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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Report on the Shrimp Sector


Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

By:
Nicole Portley
Sustainable Fisheries Partnership
April 2016

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study, undertaken by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP), aims to better understand market
dynamics and sustainability concerns with respect to Asian shrimp, endeavoring to fill in gaps in publicly
available information at both national and provincial scales. For 10 shrimp producing countries in Asia
(Thailand, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, and Cambodia),
experts on the ground gathered production, trade, and sustainability information from fishery managers,
aquaculture experts, processing plants, and other sources. Simple regression analyses were applied to
determine recent trends and compare between countries and provinces.
In conducting this study, we particularly hoped to answer the following questions:
Where is Asian shrimp produced at the national and provincial scales, and how much of it stays on
the domestic market? How much is exported abroad, and to what destinations?
What proportion of Asian shrimp exports is of farmed origin, and what proportion of wild origin?
What are the prevalent sustainability concerns facing the Asian shrimp industry today?
In addition to data gathered from local sources, SFP also pulled information for this report from its own
Metrics database, into which participating retailers and suppliers of seafood log information about their
seafood purchases. The 4,631 purchases of shrimp from these countries that have been logged into Metrics
in 20092015 were assessed individually with an overall goal of identifying provinces that export shrimp to
western supply chains and cross-checking the trade information provided by the local experts. While
individual transaction details from Metrics are confidential and therefore are not included in this report,
aggregate analyses are included.
Key findings of our study follow below:
Aquaculture comprises a growing proportion of Asian shrimp production, currently accounting for
58% of the cumulative production of these 10 countries.
Approximately half (49%) of these countries shrimp production remains on domestic markets.
Despite the growth of local demand for shrimp, western markets (the United States and the European
Union) are still leading destinations for these countries shrimp, as is Japan.
Of the 34% of shrimp production exported by these countries, 87% of the exported volume is
supplied by farms.
Thailand, previously the worlds leading shrimp exporter, has particularly suffered from production
losses due to Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), and its export volume has been surpassed by
Vietnam, China, and India.
While EMS affected its production as well, Vietnam currently appears to be the world leader in
shrimp exports and farmed exports, although it no longer reports export volumes and only reports
export value; thus, volume figures are only estimates.
Four nations that have made large-scale investments in intensive whiteleg shrimp (Pennaeus
vannamei) farming (Vietnam, Thailand, India, and Indonesia) all export more than half of their
shrimp production and have shrimp export values of over $1 billion each.
Nations that have not made large-scale investments in intensive whiteleg shrimp aquaculture
(Bangladesh, Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines, and Myanmar) have struggled to compete for the
international market with those that have, and these countries each export $500 million or less of
shrimp annually and keep more than half of their shrimp in-country for domestic consumption.
China is an exceptional country in that it both has invested heavily in whiteleg shrimp culture and
keeps 88% of its shrimp production for domestic consumption. This is indicative of the high demand
for shrimp in the Chinese market.
Sixteen provinces in six of the countries were identified as particularly large producers and exporters
of shrimp, accounting for approximately 35% of global warm-water shrimp exports. Intensive
whiteleg shrimp farming accounts for much of the shrimp production in these provinces, whose main
sustainability concerns are disease proliferation, water pollution, and feed sustainability.
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ii

INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY

RESULTS

Thailand

China

16

Indonesia

21

Vietnam

26

India

33

Bangladesh

40

Malaysia

48

Philippines

54

Myanmar

60

Cambodia

63

CROSS-COUNTRY RESULTS

66

CONCLUSIONS

69

REFERENCES

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A data annex accompanies the report as a separate Excel document.

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

SOUTHEAST ASIAN SHRIMP TRADE AND SUSTAINABILITY


INTRODUCTION
The importance of Asias contribution to global shrimp production is indisputable: in 2013, the
continent accounted for 85% of shrimp aquaculture production and 74% of wild shrimp capture,
including 86% of warm-water shrimp harvest. Furthermore, in 2011 Asia accounted for 62% of
global shrimp exports (FAO 2015). In light of Asias predominance in the shrimp sector, the
sustainable seafood movement must pay attention first and foremost to Asian farms and fisheries
when endeavoring to improve global sustainability of shrimp production using leverage of the
global supply chain.
This study, undertaken by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP), aims to better understand
market dynamics and sustainability concerns with respect to Asian shrimp, endeavoring to fill
gaps in publicly available information at both national and provincial scales. We included 10
Asian, shrimp-producing countries, listed in descending order of production volume, in the scope
of analysis:
1. China
2. Thailand
3. Indonesia
4. India
5. Vietnam
6. Malaysia
7. Philippines
8. Myanmar
9. Bangladesh
10. Cambodia
For each country, experts on the ground gathered production, trade, and sustainability
information from fishery managers, aquaculture experts, processing plants, and other sources. On
the basis of this information, we highlight provinces that produce and export large volumes of
shrimp and also require sustainability improvements.
Why do we care? Significance of shrimp for the seafood industry

The shrimp sector is globally significant in economic, environmental, and social respects alike:
- Shrimp is the most highly traded seafood product by value globally.
- In the worlds single biggest seafood importer, the United States, shrimp is the most
consumed seafood per capita.
- Over half (123 countries) of the worlds countries engage in shrimp production, with
commercial wild shrimp fisheries existing in 110 countries, and shrimp farming
occurring in 65 countries (including 52 nations that also have fisheries).
- Shrimp fisheries and farms are both prominently associated with environmental risk
due to high bycatch rates in bottom trawl fisheries and various impacts of shrimp

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

aquaculture, including habitat destruction, disease outbreaks, and overfishing of low


trophic wild stocks to produce feed.
Shrimp farming is a rapidly expanding industry worth $19.4 billion as of 2012.
Shrimp fisheries employ over one million fishers, and shrimp farms are also an
important source of jobs worldwide.

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1950
1954
1958
1962
1966
1970
1974
1978
1982
1986
1990
1994
1998
2002
2006
2010

Production ('000 metric tons)

Brief overview of global shrimp trade data

Year

Figure 1: Wild and aquaculture global production of shrimp,


19502013. Aquaculture production (red) of shrimp surpassed
wild-capture (blue) in 2007, and climbed to 56% of global shrimp
production in 2013 (FAO 2015).

Aquaculture, which only began to make


significant contributions to global shrimp
production in the 1980s, overtook wild
harvest in 2007 and has continued to
claim a growing share of the market in
each subsequent year. As of 2013,
production from shrimp farms accounts
for 56% of global shrimp production
(FAO 2015) (Figure 1). In that year,
farmed shrimp production amounted to a
record 4.45 million metric tons,
compared with 3.4 million metric tons of
wild harvest (also a record).

According to FAO data (FishStat J) for


2010 and 2011, the countries analyzed in
this report account for 77% of global
shrimp production and 60% of global shrimp exports (Table 1). Thailand, Vietnam, China, and
India are the worlds largest exporters of shrimp, with Indonesia ranking sixth and Malaysia
ninth. While the developing world produces much of the worlds shrimp, the developed world
Table 1: Shrimp production and trade information for the countries of analysis. All data is taken from FishStat J
(FAO 2015) with the exception of information for Bangladesh (provided by the in-country analyst engaged in this
project). FishStat J currently contains trade data up through 2011.

Country
Thailand
Vietnam
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Bangladesh
Myanmar
Philippines
Cambodia
Total

Avg Annual
Wild
Harvest
(metric
tons, 20102011)
50,031
152,900
1,161,835
344,752
239,419
112,565
106,941
42,000
47,417
8,244
2,266,102

Avg Annual
Aquaculture
Production
(metric tons,
2010-2011)
588,995
325,500
1,501,702
178,457
389,435
77,354
106,310
48,656
55,120
90
3,271,618

Avg % of
Production
from
Aquaculture
(metric tons,
2010-2011)
92%
68%
56%
34%
62%
41%
50%
54%
54%
1%

Avg Annual
Total
Production
(metric
tons, 20102011)
639,026
478,400
2,663,536
523,209
628,854
189,919
213,251
90,656
102,537
8,334
5,537,720

Avg % of
Global
Producti
on (2010
2011)
8.9%
6.7%
37.1%
7.3%
8.8%
2.6%
3%
1.3%
1.4%
0.1%
77%

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Avg Annual
Exported
Volume
(metric tons
of product,
2010-2011)
411,045
340,968
290,140
225,370
144,662
84,359
53,245
21,121
8,300
242
1,579,450

Running
Total of
Exported
Volume
(metric tons
of product)
411,045
752,013
1,042,152
1,267,522
1,412,184
1,496,542
1,549,787
1,570,908
1,579,208
1,579,450

