 1 ; 12x !p1 1

! ! 1:

(28)

Hence the group and phase velocities approach that of the dielectric slab.

This is because when ! ! 1,

0x ! 1, and all the elds are trapped in the

slab and propagating within it.

Because of this, the dispersion diagram of the dierent modes appear as

below.

4

1 1

0 0

TE0

1c

2c

TE3

3c

For the TM case, a similar guidance condition analogous to (27) can be

derived

1 = 12k10k e;2j1xd

(29)

where is the reection coecient for the TM eld. Similar derivations show

that the above guidance condition, for 2 = 0, 2 = 0, reduces to

s

0 d tan d = !2( ; ) d2 ; d 2

1x

1x

1 1

0 0

1 1x 2

2

4

2

s

2

2

d

d

d

0

; 1x 2 cot 1x 2 = !2(11 ; 00 ) 4 ; 1x d2

even solution

(30)

odd solution:

(31)

Note that for equations (7) and (29), when we have two parallel metallic

plates, k = 1, and ? = 1, and the guidance condition becomes

1 = e;2j1xd ) 1x = m

(32)

d m = 0 1 2 : : :

which is what we have observed before.

1

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

Maxwell's equations are

r E = ;j!H

r H = j!E + J

r H = 0

r E = :

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

H = r A

(5)

so that equation (3) is automatically satised. Substituting (5) into (1), we

have

r (E + j!A) = 0:

(6)

Since r r = 0, we have

E = ;j!A ; r:

(7)

Hence, knowing A and uniquely determines E and H. We shall relate A

and to the sources J and of Maxwell's equations. Substituting (5) and

(7) into (2), we have

r r A = j!;j!A ; r] + J

(8)

or

r2 A + !2A = ;J + j!r + rr A:

(9)

Using (7) in (4), we have

r (j!A + r) = ; :

(10)

The above could be simplied for the following observation. Equations (5)

and (7) give the same E and H elds under the transformation

A = A + r

(11)

= ; j!:

(12)

The above are known as the Gauge Transformation. With the new A

and , we can substitute into (5) and (7) and they give the same E and H

elds, i.e.

r A = r A + r r = r A = H

(13)

;j!A ; r = ;j!A ; j!r ; r + j!r = E:

(14)

0

It implies that A and are not unique. The vector eld A is not unique

unless we specify both its curl and its divergence. Hence, in order to make

A unique, we have to specify its divergence. If we specify the divergence of

A such that

r A = ;j!

(15)

then (9) and (10) become

r2 A + !2 = ;J

(16)

r2 + !2 = ; :

(17)

The condition in (15) is also known as the Lorentz gauge. Equations (16)

and (17) represent a set of four inhomogeneous wave equations driven by the

sources of Maxwell's equations. Hence given the sources and J, we may

nd A and . E and H may in turn be found using (5) and (7). However,

as a consequence of the Lorentz gauge, we need only to nd A follows

directly from equation (15).

described by

J = z^Il (r) A=m2

(18)

where Il denotes the strength of this current, and (r) = (x) (y) (z). Equation (16) becomes

r2Az + !2Az = ;Il (r):

(19)

Taking advantage of the spherical symmetry of the problem, r2 has only r

dependence in spherical coordinates, we have

1 d r2 d A + 2 A = ;Il (r)

(20)

z

r2 dr dr z

where 2 = !2. Equations (19) and (20) are similar in form to Poisson's

equation with a point charge Q at the origin,

(21)

r2 = ; Q (r):

We know that (21) has the solution of the form

Q :

= 4r

(22)

Hence, we guess that the solution to (20) is of the form

Az = 4Il

(23)

r C (r):

It can be shown that

1 d r2 d f (r) = 1 d2 rf (r):

(24)

r2 dr dr

r dr2

2

Outside the origin, the RHS of (20) is zero, and after using (23) and (24) in

(20), we have

d2 C (r) + 2 C (r) = 0:

(25)

dr2

This gives

C (r) = e jr :

(26)

Since we are looking for a solution that radiates energy to innity, we choose

an outgoing solution in (26). Hence,

jr

(27)

Az (r) = 4Il

r e

for a source directed at a z^-direction. From (16), we note that A and J

always point in the same direction. Therefore, for a point source directed at

l and located at r instead of the origin, the vector potential A is

l e j r r :

A(r) = 4 jI

(28)

r;rj

j ;

|r r|

J is

ZZZ

A = 4

dr jrJ;(r r) j e j r r :

(29)

Similarly, we can show that

Z ZZ

1

(r ) e j r r :

= 4

dr jr;

(30)

rj

0

j ;

j ;

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

A Hertzian dipole is a dipole which is much smaller than the wavelength

under construction so that we can approximate it by a point current distribution,

J(r) = z^Il(r):

(1)

The dipole may look like the following

q

+

I

generator

ql. The charge qdqis varying time harmonically because it is driven by the

generator. Since dt = I , we have

Il = dq

dt l = j!ql = j!p

(2)

for a Hertzian dipole. We already know that the corresponding vector potential is given by

;jr

A(r) = z^4Il

(3)

r e :

The magnetic eld is obtained, using cylindrical coordinates, as

@ A ; ^ @ A

H = 1 r A = 1 ^1 @

z

@ z

p

(4)

@ = @.

