BA (Hons) Interaction Design Arts

Year 1, Group A
nicoletafaina.wordpress.com

Contextual and Thoretical Studies
Submission

London College of Communication, London University of Arts
London, 2016
LIST OF CONTENTS:
1. CREATIVE WRITING: The mist .................................................................................................... 3
2. EXHIBITION REVIEW: yellowbuepink.......................................................................................... 4
Who, What, When, Where, Why, How ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Conclusion (good, bad, alternatives, improvements) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Human Centred Design (HCD) .................................................................................................... 10
4. SIGNS: Semiotic Analysis of 2 Movie Posters .................................................................................. 13
History of signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Intruduction to movie posters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Gender Stereotypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Criminal Psychology and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Male and Female Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Light and Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Structural and Formal Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5. CHARACTERS: Dramatic and Epic Theatre ..................................................................................26
6. OTHERNESS: Colourful Races ...................................................................................................... 28
7. VISUAL STORYTELLING: Cinematic vs. Comics ......................................................................... 32
Main differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Movie scene vs. Comic book scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
8. GENRES: Mystery ............................................................................................................................ 37
9. ACTUAL PLACE: Moldova, Chișinău ............................................................................................ 40
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
How our world sees? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
How do values inform visual codes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10. STORY: Him & Her ....................................................................................................................... 46
11. ESSAY: What are the most important purposes of imaginary worlds? .......................................... 48
12. FAIRY TALES as inspiration ................................................................................................................. 58
13. Eny's Fairytale ............................................................................................................................... 62
14. REFLECTIVE EVALUATION ......................................................................................................... 64

2
THE MIST
The Mist and her silhouette.
She takes a deep breath.
A layer of cruel water covers her eyes.
She… She looks at the sky. White. Bright White.
Her family, her home country, Moldova. “I miss you…”
Love. Safety. Warmth.

The crunchy wind takes over her long dark hair.
Scent of rain covers the atmosphere.
The Trees, sensing it,
start their own uprising dance.
She looks at the ground. Rust.
She crosses her pale small hands,
trying to make herself warmer.
The Cold is from inside.
She knows, it will get better, it always does.
Everything she had, she is, she wants to be,
everything is for the ones she loves
and the ones who love her.
The Mist covers her... She disappears.

3
Ann Veronica Janssens is a contemporary visual Entrance into the yellowbluepink’s room instal-
artist that primarily works with light. lation is limited. The official website of the Well-
come Gallery Collection warns that there might
She was born in 1956 in Folkestone, United King-
be queuing and timed-ticketing for the possibility
dom. According to her on-line biography, at the
to view it and the last entrance will typically be an
moment she lives and works in Brussels, Belgium.
hour before closing.
(gsm.be 2016)
Studio Hato designed the typography and printed
Cognition, reflexes, meanings and psychology lie
promotional material.
at the heart of her creations.
„Their typeface, grounded in Gestalt Theory, which
“The spatio-temporal experiences are, in fact, closer attempts to understand the laws of our ability to
to something like hypnosis, but with the will, never- maintain meaningful perceptions amongst chaos, is
theless, to return to reality rather than escape from developed out of bent steel. In its current iteration,
it. By pushing back the limits of perception, by ren- the letterforms appear to hover above a layer of
dering visible the invisible, these experiences act as colour and light, which shifts with the viewers van-
passages from one reality to another. It’s a question tage. Their nod to [Janssens’] use of light and mist
of thresholds between two states of perception, be- runs through to the exhibition’s print material, for
tween shadow and light, the defined and the unde- which full-bleed neon is printed on the underside of
fined, silence and explosion; the threshold where the semi-transparent paper, creating a light fog beneath
image reabsorbs itself.” (Janssens A. V. 2016) the text on the artist and the concept of conscious-
ness.” (Muraben B. 2015)
One of her most recent installations is called
yellowbluepink. It explores light and colour and The photo on the
challenges senses, perceptions and ability to sur- left is representing
render to experience over logic. The installation the large State of
was presented in a well-appointed centre of art Mind typography
and science - Wellcome Collection Gallery, in a sign, on the wall,
modern clean gallery room on the first floor. It right before entering
started on 15th October 2015 and was available the space designed
for viewings until 3rd January 2016. for the exhibition.
It allows visitors to
The exhibition launched a year-long programme
find yellowbluepink
State of Mind at the same gallery. This will investi-
installation faster
gate human consciousness and what we are yet to
and easier.
understand of it.

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5
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Studio Hato collaborated with architecture and While wondering through the steamy coloured
urbanism practice We Made That on the exhibi- vapour, the installation challenges the way we see
tion furniture and structure and perceive various states of mind and emotions.

In the middle of the waiting room is situated a “To step inside the space is to leave the regular
long green chair. In there are presented books world behind, and to encounter a space in which all
that offer information in relation to the installa- experience of surface, depth, even time is obscured
tion. Also, visitors have access to a few I-pads that by a curtain of colour made physical,” says curator
have an interactive app of optical illusions. It was Emily Sargent. “While neuroscience is great about
created by the Wellcome neuroscientist David telling us about the relationship between brain
Schwartzman and Anil Seth from the Seckler activity and some cognitive function, it hasn’t yet
Centre for Consciousness Science in collaboration come up with an explanation of how the activity of
with Studio Hato. neurons can give rise to the experience of colour, as
When the visitor is about to enter the main room, we enter into this installation. And yet without re-
he is given a pass card badge attached to a neck ally knowing how or why, we are all experts in that
strap. Passing the double doors, the viewer enters personal experience. And Ann Veronica’s beautiful
into a space filled with mist. The light on the ceil- installation reminds of the richness of our interac-
ing colours the room with yellow, blue and pink. tion with the world.” (Sargent E. 2015)

„Look down and you can barely see your feet. Look
ahead and it is impossible to work out where the
wall is until you touch it or (as I did) bang into it.”
(Jones J. 2015)

7
"The exhibition examines ideas around the na- The exhibition has a lot of positive reviews. It is
ture of consciousness, and in particular what can noted that it is a great place for taking photos,
happen when our typical conscious experience is because of special effects formed by the mist and
interrupted, damaged or undermined. colourful light. Yellowbluepink offers a great expe-
Colour is caught in a state of suspension, obscuring rience and a lot of fun thanks to its simplicity and
any detail of surface or depth. Instead, attention is peculiarity.
focussed on the process of perception itself.The mist
is both disorienting and uplifting as the daily won- One of the negative points of the installation
der of the conscious experience is given renewed was that the space is too small, in my opinion,
emphasis." (The yellowbluepink leaflet, 2015) queueing for almost 2 hours just wasn’t worth the
experience I had during 5 minutes of wondering
”Situations of dazzlement, remanence or the per- through mist.
sistence of vision, vertigo, saturation, speed, and “If you want to see natural mist, go for a walk in
exhaustion interest me in as much as they allow us morning woods. You will have a much more greater
to structure ourselves around a threshold of visual/ experience of being able trully to discover your con-
temporal/physical/ psychological instability. sciousness. The beauty of the atmosphere will allow
Gazing at mist is an experience with contrasting to develop your inner self. The only part that most
effects. It appears to abolish all obstacles, materiali- probably you won't see in there is the pure color of
ty, the resistances specific to a given context, and at yellow, blue and pink.” ( Faina, N 2015)
the same time, it seems to impart a materiality and
tactility to light. Mieke Bal speaks of an “incarnated The coloured light source on the ceiling was
gaze”. One moves in a space bathed in light, grop- visible and thus, the experience of being in the
ing one’s way, without constraints and apparently mystery was sullen. Maybe it would have been
without limits. One’s perception of time is trans- more successful if it was placed in another spacial
formed, there’s a slowing down if not a suspension. context, to make it more atmospheric. I would like
It’s as if one were in a slow-motion film with almost to experiment what will be the impact by having
no images. All the markers have disappeared, the a piece of sound accompanying the experience of
light illuminates nothing that could authorise our consciousness.
wandering. One’s eyes become glazed, one expe-
riences a kind of amnesia, one is returned to an
interior space opening onto unheard of perspectives.
The other is surely there, an appearance that, in the
dense luminosity, could just as quickly disappear.”
(Janssens A. V. 2016)

8
There are ways to take the idea of this installation Reference List:
even further. There have to be some formularies or Gms.be. (2016) Ann Veronica Janssens Biog-
pieces of paper where visitors can leave the feed- raphy. [online] Available at: http://www.gms.
back of their experience. Their answers will form be/index.php?content=artist_detail&id_ar-
statistics and thus, the exhibition will truly be an tist=29&menu=bio [Accessed 17 May 2016].
exploration of consciousness. This also will make Janssens, A. (2016). Artist Detail: Ann Veronica
them feel special and a part of something import- Janssens. [online] Gms.be. Available at: http://
ant. Another way to enhance the installation is to www.gms.be/index.php?content=artist_de-
make the visual impact stronger and the experi- tail&id_artist=29 [Accessed 17 May 2016].
ence – sharper. The main point for this should be Muraben, B. (2015). Studio Hato’s perceptive ex-
that viewers should come out with something to hibition identity for Wellcome Collection’s States of
think of, a dilemma maybe, something substantial Mind. [online] It's Nice That. Available at: http://
that could even change their life. www.itsnicethat.com/articles/studio-hato-2 [Ac-
cessed 17 May 2016].
DIY yellowbluepink: Jones, J. (2015). Ann Veronica Janssens review –
1.Your bathroom. the artistic equivalent of an isolation tank. [online]
2.Stick strips of LED light ( yellow, blue, pink ) Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/artand-
to the ceiling. design/2015/oct/14/ann-veronica-janssens-re-
3.Run hot water and fill the room with steam. view-state-of-mind-wellcome-collection-exhibi-
E N J O Y! tion [Accessed 17 May 2016].
Sargent, E. and Wilson, A. (2015). States of Mind:
*Tip: You can even make it better!: Get the strips Ann Veronica Janssens’ yellowbluepink – Creative
of LED Light to rotate through the color spec- Review. [online] Creativereview.co.uk. Available
trum. Ye-heeeeey! at: https://www.creativereview.co.uk/cr-blog/2015/
*Super-Tip: You can change colour with a remote! october/states-of-mind-ann-veronica-jans-
RULE YOUR WORLD! sens-yellowbluepink/ [Accessed 17 May 2016].
Faina, N. (2015). The Wellcome Collection. [on-
line] Nicoletafaina.wordpress.com. Available at:
https://nicoletafaina.wordpress.com/2015/11/07/
the-wellcome-collection/?frame-nonce=f621b-
1cd66&preview=true&iframe=true [Accessed 17
May 2016].
Images by Nicoleta Faina, taken on 7 November
2015 at Wellcome Collection Gallery.

