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Distance Measurement on Engineering Survey.

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You are on page 1of 46

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

UNIT 1

TACHYMETRY

OBJECTIVES

General Objective

measurement.

Measurement.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 1

INPUT

1.1

INTRODUCTION

The word tachymetry is derived from the Greek takhus metron meaning swift

measurement. It is a branch of surveying where height and distances between ground

marks are obtained by optical means only. An example of tachymetry method is the

stadia method. This method employs rapid optical means of measuring distance using a

telescope with cross hairs (Figure 1.1) and a stadia rod (one stadium = about 607 feet).

The distance between marks can be obtained without using a tape. The tachymeter is any

theodolite adapted, or fitted with an optical device to enable measurement to be made

optically.

Cross

Hair

reticle

i=

Stadia

Interval

Figure 1.1 Two Types of Stadia Hair

1.2

isosceles triangle; the perpendicular bisector of the base is directly proportional to the

length of this base. If the base length and paralactic angles are known, then the length of

the perpendicular bisector can be calculated. (Figure 1.2)

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 2

(Source : Ukur Kejuruteraan Asas, Abdul Hamid Mohamed)

Distance AB = (Cd) x Cot /2

If distance AB = D, distance Cd = S , so

D = S Cot /2

Whereby

D = distance between two point

S = base line

= paralactic angle

1.3

TACHYMETRY SYSTEM

The alternatives of the tachymetry system are classified based on the basic

principles, which are:

a) Fixed angle:

1) The stadia system

i) Incline Sights With The Staff Vertical

ii) Incline Sights With The Staff Normal

b) Variable angle

1) tangential system vertical staff

2) subtence system horizontal staff

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 3

The theodolite is a standard instrument in each case. It is modified to suit the conditions.

1.3.1

The diaphragm in this system contains two additional horizontal lines known as

stadia hairs. It is placed equidistant above and below the main horizontal cross hair

(Figure 1.3). The distance between these stadia hair is called the stadia interval (Figure

1.1). This stadia interval is usually a constant, providing fixed-hair tachymetry. This

interval may be altered on some instruments and the movement being measured on a

micrometer.

(Source: Ukur Kejuruteraan Asas, Abdul Hamid Mohamed)

Observations are made on to a leveling staff which acts as the variable base. In the

telescopes field of view the stadia subtend a certain length of the staff or called staff

intercept, which is greater the farther off the staff is held. The staff intercept is

proportional to its distance from the instrument and so from this observed length of the

staff the distance between it and the tachymeter can be obtained.

1.3.1.1

The stadia method of providing the horizontal distance between instrument and

staff is shown in Figure 1.4. This technique is always used in stadia tachymetry for

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 4

engineering survey. The telescope consists of two centring tubes. The eyepiece and

diaphragm are built at the end of tube. Move the object glass which is built at the other

side when doing focusing.

When the telescope is in focus, the image of the staff AB will be formed at ab in

the plane of the diaphragm. Then a ray of light will emerge parallel to the optical axis

similarly with the ray from B as shown. The rays here will form two similar triangles

each with their apex at F, the base of the smaller triangle at the object glass being equal to

the stadia interval i.

Eyepiece

Diaphragm

Vertical

axis

Picket

Figure 1.4 Stadia Principle

(Source Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)

f --- the focal length of the object glass

F the outer focal point of the object glass

i --- the stadia interval ab

I--- the distance from the outer focal point to the staff

D---the horizontal distance required

s--- the staff intercept AB

c---the distance from object glass to instrument axis

From these similar triangles:

l

s

but l = D (f + c),

f

i

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 5

D - (f

s

D (f

D

c)

f

i

f

s

i

c)

f

s (f

i

c)

The term f / i is a constant in the stadia formula and is known as the stadia or

multiplying constant and may be denoted by the letter K. The term ( f + c) partly of the

constant f and partly of the variable c, which varies as the object lens is moved in

focusing. However the variation in c is small, especially for sights greater than 10m, and

for all practical purposes may also be considered a constant. The term ( f + c), usually

about 300 to 450mm in this telescope, is known as the additive constant and may be

denoted by the letter C. This reduces the stadia formula to the simple linear equation:

1.3.1.2

Ks C

Do you know who J. Porro is?

He is the man who invented the analactic lens in 1840.

In order to save the labour of multiplying the staff intercept each time and the

adding the constant for the particular instrument, it would obviously be simpler if K were

to be 100 and C zero. This would provide a stadia formula of D = 100s and calculation

would merely consist of moving the decimal point of the staff intercept reading two

places to the right. Most of the vernier instruments still in use today do not have an

accurate K value of 100, but most modern tachymeters generally do. In 1840, the

elimination of the additive constant was achieved by an Italian, J. Porro, when he

invented the analactic lens. The inclusion of a second convex lens fixed in relation to the

object glass had the effect of bringing the apex of the measuring triangle, the analactic

point, into exact coincidence with the vertical axis of the instrument, as illustrated in

Figure 1.5.