Running
Percent of
Global
Shrimp
Exports
16%
28%
39%
48%
53%
57%
59%
59%
60%
60%

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

imports and consumes it; Europe, the United States, and Japan account for three-fourths of global
shrimp imports, with the United States importing more than any other nation (Table 2). Among
European nations, Spain and France are the most prominent markets for shrimp (leading
importers). According to the World Bank, the importance of the US market for shrimp is slated
to increase between now and 2030, while European demand will slacken (World Bank 2013).
Table 2: A comparison of annual shrimp import volumes (in metric tons of product) of the three main shrimpimporting regions and the global proportion of shrimp imports that they accounted for in the last three years for
which data is available (20092011). For each region, the leading importer among nested countries is also indicated,
illustrating that the United States is the worlds leading shrimp importer nation, while Europe is the worlds largest
regional market for shrimp (FAO 2015). Note: The data for North America consist of aggregate information for
Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
Country /Region
Europe

2009 (mt)

2010 (mt)

2011 (mt)

930,890

42%

976,926

41%

971,790

40%

162,975

7%

170,675

7%

179,281

7%

625,434

28%

642,519

27%

655,449

27%

552,570

25%

561,328

24%

576,988

24%

571,234

26%

626,500

26%

681,174

28%

incl. Japan

266,032

12%

279,152

12%

285,189

12%

Global Totals

2,232,267

2,380,705

2,439,308

incl. Spain
North America
incl. USA
Asia

The International Market: Differentiation and Trends


In broad strokes, the international shrimp market can be divided into two separate markets for
warm-water shrimp and cold-water shrimp (which are not addressed in this report). These two
groupings consist of different species (representatives of the Pandalus genus are dominant
among cold-water shrimp, while Penaeus and Metapenaeus representatives are common targets
of warm-water shrimp fisheries) that differ markedly in size, which is the key factor for market
differentiation. Demand and uses for different sizes of shrimp varies by country and region: for
example, in the United States, small (salad) shrimp are not considered a main dish, and are
generally used as a salad garnish. Preparation and processing also vary according to consumer
tastes: the shrimp may be left whole or ground into meal or paste; if whole, the shell, veins,
heads and tails may be left on or removed; the product may be cooked or raw; and it may be sold
fresh, frozen, chilled, dried, salted, or in brine.
In market terms, shrimp body size is expressed as count per pound, with the count preceded by
a U which stands for underi.e., U15 means under 15 shrimp per pound. Larger shrimp
(jumbo shrimp, colossal shrimp, prawns) with a size between U2 and U15 are exclusively
of warm-water origin, while smaller shrimp (U100 and upward) are generally cold-water shrimp.
There are, however, exceptions: seabob fished in tropical geographies, for example, compete
with cold-water shrimp due to their diminutive size. Pink shrimp and juvenile vannamei shrimp
from Southeast Asia are also small enough to fill the salad shrimp niche. Meanwhile, Nephrops,
actually a lobster rather than a shrimp, is sourced from cold-water fisheries, but due to its large
size it is marketed as scampi or prawns in Northern Europe.
Shrimp farming has muddied the waters when it comes to shrimp market differentiation in
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

that, with improving technology, farmers are able to produce a variety of species and sizes of
shrimp, although wild fisheries still have an important niche in production of jumbo shrimp.
Product is consequently available spanning the entire size gamut from <U15 to >U100, and
supply demonstrates responsiveness to shifting market dynamics and emerging species and size
preferences.
A key recent trend in shrimp markets has been the emerging and subsiding of the Early Mortality
Syndrome (EMS) in shrimp farms of many of the worlds largest producer countries in 2011
through 2014. Countries such as China, Thailand, Vietnam, Ecuador, and Mexico all lost
sizeable portions of their production. Indonesia was the notable major farmed shrimp producer
that did not suffer from production loss due to the disease. While not in agreement with FAO
data, an industry source indicates that global shrimp aquaculture production fell 13% from 2012
to 2013 due to EMS and is not projected to fully recover and surpass the 2012 peak until 2016
(Sackton 2015a). Even upon production recovery, concerns will remain because the disease
vector occurs naturally in the environment and its proliferation is triggered by factors such as
stocking density and waste removal, as well as the health of juveniles. Meanwhile, the sporeforming parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), which has been impacting shrimp
production in Thailand and China dating back to 2011, appears to be growing in prevalence
among Asian shrimp farms due to increasing intensification. EHP does not cause widespread
mortality like EMS, but it slows growth and weakens productivity of shrimp (Sackton 2015b).
METHODOLOGY
Examining the global supply chain for shrimp poses some particular challenges: first and
foremost, the market for shrimp is extremely heterogeneous. Fisheries, farms, and processors in
123 countries produce an array of species and product combinations. The quantity and variety of
fisheries and products represents a difficulty for the seafood sustainability movement when
trying to achieve progressive change sector-wide with the active involvement of the supply
chain.
Issues of trade data availability further complicate matters. National export statistics often lump
multiple species, and wild and farmed production is also generally grouped together. As many
leading aquaculture producer countries of shrimp, most of which are located in Asia, are also
leading wild shrimp producers, the relative contributions of wild and farmed products to national
exports are unknown or not reported to the FAO.
This study attempts to address these challenges of market heterogeneity and data availability by
looking beyond published national data and engaging local experts in gathering production,
trade, and sustainability information at the provincial scale. We engaged eight in-country
consultants and two staff to gather the data for each of the 10 countries. Each data gatherer
selected 24 high-production provinces for in-depth study. We encouraged the experts to visit
these provinces and meet with processing plant and fishing and aquaculture association
representatives in order to obtain information not otherwise available. Data requests were also
made of local management authorities. The in-country experts compiled information on
provincial farm production, provincial fishery production, exported proportions, and destination
countries into Excel templates and submitted them to SFP for analysis and compilation.
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Findings were limited by data availability: in some included geographies fishery and farm
management is not data-intensive and the quantitative information that we were seeking was
found to simply not be available. In these cases, we instructed the data gatherers to obtain
anecdotal information. While not ideal, this information is still useful for the task of identifying
high-production, exporting provinces that are also facing sustainability challenges. Another
limitation particular to trade data results from the considerable volumes of Asian shrimp that are
transshipped at seatransshipped product is often unaccounted for and/or relabeled.
In aggregating information into this report, we used simple analysis methods, i.e., linear
regression analysis of quantitative production and export data in order to determine trends. We
also crosschecked the information received from in-country experts against retailer and supplier
information logged into our Metrics system.1 In Metrics, retailers and suppliers can attribute
volumes purchased to fisheries with profiles in our sustainability database, FishSource. While
there are no aquaculture profiles in FishSource, we have also made it possible to attribute
volumes to BAP-certified aquaculture operations, of which there are hundreds in Asia.
RESULTS
Country Snapshot: Thailand

Thailand

Year: 2013

National Overview
Thailand is a country made up of 76 provinces located at
the center of the Indochina peninsula and bordered by
Laos, Burma, Malaysia, and Cambodia. Thailands
coastline stretches along the Andaman Sea to the west
and the Gulf of Thailand to the east. Shrimp aquaculture
operations are underway in many parts of the country at
over 23,800 individual farms. We obtained specific
production data for 25 provinces and a lumped total for
production in the other 51 provinces combined.
Meanwhile, wild-capture shrimp production, in which up
to 50,000 fishers (the number of licensees in the
permitted 2015 fishery) participate, is attributed to 20
provinces. For aquaculture production, the provinces of
Chanthaburi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phattalung, and
Songkhla were the top four producers as of 2012.
Leading provinces for wild-caught shrimp in that same
year were Narathiwat, Ranong, and Chonburi (Figure 1).

Farmed production:

329,035 tons

Wild production:

47,304 tons

Total production:

376,339 tons

Export volume,
product weight:

197,238 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~330,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~88%

Export market value:

$2.16 bil

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports:

~ >99 : <1

Ratio of farmed
product that is
exported:farmed
product that stays on
the domestic market:

~99:1

Information from Metrics reflects only the purchasing of SFP partners and may not reflect purchasing habits of the
retail sector as a whole. While Metrics data is confidential and therefore not comprehensively included in this report
(i.e., information on specific transactions is not included and buyer identities are not revealed), it provides a
snapshot of trade dynamics between Asian producer countries and western markets, which we used to corroborate
the findings of in-country experts.
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Figure 1: Map of Thailand with major aquaculture (circles) and fishery (squares) provinces indicated.