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HUMAN CENTRED DESIGN

* A philosophy and a set of procedures.
* An approach that puts human needs, capabilities and behaviour first, then de-
signs to accommodate those needs, capabilities and ways of behaving
* Good design requires good communication from machine or thing, to person,
especially when things go wrong.

Feedback -> to communicate the results of an action

Good feedback should be immediate and informative.

Poor feedback tells us that something has happened, but doesn’t tell us about
what has happened, or what we should do about it. Poor feedback can be worse
than none at all.

Too much feedback can be even more annoying than too little.

‘Great’ Design
(!) EXPERIENCE: it determines how fondly people remember their interactions.

Understanding ----->
feeling of Control, Mastery, Satisfaction, Pride.

DISCOVERABILITY:
Is it possible to even figure out what actions are possible and where and how to
perform them?

UNDERSTANDING:
What does is all mean? How do I interact with this world?

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12
SIGNS
Semiotic Analysis of 2 movie posters
Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols as elements of communicative behavior; the analysis of
systems of communication, as language, gestures, or clothing.

Signs and signification are undoubtedly important for human kind, as there is evidence of its existence
throughout our history of evolution.

Before the written word, early humans have used
symbols as the first form of graphic communi-
cation. “Thousands of years before the first fully
developed writing systems, our ancestors scrawled
geometric signs across the walls of the caves they
sheltered in. Paleoanthropologist, rock art research-
er and TED Senior Fellow Genevieve von Petzinger
has studied and codified these ancient markings in
caves across Europe. The uniformity of her find-
ings suggest that graphic communication, and the
ability to preserve and transmit messages beyond a
single moment in time, may be much older than we
think.” (Petzinger G. 2016) Fig.1 - cave Rio Pinturas, Argentina

The written analysis of signs and signification importance can be found through the history of philos-
ophy and psychology. Aristotle and Plato explored the relationship between signs and the world. For
Peirce, developing a thoroughgoing theory of signs was a central philosophical and intellectual preoc-
cupation. In one of his writings he mentioned that “It has never been in my power to study anything,—
mathematics, ethics, metaphysics, gravitation, thermodynamics, optics, chemistry, comparative anatomy,
astronomy, psychology, phonetics, economics, the history of science, whist, men and women, wine, metrol-
ogy, except as a study of semiotic” (Peirce C. S. 1977, p.85-6)

13
The Silence of the Lambs Perfume: The Story of a Murderer
- -
1991 2006
Crime film/Drama film - 2h 18m Fantasy/Thriller - 2h 27m

14
Movies' storyline Purpouse of posters
Both of them look into the psychology of a serial A poster is a “public” piece of paper conveying
killer. The main character for The Silence of the information through text and/or graphic images.
Lambs is Dr. Hannibal Lecter (played by Antho- Its main target audience is the person walking by.
ny Hopkins), a brilliant psychiatrist who is also
a violent psychopath (murder, cannibalism). In As these are mass produced posters they are
the Perfume: The Story of a Murderer the main rather a “token” than it being a “type”, an original
role has Jean-Baptiste Grenouille (played by Ben image, like a painting is. To depict the signs from
Whishaw), an incredible talented person for these creations, we must understand the reason
discerning scents and also a female serial killer, why they are there in the first place. They exist be-
willing to capture their elusive aroma and create a cause of movie conventions as well as advertising
scent to identify himself and be noticed. conventions. These images belong to mass culture,
they are created to be widely distributed and used
Both movies relate acts of killing in order to hon- to attract film audiences.
or art. The art that is bounded with prime human
senses: Taste and Smell. Dr. Lecter kills to satisfy All effective posters must:
his curiosity and cravings for food and J.B. Gre- * grab your attention
nouille for the art of scent. * entice you to read the information they display
* present the information clearly and fully, so that
I choose to analyse this two masterpieces because you understand what the poster wants to say
I found interesting how great minds get twisted * convince you to rally, revolt, take part, take pre-
and that most of serial killers create art through cautions, be on the lookout or buy a ticket.
their murders. (Artsalive.ca, 2016)

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16
CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY AND STATISTICS
---------- GENDER STEREOTYPES ----------
Statistics available for year 2010/11 indicate
Why females? 1,360,451 recorded arrests in England and Wales,
Both movies have a plot that is carried by 1,140,497 males and 219,954 females, a propor-
female character: a young woman (FBI agent tion of females of 16.2%.
from The Silence of the Lambs) and young
women (Perfumer's victims).

The gender used in the Perfume's movie post-
er is established by the victims. For the other
movie the presence of a victim in the poster is
questionable.

To find the reason to show a female as a main
character in the Silence of the Lambs poster
we will have to look deeper into gender ste-
reotypes and criminal psychology.
“There are 84,731 people in prison in Britain and
according to the latest figures, 80,915 of them are
As we can notice, women are considered to be
men. Less than five per cent of this country’s pris-
weaker, kinder, submissive and naive, while
on population is female, and the trend is similar
men more aggressive and cruel. That could be
elsewhere in the western world. In France, it’s about
one of the reasons why women are an easier
three per cent; in Germany, just under six. The glob-
target for a crime, thus females, most of the
al median is 4.3 per cent, according to figures from
times are seen as a victim.
the International Centre for Prison Studies. The
most striking and persistent is that serious crime is
still overwhelmingly committed by men. “
The image below is a graph representing
(Jessica Abrahams, 13 Jan 2015)
Victims of violent crime, by gender (%)

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What will be if in these posters’ female characters will be substituted by male ?
As we have already analyzed the reason for choosing female shapes to advertise the movies, just for
curiosity let's see what will be changed if the main character will have the opposite sex.

The image on the left is a poster for movie "Horns" (2013). In my opinion,
the main female character, Merrin Williams (Juno Temple) resembles the
notions of a beautiful, innocent, kind, young girl. I choose this poster
with the purpose to analyze the differences between female and male
facial lines in relation to the Silence of The Lambs movie's poster.

MEN: WOMEN:
- Straight lines Rounded curves -
- Sharp corners Softened corners -
- Thick and rough edged eyebrows Thin and neatly shaped eyebrows -
- Oval based eyes Square/rectangular based eyes -

Left image - scene from Fight Club (1999).
Right image - scene from Sleeping Beauty (2011).

This images are definitions for such notions as
masculinity and femininity. (the possession of qual-
ities traditionally associated with men/ women)
I chose them with the purpose to analyze the differences between female and male body lines in rela-
tion to the Perfumer: The Story of a Murderer movie's poster.

MEN: WOMEN:
- The broadest body part: - The broadest body part:
Shoulders Hips
- Angular, harsh lines - Soft, rounded lines

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As a result for my research and observations I modified original pictures in order to demonstrate what
things have changed when the main character on the posters is of the opposite gender.

As, we can notice, the atmosphere changes. The lines of body and face are sharper and thicker. This
makes us think about male stereotypes that I have listed higher on the page, doesn't it? The poster for
Silence of the Lambs becomes a story about a man... that is a lamb? Man - lamb? Doesn't work, because
we are used with men being the leader, the hunter, the predator, and not the lamb. This, and the moth
on his mouth, indicating that he can't speak leads us to think about an effeminate male. We don't see
him as a victim, we see him as a weak, submissive, naive person... and the movie is not about this. The
poster for Perfume: The Story of a Murderer gives us the interesting atmosphere of a mysterious man.
We can see the relation to the movie's title in those red petals as flowers, that have their scent and could
be denoted as being the substance for the perfume. Also, we would assume that the murderer is the
character in the poster, but at the same time, this assumption will be contrary to the one that he could
be a victim as well, because of the cut in his body, formed by the empty space and petals. We see a mys-
terious, strong person, being vulnerable at the same time, because of the posture of his body, and how
it is being presented to the audience. The movie's main character is a vulnerable young man, indeed,
maybe the modified image could do the job for advertising the movie as well, but definitely, when you
say "mysterious", "seductive", "beautiful body", you relate to a female character. Also, the main char-
acter's story line is that he wants to contain the natural female scent. As a result he murders 12 young
women and creates the desired elixir. The original poster is definitely more related to the movie, and it
contains more advertisement triggers to make audiences desire to see the it.

19
SILENCE OF THE LAMBS
The moth is clearly prominent and signifies an insect related to but-
terflies. To some artists, the butterfly and moth symbolize beauty: the
beauty of symmetry, pattern, color, shape. There is a moth in Europe
called the Death’s-Head Hawkmoth (left image). It represents death to
many, because of the clear outline of a skull on its back.
Salvador Dali made use of this symbol in an interpreta-
tion of a Currier and Ives print, “The Life of a Fireman.“
He also is the author for the skull on the back of the moth from the poster. It is com-
posed by 7 naked women, shot by Philippe Halsman in 1951, creation called “In Vo-
luptas Mors.” The 7 women may actually symbolize the victims in the movie (top right image)
Another connotation of the moth, based on the placement within the image is the lack of the woman's
(lamb) ability to speak, to stop evil that is in her thoughts or actions, or that is in others that are sur-
rounding her. Different aspects of the moth pertain to the movie as well as the general life-cycle that
relates to the characters evolution and growth throughout the movie. The main growth of an insect like
an moth comes in three distinct stages: The larva, pupa, and final moth form.

PERFUMER: THE STORY OF A MURDERER
Red petals denote Roses, a particular type of flower. The connotation for this is passion,
affection, seduction, romance, beauty. All roses convey warmth, affection and love in varying degrees.
But the red rose, being the queen of roses, is the most popular and beloved of all.
Because of the rose being represented only through the form of petals, another connotation will be that
something is shattered, wrong, unwell, even dying. The rose, being loose in space, rather than it having
a stem with spikes, leads us to such adjectives as: vulnerable, chaotic, sensitive and weak. It could also
mean the final act, the peak of an action: the petals on the bed, the petals at weddings, etc.