Object glass

Diaphragm

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 6

Analactic point

Analactic lens

Focus point

(Source : Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)

The term f / i = 1/100 become K = 100. Distance for f and c become similar but in the

opposite side. Therefore C = 0. The stadia formula would now become D Ks , the

additive constants are eliminated. This externally focusing telescope is known as an

analactic telescope.

1.3.1.3

In most modern surveying telescopes the stadia constant is designed to be 100 and

the additive constant 0. To confirm the value of these constants or to establish the stadia

of an old or a new instrument, the following fieldwork should be carried out (Figure 1.6)

(Source: Asas Ukur Kejuruteraan, Abdul Hamid Mohamed)

a) Choose a fairly level ground

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 7

b) Set out four pegs A, B, C, and D on that ground. AB is 100m, AC is 40m and AD

is 90m.

c) Set up the tachymeter over the peg at A and observe to a staff that held at C.

d) Not the staff intercepts.

e) Transfer the staff to D and note the staff intercepts.

Distance

40

90

Stadia Reading

Staff Intercept

1.620, 1.420,1.220

0.400

1.871,1.421,0.971

0.900

Table 1 Obsevation Data

( Source: Asas Ukur Kejuruteraan, Abdul Hamid Mohamed)

The observation data is shown in table 1. K and C can be calculate by using the

stadia formula, D = Ks + C. D is the distance between staff and the tachymeter, s stands

for staff intercept.

40 = 0.4 K + C ------------------------------ (1)

90 = 0.9 K + C ------------------------------ (2)

Now, we can solve the problem by using simultaneous equation.

(2) (1)

90 40 = 0.9 K 0.4 K

50 = 0.5 K

50

K

0.5

K = 100

Replace K =100 in (1)

40 = 0.4 ( 100) + C

C = 40 -40

C=0

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 8

As height differences between staff positions and instrument increase, it will

become impossible to use the horizontal line of sight which so far has only been

considered. In such case a tachymeter must be used to provide an inclined line of sight

and the angle of elevation or depression must be recorded. The stadia formula must now

reflect the angle of inclination of the line of sight and two such cases arise:

a) where the staff is held vertically at the far station

b) where the staff is held to the line of sight from the instrument

Figure 1.7 shows that an observation of an inclined sight to a staff held vertically.

A, X and B are the readings on the staff and A, X and B are those which would have

been taken had the staff been swung about X to position it at right-angles or normal to the

line of sight.

In figure 1.7,

s = the staff intercept AB

h = the length of the centre hair reading from the staff base

V = the vertical component XY, the height of the centre hair reading above

(or below) the instrument axis

D = the length of the line of sight IX

H = the horizontal distance required.

H I = instrument height

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 9

(Source : Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)

From the stadia formula D = Ks + C, it can be seen that the term s in this case is

the distance AB normal to the line of sight. However, the observed value of s is the

length AB, so AB actually equal s, cos almost exactly. Therefore the length of the

inclined sight D = Ks + C , but H, the horizontal distance actually required, obviously

equals D= cos , therefore the stadia formula now becomes:

H = Ks cos2 + C cos

But

But

From the right angled triangle IXY can been seen that:

V = D sin

D = Ks cos + C

V = Ks cos sin + C sin

cos sin = sin 2

V = Ks sin 2 + C sin

In instruments where the additive constant is zero and K = 100, these formulae are

simplified as follows:

H = 100s cos2

V = (100/2) s sin 2

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 10

To obtain the reduced level at the staff position where the reduced level of the

instrument station is known, the height difference between the points is applied as

follows:

Difference in height, dH = H. I. V h

Where

V = the vertical component (positive for angles of the elevation, negative

for angles depression)

h = the centre hair reading (always negative)

The reduced level of the instrument position I plus the difference in height equal

the reduced level of the staff position S. Therefore:

R.L.s = R.L.I + H.I V h

Example 1:

In this example, the value of hi cannot be seen on the rod due to some

obstruction. Here, a rod reading of 2.72 with a vertical angle of -6 37 was

booked, along with the h of 1.72 and a rod interval of 0.241., Calculate the

horizontal distance and the vertical distance. Then find the elevation for station 3.

Figure 1

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 11

Solution:

H = 100s cos2

= 100 x 0.241 x cos2 6 37

= 23.8m

V = (100/2) s sin 2

= 100 s cos sin

= 100 x 0.241 x cos 6 37x sin 6 37

= -2.76m

R.L.3 = R.L.2 + H.I V h

= 185.16 + 1.72 +- 2.76 2.72

= 181.40

So, the elevation for station 3 is 181.40,

Figure 1.8 shows the observation on a staff held normal to an inclined line of

sight. The same notation applies as in figure 1.7.