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

The predominant species produced by Thai farms is whiteleg shrimp, accounting for 97% of
farmed production. Giant tiger shrimp production contributes most of the remaining 3%. As for
wild shrimp capture, school shrimp (Metapeneaus spp.) account for 35% of harvest and banana
shrimp15%. Giant tiger, green tiger, king, Acetes, and other shrimp species comprise the other
50%. Otter trawl gears account for over 60% of wild-capture harvest, with trammel and push
nets cumulatively contributing 27%. Information about product types was not available for
farmed shrimp, but for wild-capture shrimp harvested by Thailand in 2012 excluding Acetes
(paste shrimp), half of production was sold as chilled and frozen product, 25% as fresh product,
23% canned, and 1% dried. Product differentiation statistics are available for exported product,
most of which is comprised of farmed shrimp: in 2014, 47% of exported shrimp was categorized
as fresh, chilled, or frozen, with the remaining 53% consisting of prepared or preserved product.
On the basis of these statistics, yield after preparation or processing was estimated at 47%.
We obtained national production information through 2013 for farms and for fisheries (Table 3).
Aquaculture production exhibits a rising trend through 2011, with a slight decrease in 2012 and
sharp decrease in 2013 as a result of EMS (Figure 2). Meanwhile, fisheries production has
decreased since the 1980s, at which time annual production was consistently above 100,000
metric tons (Figure 3). That said, there is uncertainty regarding wild harvest volumes, with
various sources reporting markedly different landings. Complicating factors for recording wild
Thai harvest include the large number of landing sites, sales to private markets, sales to
government markets, direct landings to processors, and the percentage of shrimp caught outside
of the Thai EEZ but landed by Thai flagged vessels. Furthermore, information recorded in
fishing vessel logbooks is recognized to often be inaccurate or misleading.
Table 3: Thai national aquaculture and wild-capture shrimp production, 20092013 (in metric tons). Wild-capture
data from five different sources is included in order to illustrate the uncertainty in information. Source 1:
Department of Fisheries 2015a (supplemented with FishStat J data for 2013); Source 2: Department of Fisheries
2012; Source 3: Department of Fisheries 2015b; Source 4: Fish Marketing Association of Thailand 2015; Source 5:
Thailand Fishery Statistics Analysis and Research Group 2014.
Wild-Capture
Year
Aquaculture Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Source 5
575,098
53,352
44,082
Na
1,675
Na
2009
559,644
52,787
45,308
20,873
1,715
10,947
2010
611,183
47,274
42,234
17,352
1,283
9,748
2011
609,562
43,918
40,555
14,056
1,160
13,068
2012
329,035
47,304
na
na
na
na
2013

The volume of shrimp that is exported out of Thailand peaked in 2010, with the lower export
volumes and values in 2013 and 2014 attributable to EMS (Table 4). The USA, Japan, and the
EU have been the main destinations for Thai shrimp throughout 20082014, cumulatively
accounting for 74% of Thai exports in 2014. The main exported species are whiteleg (all
production is farmed) and giant tiger shrimp (national production is 91% farm-origin according
to Thailands data submitted to the FAO for the 2013 season) (FAO 2015). As with wild harvest
volumes, there are discrepancies in national export statistics among sources (the Customs
Department and the Thai Frozen Foods Association, for example, differ in some of their statistics
by ten-fold).

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Figure 2: Thai aquaculture shrimp production, 1950


2013 (FAO 2015).

Unfortunately, there are no publicly available,


separate export statistics for wild and farmed Thai
shrimp. The Thai Customs Department database
uses generic descriptions for both wild-caught and
cultured shrimp species, as well as generic
descriptions for the type of processing and
packaging of final products for export. That said,
each individual export shipment of shrimp is given
a unique code by the Customs Department, which

enables them to identify the producer.


However, the Thai Information Act
requires the approval of individual
producers in order for the Customs
Department to disclose information
relating to producers production
volumes and sale of their harvests. This
bureaucratic process unfortunately
would take longer than the time allotted
for this project but, with adequate time
and resources, it would be possible to
trace exported shipments back to
Figure 3: Thai wild shrimp harvest, 19502013 (FAO 2015).
individual farms or fisheries. However,
due to the predominance of farmed
product in Thailand, one can feel confident making the assumption that farmed production
accounts for most (>99% of) Thai shrimp exports.
Table 4: Thai shrimp exports to main destination nations, 20082014 (in metric tons of product), and export market
value (in millions of US dollars) (Thai Frozen Foods Association 20092014). The listed countries/regions account
for approximately 90% of Thai exports. Thai export reports list trade quantities for 31 destination countries,
including a lumped entry entitled others. In the last three years, Thai export statistics include information on the
quantity and market value of exported giant tiger shrimp.
Destination
USA

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

167,522

176,577

186,985

173,986

119,655

74,288

62,435

Japan

57,821

65,525

74,103

77,050

75,952

54,166

38,046

EU

38,281

49,980

64,527

58,075

47,965

26,336

17,609

Canada

20,040

20,895

21,609

22,047

20,097

9,806

8,751

Australia

7,138

9,393

10,102

9,742

10,503

6,874

7,366

Vietnam

1,476

5,356

5,744

5,233

10,160

4,668

6,227

South Korea

12,599

10,513

1,810

9,331

10,026

5,155

5,169

Total Exports
Proportion of Natl Exports
Accounted for by These Countries
Export Market Value ($ mil)
Proportion of Market Value
Comprised of Giant Tiger Shrimp

335,372

366,983

407,978

380,153

323,102

197,237

158,543

89%

94%

91%

92%

92%

89%

94%

$2,388

$2,595

$3,066

$3,559

$2,897

$2,159

$1,934

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

2%

3%

4%

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Provincial Overview
Production but not trade information was gathered at the province scale for Thailand. Surat
Thani was the leading provincial producer in 2012, with Nakhon Si Thammarat indicating the
greatest rate of increasing production between 2010 and 2012, with new farming capacity
coming online in the province (Table 5). Provincial fishery harvests in key regions, meanwhile,
generally trended downward during that period of time.2
As for provincial export data, we were not able to split out exports at a finer scale than the
national scale. As explained above, each customs note in which export transactions are recorded
cannot be made public without producer agreement, and there are thousands of customs notes
and thousands of producers involved in a single shrimp season. We discovered during this study
that in order to tally exports for a particular province, all of the customs notes for that province
would need to be requested with producer agreement, and then aggregated.
Table 5: Aquaculture and wild production in key Thai provinces for aquaculture and wild-capture shrimp
production, 20102012 (metric tons) (Department of Fisheries, 2015b). Publication of this data occurs with a two to
three-year lag time due to the mammoth task of collecting logbook entries for 50,000 fishing vessels.
Province
Surat Thani
Chanthaburi
Songkhla
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Pranchuab Khiri Khan
Trat
Trang
Satun
Chumpon
Krabi
Rayong
PhangNga
Chachoengsao
Samut Sakhon
Ranong
Narathiwat
National Totals

Aquaculture Production (metric tons)


2010
57,999
60,467
44,226
28,820
36,326
49,428
33,075
35,308
25,332
21,801
19,630
25,335
29,871
8,508
14,163
521
559,644

2011
53,074
67,603
43,645
39,781
39,204
42,714
34,898
35,570
29,718
23,240
35,001
29,422
29,420
16,399
14,964
936
611,183

2012
66,302
61,594
47,596
44,425
40,744
38,154
37,526
34,123
29,779
26,421
25,148
23,754
21,954
20,863
13,476
785
609,562

Wild Production (metric tons)


2010
1,728
83
357
2,158
792
1,391
1,139
348
869
90
191
1,344
2,229
2,359
52,787

2011
1,796
235
276
1,558
473
1,574
972
183
760
229
130
1,065
1,734
2,376
47,274

2012
1,103
223
236
1,160
323
1,298
749
290
519
121
1
113
814
1,811
2,109
43,918

Information from SFPs Metrics database provides some indication of export dynamics at the
provincial scale. Suppliers in Metrics have been attributing purchases of shrimp to farms with
BAP certification, listing the BAP code for the farm along with volume and species information.
For those BAP codes that are current, we were able to identify the province in which the farm is
located. If suppliers do not know the BAP code or are sourcing from a non-certified facility, they
have the option of attributing their purchases to a general category of Thai shrimp.
2

Wild stocks are not fished specifically by province but are caught and landed from within any of the 109
designated fishing areas within the Thai EEZ. Therefore, data attributing catch to provinces may be inaccurate, as it
is merely reflective of landings at provincial ports that were not necessarily harvested in neighboring waters (and
may have even been harvested outside of the Thai EEZ).