Our smelling receptors perceive roses as a beautiful, enchanting
scent. This and the red color gives them an association with blood,
with a cut in the body. Relating to the text "the story of a murder-
er", those indicate that the character is a victim. Also it could mean
that the character is disappearing or metamorphosing into petals,
into a scent.

20
LIGHT & COLORS
Both posters are created using low light and high contrast atmosphere. The use of antithesis between
dark and light highlights the woman's face and body even more. As a result, the face looks even more
pale and the body even more mysterious. The light and dark is a symbolism of good and evil, which are
classic traits for a thriller/horror movie poster.

Thriller/Horror movie poster conventions:
* Low lighting to disguise characters
* Black, red and white colour scheme
* Small titles: generally at the bottom of the poster

Another effective convention, used in Perfumer:
The Story of a Murderer - a dark figure with their
back turned to the viewer and their head slightly
turned to be able to see part of their profile. The
lighting is usually quite dark and is sometimes
back-lit in order to highlight certain parts of the
silhouette, often in unnatural ways to make it
seem more mysterious. The fact that the identity
The colour manipulation of the eyes from Silence of the character is concealed and there is only a
of the Lambs poster is used to create an unnatural hint of how it looks like can be considered a teaser
and eerie look, which is an another convention for and attract more audiences.
horror movies.
Eyes are probably the most important symbolic
sensory organ. They can represent clairvoyance, Thriller/Horror posters are trending to be with
omniscience, and a gateway into the soul. Other the stereotypical use of shades of
qualities that eyes are commonly associated with white and black and a third bright color
are: light, vigilance, intelligence, moral conscience, connoting danger and death.
and truth. In both of the images red color is presented.

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While in poster for Perfume a classical color scheme is presented: Black, White and Red, in Silence of
The Lambs, there has been added a combination of complementary colors: orange and blue.

BLACK - power, death, evil, mystery, fear, unknown.
It usually has a negative connotation (blacklist, black humor).
Black is intimidating, unfriendly and unapproachable because of the power it exudes.
WHITE - light, goodness, innocence, purity, virginity, perfection, safety.
As opposed to black, white usually has a positive connotation.
BLACK & WHITE - Black combined with white can create an argumentative atmo-
sphere. In the visible spectrum, white reflects light and is a presence of all colors, but
black absorbs light and is an absence of color. These antithetical colors are seen as good
and evil, honesty and lies, life and death. They also give definition to shapes in posters.
RED - passion, love, seduction, violence, danger, anger, adventure.
It is seen as the color of fire and blood – energy and primal life forces.
RED, BLACK & WHITE - Danger(red), Safety(white), Unknown(black).
Anthropologists and art historians, have discovered that culturally, the human percep-
tion of color begins with three primary colors: black, white and red. These three colors
are so basic and primal, even the words for them are similar across language families.
They are considered colors of shadow, light and life.
ORANGE - joy, fascination, determination, attraction, stimulation.
Orange combines the energy of red and the happiness of yellow. Orange is seen as a
slightly less aggressive color in comparison to red, therefore it is used to symbolize the
vulnerability of the woman on the poster. (Silence of the Lambs)
BLUE - confidence, intelligence, depression, sadness, depth.
Blue is present only on the background and is faded, forming a connection between
black and white. Working in tandem with the emotionless woman's face , this color gives
the poster an atmosphere of coldness and detachment.
ORANGE & BLUE- One of the three sets of complementary colors.
Because of them being opposite to each other (in the color wheel) they express a dynamical and full of
tension atmosphere. They juxtapose such notions like energy and lethargy; warmth and cold.

22
Lowercase sans serif font is used for Silence of the

TEXT
Lambs and uppercase typography for Perfume.
Both posters have their credits, placed at the
bottom in a colour that doesn't stand out from the
whole image.

Both of movie titles are positioned on the lower
part of the poster, just above the credits. In order
At the same time they include the information to draw the focus of viewers, the text has been
that the movie is based on a best seller. significantly enlarged compared to other lines.
For Perfume: The Story of a Murder this state-
ment is shown at the top part of the image, on the "The silence of the lambs" is the only text present-
same line with the mention of director's heritage. ed in an orange color, rather than it being white.
Stating that the movie was based on a "Best Selling This helps the viewer to easily recognize the title
Novel", draws in the audience who have read the and thus attracts attention to the whole poster.
novel and want to see it in motion. It could also
work the other way because after watching the Besides the underlining of "PERFUME" and the
movie, the audience could be interested in how main image, the background and theme mainly
the novel could differ from the film, therefore consists of monochrome colours This creates an
drawing and attracting audiences from both sides. enigmatic build up to what the audience should
To include that the director for this film had also expect when viewing the film. The title of the
worked on directing "Run Lola Run" means to movie is the most visible text on the poster. It
attract of those fans to see whether the style of the is connected to beauty, sensuality, mystery and
film shot may be similar to it. seduction. The tag line “The story of a murderer”,
is an opposition of the heading since murderer
The mention of the Silence of the Lambs being is connected to blood, horror, death. That leads
based on "the terrifying best seller" is the tag-line to the hint to the audience that the movie will be
situated lower next to the movie's title. Upper related to how beauty can kill.
than the title we can see three names of brilliant,
well-known actors that are starring in the film:
Jodie Foster, Anthony Hopkins, Scott Glenn.

23
Structural & Formal Dynamics
Both posters have portrait orietation. This form of documents is dating at least to the Egyptians, whose
hieroglyphics were organized in vertical columns read left to right.
Comparing it to the landscape orientation, the portrait gives a better visual impact and allows com-
munication of powerful messages. Because of the way we see our world the landscaped orientation is
something more natural to us, thus easily perceivable. It also offers a higher number of detailes and
information. The portrait gives as an alarmaion, an image "out of the normal".

The image is centered and symmetric in construction. The depth is achieved
using light and shadow effects. The moth, connected with the eyes through
a similar colour, forms a downward triangle. Her facial shape enhances this
form, like a shadow. Another symetry defined by the colour are the parallel
line positioning of her eyes and the title. Forming the lines that are defining
the image, can be noticed a hourglass shape. Possibly the achievement of this
wasn't planed, but it still signfies the passing of time. This connotation is also
expressed by the central positioned moth.

The main character is shown in the centre of the poster. Her figure is shaped
by the play of light and dark and by the contrast of white and black. Even, if
it lacks symmetry, the image is well equilibrated: her body and face is slightly
turned to right while the drift of the rose petals is flying towards the left. The
gauge in her body is even more accentuated because of the striking white
light. The petals and the empty space form an imaginary arrow, a distorted
"V", that has the tip right in the middle of the title. The use of the red rose
petals is to emphasize that the film is "scent related" and the idea that she is
disintegrating is clearly visualized.

Both posters include a taste of fantasy related graphics. The movies through,
relate a story that is limited to our world. They do tell stories of rare char-
acters, traits and everything that is happening in the film are perceived by
viewers as something real. They do not have any "super-powers" like jump-
ing on the roofs of skyscraper and so on. They do not involve paranormal,
demonic or fantastical creatures.

24
Conclusion
Silence of the Lambs and Perfume: The Story of a Mur-
derer posters, both, create a great impact on audiences. Their
purpose was achieved as the viewer, once given a taste of what
the movie will be, is seduced to see it, would like to see more of it.
The mystery and enchanting beauty fills our sight and our minds with
curiosity, dares and desires. Formed with the use of a limited colour pal-
ette, the images ease the environment of understanding and perceiving im-
portant signifiers. The play of light and darkness and the powerful contrasts are
used to allure us into the "story" of the image. The use of stereotypes, symbolism and
antithesis helped developers in spreading their message to the audience.
Looking for in-depth analytical symbolism in images, I found out this activity to be hard,
requiring concentration and devotion to the subject. Yet, it became more and more interesting
as new details were discovered and examined. Because of this analys. now, looking at a poster or a
billboard I found myself Thinking rather than just looking.

REFERENCES:
Petzinger, G. (2016). Why are these 32 symbols found in ancient caves all over Europe?. [online] Ted.
com. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/genevieve_von_petzinger_why_are_these_32_symbols_
found_in_ancient_caves_all_over_europe?language=en [Accessed 5 February 2016].
Peirce, C. S. (1977) - Semiotic and Significs: The Correspondence between C. S. Peirce and Victoria Lady,
page 85-86.
PARITY (2013) - Men and Women and the Criminal Justice System Appraisal of published Statistics,
Update 127. [online] Parity-uk.org. Available at: http://www.parity-uk.org/Briefing/MenandWome-
nandtheCJSfComplete.pdf [Accessed 5 February 2016].
Abrahams, J. (2015) - "Are men natural born criminals? The prison numbers don't lie." . [online] tele-
graph.co.uk. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11342408/Are-men-natu-
ral-born-criminals-Prison-numbers-dont-lie.html [Accessed 5 February 2016].
Australian Institute of Criminology (2016)- Facts & Figures online data tool, "Victims of violent crime,
by gender (%). [online] Australian Bureau of Statistics Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/
abs@.nsf/mf/4510.0/ [Accessed 5 February 2016]
Jess (2008) "Black, Red and White: Colour Symbolism Throughout Cultures". [online] Nexuszine word-
press. Available at: https://nexuszine.wordpress.com/2008/09/10/black-red-and-white-colour-symbol-

25
"Where to start? First, understand that you're never
starting from scratch. You have been doing research
your whole life, so there is a great deal of material
R S to draw upon.
T E You are doing what's called general research all
C
RA
the time. It's the observation - the noticing - that be-

HA comes the basis of character." (Seger L. 1990)
C
In one of his interviews, Richard Curtis, a british
screenwriter known for Mr. Bean (1990-95 ITV)
and Blackadder (BBC), mentioned that he thinks
about " What will the audience make of the way
this person is behaving? Will they be amused by it,
shoked by it, sympathise with it?" (Owen A. 2003)

CHARACTERS
REFERENCES:
Seger, L. (1990) Creating Unforgettable Characters. 1st Edition. Holt Paperbacks. page 3
Owen, A. (2003) Story and Character: Interviews with British Screenwriters. Bloomsbury Pub-
lishing Plc. London, Great Britain page 72

26
27
OTHERNESS
" Opposing Us, the Self, and Them, the Other, is to choose a criterion that allows humanity to be divided
into two groups: one that embodies the norm and whose identity is valued and another that is defined by
its faults, devalued and susceptible to discrimination.
Otherness is the result of a discursive process by which a dominant in-group ("Us", the Self) constructs one
or many dominated out-groups ("Them", Other) by stigmatizing a difference - real or imagined - presented
as a negation of identity and thus a motive for potential discrimination. " (Staszak J.F. 2008)
Richard Dyer about whiteness

" Racial judgements are based on how people look like, where they come, how they speak, even what they
eat. Race in itself has an insignificant geographical/physical differences between people, it is imagery of
race that is in play." (Dyer R. 2013)

There are FIVE BASIC STEREOTYPES
identified in Donald Bogle's (1973) work about History of Blacks in American films:
TOM - Subservient and having
internalised the values of those
who oppress him.

