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# CALCULUS 1

INTEGRATION

Oktober 2016

INTEGRATION
1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA PROBLEM
2. THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL
3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION

## 4. THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF
CALCULUS

PROBLEM

## THE AREA PROBLEM

Given a function f that is continuous and nonnegative on an
interval [a, b], find the area between the graph of f and the
interval [a, b] on the x-axis.

AREAS

FINDING AREAS

## If f is a nonnegative continuous function on the interval [a, b]

If A(x) denotes the area under the graph of f over the interval
[a, x], where x is any point in the interval [a, b] then :
A(x) = f(x)

## THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR

FINDING AREAS
EXEMPLE 1
For each of the functions f , find the area A(x) between the graph of f and the
interval [a, x] = [1, x], and find the derivative A (x) of this area function

EXEMPLE 2
Use the antiderivative method to find the area under the graph of y = x2 over the
interval [0, 1].

ANTIDERIVATIVES

If :

We have :

## The expression f x dx is called an indefinite integral , the

function f (x) is called the integrand and C is represent an
arbitrary constant.

## THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS
EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL
EXEMPLE
Evaluate

## PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL CURVES
Graphs of antiderivatives of a function f are called integral
curves of f

## INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
The problem of finding a function y(x) whose derivative is
f(x) and whose graph passes through the point (x0, y0) is
expressed as :

## This is called an initial-value problem, and the requirement

that y(x0) = y0 is called the initial condition for the problem.

## INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
EXEMPLE
Solve the initial-value problem

EXERCISE 1
1. Find the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula

## 3. Solve the initial-value problems

EXERCISE
4. Find an equation of the curve that satisfies the given conditions
At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is 2x + 1; the curve passes through
the point (3, 0).
At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is sin x; the curve passes through
the point (0, 2).

INTEGRATION BY
SUBSTITUTION

u-SUBSTITUTION
The chain rule implies that the derivative of F(g(x)) can be expressed as :

## which we can write in integral form as :

or since F is an antiderivative of f :

can be expressed as :

with substitution :

u-SUBSTITUTION
EXEMPLE

## EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the

EXEMPLE
Evaluate

EXEMPLE
Evaluate

Evaluate

## LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS

Evaluate
we write

and solve the equation du = cos x dx for u = sin x. Since sin2 x + cos2 x = 1, we
then have

EXERCISE 2
1. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

## DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

EXERCISE 3
1. Evaluate the integrals

EXERCISE 3
2. Suppose that f and g are continuous functions and that

f ( x ) dx 5,

f ( x ) dx 3, h( x ) dx 6
2

Find

f ( x ) dx
3
f ( x ) dx

2 f ( x ) dx
2
2*5=10

-3 + 5 = 2

f ( x ) dx
0

f ( x ) dx
-5 -3 = -2

[3 f ( x) 2h( x)]dx
2

3*(-3)- 2 * 6 = -21

OF CALCULUS

CALCULUS

## THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF

CALCULUS
EXEMPLE

1.

2. Show that the area under the graph of y = 9 x2 over the interval [0, 3] is 18
(square units)

## THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
When applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus there is no need
to include a constant of integration because it will drop out anyway :

## Thus, for purposes of evaluating a definite integral we can omit the

constant of integration in :

## THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE

## THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE

## THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
If f is a continuous function on the interval [a, b], then we define the total area
between the curve y = f(x) and the interval [a, b] to be :

EXEMPLE
Find the total area between the curve y = 1 x2 and the x-axis over the interval
[0, 2]

INTEGRALS

## THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR

INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE
Since f(x) = x2 is continuous on the interval [1, 4], the Mean-Value Theorem for
Integrals guarantees that there is a point x in [1, 4] such that :

OF CALCULUS

## PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS
EXEMPLE
Find

EXERCISE 4
1. Find the area under the curve y = f(x) over the stated interval.

2. Find all values of x in the stated interval that satisfy Equation in the MeanValue Theorem for Integrals