Figure 1.8 Incline Sight With The Staff Normal to The Line of Sight

(Source: Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 12

This time the staff reading normal to the line of sight is the actual reading and does not

have to be reduced as in the previous case. Therefore

D = Ks + C

But

H= D kos (the distance from point X to the vertical through the staff base)

H = (Ks + C) cos h sin

V = (Ks + C) sin

In instruments where the additive constant C is zero, K = 100 and the value of is less

than 10 (the assumption is generally made that the term h sin is zero), these formulae

can be simplified as :

H = 100 s cos

V = 100 s sin

To obtain the reduced level at the staff station, then the height difference between the

points is first reduced as follows:

Difference in height, dH = H. I. V h cos

1.3.2.3

Comparison of Methods

Conditions

a) When

holding staff

Staff can be held vertically with greater ease than in the normal

position.

Its simpler to plumb a staff with a staff bubble than hold the staff

normal to a line of sight.

For normal holding, it needs to be attached with a peep-sight

perpendicular to the face of the staff, so the staff-man can sight

towards the instrument.

In bush the peep-sight may be obscured, preventing normal holding,

while the upper part of the staff is still available for sighting in the

vertically held position.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

Conditions

b) Reduction

of

observation

c) Careless

staff holding

C 2005 / 1 / 13

The normal position may also be found by swinging the staff until the

lowest possible reading of the centre cross hair is obtained. However,

it is difficult to signal to the staff-man the correct position in the bush.

Staff Normal/Staff Vertical

The vertical staff reduction formulae are simpler than the normal

staff reduction formula when the h sin and h cos are included

in the normal formulae.

Errors of distance and elevation are very much more marked when

there is a deviation from the normal position especially on steep

sights.

The normal position may also be found by swinging the staff until the lowest

possible reading of the centre cross hair is obtained. However, it is difficult to signal to

the staff-man the correct position in the bush.

1.3.2 The Tangential System

In this system the paralactic angle subtended by a known length of staff is

measured directly. Figure 1.9 shows the method where observations are taken to an

ordinary levelling staff held vertically.

(Source: Land Surveying, Ramsay J.P. Wilson)

The instrument is set up and the vertical circle is read on both faces to give the

angle of elevation (or depression) to a whole staff graduation. This process is repeated to

another whole graduation to give as large a staff intercept, s, as possible. From the staff

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 14

calculated as:

AY = H tan

BY = H tan

AY BY = s

= H ( tan tan

H

or

s

(tan

tan )

s

(tan

tan )

The difference in height between the instrument station and the staff station is found as

follows :

Vertical component, V = BY = H tan

Height difference, dH = H.I V BX

Check : AY=H tan ( when dH = H.I. V AX)

The substance system is a particular form of the tangential system where the

measured base is held horizontally as illustrated in Figure 1.10 instead of vertically. The

paralactic angle is measured with greater accuracy using the horizontal circle instead of

the vertical circle The horizontally held base is especially made for this purpose and is

known as a substance bar.

The substance bar is a specially made instrument supported on a tripod with two

sighting targets set a precise distance apart, usually 2m. The central target in the

substance bar is placed midway between the end targets for traverse angle measurement

and for use in sighting with the auxiliary base method. The sighting device is fixed at

right-angles to the line of the bar so that it may be positioned at right angle to the line of

sight from the theodolite.

As temperature affects the bar length, the subtence bar targets are usually attached

to invar rods or wires, which have a low coefficient of expansion, so that their nominal

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 15

distance apart remains almost constant. The targets may be lit from behind for night

observations, which have the advantage of a less disturbed atmosphere resulting in

increased accuracy in the angular measurement.

( Source : Ukur Kejuruteraan Asas, Abdul Hamid Mohamed)

s

cot

2

2

because half the bar length divided by the perpendicular sector of the isosceles triangle of

half the measured angle . Usually the bar is 2m long to simplify the calculation. So

From the figure above, it can be seen that the horizontal distance H

2

obtained is always the horizontal distance and no slope corrections are ever necessary

however far above or below the theodolite the substance bar may be.

H

cot

If height differences between theodolite and bar stations are required then a

vertical angle must be measured to the line of the bar and the vertical component

calculated from the formula V = H tan (figure 1.11). The height of the theodolite above

its station (Hi) and the height of the bar above its station (Hb) must be measured. Then

the height difference between stations X and Y(dH XY) is shown as below:

dH = Hi V Hb

where Hi = Height of the theodolite

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

V = vertical component

Hb = Height of substance bar

So, the reduced level of the staff position Y, RL x = RL Y + dHXY

( Source : Ukur Kejuruteraan Asas, Abdul Hamid Mohamed)

C 2005 / 1 / 16

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 17

Activity 1a

1.2 Explain the basic principles upon which tachymetric measurement are based?

1.3 A vertical staff is observed with a horizontal external focusing telescope at a

distance of 112.489m. Measurements of the telescope are recorded as :

Objective to diaphragm 230mm

Objective to vertical axis 150mm

If the readings taken to the staff were 1.073, 1.629 and 2.185, calculate

a) the distance apart of the stadia lines (i)

b) the multiplying constant (K)

c) the additive constant (C)

1.4 What are the main differences between the stadia system and tangential system?

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 18

Feedback 1a

1.1 Tachymetry means swift measurement where height and distances between

ground marks are obtained by optical means only.