This world has it's origins from
Uncle Tom's Cabin novel by
Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1852.

Definition of
COONS - lazy, childlike with "Uncle Tom" expression.
inferior thinking. 1. a black man considered by
Stereotypical depictions of other blacks to be subservient to
Blacks, helped to popularize the or tocurry favour with whites.
belief that they were lazy, stu- 2. a person of any race who
pid, inherently less human and exhibits overly deferential be-
unworthy of integration. haviour,especially a female.

28
MAMMY - a black woman who
worked as a nanny and/or gener- MULATTOES - "The tragic
al housekeeper Mulatto"

Mammy/Mammi could be a BUCKS - Hyper-sexualised
general housekeeper that, often masculinity; animalistic brute,
in a white family, nursed the savage, threatening and poten-
family's children. tially violent.

" This assumption that white people are just people, which is not far off saying that whites are people
whereas other colours are something else, is endemic to white culture. The invisibility of whiteness as a
racial position in white." (Dyer R. 2003)

What is norm Others
(male, whiteness, straight orientation, high class) (female, blackness, gay, lesbian, middle class)

" Research - into books, museums, the press, advertising, films, television, software - repeatedly shows
that in Western representation whites are overwhelmingly and disproportionately predominant, have the
central and elaborated roles, and above all are placed as the norm, the ordinary, the standard. Whites
are everywhere in representation. Yet precisely because of this and their placing as norm they seem not to
be represented to themselves as whites but as people who are variously gendered, classed, sexualised and
abled. At the level of racial representation, in other words, whites are not of a certain race, they're just the
human race."
" We have not yet reached a situation in which white people and white cultural agendas are no longer in
the ascendant. The media, politics, education are still in the hands of white people, still speak for whites
while claiming - and sometimes sincerely aiming - to speak for humanity." (Richard Dyer, 2003)

29
"White ethnicity" is identified on basis of cultural origins such as British, Italian, Polish, Catholic, Jewish,
or Polish-American, Catholic-American and so on. John Ibson (1981), in a discussion of research on white
US ethnicity, concludes that being, say, Polish, Catholic or Irish may not be as important to white Ameri-
cans as some might wish. But being white is.
White people need to learn to see themselves as white, to see their particularity. In other words, whiteness
needs to be made strange. " (Richard Dyer, 2003)

Will this attitude help annihilate discrimination or it will only create new image delimitations?
The only way to find out the answer for this matter is to try the change and analyse the happenings.
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is a secret organization of White Protestant Americans, mainly in the South,
who use violence against Black people, Jewish people, and other minority groups. (source) White su-
premacy, white nationalism and anti-immigration, the KKK was historically expressed through terror-
ism aimed at groups or individuals whom they opposed, with the purpose of "purification" of American
Society.

PROBLEMS ABOUT WHITENESS
- (according to Richard Dyer, 2003) -
(Whiteness qua whiteness)

1.Green Light Problem
Writing about whiteness given white people the go-ahead to write and talk about what in any case we
have always talked about: ourselves.

2. "me-too-ism" Problem
All attention is being given to non-white subjects, thus white people are being left out.
a. white desire for attention once again
b. being white is no great advantage,
c. male paranoia - white man can't get jobs, can't keep women.

3. Guilt
Accepting ourselves as white and knowing the history of what we have done to non-white peoples, we
are likely to feel overwhelmed with guilt at what we have done and are still doing.
Display of guilt = Calvary ?

30
PROBLEMS WITH TERMINOLOGY Reading and writing about Whiteness.
- (according to Richard Dyer, 2003) -
Whiteness is of course always already predicated
Non-white: on racial difference, interaction and domination,
Negativity - as if people who are not white only but that is true of all texts, not just those that take
have identity by virtue of what they are not. such matters as their explicit subject matter.
Black: Difference = transcendence of the body.
Excludes a huge range of people who are neither
" Being at one a sort of race and the human race, an
black nor white, Asians, Native Americans (North
individual and an universal subject. For whiteness
and South), Chicanos, Jews and so on.
to be affirmed is a need always to be everything and
People of colour: nothing, literally overwhelmingly present and yet
Includes all those people that "black" excludes, apparently absent, both alive and dead. "
but it reiterates the notion that some people have (Richard Dyer, 2003)
colour and others, whites, do not. We need to
recognise white as colour too. _____ CONCLUSION _____
Variety of whiteness ->
Racial imagery is central to the organisation of the
English, Anglo-Saxons, North Europeans vs
modern world.
Southern, Eastern Europeans.
Most of us consider that to be normal is to be
white. As Richard Dyer wrote, the way to escape
" To be normal is to be white. White people in their
from this thinking is to make white "become
whiteness, however, are imaged as individual and/
strange". The key is not to declare white as a
or endlessly diverse, complex and changing. "
supremacy and to make whiteness equal to other
(Richard Dyer, 2003)
coloured races.
REFERENCES:
Staszak, J.F. (2008). "Other/Otherness", International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Elsevier.
Dyer, R. (2003) "The Matter of Whiteness", Privilege: A. Reader M. Kimmel and A. Ferber, Westview
Press, p.21-31
Fig. 1. Available at: http://www.authentichistory.com/diversity/african/3-coon/1-history/index.html
Fig. 2. Available at: http://www.clker.com/cliparts/6/3/7/7/12655975291069785989fhadni.png
Fig. 3. Available at: https://drgrobsanimationreview.com/tag/mammy-two-shoes/
Fig. 4. Available at: http://www.cinemulatto.com/?tag=i-passed-for-white
Fig. 5. Available at: http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/king-kong-poster-1933-
granger.jpg [All images accessed 11 March 2016]

31
What are the key differences between cinematic and comics storytelling?

Visual Storytelling

32
The Losers is a 2010 American action movie based in his own compound. The mission is complicated
on the adaptation of the Vertigo comic book series when they spot a number of slave children at the
of the same name by Andy Diggle. site, but their superiors order them to hold the
course.
The Losers were originally a squadron of World
War II soldiers who appeared in the pages of Our They disobey the order and save the kids by taking
Fighting Forces, starting in 1970 (DC Comics). It them to their extraction point, but the CIA de-
was created by Robert Kangher. stroys the helicopter with the inoccents aboard
while trying to terminate their own rogue assets.
In 2003, creator Andy Diggle re-imagined the title Presumed dead, Clay and his men disappear and
under the company's Vertigo imprint, presenting vow to take revenge upon their handler, (Jason
the titular characters as a Special Forces team cut Patric) with only the name Max to go on.
loose by the CIA, out for revenge on their handler. Aisha (Zoe Saldana) comes into the action as a
person who offers them information of Max's lo-
Directed by Sylvain White, the 2010 movie adapts cation. She's introduced with the tone of a femme
from the first 12 issues of the comic and serves as fatale.
an origin story for the group. Clay, (Jeffrey Dean
Morgan) Roque, (Idris Elba) Jensen, (Chris Evans) The Losers are most definitely anti-heroes, still
Cougar (Óscar Jaenada) and Pooch (Columbus their "nastiness" is subverted in the very first set-
Short) are on a black ops search and destroy mis- piece as they attempt to rescue the children from
sion in Bolivia, sent to take down a drug lord the compound.

33
34
Left page: Scenes from the Movie The Losers
( Directed by Sylvain White, 2010 )
This page: Comic Book The Losers, Andy Diggle
and Jock. End of issue #2, begging of #3. (Vertigo)

35
First difference would be that the song that Jensen (Chris Evans) is singing while entering the building
Comic book: The Ballad of Robert Moore and Betty Coltrane - Nick Cave And The Bad Seeds.
Movie: Journey - Don't Stop Believin'

We can observe a more intense sense of humor in the movie: the doors of the elevator open right in
the moment when Jensen took off his trousers and he has been seen by 4 giggling women. The next
thing he does: he says to Mr. Henderson to come down to the lobby to discuss a "situation involving an
individual who is exposing himself to the women in the elevator". The moment when he opens the door
for Mr. Hendersoon who is heading downstairs and when he says that he likes the dress of Mr. Hender-
soon's secretary are the details that make a smooth movement throught the course of his action. They
add "colours" to his character's personality.

When the 3 guardsmen are opposing him, the movie version adds more words to the original comic's
text:
"They did stuff to me. Spooky stuff... Anal stuff. It turned me into a dangerous telekinetic. As the an-
cient Tibetan Philosophy states "Don't start none, won't be none!"

The final moment when the bullet hole in the window gets into the focus and we can see Cougar with a
gun in the opposite building is done in a similar way in both visual storytellings.

REFERENCES:
Harrison, M. (2015) The Losers: revisiting an overlooked comic book movie. [online] Available here:
http://www.denofgeek.com/movies/the-losers/36845/the-losers-revisiting-an-overlooked-com-
ic-book-movie [Accessed 28 February 2016]
Comicbookmovie (2016) The Losers Home. [online] Aveilable here: http://www.comicbookmovie.com/
the_losers/ [Accessed 28 February 2016]
Mickwitz, N. (2016) Seminar on „Visual Sequence”. London College of Communication.

36
GENRES

37
A genre is a style or category of art, music, or literature. It is established by patterns, forms, styles and
structures.The construction and reading of a text are based on the commonly understood language of
signs and conventions adopted by genres.
Main elements of genre are Characters, Iconography, Setting and Style.