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12

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Furthermore, suppliers can choose to not reveal volume information and merely indicate that a
transaction has occurred.
For Thai shrimp, Metrics includes 2,914 transactions that occurred in 20112015 and accounted
for an estimated 8% of total Thai shrimp exports in 20112014 (see Data Annex). Of the 2,914
transactions, 59% include volume information, amounting to approximately 50,000 metric tons
of purchased volume cumulatively. For a subset of the Thai shrimp transactions (705
transactions, including 26,710 metric tons of cumulative volume), we were able to attribute the
transactions to the provinces in which the product was produced (Table 6). While suppliers can
make mistakes in data entry, resulting in some unreliability, the information generally indicates
that several high-production provinces (i.e., provinces with 20,000 metric tons of annual
production) are exporting their product to western markets (PhangNga, Surat Thani, Trang,
Rayong, Songkhla, Trat, Chanthaburi, and Thammarat).
Table 6: Summary of Metrics entries for Thai shrimp. 24% of transactions and 55% of reported volumes for Thai
shrimp were attributable to the province in which production occurred. The nine provinces to which transactions
were attributed account for 50% of national production (20092012, annual average) and eight provinces that
produce over 20,000 metric tons of shrimp annually. While we caution against drawing fixed conclusions upon the
basis of these data due to likely high error frequency in supplier data entry, it provides a general indication of some
of the source provinces for exports to western markets. The information provided here aggregates entries for all
companies using Metrics, as Non-Disclosure Agreements prevent the release of information for individual
companies.
Province
PhangNga
Phetchaburi

Number of
Metrics
Transactions
331
119

Volume Reported in
Metrics (metric
tons)
8,654
9,356

Avg Provincial Farmed


Production, 20092012
(metric tons)
27,210
10,472

Surat Thani
Trang
Rayong
Songkhla
Trat
Chanthaburi

82
64
44
35
18
2

7,141
673

418
330

59.794
34,875
25,195
45,864
44,308
63,500

Thammarat
TOTAL (FOR IDENTIFIED
PROVINCES)

10

138

45,864

705

26,710

297,348

NATIONAL TOTAL

2,914

49,995

588,872

% REPRESENTED

24%

53%

50%

Fishery Sustainability Information


Thai marine fisheries are broadly divided between the Gulf of Thailand (GOT) and the Indian
Ocean, although fisheries in the two geographies share similar sustainability issues. Bottom
trawling (single, pair, and beam) is the most common form of gear used in the Thai shrimp
fishery. Catches include immature fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. There are no discards, and all
harvest is retained and landed.

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13

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Management of Thai fisheries is weak: outdated legislation, lack of finance, corruption, and
insufficient resources to enforce fishery regulations have resulted in severe depletion of marine
stocks and damage to the ecosystem within most areas of the GOT. The Thai EEZ in the Indian
Ocean is showing the same pattern. Illegal fishing within restricted coastal zones is common, as
is the use of unlicensed vessels and gears. Efforts to reduce the number of trawlers have failed.
The vast decline in CPUE in Thai waters is well documented, as is the impact of fishing upon the
marine environment.
Improvement needs for these fisheries include additional protection of the spawning stock and
juveniles during trawl season, enactment of a minimum 2.5 cm mesh size in the purse seine
fishery, development and enforcement of a turtle excluder device regulation in the trawl fishery,
and enforcement of closed areas (including the existing no-fishing zone within 3 km of the
coast).
A new Thai Fisheries Act is due to go into force in 2015. The new legislation will reportedly
include more effective measures to target and reduce illegal fishing, increase the number of
Marine Protected Areas, and control the number and movements of fishing vessels. Penalties and
fines for rule breaking have been increased. However the specific details of the legislation are yet
to be finalized as is the means by which these new measures will be enforced.
Aquaculture Sustainability Information
Disease continues to be a significant issue for the Thai shrimp industry, as it has been slow to
recover from the impact of EMS beginning in 2012. Many smaller-scale Thai producers are no
longer operating as a result of EMS, and some of the larger companies have scaled back their
production expectations. The Thai shrimp industry is familiar with major disease outbreaks and
has previously put in place measures including specific pathogen free (SPF) larvae that are
guaranteed free of particular viral diseases. This is not possible at present with the bacteria
causing EMS because it is ubiquitous in the environment and proliferates if ponds are sterilized.
Farmers need to manage the biology of ponds to minimize opportunities for spikes in the bacteria
that causes EMS by maintaining balance among other bacteria and algae. In the absence of
stringent water management standards, another effective approach is to reduce stocking density,
although this goes against the entrepreneurial approach of farmers who are familiar with boom
and bust cycles. All of these measures require greater vigilance and management input than
previously expected and further drive the need for all farmersespecially the smaller-scale
onesto utilize best practices in order to minimize risks to each other.
The Government of Thailand and many industry partners continue to invest in understanding
how the disease proliferated so rapidly and how to control it. Recurring disease issues in the
shrimp industry demonstrate the need for better data collection on disease management, the use
of that information in real-time to inform farm and sector management decisions, and effective
emergency disease response plans at national and local levels. Overall, more effective
cooperation is needed between regulators, support services and the industry.

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14

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Issues associated with fish feed are also an important sustainability concern in the Thai shrimp
farming industry. Farms in all provinces use feeds that are commercially produced in Thailand.
Fishmeal is a basic ingredient of any shrimp feed derived from a number of sources, the
proportions of which vary by season and source availability. In rough terms, some 33.5 tons of
raw material are required to produce one ton of fishmeal. The mix of raw materials used to
produce meal in approximate percentages:
- tuna trimmings and frames from the canning industry: 40%
- trimmings and offal from the surimi industry: 25%
- wild-caught species from the domestic fishery (includes trash fish and target species):
18%
- wild-caught species from overseas fisheries: 3%
- byproducts such as whitefish trimmings from the fish processing industry: 12%.
Thailand produced approximately 450,000 metric tons of fishmeal in 2014. This would have
required some 1,350,000 metric tons of source material. If 18% of the meal was composed of
trash fish and targeted fish (including shrimp) from local fisheries, then approximately 243,000
metric tons was taken from a poorly managed, environmentally impacted fishery.
In recent years mangrove areas in Thailand previously destroyed by shrimp farming have
partially recovered through re-planting and natural recruitment, as well as enforcement of
regulations that prevent new shrimp farms from opening in mangrove areas. Local farmers
queried during information gathering also said that they have moved out of mangroves because
the costs of managing water and soils were too high, but enforcement of mangrove conservation
rules and policies undoubtedly also played a role.
Meanwhile, water pollution has long been a sustainability concern of the Thai aquaculture
industry, with access to unpolluted water a key factor in farm site choice. Water quality
improvement safeguards are included in the Thai governments GAP (Good Aquaculture
Practices) standard under which Thai farms are assessed and certified annually.
Suggested sustainability improvements include continuing efforts at mangrove recovery
(replanting, enforcement of regulations) so that new shrimp farms are not opened in mangrove
areas; development of zonal management practices; and implementation of disease management
plans.

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15

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

China
National Overview
China has approximately 14,500 km of coastline shared
among 10 provinces along the Yellow, East China, and
South China Seas, amounting to the tenth largest
coastline in the world. It is the world leader for both
shrimp aquaculture and wild-capture shrimp fisheries,
with over 1.5 million metric tons of annual production
in each category. The South China Sea coast is
particularly important for aquaculture, while the main
fisheries are located along the East China Sea coast.
The three highest-producing provinces for shrimp
aquaculture are Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Guangxi (in
order of descending volume), which cumulatively
accounted for 1.36 million metric tons of farmed
shrimp production in 2013. Guangdong alone
contributed 660,000 metric tons of farmed shrimp.
Meanwhile, Zhejiang was the highest producing
province for wild-caught shrimp in 2013 with 673,000
metric tons, followed by Shandong and Fujian. The
three provinces accounted for 1.09 million metric tons
of wild-capture shrimp in 2013 (Figure 4).

Country Snapshot: China


Year: 2013
Farmed production:

1,958,368 tons

Wild production:

1,602,503 tons

Total production:

3,560,871 tons

Export volume,
product weight:

212,698 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~425,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~12%

Export market value:

$2.2 billion

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports:

~ 85:15

Ratio of farmed
product that is
exported:farmed
product that stays on
the domestic market:

~18:82

Whiteleg shrimp accounts for 73% of Chinese farmed shrimp production, with 57% of farmed
whiteleg shrimp production occurring in seawater, while the other 43% takes place in freshwater
conditions. The other 27% of Chinese farmed shrimp production is accounted for by
Macrobrachium nipponense (13%), M. rosenbergii (6%), giant tiger shrimp (4%), kuruma prawn
(2%), and fleshy prawn (2%). Paste shrimp (Acetes) is the predominant wild-capture species,
accounting for 34.5% of wild-capture production. Southern rough shrimp (20%), Oratosquilla
oratoria (18.5%), a variety of freshwater shrimp species (18%), and fleshy prawn (8%) comprise
the other 65.5% of wild-capture harvest (China Agriculture Press 2015).
Chinese shrimp production has trended sharply upward over the last 20 years, with particularly
rapid increase in the aquaculture sector, but rising wild harvests in the 1990s as well (Figure 5).
Aquaculture production leveled off in 2013 due to EMS syndrome, while wild harvest has held
fairly steady since 2003. As for exports, in contrast to production volumes, exports have fallen
sharply in the last three years, with 2014s 178,581 metric tons of exported shrimp 16% lower
than the volume exported by China in 2013. Growth in the domestic market and EMS are
responsible for this trend. That said, as in Thailand, the United States is the chief destination for
Chinese shrimp, accounting for 19% of exports in 2014. Meanwhile, a significant proportion
(approximately half) of Chinese exports go to Asian destinations, with Malaysia the leading
destination (Table 7). Data maintained by the Chinese customs agency attribute shrimp exports
to approximately a dozen product codes, but these codes do not indicate product source (fishery
or farm) and species, nor were they easy to use to identify product type for the purposes of
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16

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

estimating processing and preparation yield, which was placed at 50% in absence of information
(most product presumed headless shells-on).