1.2 The tachymetry measurements are based on the common principle of the isosceles

triangle. The perpendicular bisector of the base is directly proportional to the

length of this base. If the base length and paralactic angle are known, then the

length of the perpendicular bisector can be calculated.

If distance AB = D, distance Cd = S ,

so

D = S Cot /2

Whereby

D = distance between two point

S = base line

= paralactic angle

1.3

From equation D = Ks + C

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 19

f

s (f

i

c)

fs

D ( f c)

230 (2.185 1.073 )

112 .489 (0.230 0.150 )

230(1.100)

112.48 0.380

= 2.3 mm

i

f 230

i

2.3

C = f +c

= 230+150

= 380mm

Therefore, K

100

1.4

In the stadia system, the apex angle of the measuring triangle is defined by the

stadia hairs on the telescope diaphragm. The base length is obtained by observing

the intersection of the stadia hairs on the image of the measuring staff seen in the

telescopes field or view. The tangential system in which the apex angle

subtended by a basic of known length is accurately measured, usually with the

single-second theodolite. In order to obtain the distance between instrument and

base, the tangent of the angle or angles observed must be used in the calculation.

Well done. You have done a good job!!

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 20

INPUT

1.4

horizontal and vertical control, supplied by traversing and levelling is required to

orientate the survey and to provide station levels. It is best suited to open ground where

few hard levels are required.

In field practice, the transit is set on a point for which the horizontal location and

elevation have been determined. If necessary, the elevation of the transit station can be

determined after setup by sighting on a point of known elevation and working backward

through equation elevation station (Rod) = elevation station (instrument) + Hi - h V. Hi

is instrument height, V is the vertical component and h is the centre hair reading

Figure 1.12 shows an area which needs topographic survey. There are some object

illustrated in that figure, such as station (A), building(B), road(C), fence(D) and

drainage(E). The procedures below show the way to implement the stadia field works.

a) Establish 4 control stations (station 1, station 2, station 3 and station 4) by

using wooden pegs.

b) Implement horizontal control networks on each station in order to obtain the

coordinate for every station. Record the data in a field book.

c) After that, implement the levelling process to get the elevation of each station.

Enter the observations in the field book.

d) Now, use either stadia tachymetry method or stadia electronic method to set

the theodolite over station 2.

e) Measure the height of the theodolite at station 2 as Hi2 with a steel tape.

f) Set the horizontal circle to zero.

g) Sight the reference station (Station 1) at 000.

h) Sight the stadia point to Station 3 by loosening the clamp (clamp is tight).

i) Sight the main horizontal hair roughly on the value of h, then move the lower

hair to the closest even foot (decimeter) mark.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 21

j) Read the upper hair, determine the rod interval, and enter the value in the

notes.

k) Sight the main horizontal hair precisely on the h value.

l) Wave off the rod holder on point a, point b and point c.

m) Read and book the horizontal angle and the vertical angle from station 2 to

points a, b and c. Try to take as many details as possible.

n) Check the zero setting for the horizontal angle before moving the instrument

to station 3.

o) Repeat step d to m for observation at station 3(3-d, 3-e,3-f) , station 4 (4-g,4h,4-i) and station1(1-j).

p) Finally reduce the notes (compute horizontal distances and elevation) after

field hours and check the reductions.

(Source: Ukur Kejuruteraan 1 , Baharin Mohammad)

C 2005 / 2 /22

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

Stadia tachymetry is best booked in tabulated form as below.

Station and

Instrument

Height

Station 2

1.542m

Horizontal

Angle ()

Vertical

angle

Middle

Stadia

reading

50 23 00

+88 31

0.6m

343 25 00

-92 32

0.5m

342 57 00

- 96 36

0.4m

357 00 00

-96 20

0.8m

305 31 00

-94 28

1.2m

214 16 00

-94 37

1.2m

220 37 00

-94 05

1.3m

250 36 00

-94 06

1.3m

255 26 00

-94 23

1.3

Stadia

reading

(a upper

reading)

b- lower

reading)

a- 0.890

b- 0.310

a- 0.551

b- 0.449

a-0.454

b-0.346

a-0.837

b- 0.763

a-1.242

b-1.548

a- 1.230

b- 1.170

a- 1.326

b- 1.274

a- 1.334

b- 1.266

a- 1.323

b- 1.277

Horizontal

Length

H = Ks

Cos2-C

Vertical

difference

V=(Ks Sin

2)/2 - sin

Difference

in Height

H = Hi

V-h

Reduced

level of

station

Reduced

level of

point

57.961m

1.501m

2.443m

100

102.443m

10.068m

-1.153m

-0.111m

99.889m

10.657m

-1.233m

-0.091m

99.909m

7.340m

-0.811m

-0.069m

99.931m

8.353m

-0.652m

-0.310m

99.690m

5.961m

-0.481m

-0.139m

99.861m

5.174m

-0.369m

-0.127m

99.873m

6.765m

-0.485m

-0.243m

99.757m

d-tree (radius2.7m)

e- beside

drainage

f- beside

drainage

g- lamp post

4.573m

--0.351m

-0.109m

99.891m

h- road side

(Source: Ukur Kejuruteraan 1 , Baharin Mohammad)

Remarks

a- beside

drainage

b- beside

drainage

c- road side

C 2005 / 2 /

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

Column 1 : Station number and height of instrument

Column 2 : The bearing of the ray oriented on the control points

Column 3: Vertical angle ( ) or the zenith angle. Z = ( = 90-Z)

For example point 1 Z = 93 , then = 90 - 93 = 3 00'

Column 4: Middle stadia reading.