Below is a list made by me during the CTS session:

REFERENCES:
Surber, K. (2016) Mystery Genre: Definition, Characteristics & Elements. [online] study.com Available
here: http://study.com/academy/lesson/mystery-genre-definition-characteristics-elements.html
[Accessed on 4 May 2016]
Sims, D (2016) The Witch Mines the Quiet Terror of the Unknown [online] TheAtlantic.
Available here: http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/02/the-witch-review/470052/
[Accessed on 4 May 2016]

38
_________________ MISTERY GENRE _________________
A mystery movie is a movie that keeps the audience in a tension of unknown. The suspence is build-up
through out the film as the main subject is uncovered by the audience. However it also may remain or
create another mystery. Sometimes the movie has an unreliable narator and the characters could reveal
an opposite side of their personality. Usually creepy static music or sounds will follow the plot and esca-
late through the film. The semiotics of a mystery movie would be the low light and unsaturated colours,
usually with a cold weather and foggy atmosphere.
While the audience is kept with the undescovered mystery, some of characters may actually know the
secret.

The protagonist, or central character, is the detective, and the rest of the characters are usually the
suspects. The plot of a mystery begins with an inciteful action, such as a murder, and uses suspense to
draw the reader into the story.As the protagonist, the detective works to solve the mystery and often
finds him or herself in danger. Each suspect and his or her motives are examined in the story. Dramatic
tension is heightened with foreshadowing, a literary device that hints at events to come, as well as plot
twists and suspects' motives. "During the course of the investigation, the detective examines all clues, mo-
tives, and alibis, which support suspects' whereabouts at the time of the crime, to find the guilty person."
(Katie Surber, 2016)
THE WITCH
(The VVitch: A New-England Folktale)
-
2015 | 1h 32min | Horror, Mystery

Movie shows a family in 1630s New England that is torn apart
by the forces of witchcraft, black magic and possession.

" The Witch has many spooky figures: a goat named Black Phillip
who might just be an agent of Satan, a beady-eyed rabbit who
keeps appearing out of nowhere, a haggard crone who kidnaps babies and grinds them into a bloody pulp.
But none manage to be quite as terrifying as a quiet shot of the hemlock trees lining the entrance to the
woods near a family home. This is a film that conjures its scares not from sharp jumps, but from the eerie
hostility of the untamed American wilderness. " (David Sims, 2016)

39
AC+UAL PLACE:

MOLDOVA

CHIȘINĂU
40
Moldova is my home country. I really love and miss it.
As I grew up in Chisinau, I know most of the places in Moldova.
I have seen them in reality before seeing their representation in images.
This gives me another perspective on how the differences between a real
place and its illustration can be not actually the same.
More than this, they can be even controversial.

A PLACE is a "space" invested with meaning and rich with cultural symbolism.

The conceptualization of a place is constructed by noticing its attributes and attaching to it available
meanings (connotations) and disregarding other potential meanings of it. When it comes to giving
an opinion about a place, we tend to focus only on the things we want to focus on, and ignore other
aspects.

In order to analyse an image, we have to use our sense of sight. Without it we wouldn't be able to per-
ceive the world with colour, light and darkness.

41
How our world sees?
Light reflects off an object and if one is
looking at the object, light enters the eye.
"Some say that the ability of plants to grow toward light indicates
their ability to "see", to sense light. They see colour, direction and
intensity. Plants can seize the UV light and far-red light, which humans can't
see. " (Chamovitz D. 2012)
Living creatures’ visual perception of the surrounding world depends on how their
eyes process light. Some creatures are partially colourblind, some see ultraviolet light,
see better in dark rather than light and some detect polarized light.
Humans are sensitive to the colours red, green, and blue.
We can perceive small amounts of light; this allows us to see in the dark.

Can some people see more colours than you?
The art of seeing
Artists see the same things, but they see different things in them.
Through learning to see, they see and notice more. The same things could be said about
an engineer for example, when he looks at a building, a gardener examining at a bush,
a flower and so on. It could possibly be said that vision evolved for the purpose it is
used for. Thus bees spot patterns on flower petals that guide them to nectar,
an eagle has a sharper vision and a rattlesnake depicts heat and sees
clearly in darkness.

" Seeing is not the same as looking. We look at things all the time,
passively, barely taking them in. Seeing is something we
actively participate in. Seeing is an act. "
(Paul, 2014)

42
How do values inform visual codes?
Value - principles or standards of behaviour; one's judgement of what is important in life.
Visual code - The system we use for "reading" the media is a combination of Codes and Conventions. A
CODE is a visual, audio or technical element that an audience has learnt to imply meaning. Codes are
like word.
From looking at optical illusions, it is clear that we can read pictures in several ways. Signs, symbols
and visual codes helps us get a similar reading.
Now, I will let myself imagine that I have never seen Moldova’s realm and dive into the information
floating around me, to see how the country is depicted and how others will see it.
Mass Media plays a big role in this. Depending on the type of article, you will see two parts of the same
coin: Moldova as a great, beautiful country or as a poor and ugly one. Depending on the book you are
looking into, your understanding and information will be limited to a certain time-line.

According to BBC, Moldova is considered one of the poorest countries in Europe, with its economy
relying heavily on agriculture.
With a population of 3.5 million on an area 33800² km which encompasses forests, rocky hills and
vineyards, Moldova is an Eastern European country and former Soviet republic. It is located between
Romania and Ukraine and exists as an independent country since 1991. Two-thirds of Moldovans are
of Romanian descent. The languages are virtually identical and the two countries share a common cul-
tural heritage. (BBC, 2016)
What means poverty?
Most of us are commonly supposing that to be poor is to not have a laptop, a car, a collection of hats for
example. Have you ever thought, what if that person doesn’t even need a car, a laptop, what if children
from Africa don’t even need those shoes, and they enjoy their “cave-life”, being barefoot and free from
the chains of modern society. Of course in this matter we have involved evolution. But is really “to need
more” mean that we are evolving. Could it be that those needs and “not poor” standards are implied by
someone else, by media, government or by other “zombified” people?

“The most commonly used way to measure poverty is based on incomes. A person is considered poor if his
or her income level falls below some minimum level necessary to meet basic needs.”
(The World Bank Organisation, 2016)

43
Thinking and searching for an image representing Let us look then for something else that might
the poverty in Moldova, I found this one: illustrate Moldova: Buildings & Roads.

Based on the set of this room and how unclean
everything is presented the connotation for this
image is definitely poverty. But let's be honest...
This happens in other countries as well. The gap Poverty in buildings, in roads, again?
between rich and poor people exists everywhere As a contrast let's look at the images below:
and this is not a secret, thus this picture can't be
used to represent Moldova.
Visual codes play an important role in image anal-
ysis. The connotations are defined by the cultural
background and viewer's personal vision and
judgement.
Let's look at traditional Moldovan food:

44
Another thing that could distort reality is that people tend to enhance their living place when they are
expecting someone important to visit them. For example, when you expect your girlfriend to come into
your room you will make order, make sure it will look it's best. The same is in cities/villages when locals
are expecting a visit from someone from government or when there is a holiday.
Officials are doing the same: a cosmetic change to a road or building... that will last for a short time.
Meanwhile taking the rest of the money designated for this issue in their pockets.

CONCLUSION

The comparison between two representations of the same place is defined by cultural visual conno-
tations and personal values. The codes within the images help us analyze it but the final conclusion is
settled using our own vision.

REFERENCES:
Chamovitz, D. (2012) Researcher argues that plants can see [online] Steve Mirsky reports. Available
here: http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/researcher-argues-that-plants-see-12-06-26/
[Accessed on 12 February 2016]
Gutierrez, D. (2015) Plants can see, hear, smell, and respond to threats [online] Available here: http://
www.naturalnews.com/049852_plant_senses_insect_predators_natural_defenses.html#ixzz472wqjK4p
[Accessed on 12 February 2016]
Paul (2014) Do artists see differently? [online] Available here: http://www.learning-to-see.co.uk/see-
ing-differently [Accessed on 12 February 2016]
BBC (2016) Moldova country profile [online] Available here: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-eu-
rope-17601580 [Accessed on 12 February 2016

Fig. 1. Available at: http://chumash.us/ilovechisinau/
Fig. 2. Available at: http://journal.kateholt.com/2011_06_01_archive.html
Fig. 3. Available at: https://www.winerist.com/blog/entry/top-reasons-to-visit-moldova-and-drink-
moldovan-wine
Fig. 4. Collage by me from images from google.com response on: ugly, pour, bad roads Moldova
Fig. 5. Collage by me from images from google.com response on: beautiful, good roads Moldova
[All images accessed 12 February 2016]

45
Him & Her
Dark, doomed night.
Not a single soul out on the streets of South
Bank.
Sound of cars in the far distance; someone's
laugh.
Gulls are hovering the skies. The Old Big Ben is
still stubborn to give them more space. Lon-
don is alive. The breath of the city syncs with a
human heartbeat.

With the pace and silence of a butterfly, a young
girl appeared. Her golden hair breaks the dark-
ness of the night. The wind is fierce but the light
surrounds her.

She noticed Him.
The Thames River rules. It shatters the mega-
lithic image of Westminster Palace.

He is leaning on the guardrail. The moon's
brightness forms the shape of his silhouette: a
lovely wolf waiting for something. The water
reflects into his deep blue eyes.

The cruel wind stopped. Her breath became
louder as she was floating towards him. The
blush flowered in her face.
He turned around.

He noticed Her.

46
"Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder"
( Margaret Wolfe Hungerford, 1878 )
Does London Eye find us beautiful, then?
In your lethargic movement, how much have
you seen?

She wasn't moving anymore. His
gaze gently lingered on her lips.
Her smile made him think of the
sunrays in the spring they met.
There is a distance between them.

She closes her eyes. A moment and
his palms are caressing her waist.
She feels the warmth of his love. The
sound of the river flow amplifies.

Her sweet scent
surrounds him.
Their lips unite.
Her light bursts
into the night.
He takes her hands
and makes a move.
They slowly disappear
in the space.

Dark, lovely night.