Figure 4: Map of China with major aquaculture (circles) and fishery (squares) provinces indicated.

Provincial Overview
The consultant engaged in this project to cover China gathered quantitative production
information and anecdotal export information at the provincial scale. 2013 provincial production
data for the 10 most prominent shrimp species in China indicate that various provinces are strong
producers of various species: Zhejiang for wild paste shrimp, wild grooved tiger prawn, and
Japanese squillid mantis shrimp; Guangdong for wild fleshy prawn, farmed whiteleg shrimp, and
farmed giant tiger shrimp; Shandong for farmed Kuruma prawns; and Jiangsu for farmed river
prawns (Table 8).
As for exports, the provinces vary in the proportion of production that is exported, with some
provinces exporting very little shrimp, while Guangxi exports 50% of its production (Table 9).
General trends across the country include declining export proportions due to increasing demand

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Fishery Sustainability
Information

1800000
Annual Production (metric tons)

on the domestic market, as


well as the entry of new
provinces (Hebei, Tianjin)
into the business of shrimp
culture. Metrics includes
shrimp transactions traceable
to farms in one Chinese
province, Guangdong.

1600000
1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
1950
1954
1958
1962
1966
1970
1974
1978
1982
1986
1990
1994
1998
2002
2006
2010

0
Bottom trawling occurs all
along Chinas coastline,
harvesting not only shrimp
Year
but also crab, cephalopods,
Figure 5: Chinese farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue) annual
production, 19502013 (FAO 2015).
and a variety of low-trophic
level pelagic fish species.
Paste shrimp are also prominently harvested in stow nets in nearshore environments. Among the
major wild shrimp-producing provinces, stocks are in the best shape in Fujan, while declines due
to overfishing have been observed in Zhejiang. Meanwhile, in Shandong, offshore oil and gas
extraction and large vessel traffic have been implicated in the destruction of shrimp spawning
grounds and resultant declines in fleshy prawn production. Hatcheries are being used throughout
the coastal region to restore wild stocks, with release of over three billion hatchery-raised shrimp
into the ocean annually. There is no
Table 7: Chinese shrimp exports to main destination nations,
evaluation of the effectiveness of these
20132014 (in metric tons) (CAPPMA 2013 and 2014).
hatchery programs.
The 2014 total Chinese shrimp export was 16% lower than
that of 2013.
Destination
USA

2013

% of total
export

2014

% of total
export

34,853

16%

33,595

19%

Malaysia

28,665

13%

28,993

16%

Hong Kong

21,784

10%

19,976

11%

Japan

20,520

10%

15,838

9%

Korea

17,059

8%

11,035

6%

Russia

14,739

Bycatch is considered a key sustainability


issue for the Chinese trawl fishery.
Smaller mesh sizes are commonly used in
this fishery and harvest is high in species
diversity, with impacts to most harvested
species not adequately studied.

Improvement recommendations for the


13,342
6%
12,298
7%
fishery include conducting an evaluation
Mexico
12,136
6%
7,768
4%
of existing bycatch composition in the
Canada
trawl fishery and risk assessments for
9,996
5%
8,246
5%
Taiwan
individual bycatch species; introducing
9,967
5%
10,465
6%
Total
212,698
178,581
selective gear regulations for the trawl
fishery; assessing hatchery effectiveness; and expanding closed seasons in the Yellow and East
China Seas to promote stock recovery.
7%

10,064

6%

Australia

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 8: 2013 production of the 10 most prominent Chinese commercial shrimp species by province (metric tons). Note: the column Total Farmed Production
is not an aggregate of all the farmed species columns that precede it, and includes production of additional, non-specified species.

Zhejiang

Paste
Shrimp
267,615

Fleshy
prawn
16,110

Grooved
tiger
prawn
201,484

Japanese
squillid
mantis shrimp
72,869

Total
Wild
Harvest
672,742

Whiteleg
shrimp:
saltwater
32,289

Giant
tiger
shrimp
718

Fleshy
prawn
1,209

Kuruma
prawn
1,035

Whiteleg
shrimp:
freshwater
95,218

Giant
river
prawn
11,115

Oriental
river
prawn
18,967

Total
Farmed
Production
179,772

Total
Production
852,514

Guangdong

41,705

56,641

13,148

21,607

146,548

294,461

46,497

7,844

6,063

155,052

23,390

1,723

661,646

808,194

Jiangsu

21,735

3,001

10,004

9,058

47,829

20,202

2,872

6,499

1,567

126,656

69,019

117,147

470,506

518,335

Shandong

92,696

4,459

31,707

56,341

230,594

63,591

2,520

7,644

19,674

47,790

692

2,958

159,052

389,646

Fujan

58,681

22,160

43,970

35,334

181,714

61,123

5,889

3,882

10,827

59,469

1,133

1,709

147,258

328,972

Guangxi

28,430

18,536

8,146

7,190

70,609

192,227

10,698

174

2,175

1,719

749

224,314

294,923

Liaoning

38,550

4,001

7,421

67,217

139,105

12,676

10,594

2,794

7,419

35,631

174,736

Hainan

5,611

3,608

4,487

1,674

18,054

116,420

2,814

350

123,845

141,899

Hebei

11,283

1,645

2,613

21,997

40,384

10,813

4,254

3,815

26,623

825

46,805

87,189

197

88

864

1,275

8,743

49,359

166

58,273

59,548

Province

Tianjin

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19

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Aquaculture Sustainability Information


In the 1990s, shrimp aquaculture expanded quite explosively in China, with mangroves and
wetlands replaced by shrimp ponds along the coast. The environmental impact of habitat losses
during the 1990s aquaculture boom has been somewhat mitigated in the 2000s by new
approaches to structure
Table 9: Anecdotal information on Chinese shrimp exports at the provincial scale.
of the industry and land
use: the shrimp farming
Main
% of Prod.
Exported
Destination
industry has consolidated
Province
Exported
Species
Countries
Note
and many coastal farms
in recent decade,
have been sold to resort
increasing amounts of
Zhejiang shrimp are being
and other private
whiteleg
United
sold on the domestic
developers. Many of the
8%
shrimp
States
rather than int'l market
Zhejiang
developers have restored
whiteleg
exports from this province
mangroves for their
30%
shrimp
na
are also decreasing
Guangdong
aesthetic value,
very little
Jiangsu
farmed
simultaneously restoring
Oratosquilla
decreasing exports during
the ecosystem services
oratoria, but
last decade due to
that they provide. Farms,
also some
Korea and
shrinking Korean and
7%
wild shrimp
Japan
Japan economies
Shandong
meanwhile, continue to
exports from this province
operate in coastal regions,
24%
Na
na
are also decreasing
Fujan
but with greater distance
whiteleg
exports from this province
from the coastline.
50%
shrimp
na
are also decreasing
Guangxi
mostly wild
shrimp

Korea and
Japan

Not only was the amount


of land used for shrimp
aquaculture expanded in
the 1990s, but production
whiteleg
5%
shrimp
na
Hainan
densities at individual
very little
new shrimp supplier
Hebei
farms were also
increased. The higher
very little
new shrimp supplier
Tianjin
densities introduced
higher risks of disease: in the early 1990s, white spot disease ravaged Chinese farms and
hindered production for several years. Subsequent recovery and stable growth of the industry
ever since has been enabled by farmer investments in aeration and other technologies. Unlike the
Chinese tilapia industry, battles with disease have resulted in a technologically and scientifically
savvy shrimp farming industry.
Liaoning

12%

Hainan shrimp is famous


for its high quality and
tends to be sold at a higher
price on the domestic
market.