Column 5 : Upper and lower stadia readings

Column 6 : H, the horizontal length = KsCos2 - C ( Usually 100sCos2 ) by using the

data from column 3 and 5.

Ks sin 2

C

Column 7 : Vertical difference = H tan or

2

(usually 50 sin 2 - C) by using the data from column 3 and 5.

Column 8: Difference in height, which is calculated from formula Hi V-h

Column 9 : Axis level of the station

Column 10 : Reduced level of the point : axis level (V-h)

Column 11 : Remarks amplification of diagram.

1.5

Under ideal conditions, it should be possible to obtain an accuracy of 0.01% in distance

measurement, but this is seldom achieved in practice. Using an ordinary levelling staff

with 10 mm divisions practical accuracies approximate to the following:

Distance

20m 100m 150m

Accuracy

100mm

200mm

300mm

b) Accuracy of height measurement

Provided that the staff is held vertically with reasonable care and angles of sighting are

less than 10, then heights should be accurate to within 0.01 per cent of the sighting

distance.

1.5.1 Errors in horizontal distances

The error of careless staff holding can be resolved by using staff bubbles

when implementing field observation.

Error in reading the stadia intercept, which is immediately multiplied by

100(K1), thereby making it significant. This source of error will increase

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 24

with the length of sight. The obvious solution is to limit the length of sight

to ensure a good resolution of the graduations.

Error in the determination of the instrument constants K1 and K2, resulting

in an error in distance directly proportional to the error in the constant K1

and directly as the error in K2.

Effect of differential refraction on the stadia intercepts. This is minimized

by keeping the lower reading 1 to 1.5m above the ground.

Random error in the measurement of the vertical angle. This has a

negligible effect on the staff intercept and consequently on the horizontal

distance.

In addition to the above sources of error, there are many others resulting from

instrumental errors, failure to eliminate parallax, and natural errors due to high winds and

summer heat. The lack of statistical evidence makes it rather difficult to quote standards

of accuracy; however, the usual treatment for small errors will give some basis for

assessment.

1.5.2 Errors in elevations

The main sources of error in elevation are errors in vertical angles and additional

errors rising from errors in the computed distance. Figure 1.13 clearly shows that whilst

the error resulting from errors in vertical angles remains fairly constant, the results from

additional errors rising from errors in the computed distance increases with increased

elevation.

H D tan

H

D tan

D sec2

H

H

D tan

0.48 tan 5

D sec2

200 sec2 5

2 1/ 2

0.046

This result indicates that elevation need be quoted only to the nearest 10mm.

Accuracies of 1 in 1000 may still be achieved in tachymetry traversing, due to the

compensating effect of accidental errors, reciprocal observation of the lines and a general

increase in care.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 25

(Source : Engineering Surveying, W. Schofield)

1.6

PLOTTING

After the field observations, the collected data must now be processed. The

traverse closure is calculated and then all adjusted values for northing, easting and

elevations are computed manually or by computer programs. After that, the data is

processed by using software such as TRPS and Autocad. All the details can be plotted the

following way.

The grid paper is printed with grid lines at 1mm intervals.

When plotting on grid paper, the stations are defined by using the

coordinate system.

Station 1 is assumed as the origin whereby coordinate x is 1000m and

coordinate y 1000m. The position of station is plotted starting from the

lower left corner of the grid paper.

Scaling along the x-axis from coordinate x station 1, plot the coordinate of

station 2, X2. Using the same way also plot coordinate Y2. Repeat this

step for station 3 and station 4

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 26

(Source: Ukur Kejuruteraan 1 , Baharin Mohammad)

b) Detailing (Figure 1.15)

Instead of using coordinates, plotting can be done by scaling the bearing and

distances of a detail.

Normally a protractor and a scale ruler are needed in plotting.

Place the circular protractor with its centre station 2 and the zero lined up

with the reference station 2-1.

Mark the bearing of a on the paper against the protractor edge.

Remove the protractor and draw the direction of the line 2-a. Scale the

distance and plot the position of a.

Repeat the same steps when marking off point c-j.

Finally, join the points to form the detail.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 27

(Source: Ukur Kejuruteraan 1 , Baharin Mohammad)

c) Contours

Contours are lines on a map representing a line joining points of equal

height on the ground. This method is most commonly adopted for larger

areas.