HIM & HER Image and story by
Nicoleta Faina

47
ESSAY
What are the most important purposes of imaginary worlds?
Imaginary worlds are fictional places that have a high importance for human kind. In this essay I will
research, establish, and analyse their purposes. In order to achieve this, I will use a wide variety of
resources, such as books, novellas, on-line articles and interviews. Working with text and images, I will
reflect critically and present the information using headings for a better structure and ease of reading.
The begging of my writing will constitute a detailed definition and construction of a fictional place.
After this, I will analyse the target audience and main contributors for its creation. The main part will
be divided into several parts that will evaluate some of the most important functions of an imaginary
world, which were identified after a previous research. I will give a conclusion, a reference list and an
annotated bibliography at the end of the essay.

During the Contextual Theoretical Studies seminar (2016), lecturer Sharon Tolaini-Sage highlighted
that at the base of an imaginary world’s creation is reality, fantasy and evidence. Its existence is defined
by believability: geographical, physical and atmospheric features situated in a coherent context. It also
has to give the audience or the player room to do their imaginative part. Kirby Ferguson, in his TED
talk Embrace the remix (2012), explains that all creative processes are established within the principles
of remix: copy, combine and transform. This is an interesting theory, but when it comes to analysing the
genesis of an imaginary world, where a complete freedom of creating is given, for sure, new and origi-
nal ideas will be triggered, thus making Feguson’s statement debatable.

Can an imaginary world be created for plants?
An example for a fictional place for plants is the Green House. It is a glass building in which plants that
need protection from cold weather are grown. Even if it is a delimited space that has its own atmo-
sphere and a different implied “nature”, even if it is artificially created and maintained, it is still a reality.
The reason not to consider flora as a target for creation of an imaginary world is that flowers do not
think about being in an illusion or not. They just exist. With no doubt, they possess senses but still they
will never question the reality.

Can an imaginary world be created for animals?
Safari, Zoo and Aquarium are artificially created and delimited spaces, but they still imply reality. Even
if a space will be decorated in a matter to imply a fictional world created specifically for dogs, in their
vision it won’t be fictional. A cat entering an Alice in Wonderland installation, designed for cats only,

48
no doubt, will notice differences from “reality”, but she won’t think that it is not true. The cat will still
take it as a reality. She won’t be playing along with that illusion.

Why an Imaginary World is a Human Centred Design?
Anthony Dunne and Fiora Raby, in their book named Speculative Everything (2013), present hypoth-
eses of new roles that design might play in the 21st century. They affirm that “Fictional worlds are not
just figments of a person’s imagination; they circulate and exist independently of us and can be called
up and accessed, and explored when needed” (Dunne A., Raby F. 2013)
The target audience for an imaginary world is humans. It is based on our experience: human needs,
capabilities, behaviours and comprehends the use of visual, tactile and sound signifiers to communicate
meanings. Affordances reflect the relationship between things and their potential users, they determine
what is possible and what is not.

Interacting with others
Disneyland is a physical imaginary world that gives the possibility to meet childhood cartoon idols and
“live” a dream.
Jean Baudrillard (1983), a sociologist, philosopher and cultural theorist, mentioned that Disneyland is a
perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulation. It is a play of illusions and phantasms. (Baudril-
lard J. 1983, p.23)
The creation of a fantastical world requires the use of creatures that are derived from fantasy: unicorns,
human-sized smiling mice, sparkling castles and colourful princesses.
“It is meant to be an infantile world, in order to make us believe that the adults are elsewhere, in the
“real” world, and to conceal the fact that real childishness is everywhere, particularly amongst those
adults who go there to act the child in order to foster illusions as to their real childishness” (Baudrillard
J. 1983, p.25-26)
Thus, a place like Disneyland gives the enjoyment of living new experiences in an “alternative” world.
Often discovering and seeing it from another perspective, a child’s perspective, entitles an adult to be-
come easily excitable, emotional and enriches his interactive involvement.

Escapism
Being a child, means to conquer a lot of psychological difficulties while the mind is forming and is still
vulnerable. Sometimes, more often than adults, they create their own world and live in it. Children
speak of adventures from that place and different creatures that become their imaginary friends. One
of the reasons that their creativity is blooming is in their need to escape reality. The fictional world that

49
a child created is a space where he can be whoever he wants, have whatever he wants and realise his
dreams.
Another great example of a place where the reality is neglected are video games.

Emotional Connectivity
Interactional experience through an imaginary world is offered by League of Legends. This is an on-line
multiplayer battle arena with real-time strategy video game. It creates the perfect atmosphere to form
an emotional connection with yourself, the game creatures and with other gamers
The imaginary world of League of Legends keeps in touch friends from far away by presenting new ways
of interacting with each other. It makes possible to feel their presence, attention, care and also to dis-
cover friends’ mood and thoughts, simply by playing with them.
This fictional place, also, offers several satisfactions on psychological levels. First one is the chance of
living and acting in a total different world, thus escaping the reality. The second satisfaction is having
someone in total control, the in-game champion, and possibility to even merge with it. It offers the feel-
ing of power and of having a different body with unreal abilities.
Another great remuneration is that of being a part of something big, of belonging to your team. It sets
the goals for competition and help and as a results gives the feeling of usefulness and of great impor-
tance.

Food for thoughts
An imaginary world most certainly will expand discussing matters and areas of thinking. This is an
essential factor of our evolution.
Mark J.P. Wolf is a Professor and Chair of the Communication Department at Concordia University
Wisconsin. In his book, named Building Imaginary Worlds (2012) he noted that “Subcreation is not just
a desire, but a need and a right; it renews our vision and gives us new perspective and insight into onto-
logical questions that might otherwise escape our notice within the default assumptions we make about
reality” (Wolf J.P. 2012, p.287)
Because of dreaming and gazing about an alternative, better place, human thoughts and acts change,
and as a result our “real” world is changed.

Inspiration
The fictional worlds possess the purpose to inspire new creations.
Science fiction writer, Jack Vance, in his novel The Houses of Iszm (1954), created a planet where local
species have evolved their giant trees into living homes. This world is full of mystery as the main char-

50
acter is a human botanist that tries to discover the secret of inhabitants’ house creation.
This imaginary place inspired the designers Mitchell Joachim, Lara Greden and Javier Arbona, graduat-
ed students of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in the creation of the Fab Tree Hab. Its construc-
tion and growth phases are illustrated in the image below.

“There were trees comprised of a central co-
lumnar trunk and four vast leaves, arching out
and over to the ground to form four domed
halls illuminated by the pale green transmitted
light.” (Vance J. 1954)

The Fab Tree Hab makes use of a technique called pleaching. “It is a method of weaving together tree
branches to form living archways, lattices or screens. The trunks of inosculate, or self-granting trees,
such as Elm, Live Oak and Dogwood, are the load-bearing structure, and the branches form a contin-
uous lattice frame for the walls and roof. Weaved along the exterior is a dense protective layer of vines,
intersected with soil pockets and growing plants.” (Brown D. 2005)

„He returned to the hotel, and showered in the translucent ndule attached to his pod. The liquid was a
cool, fresh-scented sap, issuing from a nozzle disturbingly lika a cow’s udder.” (Vance J. 1954)
While inhabited, the Fab Tree Hab’s gardens and exterior walls will provide nutrients for people and
animals. The designers invite us to imagine a society based on the slow growth and care of trees as
housing structures, rather than their industrial manufacture.

Creativity
Interaction with a fictional world boosts the creativity.
A great example for defining creativity as a purpose for an imaginary world is Codex Seraphinianus
(1981), by Luigi Serafini.

The book is an encyclopaedia with 300 pages of descriptions, explanations, drawings and graphs for an
imaginary existence.

“The Codex is similar to the Rorschach inkblot test. You see what you want to see. You might think it’s
speaking to you, but it’s just your imagination” (Serafini, 2013)

51
The alphabet that he used in his creation is unique and unreadable.

The top image is a part of Codex Seraphinianus book (1981), by Luigi Serafini

“What I want my alphabet to convey to the reader is the sensation that children feel in front of books
they cannot yet understand. I used it to describe analytically an imaginary world and give a coherent
framework. The images originate from the clash between this fantasy vocabulary and the real world. It’s
every artist’s dream to shape his own imagery.” He explains that Codex is successful because it makes
the viewers feel more comfortable with their own fantasies. “Another world is not possible, but a fantasy
one maybe is.” (Serafini, 2013)

The Fantasy Collection, by Jaime Hayon, for Spanish porcelain brand Lladró, launched in 2008, is a
combination of playfull and experimental porcelain sculptures. The creativity allows those unreal crea-
tures to become reality.

52
The image on the left illustrates one of Jaime Hayon’s creation.
It is a part of The Fantasy Collection, and is named The Rocking
Chicken Ride.

„The balance between expression and function, the studied com-
bination of Lladro usual themes and the magic of the unexpected
that Hayon is known for, make these pieces truly original objects
that, over and above their decorative potential, awaken a sense of
fantasy in the beholder.” (Etherington R. 2008)

Freedom
The creator of an imaginary world has no boundaries. The free-
dom that rules the creation gives life to another freedom, experi-
enced by the ones who visit that imaginary world.

Beth Webb is a publisher of 12 children’s fantasy books.
In one of her on-line articles she mentions that “Fantasy is vital for the human kind.
It begins as the psychological process by which a child learns to fill the gaps between knowledge, reality
and experience, and becomes a vital coping mechanism” (Webb B. 2007)

Imaginary worlds play a great role in our life.

Their creators possess the freedom to generate literally anything! While physical world is still limited,
the virtual has the treasure of an infinite number of resources and possibilities.

Viewing and engaging with a fictional place enhances human’s emotional connectivity. The fun of
discovering and the inspiration gained from new, different and unusual experience depicts the impor-
tance of an imaginary world. It is often used as a way to escape the reality and plunge into a place with
different rules, expectations, landscape and time. A person’s imagination can interact with this new
space and thus he becomes capable of creating, choosing or just being someone or something else. This
bonding changes the way of acting, thinking and perceiving the “real” world, and ultimately results
with our own evolution.

