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CALCULUS 1

INTEGRATION

Oktober 2016

INTEGRATION
1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA PROBLEM
2. THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL
3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION

4. THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF
CALCULUS

PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM

Given a function f that is continuous and nonnegative on an
interval [a, b], find the area between the graph of f and the
interval [a, b] on the x-axis.

AREAS

FINDING AREAS

If f is a nonnegative continuous function on the interval [a, b]

If A(x) denotes the area under the graph of f over the interval
[a, x], where x is any point in the interval [a, b] then :
A(x) = f(x)

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR

FINDING AREAS
EXEMPLE 1
For each of the functions f , find the area A(x) between the graph of f and the
interval [a, x] = [1, x], and find the derivative A (x) of this area function

EXEMPLE 2
Use the antiderivative method to find the area under the graph of y = x2 over the
interval [0, 1].

ANTIDERIVATIVES

If :

We have :

The expression f x dx is called an indefinite integral , the

function f (x) is called the integrand and C is represent an
arbitrary constant.

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS
EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL
EXEMPLE
Evaluate

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL CURVES
Graphs of antiderivatives of a function f are called integral
curves of f

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
The problem of finding a function y(x) whose derivative is
f(x) and whose graph passes through the point (x0, y0) is
expressed as :

This is called an initial-value problem, and the requirement

that y(x0) = y0 is called the initial condition for the problem.

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
EXEMPLE
Solve the initial-value problem

EXERCISE 1
1. Find the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula

3. Solve the initial-value problems

EXERCISE
4. Find an equation of the curve that satisfies the given conditions
At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is 2x + 1; the curve passes through
the point (3, 0).
At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is sin x; the curve passes through
the point (0, 2).

INTEGRATION BY
SUBSTITUTION

u-SUBSTITUTION
The chain rule implies that the derivative of F(g(x)) can be expressed as :

which we can write in integral form as :

or since F is an antiderivative of f :

can be expressed as :

with substitution :

u-SUBSTITUTION
EXEMPLE

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the

EXEMPLE
Evaluate

EXEMPLE
Evaluate

Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS

Evaluate
we write

and solve the equation du = cos x dx for u = sin x. Since sin2 x + cos2 x = 1, we
then have

EXERCISE 2
1. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

INTEGRAL

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

EXERCISE 3
1. Evaluate the integrals

EXERCISE 3
2. Suppose that f and g are continuous functions and that

f ( x ) dx 5,

f ( x ) dx 3, h( x ) dx 6
2

Find

f ( x ) dx
3
f ( x ) dx

2 f ( x ) dx
2
2*5=10

-3 + 5 = 2

f ( x ) dx
0

f ( x ) dx
-5 -3 = -2

[3 f ( x) 2h( x)]dx
2

3*(-3)- 2 * 6 = -21

OF CALCULUS

CALCULUS

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF

CALCULUS
EXEMPLE

1.

2. Show that the area under the graph of y = 9 x2 over the interval [0, 3] is 18
(square units)

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
When applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus there is no need
to include a constant of integration because it will drop out anyway :

Thus, for purposes of evaluating a definite integral we can omit the

constant of integration in :

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
If f is a continuous function on the interval [a, b], then we define the total area
between the curve y = f(x) and the interval [a, b] to be :

EXEMPLE
Find the total area between the curve y = 1 x2 and the x-axis over the interval
[0, 2]

INTEGRALS

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR

INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE
Since f(x) = x2 is continuous on the interval [1, 4], the Mean-Value Theorem for
Integrals guarantees that there is a point x in [1, 4] such that :

OF CALCULUS

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS
EXEMPLE
Find

EXERCISE 4
1. Find the area under the curve y = f(x) over the stated interval.

2. Find all values of x in the stated interval that satisfy Equation in the MeanValue Theorem for Integrals