Reduced level is placed beside details and the height of each point is

spotted.

Finally, contour lines are plotted by using the interpolation method.

All topography and engineering drawings have title blocks.

Usually the title block is placed in the right corner of the plan, which also

has the logo client, project name, date of project and other details.(Figure

1.16).

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 28

Revisions to the plan are usually referenced immediately above the title

block, showing the date and a brief description of the revision.

The title block is often of standard size and has a format similar to that in

figure 2.4.

All the drawings on tracing paper are done manually by using the

technical pens with Indian ink or by using AutoCad software.

The size of the technical pen is determined based on texts and lines

required in a drawing.

Grid value

Direction

Scale

Logo client

Plan number

Plan title

Datum explanation

Legend

Explanation of observation, Land Survey

Firm, Name of surveyor, date, plan reference

number and others.

(Source: Ukur Kejuruteraan 1 , Baharin Mohammad)

e) Final drawing.

After completing the title block, transfer all the drawings from the grid

paper to tracing paper.

Then, write the additional text or draw lines and symbols in that drawing.

The texts refer to the name of building, road, and values of height and

contour intervals.

Plot the text horizontally for all values except the value of height.

Every detail has lines of different types and sizes. (For example, the root

line of hedge is shown in black and the outline in green)

Finally, plot the details by using a plotter. (Figure 1.17).

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 29

(Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

1.7

APPLICATION

This method is easy to apply in the field, but unless a direct-reading tachymeter is

used, the resultant computation for many spot-shots can be extremely tedious, even with

the use of a computer program. The very low order of accuracy and its short range limit

its application to detail surveys in rural areas or contouring.

1.7.1 Detail Survey

The theodolite is set up at a control station A ( Figure 1.18) and oriented to any

other control station (RO) with the horizontal circle set to 0 00. Thereafter the bearings

(relative to ARO) and horizontal length to each point of detail (P1, P2, P3, etc) are

obtained by observing the stadia readings on a staff held there, the horizontal circle

reading ( 1, 2, 3, etc) and the vertical angle. The cross hair-reading is also required to

compute the reduced level of the point.

The field data is booked as shown in table 2.1. Note that the angles are required to the

nearest minute or arc only. It is worth noting that the staff-man should be the most

experienced member of the survey party who would appreciate the error sources, the limit

accuracy available and thus the best and most economic staff positions required.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

At station

A

Grid ref E 400, N300

Weather Cloudy,cool

Staff

point

RO

C 2005 / 1 / 30

Ht of inst (hi) 1.42m

Axis level (RL + hi) 31.90m(Ax)

Angles observed

HoriVertical

Vertical

zontal

circle

angle

0 00

P1

4812

9520

-520

P2

8002

9340

-340

P3

10756

8320

Staff

readings

+640

1.942

1.404

0.866

0.998

0.640

0.281

1.610

1.216

0.822

Surveyor J. SMITH

Date

12.12.83

Staff

intercept

Horizontal

Distance

Ks cos2

Vertical

Angle

K/2 s sin

2

V

Reduced

level

Ax V-h

Remarks

Station B

Edge of

pond

1.076

106.67

-9.96

20.54

0.717

71.41

-4.58

26.68

Edge of

pond

0.788

77.74

+9.09

39.77

Edge of

pond

(Source : Engineering Surveying, W. Schofield)

(Source : Engineering Surveying, W. Schofield)

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 31

1.7.2 Contouring

Contouring is carried out exactly the same manner as above, but with many more

spot shots along each radial arm (Figure 1.19). The arms are turned off at regular angular

intervals, with the staff man obtaining levels at regular paced intervals along each arm

and at each distinct change in gradient. Subsequent computation of the field data will fix

the position and level of each point along each arm, which may then be interpolated for

contours.

(Source : Engineering Surveying, W. Schofield)

1.8.1

Direct-Reading Tachymeters

have curved lines replacing the conventional stadia lines. Figure 1.20 illustrates one

particular make, in which the outer lines are curves to the function cos 2 and the inner

curves are to the function sin cos . Thus the outer curve staff intercept is not just S but

S cos2 . Hence, one need only multiply and intercept reading by K1=100 to obtain the

horizontal distance. Similiarly, the inner curve staff intercept is S sin cos , and need

only be multiplied by K1 to produce the vertical height H. The separation of the curves

varies with variation in the vertical angle.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 32

There are other makes of instruments which have different methods of deriving at

the solution. However, the objective remains the same-to eliminate computation. It

should be noted that there is no improvement in accuracy.

(Source: Engineering Surveying, W. Schofield)

1.8.2 Vertical-Staff Precision Tachymeter.

The vertical-staff tachymeter as produced by Kern and named the Kern DK-RV,

has a moveable diaphragm which varies with the inclination of the telescope, the amount

of variation being controlled by a gear-and-cam mechanism. It is used with a speciallygraduated vertical staff giving horizontal distances to an accuracy of 1 in 5000 over a

maximum range of 150m. Figure 1.20 illustrates a portion of the special staff as viewed

through the instrument. By rotating the telescope in the vertical plane, the horizontal

reticule A is made to bisect the zero wedge. Rotation of the instrument in azimuth is

carried out until the sloping reticule B bisects a small circular dot on the left-hand scale.