53
Reference List:
Tolaini-Sage, S. (2016) Seminar on „Imaginary Worlds”. London College of Communication
Ferguson, K. (2012) Embrace the remix [online] Ted.com. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/kir-
by_ferguson_embrace_the_remix?language=en [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Dunne, A. & Raby, F. (2013) Speculative Everything. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. New York City, N.Y., U.S.A.: Semiotext(e), Inc.
Wolf, M. (2012) Building Imaginary Worlds: The Theory and History of Subcreation. New
York & London: Routledge.
Vance, J. (1974). The houses of Iszm. Frogmore, St. Albans, Herts.: Mayflower.
Brown, D. (2005). Fab Tree Hab And The Houses Of Iszm: Science Fiction in the News. [online] Tech-
novelgy.com. Available at: http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=459
[Accessed 16 May 2016].
Girolami, A. and Serafini, L. (2013). Look Inside the Extremely Rare Codex Seraphinianus, the Weirdest
Encyclopedia Ever. [online] WIRED. Available at: http://www.wired.com/2013/10/codex-seraphin-
ianus-interview/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Etherington, R. (2008). The Fantasy collection by Jaime Hayón | Dezeen. [online] Dezeen. Available at:
http://www.dezeen.com/2008/05/12/the-fantasy-collection-by-jaime-hayon/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Webb, B. (2007). The real purpose of fantasy. [online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguard-
ian.com/books/booksblog/2007/apr/23/bridgingthegapswhyweneed [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Fig. 1. Technovelgy (2005) Fab Tree Hab Construction/Growth Phases. Available at: http://www.tech-
novelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=459 [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Fig. 2. Wired (2013) Alcune delle illustrazioni del Codex Seraphinianus 2151. Available at: http://www.
wired.com/2013/10/codex-seraphinianus-interview/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Fig. 3. Lladró (2016) THE ROCKING CHICKEN RIDE. Available at: http://www.lladro.com/figu-
rines/01007256-THE_ROCKING_CHICKEN_RIDE/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].

Annotated Bibliography:
Artinfo, B. and Perkovic, J. (2015). Design Meets Art in Jaime Hayon’s More Surreal Works: Interview
[online] Artinfo. Available at: http://uk.blouinartinfo.com/news/story/1285886/design-meets-art-in-
jaime-hayons-more-surreal-works-interview [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Jaime Hayon works at the interface of design and art. He creates his own fantastic worlds in
style that is both eclectic and surreal. He is an industrial designer influenced by street culture.
The article provides important information about Jaime’s Hayon creation. The interview taken

54
by Jana Perkovic, allows to have a look into his thoughts, ideas and hopes for future.
Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. New York City, N.Y., U.S.A.: Semiotext(e), Inc.
Jean Baudrillard was a philosopher, sociologist, cultural critic, and theorist of postmodernity
who challenged all existing theories of contemporary society with humour and precision. An
outsider in the French intellectual establishment, he was internationally renowned as a twen-
ty-first century visionary, reporter, and provocateur. In this book, Baudrillard analyses the
situations of hyper-reality and of simulation. His essay about Disneyland demonstrates that its
childish imaginary is neither true or false, it is there to make us believe that the rest of America
is real, when in fact America is a Disneyland.
Brown, D. (2005). Fab Tree Hab And The Houses Of Iszm: Science Fiction in the News. [online] Tech-
novelgy.com. Available at: http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=459
[Accessed 16 May 2016].
The article is a collection of information about an invention made by MIT students, called the
Fab Tree Hab. It entered in the INDEX world event for design and innovation set to take place
every four years in Copenhagen. Dominic Brown analyses the connection with the novel The
Houses of Iszm, by Jack Vance and the Fab Tree Hab use and creation.
Dunne, A. & Raby, F. (2013) Speculative Everything. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
In this book, Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby propose a kind of design that is used as a tool to
create not only things but ideas. For them, design is a means of speculating about how things
could be—to imagine possible futures. This is not the usual sort of predicting or forecasting,
spotting trends and extrapolating; these kinds of predictions have been proven wrong, again
and again. Instead, Dunne and Raby pose “what if ” questions that are intended to open debate
and discussion about the kind of future people want (and do not want).
Etherington, R. (2008). The Fantasy collection by Jaime Hayón | Dezeen. [online] Dezeen. Available at:
http://www.dezeen.com/2008/05/12/the-fantasy-collection-by-jaime-hayon/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
This article reviews an exhibition in 2008, launched at Spazio Rossana Orlandi in Milan. It is the
Fantasy Collection made by Jaime Hayon for Spanish porcelain brand Lladró. It offers a great
amount of imagery and information about Hayon’s work and life.
Faina, N. (2016). IMAGINARY WORLDS: LoL & Houses of Iszm. [online] Nicoletafaina.wordpress.
com. Available at: https://nicoletafaina.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/imaginary-worlds-league-of-leg-
ends/?frame-nonce=ad53a13b8b&preview=true&iframe=true [Accessed 16 May 2016].
This article is made by me and it was a response to a London College of Communication sem-
inar on Imaginary Worlds. The information that I have written, served as an inspiration for
further research and deeper analysis into this matter.

55
Faina, N. (2016). What is Referencing?. [online] Scribd. Available at: https://www.scribd.com/
doc/291847197/What-is-Referencing [Accessed 16 May 2016].
This essay was used as a reference for structure and construction of the present writing. It was a
submission for London College of Communication, year 1.
Ferguson, K. (2012) Embrace the remix [online] Ted.com. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/kir-
by_ferguson_embrace_the_remix?language=en [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Kirby Ferguson is a well-known filmmaker. The video-talk is a part of TED conferences that
explores the origins of creativity. He affirms that nothing is original. From Bob Dylan to Steve
Jobs, our most celebrated creators borrow, steal and transform. Ferguson explores the creation
based on principles of remix.
Gameinfo.euw.leagueoflegends.com. (2016). Game Info | League of Legends. [online] Available at:
http://gameinfo.euw.leagueoflegends.com/en/game-info/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
The webpage offers information about the MMORPG League of Legends. It served as a source
of inspiration to write about emotional connectivity in an imaginary world. This game is my
favourite one at this moment, as it allows me to “be” next to my brother and friend from my
home country – Moldova.
Girolami, A. and Serafini, L. (2013). Look Inside the Extremely Rare Codex Seraphinianus, the Weird-
est Encyclopedia Ever. [online] WIRED. Available at: http://www.wired.com/2013/10/codex-seraphin-
ianus-interview/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
The article explores the bizarre universe of Codex Seraphinianus, the weirdest encyclopedia in
the world. It is created by Luigi Serafini, who is an Italian artist and designer. The information
and images allow a closer look to his creation. The interview offers interesting thoughts and
facts that belong to Serafini.
Lladro, (2016). Porcelain and fantasy - The Fantasy by Jaime Hayon | Lladró. [online] Lladro.com.
Available at: http://www.lladro.com/themes/temas.FantasyJH-LLADRO_BY_THEME_FANTASY_BY_
JAIME_HAYON/?spl=0 [Accessed 16 May 2016].
The on-line gallery explores the porcelain collection by Jaime Hayon, called The Fantasy. His
creations are well arranged in the layout of the page. They advertise the Studio that they were
created for – Lladro.
Smith, G. (2014). Compasses for Wayfinding – Dunne & Raby’s “Speculative Everything”. [online] Cre-
ativeApplications.Net. Available at: http://www.creativeapplications.net/reviews/compasses-for-wayfin-
ding-dunne-rabys-speculative-everything/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
This article is a review of the book Speculative Everything, by Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby.
It offers images from the book and enriches the knowledge about reasons, methods and key

56
facts for its creation.
Tolaini-Sage, S. (2016). Seminar on Imaginary Worlds. London College of Communication, London
University of Arts.
The presentation guided by Sharon Tolaini-Sage, set the basis of my interest for imaginary
worlds. This was a part of Contextual Theoretical Studies seminar during the second term of
year 1 of Interaction Design Arts at London College of Communication.
Vance, J. (1974). The houses of Iszm. Frogmore, St. Albans, Herts.: Mayflower.
John Holbrook "Jack" Vance was an American mystery, fantasy, and science fiction writer. His
ability to create imaginary worlds through his writing always fanscinated me. While Vance's
stories have a wide variety of temporal settings, a majority of them belong to a period long after
humanity has colonized other stars, culminating in the development of a region of interstel-
lar space called the Gaean Reach. In its early phase, exhibited by the Oikumene of the Demon
Princes series, this expanding, loose and pacific agglomerate has an aura of colonial adventure,
commerce and exoticism. Later it becomes peace-loving and stolidly middle class.
Webb, B. (2007). The real purpose of fantasy. [online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguard-
ian.com/books/booksblog/2007/apr/23/bridgingthegapswhyweneed [Accessed 16 May 2016].
The article by Beth Webb researches the real purpose of imaginary worlds. She is children’s
book writer, thus her analysis is based mostly on children and the experience they have while
they interact with fictional places.
Wolf, M. (2012) Building Imaginary Worlds: The Theory and History of Subcreation. New
York & London: Routledge.
In this book, Mark J.P. Wolf creates a study of imaginary worlds. He theorizes world-building
within and across media, including literature, comics, film, radio, television, board games, video
games, the Internet, and more. Wolf argues that imaginary worlds which are often transnar-
rative, transmedial, and transauthorial in nature are compelling objects of inquiry for Media
Studies.
Sunderamoorthy, S. (2016). How do imaginations/imaginary friends/imaginary worlds affect our lives/
personalities?. [online] Quora.com. Available at: https://www.quora.com/How-do-imaginations-imagi-
nary-friends-imaginary-worlds-affect-our-lives-personalities [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Sharanya Sunderamoorthy’s article is a response to the question on How do imaginations/imag-
inary friends/imaginary worlds affect our lives/personalities? She analyses 10 of the benefits of
an imaginary world and also 3 disadvantages of its existence. I found the information interest-
ing and related to my essay, but I used it only as a source of inspiration and not as a quoting or
paraphrasing, as she make use of an informal approach and personal experiences.

57
Fairy tales as inspiration
A fairy tale is a short story that typically features
folkloric fantasy characters. It usually has a happy Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various
ending. In fairy tales we can meet dragons, fairies, ways. The Aarne-Thompson classification system
elves, hobgoblins, unicorns, mermaids, witches and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp
and other magical creatures. The history of the are among the most notable.
fairy tales is particularly difficult to trace because
only the literary forms can survive. The term is Vladimir Propp, in "Morphology of the folklore"
mainly used for stories with origins in the Euro- (1928) identified various functions and how they
pean tradition and, at least in recent centuries, map out linear narratives in folktales.
mostly relates to children's literature.
Dramatis Personae are characters classified by
their spheres of action. This are the following
ones:
the VILLAIN
the DONOR
the HELPER
the PRINCESS & her FATHER
the HERO (seeker-hero, victim hero)
the FALSE-HERO

Vladimir Propp also identified a total of 31 (32)
functions by analysing the story-lines of 500 fairy-
tales that are listed on the following page:

Unlike legends and epics, they take place ONCE UPON A TIME rather than in actual times.