@r @ = p

where @@ = 0 r = 2 + z2 . In the above, @@ = @

@r

r @r

2 +z 2 @r

Hence,

1

Il

1

^

H = ; r 4 ; r2 ; j

r e;jr :

(5)

r

y

Il (1 + j

r)e;jr sin :

H = ^ 4r

2

1 @

1

1

1

@

^

E = j! r H = j! r^r sin @ sin H ; r @r rH

Ile;jr hr^2 cos (1 + j

r) + ^ sin (1 + j

r ;

2 r2 )i :

= j!

4r3

r 1

(^r2 cos + ^ sin )

r 1

E = 4r

3

H E when

r 1:

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

above is like the static eld of a dipole.

r 1

In this case,

and

(10)

(11)

H = ^j

4Ilr e;jr sin :

p

= =
0 . E and H are orthogonal to each other

and are both orthogonal to the direction of propagation, i.e. as in the case

of a plane wave. A spherical wave resembles a plane wave in the far eld

approximation.

2

Il 2

1

1

0

2

hSi = 2 <eE H ] = r^2 0 jHj = r^ 2 4r sin2 :

(12)

The radiation eld pattern of a Hertzian dipole is the plot of jEj as a

function of at a constant r.

z

|E|

x, y

z

x, y

P=

2

0

Since

Z

0

d sin = ;

3

dr sin hSr i = 2

;1

1

2

then

2

0

3

d 2

Il

4 sin :

;1

dx(1 ; x2) = 34

Il

4

P = 3
0 4 :

The directive gain of an antenna, D( ), is dened as

D( ) = hSPr i

4 r2

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

over a sphere. Substituting (12) and (15) into the above, we have

D( ) =

; Il 2

2 4 r

1 4

4 r2 3 0

sin2

; Il 2 = 2 sin2 :

(17)

case. If an antenna is radiating isotropically, its directivity is 1. Therefore,

the lowest possible values for the directivity of an antenna is 1, whereas it

can be over 100 for some antennas like reector antennas. A directive gain

pattern is a plot of the above function D( ) and it resembles the radiation

power pattern.

If the total power fed into the antenna instead of the total radiated power

is used in the denominator of (16), the ratio is known as the power gain or

just bf gain. The total power fed into the antenna is not equal to the total

radiated power because there could be some loss in the antenna system like

metallic loss.

Dening a radiation resistance Rr by P = 21 I 2Rr , we have

l

2

P

(18)

Rr = I 2 =
0 6 where
0 = 377:

For example, for a Hertzian dipole with l = 0:1, Rr 8. For a small dipole

with no charge reservoir at the two ends, the currents have to vanish at the

tip of the dipole.

I(z)

a/2

a/2

The eective length of the dipole is half of its actual length due to the

manner the currents are distributed. For example, for a half-wave dipole,

a = 2 , and if we use le = 4 in (18), we have

Rr 50:

(19)

However, a half-wave dipole is not much smaller than a wavelength and does

not qualify to be a Hertzian dipole. Furthermore, the current distribution

on the half-wave dipole is not triangular in shape as above. A more precise

calculation shows that Rr = 73 for a half-wave dipole.

4

W.C.Chew

ECE 350 Lecture Notes

The vector potential due to a source J(r), can be calculated from the

equation

ZZZ

A(r) =

dr 4jJr(;r )r j e j

(1)

0

jr;r j

J(r)

|r r|

r

r

y

0

r r

x

ZZZ

A(r) =

dr r;J(rr )r^e jr ej r^

V

jr Z Z Z

e

= 4r

dr J(r )ej r^

V

(2)

= e jr f (r ) = ^A + ^A + r^Ar :

In the above we have assumed that jr r^j r but r r^ is not small, since

)

can be large. When r is large, f (

is a slowly varying function compared

r

(

)

to e jr . Hence, we can regard r almost to be a constant compared to

e jr . The magnetic eld can be derived to be

1

1

@

@

^

^

H = r A ; @r A ; @r A :

(3)

However, @r@ ;j when r is large. Hence,

H = j (^A ; ^A ) when r ! 1:

(4)

0

r0

r0

Similarly,

1 r H ;j!^A + ^A ]:

E = j!