The instrument now reads as follows:

Reticule B = 15.00m

Vertical reticule C = 0.88m

Horizontal distance = 15.88m

The same comments apply to this instrument as to the horizontal-staff precision

tachymeter.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 33

(Source: Engineering Surveying, W. Schofield)

1.8.3 Total Station

When electronic theodolites are combined with interfaced EDMIs and an

electronic data collector, they become electronic tachymeter instruments- Total Stations.

The total stations can read and record horizontal and vertical angles together with the

slope distances. The microprocessors in the total stations can perform a variety of

mathematical operations, for example, averaging multiple angle measurement, averaging

multiple distances measurement, determining X, Y, Z coordinates and others. The data

collected can be handled by a device connected by cable to the tachymeter but many

instruments come with the data collector built into the instrument.

Data are stored on board internal memory about (1300-points) and on memory

cards (about 2000 points per card). The data can be directly transferred to the computer

from the total station via cable, or the data transferred from the data storage cards first to

a card reader-writer and from there to the computer. This section will be discussed further

in Unit 6.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 34

(Source: Surveying With Construction Application, B.F. Kavanagh)

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 35

Activity 1b

1.5 List down 5 steps that are needed to produce a topographic map.

1.6 The following observations were taken with a tachymeter, having constants of

100 and zero, from point A to B and C. The distance BC was measured as 157m.

Assuming the ground to be a plane within the triangle ABC, calculate the horizontal

distance and vertical distance for AB.

At

A

To

B

C

1.48, 2.73, 3.98

2.08, 2.82, 3.56

Vertical Angle

+ 7 36

-5 24

sources of error. Describe 3 of these errors.

1.8 Describe the procedure to implement the stadia field work in tachymetry survey.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 36

Feedback 1b

1.5 There are 5 steps to produce a topographic map.

a) Plotting Control Station

b) Details plotting

c) Contours

d) Preparation of title block on tracing paper.

e) Final drawing

1.6 Horizontal distance AB = 100 x S cos2

= 100 x (3.98 1.48) cos2 7 36

= 246 m

Vertical distance AB = 246 tan 7 36

= +32.8m

1.7 There are three kind of errors:

a) Careless staff holding. This is minimized by using staff bubbles.

b) Error in reading the stadia intercepts. This source of error will increase with

the length of sight. The obvious solution is to limit the length of sight to

ensure good resolution of the graduations.

c) Effect of differential refraction on the stadia intercepts. This is minimized by

keeping the lower reading 1 to 1.5m above the ground.

1.8 Establish 4 control stations (station 1, station 2, station 3 and station 4) by using

wooden pegs.

Implement horizontal control networks on each. Record the data in a field book.

After that, implement the levelling process to get the elevation of each station.

Record the observations in the field book.

Now, use either stadia tachymetry method or stadia electronic method to set the

theodolite over station 2.

Measure the height of the theodolite at station 2 as Hi2 with a steel tape.

Set the horizontal circle to zero.

Sight the reference station (Station 1) at 000.

Sight the stadia point to Station 3 by loosening the clamp (clamp is tight).

Sight the main horizontal hair roughly on the value of h, then move the lower hair

to the closest even foot (decimeter) mark.

Read the upper hair, determine the rod interval, and enter the value in the notes.

Sight the main horizontal hair precisely on the h value.

Wave off the rod holder on point a, point b and point c.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 37

Read and book the horizontal angle and the vertical angle from station 2 to points

a, b and c. Try to take as many details as possible.

Check the zero setting for the horizontal angle before moving the instrument to

station 3.

Repeat step d to m for observation at station 3(3-d, 3-e,3-f) , station 4 (4-g,4-h,4-i)

and station1(1-j).

Finally reduce the notes (compute horizontal distances and elevation) after field

hours and check the reductions.

Figure 2

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 38

Self Assessment

1)

elevation of station A. Explain the tachymetry stadia formula below by using

illustrations.

R.L.B = R.L.A + H.I + V h

Where:

R.L.B = elevation of the instrument station B

R.L.A = elevation of the instrument station A

H.I.= instrument height

h = the length of the centre hair reading from the stsff base

V = the vertical component XY, the height of the centre hair reading above

the instrument axis

2)

A line of third order levelling is run by theodolite, using tachymetry methods with

a staff held vertically. The usual three staff readings of centre and both stadia

hairs are recorded together with the vertical angle (VA). A second value of height

difference is found by altering the telescope elevation and recording the new

readings by the vertical circle and centre hair only.

The two values of the height differences are then meaned. Compute the difference

in height between the points A and B from the following data:

The stadia constant are :multiplying constant =100; additive constant = 0.