Fairy tales are usually dominated by a strong antithesis. Some of conventional stock figures that are
present in fairy tales are flat , like in the toy theatre or multiplied. There is a really strong antithesis be-
tween good and bad. Characters are named for their occupations and have clear and obvious motives.
"Fairytales don't come whole and unaltered from the minds of individual writers, after all; uniqueness and
originality are of no interest to them..." (Pullman P. 2012)

58
0. Initial situation 15. Guidance: Hero reaches destination
16. Struggle: Hero and villain do battle
1st Sphere: Introduction 17. Branding: Hero is branded
Steps 1 to 7 introduces the situation and most of the 18. Victory: Villain is defeated
main characters, setting the scene for subsequent 19. Resolution: Initial misfortune or lack is re-
adventure. solved

1. Absentation: Someone goes missing 4th Sphere: The Hero’s return
2. Interdiction: Hero is warned In the final (and often optional) phase of the sto-
3. Violation of interdiction ryline, the hero returns home, hopefully uneventful-
4. Reconnaissance: Villain seeks something ly and to a hero's welcome, although this may not
5. Delivery: The villain gains information always be the case.
6. Trickery: Villain attempts to deceive victim
7. Complicity: Unwitting helping of the enemy 20. Return: Hero sets out for home
21. Pursuit: Hero is chased
2nd Sphere: The Body of the story 22. Rescue: pursuit ends
The main story starts here and extends to the de- 23. Arrival: Hero arrives unrecognised
parture of the hero on the main quest. 24. Claim: False hero makes unfounded claims
25. Task: Difficult task proposed to the hero
8. Villainy and lack: The need is identified 26. Solution: Task is resolved
9. Mediation: Hero discovers the lack 27. Recognition: Hero is recognised
10. Counteraction: Hero chooses positive action 28. Exposure: False hero is exposed
11. Departure: Hero leave on mission 29. Transfiguration: Hero is given a new appear-
ance
3rd Sphere: The Donor Sequence 30. Punishment: Villain is punished
In the third sphere, the hero goes in search of a 31. Wedding: Hero marries and ascends the
method by which the solution may be reached, gain- throne
ing the magical agent from the Donor. Note that
this in itself may be a complete story.

12. Testing: Hero is challenged to prove heroic VLADIMIR PROPP
Fairy tale functions
qualities
13. Reaction: Hero responds to test
14. Acquisition: Hero gains magical item

59
Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations,
in multiple cultures around the world. Fairy tales, and works derived from fairy tales, are still written
today.

Woolfe is a cinematic fable in a video game fea-
turing a vengeful Red Riding Hood. All grown up,
cried out and armed with an axe, the noble hero-
ine embarks on an odyssey to avenge the death of
her parents. Re-MIX: The comic book is a re-imagining of a
Romanian fairy tale, "The story of Harap Alb" by
Ion Creangă, from 1877. It tells the adventures of
Harap Alb, a prince from a far away land, and his
odd companions, each with a particular power.

MIX & Re-MIX: The series draws upon many
characters from 19th-century British and Irish
fiction. This includes Dorian Gray from Oscar
Wilde's "The Picture of Dorian Gray" (1890);
Mina Harker, Abraham Van Helsing, Renfield Ella Enchanted is a 2004 fantasy romantic comedy
and Count Dracula from Bram Stoker's "Dracu- film, loosely based on Gail Carson Levine's 1997
la" (1897); Victor Frankenstein and his monster novel of the same name. It is a modern fairytale
from Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" (1818); and based on classic features of aworld of magic, fair-
Dr. Henry Jekyll from Robert Louis Stevenson's ies, princes, princesses and castles.
"Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" (1886).

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____ CONCLUSION ____
After analysing fairytale construction we can definitely say that their creation never stopped. Contem-
porary storytellers can make use of a big range of creative and imaginary worlds, situations and charac-
ters.
Inspired by fairy tales, we have a great legacy of comics, video games, TV shows, films, sculptures and
other creations.

REFERENCES:
Propp, V. (1968) "Morphology of the folklore", 1928, Trans., Laurence Scott. 2nd edition Austin: Univer-
sity of Texas Press, 1968.
Pullman, P. (2012) "The challenge of retelling Grimms' fairy tales" [online] Available here: http://www.
theguardian.com/books/2012/sep/21/grimms-fairy-tales-philip-pullman [Accesed on 29 Aril 2016]

Fig. 1. Available at: http://alicechan.deviantart.com/art/Fairies-304706924
Fig. 2. Available at: http://megagames.com/trainers/woolfe-red-hood-diaries-v101-10-trainer-lingon
Fig. 3. Available at: http://theknowledgeplymouth.co.uk/review-penny-dreadful/ (edited)
Fig. 4. Available at: http://www.paginademedia.ro/2013/04/comics-magazine-harap-alb-30-shares-
sold-to-zitec
Fig. 5. Available at: http://blogs.birmingham.k12.mi.us/sim1/2012/05/24/ella-enchanted/
[All images accessed 29 April 2016]

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Eny's Fairytale

O
nce upon a time there was a fish family.
The couple had 4 children. The youngest of them was called Eny, short for Enysa.
Nothing could ever satisfy her enough, so she never smiled. Her family were blaming
themselves for the unhappiness of their child. All of them tried to do everything they could
but all she was doing is being silent. In silence Eny could create her own world and be in there
as long as she wanted to.

Once, she decided to run away. Eny remembered about the warnings of her father to never swim alone, but
nothing could stop her. Dangers of the sea were preparing their traps. While floating through the water,
she started choking. She reversed her movements, but it was too late. She swallowed too much water. She
felt free. She died.

Eny felt a wind swirl taking her body over. She saw a blinding range of colourful light and a distorted
image of her family. The fresh scent of pines intensified the green colour in her vision. A tree approached
her. Its branches unified with her and formed human arms and legs. Light was plunged into total dark-
ness. Eny got terrified by her blindness.

She opens her eyes. Her little body is struggling to get up from the bed. Eny is in a toy house. It disap-
pears as she walks out of it.

Eny grows up a little. Now she can notice her golden hair radiating into the sun. Soon, fairies gather
around her. Their sparkling happiness forms a rainbow. They start braiding her hair. The wind howls.
She doesn’t like it, it is all fake for her, too joyfully. One of the fairies gives Eny a red apple. It is
glossy, it is perfect. Artificial? She takes the apple, smiles and kills the fairy with that apple. Other fair-
ies scream and fly away chaotically.
From behind the bushes goblins start to appear. They look scary, but she is not afraid.
They knee in front of her. As a gratitude for saving their kingdom from fairies, they give her a potato.
They say that as soon as she will eat it, she will posses a great amount of power.

62
She is an adult now. She steps inside a forest. It is a beautiful sunny day. Eny smiles and closes her
eyes. Her breath freezes everything. She sees a duel: two birds fighting. She is invited to be the judge for
their singing competition. They both sing well but she chooses the green one as she remembers the smell of
pine. The winner gives her one feather and says that he will be there whenever she will need him.
As she moves slower, Eny understands that she is older now. She hears in a far distance someone’s cry.
She approaches that place and sees a river. His tears go up into the sky. The River shows Eny that Fire
caused ruin to this place. She throws the potato into the water. The river is able to walk now. It leads her
to the Kingdom of Fire. She tries to close her eyes but her breath doesn’t freeze anything anymore. The
River runs into the Fire and Eny tries to stop him. A big explosion happens. Eny tickles herself with the
green feather. She flies on the back of the bird high in the sky. The union of the Fire and River metamor-
phoses into a fog. She smiles.

She wakes up.
Her tail forms beautiful shapes in the water.

Story by Nicoleta Faina; Image available here: http://www.strangeling.com

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63
REFLECTIVE EVALUATION:
In the year of 2015 I came to London.
The reason was the desire and enthusiasm to experiment and evolve my skills of creation.
Since my application for the London College of Communication, a part of London University of
Arts, I knew that this is where I want to spend the most time in the next three years.
I LOVE being an Interactive Design Arts student, as this is what I always wanted to study. The
differences in everyone's interests and abilities, on this course, makes possible for me to have new
challenges and to discover interesting and exciting things. The way students interact with each other
and the way there is a competition, and at the same time there is no competition, I find to be the best
approach to studying.
The tutors are always willing to help students, and I really mean it, ALWAYS!
I have missed a few lectures and studio works, the reason being accommodational difficulties, but
they advised, encouraged and supported me every time. This attitude is extremely important, as it
kept me moving forward and have the belief that I can create amazing things.
The seminars helped me not only to think critically but also to analyze, review and do it with a con-
fident approach. It gave me the ability to feel free to voice my thoughts and ideas in writing. For the
first time in my life I started blogging! I found this to be an useful practice, as paper work always gets
lost, forgotten and binned, whereas on-line resources can be accessed anytime, by anyone.
During this year I learnt to look differently at how the interaction process happens. I found myself to
think more than just look at things. Why they were created? How they work?
Referencing system was hard to put in practice at the begging, because I never used this before. With
practice, it became useful and effective because when my writing was finished, I or anyone else could
consult the sources used to create it. Also, in this way, I can show my gratitude to the one who in-
spired or researched before me.
I re-found my latent ability to do creative writing and also slightly learned how to lead it. I am really
happy, as this is one of my favorite ways of expressing myself. My soul is satisfied.
I have to work on my time-planning, because everytime I end up with 2-4 days with no sleep and
harsh creation process. While I have been always like this, knowing that the best result and the way
my creation is supposed to be is achieved in a small amount of time, I have slowly but steady starting
to do things in a more organised way. Not based on a plan, but based on the induced thought and
feeling that the submission is sooner than it is, I managed to write advanced and improved essays,
contrasting analysis and creative reviews. This gave me the luxury to revise them a lot of times before
and after posting them. During this year, I definitely improved my skills of writing and creating.

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