In addition to improved technology, the Chinese government also introduced water pollution
regulations in the 2000s in the effort to address concerns about environmental impacts of the
industry. Despite these regulations and improved farming technology, EMS outbreaks occurred
in all major shrimp farming regions in 2013, limiting production in that year. Hainan is a
particularly key area with respect to spreading disease, as it is a key hatchery and nursery region.
If disease takes hold in this region, as it did with the case of EMS, it is likely to spread
elsewhere.

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20

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

One response to the EMS outbreak has been the growing prevalence of the polyculture approach
to aquaculture, whereby more than one species group is cultivated at the same farm (e.g., shrimp
and tilapia, or shrimp and crab). The presence of a second species not only limits economic risk
should disease strike the other species, but cohabitation also appears to render disease
proliferation less likely.
As for feed used in Chinese farms, there are a variety of compound feed brands available for
purchase in the farming regions. Sources of fishmeal and fish oil in these feeds are mostly
unknown, and it is impossible to assess environmental impacts.
Improvement recommendations for the Chinese shrimp aquaculture sector include conducting
Environmental Impact Assessments for major aquaculture zones and encouraging farmers to
organize themselves into associations or co-ops to adopt zonal management and best practices. It
is noted that, unlike other provinces, Zhejiang has existing, well-organized farm co-ops.
Indonesia
National Overview
Country Snapshot: Indonesia
Indonesia is the worlds second largest seafood producer
and a major player in the shrimp subsector, with over $1
billion in annual shrimp exports. The countrys 34
provinces encompass thousands of islands home to
artisanal and industrial fisheries, as well as small- and
large-scale aquaculture operations. A particular hub for
shrimp aquaculture stretches from the southern tip of
Sumatra Island through Java Island to the Lesser Sunda
Islandsthis arc contains the four highest-producing
shrimp aquaculture provinces of West Java, Lampung,
East Java, and West Nusa Tenggara. Meanwhile, more
than 600 trawlers in the Arafura Sea of Eastern Indonesia
harvest wild banana, endeavor and giant tiger shrimp,
among other species (Figure 6).

Year: 2012
Farmed production:

369,651 tons

Wild production:

178,283 tons

Total production:

547,934 tons

Export volume,
product weight:

162,068 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~270,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~49%

Export market value:

$1.3 billion

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports:

~97:3

Ratio of farmed
product that is
exported:farmed
product that stays on
the domestic market:

In 2013, Indonesia was the one major aquaculture


producer of shrimp whose production was not decimated
by EMS. According to FAO data, national aquaculture
~71:29
production almost doubled that year, presumably driven
by global demand being unmet by production in Thailand and other countries experiencing
disease outbreaks (Figure 7). Government data gathered in country, meanwhile, indicated a less
dramatic increase in aquaculture production of 53% from 2012 to 2013. This in-country data also
indicated that farmed shrimp accounted for 68% of national shrimp production as of 2012, with
wild shrimp comprising the remaining 32%. Farmed whiteleg shrimp is the most populous
species, accounting for 46% of national production overall and a 68% share of farmed
production. Farmed giant tiger shrimp ranks second with 22% of overall production, 32% of
farmed production. Banana prawn, meanwhile, is the leading wild species, comprising 16% of
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Figure 6: Map of Indonesia with major aquaculture (circles) and fishery (square) provinces indicated. A key production zone stretches

from Aceh on the northern tip of Sumatra island through the Lesser Sunda Islands (West Nusa Tenggara province).

Banda Sea

Arafura Sea

Figure 6: Map of Indonesia with major aquaculture provinces (circles) indicated. Meanwhile, a square marks the Arafura Sea, where the wild trawl fishery occurs in
Eastern Indonesia. Another square indicates the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra, known landing destinations for wild shrimp.

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22

Annual Production ( metric tons)

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

overall national
production. Wild giant
tiger shrimp (5%) and a
mix of other species
including endeavor
shrimp, tiger cat/rainbow
shrimp, and king/bluelegged prawn (11%)
round out the species
profile.

700000
600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
0

1950
1953
1956
1959
1962
1965
1968
1971
1974
1977
1980
1983
1986
1989
1992
1995
1998
2001
2004
2007
2010
2013

Indonesian shrimp
exports have held fairly
steady over the past
Year
decade, with a 2008 peak
of 175,000 metric tons
Figure 7: Indonesian farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue) annual
production, 19502013 (FAO 2015).
exported, which is not
much higher than the
figure for the most recent year of available data (2013: 162,410 metric tons exported). The
United States is Indonesias main export destination, followed by Japan and China. US imports
of Indonesian shrimp spiked in 2013, a year in which the US accounted for 50% of Indonesian
shrimp exports (Table 10). The overwhelming majority of exports are frozen, presumed headless
shells-on, with an average yield of 60%.
Provincial Overview
Table 10: Indonesian shrimp exports to main destination nations, 20112013 (in
Comprehensive
metric tons of product). Information is from Indonesian and Japanese customs data,
production information
as well as the NOAA Fisheries Statistics Division trade database.
for farmed shrimp, but
% of total
% of total
2013
% of total
not for wild shrimp, is
Destination
2011
export
2012
export
export
available at the provincial
81,147
50%
USA
53.148
34%
57.748
36%
scale. In 2013, 12
32,338
20%
Japan
30,504
19%
31,537
32%
Indonesian provinces
Na
China
4,196
3%
2,652
2%
farmed over 10,000 metric
Na
UK
3,119
2%
1,571
1%
tons of shrimp (Table 11).
Total
158,062
162,068
162,410
In addition to the islands in
the key production zone highlighted in Figure 6, other important provinces are found on the
islands of Borneo and Sulawesi.

There is export information available for Indonesia by province as well, although the most recent
year for which data is available is 2011. However, shrimp exported from a particular province
may not have been produced, but rather only processed there, as indicated by Jakartas status as
the second-largest exporter in 2011 despite the fact that the capital province is a very low
producer. In order to explore provincial exports further, we used Metrics. For Indonesian shrimp,
Metrics includes 484 transactions that occurred in 20122015, with the majority (67%) of these
transactions occurring in 20122013. Transactions in Metrics accounted for an estimated 5% of
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 11: 2013 shrimp aquaculture production by


province and species (metric tons). These 12 provinces all
produced over 10,000 tons of farmed shrimp.
Province
West Java
Lampung
West Nusa
Tenggara
East Java
North Sumatra
Central Java
South Sumatra
West Kalimantan
Southeast Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
Central Sulawesi
East Kalimantan

Giant tiger
shrimp
27,860
2,791

Whiteleg
shrimp
57,678
72,051

Farmed
total
85,538
74,842

4,299
9,842
9,627
33,580
5,641
1,865
13,275
15,319
22,403
10,758

56,960
47,150
19,791
13,872
40,016
39,092
18,369
8,542
91
-

61,259
56,992
29,418
47,452
45,657
40,957
31,644
23,861
22,494
10,758

Indonesian shrimp exports in 20122014


(see Data Annex). 209 (48%) of the 484
transactions include volume information,
amounting to 17,840 metric tons of
purchased volume cumulatively. For a subset
of the transactions (199 transactions, including
approximately 6,890 metric tons of
cumulative volume), we were able to attribute
the purchased volumes to the provinces that
produced the shrimp (Table 12). The
information indicates that three of the highproduction aquaculture provinces (South
Sumatra, East Java, and Lampung) exported
their products to western markets during the
period of 20122015.

Fishery Sustainability Information


Since 1983 trawl nets have been banned in Indonesian waters with the exception of the zone east
of longitude 130 E (essentially the area east of the Tanimbar Islands in the Arafura Sea). As a
result of these regulations, the Arafura Sea trawl fishery is the main shrimp fishery of Indonesia,
with over 600 participating trawlers as of 2010. Ongoing issues with this fishery include
overexploitation of target stocks, fisher non-compliance with regulations (particularly failure to
report catches during transshipment at sea), and inadequately quantified impacts upon bycatch
species. Improvement recommendations include establishment of a standardized stock
assessment process for target stocks, improving enforcement of catch reporting and VMS use by
the fleet, and the development of regulations that will limit bycatch (e.g., larger minimum mesh
sizes, stricter enforcement of inshore trawler ban zones, and overall effort reductions).
Aquaculture Sustainability
Information
Giant tiger shrimp are
native to Indonesia, and
thus are favored by most
small-scale shrimp farmers
that use traditional
technology and farm in semiintensive or extensive
(medium- or low-density)
conditions. Whiteleg shrimp,
meanwhile, are not endemic
to the region and can be
cultured in intensive (highdensity) conditions with the
use of appropriate

Table 12: Summary of Metrics entries for Indonesian shrimp. 41% of


transactions and 39% of reported volumes for Indonesian shrimp were
attributable to the province in which production occurred. The three provinces
to which transactions were attributed are all large-scale aquaculture producers
and together account for 35% of national production (20102013, annual
average).