Backsights

Staff

Foresights

Staff

Remarks (all

VA

VA

measurements in m)

+ 0 02 00

1.890

1.417

Point A

0.945

+0 02 00

1.908

-0 18 00

3.109

2.012

0.914

Point B

0 00 00

3.161

(height difference between the two ends of theodolite ray = 100s cos sin , where s=

stadia intercept and = VA)

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

3)

C 2005 / 1 / 39

The rod reading made to coincide with the value of the hi, is typical of 90 percent

of all stadia measurements. In figure 1, the vertical angle is + 1 36 and the rod

interval is 0.401. Both the rod hi and the rod reading (R.R.) are 1.72m. Calculate

the horizontal distance and the vertical distance. Then find the elevation for

station 2.

.

Figure 2

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

Station

and

instrument

height

Station

4

1.417

C 2005 / 1 / 40

4)

The centre of reading on a vertical staff held on a point B was 2.292m when

sighted from A. If the vertical angle was +25 and the horizontal distance AB is

190.326m, calculate the other staff readings and thus show that the two intercept

intervals are not equal. Using these values calculate the level of B if A was

37.95m and the height of the instrument 1.35m.

5)

The table below shows a tachymetry stadia field booking. Complete the table

below and calculate elevation of each point.

Horizontal

Angle

()

Vertical

angle

Middle

Stadia

reading

a upper

reading

b- lower

reading

Horizont

al Length

H = 100s

Cos2-C

Vertical

difference

V=100s

cos sin

Reduced

level

of station

Reduced

level

of point

Remarks

10.417

45 51'

-90 18

3.100

17018

-98 48

1.120

12021

87 46

2.202

3.301

2.900

1.252

1.000

2.475

2.100

Beside

road

Lamp post

Centre

line

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 41

Staff

1)

Theodolite

R.L.B = R.L.A + H.I + V h

Where:

R.L.B = elevation of the instrument station B

R.L.A = elevation of the instrument station A.

H.I.= instrument height

h = the length of the centre hair reading from the staff base

V = the vertical component XY, the height of the centre hair reading above

the instrument axis

2)

= 50s sin 2

To A, V = 50 (1.890 -0.945) sin 0 04 00

= 0.055m

Difference in level from instrument axis = 0.550 1.417

= -1.362

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 42

Check Reading

V = 50 (0.945) sin 0 40 00

= 0.550m

Difference in level from instrument axis = 0.550 -1.980

= -1.358

Mean = 1.360m

To B, V = 50 (3.109-0.914) sin -0 36 00

= -1.149m

Difference in level from instrument axis = -1.149-2.012

= -3.161

Check level = -3.161

Mean = - 3.161m

Difference in level AB = -3.161+1.360

= -1.801m

3)

H= 100s cos2

= 100 x 0.401 x cos2 1 36

= 40.1m

V = (100/2) s sin 2

= 100 s cos sin

= 100 x 0.401 x cos 1 36x sin 1 36

= +1.12m

R.L.2 = R.L.1 + H.I V h

= 185.16 + 1.72 +1.12 1.72

= 186.28

So, the elevation for station 2 is 186.28.

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 43

4)

Figure 1

From basic equation,

CD = 100s cos2

190.326m = 100 s cos2 25

s = 2.316m

HJ = s cos2 25

= 2.316 * cos2 25

= 2.1m

From figure 1,

Inclined distance

2

CE = CD sec cos2 25

2.1

rad 0 34'23"

210

0 17'11"

DG = CD tan (25- )

= 190.326 tan (25 -0 17 11)

= 87.594

DE = CD tan 25

= 190.326 tan 25

= 88.749

DF = CD tan (25 + )

= 190.326 (25 + 0 17 11)

= 89.910

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 44

GE = DE DG

= S1

= 88.749 87.954

= 1.115

EF = DF DE

= S2

= 89.910 88.749

= 1.161

=2.316

(Check)

From which it is obvious that the a) Upper reading = (2.292 +1.161) = 3.453

b) Lower raeding = (2.292 1.155) = 1.137

Vertical Height DE

=h

= CD tan 25

= 190.326 tan 25

= 88.749( as above)

= 125.757 m

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2

C 2005 / 1 / 45

5)

Station

and

instrument

height

Station

4

1.417

Horizontal

Angle

()

Vertical

angle

Middle

Stadia

reading

a upper

reading

b- lower

reading

Horizont

al Length

H = 100s

Cos2-C

Vertical

difference

V=100s

cos sin

Reduced

level

of

station

Reduced

level

of point

Remarks

10.417

45 51'

-90 18

3.100

17018

-98 48

1.120

12021

87 46

2.202

3.301

2.900

1.252

1.000

2.475

2.100

40.099

0.210

8.524

a- Beside

road

24.610

3.810

6.904

b -Lamp

post

37.443

1.460

11.092

c-Center line

= 8.524

Reduced level of point b = 10.417 +1.417 -3.810 1.120

= 6.904

Reduced level of point c = 10.417 +1.417 + 1.460 2.202

= 11.092

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