=

(5)

If J(r ) is of the form

J(r ) = z^IlA0(x ) + A1 (x ; d1 ) + A2(x ; d2)

+ + AN 1(x ; dN 1)](y )(z )

0

(6)

0

y

r

r r

r r

d0 r d1

d2

d3

d4

d N3

dN2 d N1

ZZZ

Il

jr

A(r) = z^4r e

dr A0(x ) + A1(x ; d1) + ](y )(z )e+j

jr

e

A0 + A1e+jd1 cos + A2 ejd2 cos + + AN 1ejdN

= z^4Il

r

0

jr

j (d cos +)

2j (d cos +)

j (N

e

1

+

e

+

e

+

+

e

A(r) = z^4Il

r

which is of the form

N

N

X1

xn = 11;;xx :

;

Therefore,

n=0

r0 ^

(8)

:

(7)

1 cos

(9)

(10)

1 ; ej(d cos +)

The electric eld on the xy-plane is E = ;j!A = +j!Az . Hence, jE j is of

the form

1 ; ejN (d cos +)

jE j = jE0j 1 ; ej(d cos +)

sin N (d cos + )

= jE0j 21

:

(11)

sin 2 (d cos + )

A(r) = z^ 4Il

r e

jr

an example.

sin Nxj

jsin xj

|sin x|

|sin 3x|

sin 3x

sin x

(11) would occur if = n, or if

n = 0

1

2

3 :

d cos + = 2n

(12)

d cos + = 2Nn

n =

1

2

3 n 6= mN:

(13)

For example,

2 if N = 5, nulls

are at =

cos 1 25n , or =

66:4

36:9

113:6

143:1 .

y

113.6

143.1

66.4

36.9

x broadside

array

143.1

113.6

36.9

66.4

maximum is at = 0 , if N = 4,

1

nulls are at =

cos 2 ; 1 , or =

120

90

60 .

;

y

120

90

60

120

90

60

array focus the power in a given direction. We can use linear array to increase

the directivity of antennas.

Note that equation (7) can also be derived by other means. We know

that the vector potential due to one dipole is

e j

A = z^Il

(14)

4 jr ; r j

when the dipole is located at r and pointing in the z^-direction. Hence

for an array of dipoles of dierent phases and amplitudes, located at x =

x^d0 x^d1 x^d2 x^dN 1, the vector potential by linear superposition is

j x^d0

j x^d1

j x^dN 1

e

e

e

Il

A(r) = z^ 4 jr ; x^d j A0 + jr ; x^d j A1 + + jr ; x^d j AN 1 :

0

1

N 1

(15)

If we approximate jr ; x^dnj by r ; r^ x^dN = r ; dN cos , in the phase, and

by r in the denominator, then (15) becomes

jr

A(r) = z^4Il

e

A0 + A1e+jd1 cos + A2 ejd2 cos

r

+ + AN 1ejdN 1 cos (16)

which is the same as equation (7). The interference between the terms in

(16) can be used to generate dierent radiation patterns for dierent communication applications.

0

jr;r j

jr;

jr;

jr;

and

c + h = (a + f ) + j (b + g)

(4)

c ; h = (a ; f ) + j (b ; g)

(5)

ch = (a + jb)(f + jg) = (af ; bg) + j (bf + ag)

c = a + jb = (a + jb)(f ; jg) = af + bg + j bf ; ag :

h f + jg (f + jg)(f ; jg) f 2 + g2 f 2 + g2

(6)

(7)

Multiplication and division are more conveniently carried out in a polar form.

Let

c = jcj ej1 h = jhj ej2

(8)

then

ch = jcj jhj ej(1 +2)

(9)

c = jcj ej( ; ):

h jhj

1

(10)

It is most convenient to take the square root of a complex number in

p

c = jcj ej1 = a2 + b2ej tan;1 ab

pc = jcj 21 ej 21 = (a2 + b2) 14 ej 21 tan;1 ab :

In fact

1

1

1

2

2

(11)

(12)

(13)

V (t) = V0 cos(!t + )

it could also be written as

V (t) = <efV0 ejej!tg:

The term V~ = V0ej is known as the phasor representation of V (t).

If U (t) = U0 cos(!t + 1 ), or the phasor representation of U (t) is

U~ = U0ej1 :

It can be shown easily that

V (t) + U (t) = <efV| 0{zej} + U| 0{zej}1 ]ej!t g:

V~

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

U~

Also

@V (t) = @ <efV ejej!t g = <efj! V ej ej!tg:

0

| 0{z }

@t

@t

(18)

V~

caution, V~ U~ is not a phasor representation of V (t)U (t). You can convince

yourself of this.

Exercise

1) Show that,

(a) c + c is always real,

(b) c ; c is always imaginary,

(c) c=c has magnitude equal to 1.

2) Consider z2 = 1 + 2j . It is a second order polynomial with two roots.

Find the two roots.

3) Obtain the phasor representation of the following

(a) V (t) = 10 cos(!t + 3 ),

(b) I (t) = ;8 sin(!t + 3 ),

(c) A(t) = 3 sin !t ; 2 cos !t,

(d) C (t) = 3 cos(!t + 4 ) + 4 sin(!t + 3 ):

4) Obtain C (t) in terms of ! from the following phasors:

(a) c = 1 + j ,

3

(b) c = 4 exp(

j 0:8),

j

(c) c = 3e 2 + 4ej0:8,

(d) c = j sin 3z.

5) (a) Using binomial theorem, show that

1 + ja ' 1 + j a2

if jaj 1:

1 + ja ' (1 + j ) a2

1

if jaj 1:

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