Province
South Sumatra

Number of
Metrics
Transactions
1

Volume Reported
in Metrics (metric
tons)
3,292

Avg Farmed
Production,
20102013
(metric tons)
55,656

194

3,546

52,776

52

52,290

199

6,890

160,722

484

17,840

454,376

41%

39%

35%

East Java
Lampung
TOTAL (FOR
IDENTIFIED
PROVINCES)
NATIONAL TOTAL
% IDENTIFIABLE BY
PROVINCE

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24

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

technology. Therefore, sustainability concerns vary according to the species being cultured and,
consequently, by province (see Table 11 above for the proportion of each species cultured in the
main production provinces).
Problems with water quality due to farm effluent release are particularly acute for intensive
whiteleg culture operations. On Java, the number of intensive-culture facilities has been reduced,
thereby limiting the scope of the problem. Meanwhile, in Lampung province on Sumatra Island
and in West Nusa Tenggera (Lesser Sunda Islands), intensive farming remains the norm, and
water quality is a persistent problem. Escapees and disease issues are also associated with
intensive whiteleg shrimp culture.
The island of Kalimantan has only recently become a major contributor to Indonesian shrimp
production, with farming output of the province of West Kalimantan jumping almost six-fold
from 2012 to 2013s crop of 39,092 metric tons. The increases in production have come at the
cost of mangrove habitatsWest Kalimantan reportedly lost 7,000 hectares of mangroves due to
the recent farming expansion. Meanwhile, much greater losses have occurred recently in East
Kalimantan (685,777 ha) and South Kalimantan (35,000 ha), but shrimp farming is only one of
several contributing factors in these regions: the oil industry has been active in East Kalimantan,
while industry and urban development have played roles in South Kalimantan deforestation.
Destruction of mangroves for shrimp farming continues to be a problem on Kalimantan.
Across Indonesia, data availability with respect to shrimp culture is a problem. Data on
production, disease, and environmental impacts are lacking. Carrying capacity is poorly
quantified. As a result, a key improvement recommendation to government and industry is to
work together to improve data availability and quality. Furthermore, the government should
conduct assessments on carrying capacity and develop regulations on the basis of results.
Detailed information about East Java shrimp culture is available here:
http://www.fishsource.com/site/aquaculture/shrimp_east_java.

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25

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Vietnam
Country Snapshot: Vietnam
National Overview

Year: 2013

For a relatively small country in terms of its geography,


Vietnam boasts an impressive coastline of 3,260 km that
borders on the Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea, and Gulf
of Thailand. Vietnam has 63 provinces and municipalities,
28 of which are coastal. Twenty-seven of these provinces
have registered trawlers that participate in the shrimp trawl
fishery, with four major fishing areas located along the
Vietnamese coast (Figure 8) (BaNguyen and Van Thi
2007). Shrimp farming also takes place mainly along the
coast, albeit occurring in a few inland provinces as well. In
contrast with fishing pressure, which is fairly evenly
distributed along the coast, farming is concentrated in
southern Vietnam, with the provinces of Ca Mau, Soc
Trang, and Kien Giang particular epicenters of production
(Figure 8).

Farmed production:

540,934 tons

Wild production:

266,026 tons

Total production:

806,960 tons

Export volume,
product weight:

~300,000 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~600,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~74%

Export market value:

$3.1 billion

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports (volume):

~ 88:12

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports (value):

~ 97:3

Ratio of farmed
product that is
exported:farmed
product that stays on
the domestic market:

Vietnamese shrimp aquaculture surpassed wild harvest in


2001, continuing an upward trajectory since then to achieve
~63:37
2014s historic peak of 568,668 metric tons of farmed
production (Vietnamese Directorate of Fisheries 2015).
Wild production has also maintained a steady increasing trend over the last 25 years, with the
2013 harvest of 266,026 metric tons a national record (the 2014 wild harvest volume is not yet
available) (Figure 9). Whiteleg and giant tiger shrimp are the major farmed species, accounting
for 94% of Vietnams export value in 2014. A major transition occurred in the farmed sector
over the past four years, with whiteleg shrimp, which comprised 58% of farmed production in
2014, overtaking giant tiger shrimp, which accounted for 64% of farmed production in 2011. As
has occurred elsewhere in Asia, intensive farming of whiteleg shrimp is quickly becoming the
dominant form of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam. Meanwhile, the predominant wild capture
species is white shrimp. Grooved tiger prawn and red endeavor prawn are also common. Over 25
other shrimp species are harvested in Vietnam for commercial use as well (Poseidon 2011).
Starting in 2011, Vietnamese Customs adopted a new export coding system that rendered it
impossible to determine shrimp export volume; only shrimp export market value is simply
reported by the government since then. Therefore, the current exported proportion of Vietnamese
shrimp is not known: over the last six years for which data is available (20052010), it averaged
74% (if yield after processing and/or preparation was taken as 49% on the basis of a product
breakdown of 2013 Vietnamese exports, in which live/fresh/frozen shrimp, presumed to
consist mostly of headless shell-on product, predominated). Notably, market value of
Vietnamese shrimp exports has risen precipitously (88%) since then (20102014), achieving a
peak of $3.95 billion in 2014. Meanwhile, Vietnamese farmed production only increased by 18%
over those years. This does not mean, however, that the proportion of Vietnamese shrimp that go

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26

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Figure 8: Map of Vietnam with the major aquaculture provinces of Kien Giang, Ca Mau and Soc Trang circled.
Four major shrimp fishing areas are also indicated with squares.

www.sustainablefish.org

27

Annual Production (metric tons)

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

to export has
increased. The EMS
outbreak generally
drove up prices for
global shrimp over
this period of time,
and may be
responsible for the
large increase in
market value.

600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000

Export value
statistics indicate
that Vietnam
exported shrimp
Year
products to 95
Figure 9: Vietnamese farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue) annual production,
nations in 2014. The
19502013 (FAO 2015).
total value of
Vietnamese exports
for that year amounted to $3.95 billion, 94% of which was accounted for by farmed shrimp and
6% by wild shrimp. Export values for nine importer countries exceeded $100 million. The
United States was the leading importer, accounting for over one-quarter of Vietnamese exports.
The US market received more processed whiteleg shrimp, live/fresh/frozen whiteleg shrimp, and
live/fresh/frozen giant tiger shrimp from Vietnam than any other country. The second largest
importer Japan, meanwhile, was notably the only country to import over $100 million worth of
wild Vietnamese shrimp. China, in third place, imports very little processed product, with
live/fresh/frozen whiteleg shrimp and giant tiger shrimp comprising the vast majority of its
imports from Vietnam (Table 13).
1950
1953
1956
1959
1962
1965
1968
1971
1974
1977
1980
1983
1986
1989
1992
1995
1998
2001
2004
2007
2010
2013

Provincial Overview
The in-country expert visited and collected production information for five provinces: Ca Mau,
Kien Giang, and Soc Trang (high-production farming provinces); as well as Ba Ria Vung Tau
(also a southern province) and Khanh Hoa in central Vietnam. Budget and schedule constraints
did not allow for a visit to the northern portion of the country, which is chiefly of importance for
the adjacent Gulf of Tonkin fishery rather than aquaculture. Provincial production statistics for
these five provinces indicate some varied dynamics: in Soc Trang giant tiger shrimp production
is quickly being abandoned in favor of whiteleg production, while in Kien Giang production of
both species is increasing at a moderate pace. Meanwhile, in Ca Mau, giant tiger shrimp
production is decreasing and whiteleg shrimp production is increasing, but giant tiger shrimp
production still predominates (Table 14). Together, the five provinces accounted for 44% of
Vietnamese farmed production in 2014.
Through 2010 Vietnamese customs maintained export volume and value information at the
provincial scale, but these statistics were discontinued by the change in coding in 2011. In the
last year of the old coding system (2010), the four provinces for which wild and farmed export
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28

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 13: Value (in US dollars) of 2014 Vietnamese exports of eight products to the nine top export destination countries (Vietnam Association of Seafood
Exporters and ProducersVASEP).

