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CALCULUS 1

INTEGRATION

Oktober 2016

INTEGRATION
1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA PROBLEM
2. THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL
3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION

4. THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL


5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF
CALCULUS

AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA


PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM


Given a function f that is continuous and nonnegative on an
interval [a, b], find the area between the graph of f and the
interval [a, b] on the x-axis.

THE RECTANGLE METHOD FOR FINDING


AREAS

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR


FINDING AREAS

If f is a nonnegative continuous function on the interval [a, b]


If A(x) denotes the area under the graph of f over the interval
[a, x], where x is any point in the interval [a, b] then :
A(x) = f(x)

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR


FINDING AREAS
EXEMPLE 1
For each of the functions f , find the area A(x) between the graph of f and the
interval [a, x] = [1, x], and find the derivative A (x) of this area function

EXEMPLE 2
Use the antiderivative method to find the area under the graph of y = x2 over the
interval [0, 1].

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

ANTIDERIVATIVES

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL


If :

We have :

The expression f x dx is called an indefinite integral , the


function f (x) is called the integrand and C is represent an
arbitrary constant.

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS
EXEMPLE

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE


INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE


INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE


INTEGRAL
EXEMPLE
Evaluate

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE


INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL CURVES
Graphs of antiderivatives of a function f are called integral
curves of f

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF


DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
The problem of finding a function y(x) whose derivative is
f(x) and whose graph passes through the point (x0, y0) is
expressed as :

This is called an initial-value problem, and the requirement


that y(x0) = y0 is called the initial condition for the problem.

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF


DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
EXEMPLE
Solve the initial-value problem

EXERCISE 1
1. Find the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula

2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer by differentiating.

3. Solve the initial-value problems

EXERCISE
4. Find an equation of the curve that satisfies the given conditions
At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is 2x + 1; the curve passes through
the point (3, 0).
At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is sin x; the curve passes through
the point (0, 2).

INTEGRATION BY
SUBSTITUTION

u-SUBSTITUTION
The chain rule implies that the derivative of F(g(x)) can be expressed as :

which we can write in integral form as :

or since F is an antiderivative of f :

can be expressed as :

with substitution :

u-SUBSTITUTION
EXEMPLE

If we let u = x2 + 1, then du/dx = 2x, which implies that du = 2x dx

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS


The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the

derivative of a known function

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS


EXEMPLE
Evaluate

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS


EXEMPLE
Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS


Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS


Evaluate
we write

and solve the equation du = cos x dx for u = sin x. Since sin2 x + cos2 x = 1, we
then have

EXERCISE 2
1. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

2. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

3. Evaluate the integrals using appropriate substitutions

THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE


INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE


INTEGRAL

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (18261866)

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE


INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

EXERCISE 3
1. Evaluate the integrals

EXERCISE 3
2. Suppose that f and g are continuous functions and that

f ( x ) dx 5,

f ( x ) dx 3, h( x ) dx 6
2

Find

f ( x ) dx
3
f ( x ) dx

2 f ( x ) dx
2
2*5=10

-3 + 5 = 2

f ( x ) dx
0

f ( x ) dx
-5 -3 = -2

[3 f ( x) 2h( x)]dx
2

3*(-3)- 2 * 6 = -21

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM


OF CALCULUS

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF


CALCULUS

we can express (2) as :

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF


CALCULUS
EXEMPLE

1.

2. Show that the area under the graph of y = 9 x2 over the interval [0, 3] is 18
(square units)

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE


AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
When applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus there is no need
to include a constant of integration because it will drop out anyway :

Thus, for purposes of evaluating a definite integral we can omit the


constant of integration in :

which relates the definite and indefinite integrals

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE


AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE


AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE


AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
If f is a continuous function on the interval [a, b], then we define the total area
between the curve y = f(x) and the interval [a, b] to be :

EXEMPLE
Find the total area between the curve y = 1 x2 and the x-axis over the interval
[0, 2]

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR


INTEGRALS

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR


INTEGRALS
EXEMPLE
Since f(x) = x2 is continuous on the interval [1, 4], the Mean-Value Theorem for
Integrals guarantees that there is a point x in [1, 4] such that :

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM


OF CALCULUS

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM


OF CALCULUS
EXEMPLE
Find

EXERCISE 4
1. Find the area under the curve y = f(x) over the stated interval.

2. Find all values of x in the stated interval that satisfy Equation in the MeanValue Theorem for Integrals

3. Use Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to find the derivatives.