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Calculus 1

Calculus 1

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INTEGRATION

Oktober 2016

INTEGRATION

1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA PROBLEM

2. THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION

5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF

CALCULUS

PROBLEM

Given a function f that is continuous and nonnegative on an

interval [a, b], find the area between the graph of f and the

interval [a, b] on the x-axis.

AREAS

FINDING AREAS

If A(x) denotes the area under the graph of f over the interval

[a, x], where x is any point in the interval [a, b] then :

A(x) = f(x)

FINDING AREAS

EXEMPLE 1

For each of the functions f , find the area A(x) between the graph of f and the

interval [a, x] = [1, x], and find the derivative A (x) of this area function

EXEMPLE 2

Use the antiderivative method to find the area under the graph of y = x2 over the

interval [0, 1].

ANTIDERIVATIVES

If :

We have :

function f (x) is called the integrand and C is represent an

arbitrary constant.

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL CURVES

Graphs of antiderivatives of a function f are called integral

curves of f

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

The problem of finding a function y(x) whose derivative is

f(x) and whose graph passes through the point (x0, y0) is

expressed as :

that y(x0) = y0 is called the initial condition for the problem.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

EXEMPLE

Solve the initial-value problem

EXERCISE 1

1. Find the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula

EXERCISE

4. Find an equation of the curve that satisfies the given conditions

At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is 2x + 1; the curve passes through

the point (3, 0).

At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is sin x; the curve passes through

the point (0, 2).

INTEGRATION BY

SUBSTITUTION

u-SUBSTITUTION

The chain rule implies that the derivative of F(g(x)) can be expressed as :

or since F is an antiderivative of f :

can be expressed as :

with substitution :

u-SUBSTITUTION

EXEMPLE

The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

Evaluate

Evaluate

we write

and solve the equation du = cos x dx for u = sin x. Since sin2 x + cos2 x = 1, we

then have

EXERCISE 2

1. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

EXERCISE 3

1. Evaluate the integrals

EXERCISE 3

2. Suppose that f and g are continuous functions and that

f ( x ) dx 5,

f ( x ) dx 3, h( x ) dx 6

2

Find

f ( x ) dx

3

f ( x ) dx

2 f ( x ) dx

2

2*5=10

-3 + 5 = 2

f ( x ) dx

0

f ( x ) dx

-5 -3 = -2

[3 f ( x) 2h( x)]dx

2

3*(-3)- 2 * 6 = -21

OF CALCULUS

CALCULUS

CALCULUS

EXEMPLE

1.

2. Show that the area under the graph of y = 9 x2 over the interval [0, 3] is 18

(square units)

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

When applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus there is no need

to include a constant of integration because it will drop out anyway :

constant of integration in :

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

If f is a continuous function on the interval [a, b], then we define the total area

between the curve y = f(x) and the interval [a, b] to be :

EXEMPLE

Find the total area between the curve y = 1 x2 and the x-axis over the interval

[0, 2]

INTEGRALS

INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

Since f(x) = x2 is continuous on the interval [1, 4], the Mean-Value Theorem for

Integrals guarantees that there is a point x in [1, 4] such that :

OF CALCULUS

OF CALCULUS

EXEMPLE

Find

EXERCISE 4

1. Find the area under the curve y = f(x) over the stated interval.

2. Find all values of x in the stated interval that satisfy Equation in the MeanValue Theorem for Integrals

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