Country

Processed
shrimp
(whiteleg
shrimp)

Live/fresh/
frozen
shrimp
(Whiteleg
shrimp)

Processed
shrimp
(Giant tiger
shrimp)

Live/fresh/
frozen
shrimp
(Giant tiger
shrimp)

Farmed
Total

Processed
shrimp
(others)

Dried
shrimp
(others)

Canned
shrimp
(others)

Live/fresh/
frozen
shrimp
(others)

Wild Total

1,610,160

2,542,692

17,610,979

1,064,049,307

41,349,672

110,483,116

743,438,601

2,668,992

4,679,854

327,561,957

TOTAL

US

427,059,748

348,649,723

45,012,471

225,716,386

1,046,438,328

13,215,969

242,158

Japan

169,473,222

208,971,137

39,378,744

215,132,383

632,955,485

66,411,955

2,721,489

China

1,716,338

96,946,102

88,228

224,131,435

322,882,103

2,010,862

Korea

75,725,432

184,303,322

5,083,609

26,634,529

291,746,892

9,813,989

2,016

16,235,267

26,051,272

317,798,164

Canada

63,790,489

51,120,630

14,488,512

70,816,033

200,215,665

1,343,820

18,501

4,484

1,366,805

201,582,470

Australia

29,206,591

25,696,306

67,132,434

22,892,532

144,927,862

3,835,940

314,590

185,471

2,120,021

6,456,022

151,383,884

Germany

31,846,442

49,510,441

8,504,492

40,217,044

130,078,418

7,801,799

21,239

51,750

2,299,865

10,174,653

140,253,071

Netherlands

44,635,636

30,790,990

4,609,998

43,442,046

123,478,670

4,048,029

169,458

57,760

1,347,122

5,622,369

129,101,039

England

37,002,375

46,832,345

637,752

13,515,242

97,987,714

9,234,381

112,439

102,600

7,146,029

16,595,449

114,583,163

TOTAL

997,990,028

1,312,541,057

203,820,432

1,181,689,684

3,696,041,201

156,851,228

5,422,910

6,455,202

88,139,697

256,869,038

3,952,910,239

Table 14: Production (in metric tons) by species and year (20112014) for five priority provinces.
Ca Mau
Whiteleg

Wild
Spp.

Black
tiger

Soc Trang
White- Wild
leg
Spp.

Khanh Hoa
Black
Whitetiger
leg

Kien Giang
Black Whitetiger
leg

Year
2011

112,296

4,500

14,161

39,084

13,580

3,217

1,909

11,099

n/a

4,725

2,133

6,321

26,581

13,020

2012

114,110

11,448

14,810

39,051

15,519

4,100

1,481

10,788

n/a

2,205

2,204

7,569

27,369

12,921

2013

107,500

26,000

14,228

23,000

45,500

4,500

980

8,500

1,182

2,245

2,300

7,563

28,250

13,728

2014

86,795

29,205

14,490

10,727

56,585

4,520

645

8,214

1,361

1,965

2,637

7,505

32,430

19,000

www.sustainablefish.org

Wild
Spp.

Ba Ria Vung Tau


Black White
Wild
tiger
-leg
Spp.

Black
tiger

29

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

data was
compiled
accounted for
67% of national
2010 Wild
2010 Farmed
Main Destinations
Wild: Farmed
Province
Prod. (metric Prod. (metric
(% of total
exports, including
Export Proportion
tons)
tons)
provincial export)
51% of wild
Ba Ria Vung
exports and 70%
Tau
2,959
3,362
47:53 1. Japan (47%)
of farmed exports.
1. USA (20%)
Taken in
Ca Mau
13,601
89,720
13:87 2. Japan (20%)
aggregate, the
1. USA (42%)
Soc Trang
2,280
34,127
6:94 2. Japan (36%)
four provinces
exports consist of
1. USA (40%)
Khanh Hoa
0
15,912
0:100 2. Taiwan (13%)
143,121 metric
1. Japan (35%)
tons, 12% of
Kien Giang
n/a
2,872
n/a 2. Russia (17%)
which is
Total
18,840
143,121
12:88
comprised of wild
% Nat'l
shrimp, and 88%
Total
51%
70%
of farmed shrimp.
Main destinations and volumes exported to destination countries vary by region. Notably, Ca
Mau exports a large proportion of both its farmed and wild supplies (Table 15).
Table 15: 2010 export information for the five provinces visited by the in-country expert.
These provinces accounted for 67% of national exports in that year (VASEP 2015).

Metrics information for Vietnam corroborates the in-country experts findings with respect to
provincial exports. Ca Mau, Soc Trang, and Khanh Hoa are among the provinces from which
Metrics users purchased shrimp in 20112015, as are Kien Giang, Thua Thien Hue, and Bac
Lieu.
Fishery Sustainability
Information
Vietnamese fishery
management is generally
based upon the Vietnam
Fisheries Law, the FiveYear Master Plan for
Fisheries Sector
Development 2006-2010, and
the recently approved
Fisheries Development
Strategy Towards 2020.
There are also extensive
legislative regulations (from
1987 to 2003, over 100 legal
instruments have been issued
in the fisheries sector alone).
However, the quality of the
management of specific

Table 16: Summary of Metrics entries for Vietnamese shrimp. 31% of


transactions and 58% of reported volumes for Vietnamese shrimp were
attributable to the province in which production occurred. The six provinces to
which transactions were attributed together accounted for at least 37% of
national production in 20112014, annual average, production data missing for
two provinces and incomplete for a third).

# of Transactions

Volume

Kien Giang

67

7,762

Avg Production,
20112014 (metric
tons)
43,325 (farmed
only)

Khanh Hoa

19

2,200

11,540

Thua Thien Hue

33

868

n/a

Ca Mau

20

379

137,386

Soc Trang

29

Bac Lieu
TOTAL (FOR
IDENTIFIED
PROVINCES)

26

600

n/a

194

13,048

>257,097

624

22,583

~700,000

31%

58%

>37%

Province

NATIONAL TOTAL
% IDENTIFIABLE
BY PROVINCE
www.sustainablefish.org

1,239

64,846

30

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

fisheries, including the shrimp fishery, depends very much on the quality of social and biological
information used in policy development and decision-making. Monitoring and research are
currently insufficient to provide a good foundation for sustainable management of the shrimp
fishery, and must be improved at both the national and provincial levels.
Enforcement has also been inadequate and inconsistent. Non-compliance with fishing gear
regulations is a particular concern for the shrimp fishery. Mesh size violations contribute to
bycatch rates of 6080% of the total catch in shrimp trawls or 4080% in fish trawls, 90% in
fixed nets, and 9093% in push nets. Meanwhile, despite the comprehensiveness of Vietnamese
fishery law, some necessary regulations have not yet been put into place. For example,
explosives and chemical substances are still used for fishing in some provinces, including Ca
Mau and Khanh Hoa.
Despite these issues, stock status and harvests are relatively stable. However, existing
assessments suggest that overfishing has occurred in some coastal areas, included Soc Trang
province.
Recommended improvements include strengthening data gathering capacity in order to provide a
better biological and socio-economic basis for fishery management, implementation of fishing
capacity reductions, adoption of bycatch reduction device regulations, and establishment of
Marine Protected Areas. Harmful fishing practices also need to be entirely phased out.
Surveillance and enforcement are other areas with room for growth.
Fishing co-management pilot projects that allow for the involvement of provincial and district
authorities in fishery management represent promising opportunities for changing management
practices. The ongoing Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project (CRSD 20122018) is another potential lever for change. Key activities within the Project that are relevant to
fisheries management include (a) integrated spatial planning of coastal areas; (b) upgrades to the
Vietnam fisheries database; and (c) selected policy research. CRSD is being accomplished in
eight different provinces including Ca Mau, Soc Trang and Khanh Hoa.
Aquaculture Sustainability Information
Disease is the main problem for Vietnamese shrimp aquaculture, especially among intensive
farming operations. The most common diseases are EMS, white spot, runt syndrome caused by
MBV or HPV, and white feces syndrome. Farmers are combatting disease risk through the use of
prophylactics and disinfectants, which may impact the environment negatively or compromise
the quality of shrimp products. Many Vietnamese shrimp farmers understand that antibiotics
should not be used and have instead applied probiotics to enhance water quality and/or prevent
disease outbreaks in shrimp ponds. The collection of disease information, confirmation of
reported disease outbreaks using appropriate diagnoses, and effective screening for SPF
postlarvae are all limited by financial resource availability at both national and provincial levels.
Farmer education is key to the industry faring better with respect to disease. Particular guidance
is needed regarding the following:
Development of pond preparation plans,
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Use of certified, free pathogen seed or specific pathogen resistant seed,


Stocking of shrimp culture systems with densities appropriate for the type of farming
(extensive, semi-intensive, intensive),
Feed characteristics (stability, protein content, type, etc.) and additives, and associated
risks of disease and water quality impacts,
Monitoring practices that allow for determination of FCR, growth rate, and mortality, as
well as tracking of water quality (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, etc.), and
Disease prevention and water treatment methods.

The following recommendations are also offered to national and provincial authorities:
Conduct trainings covering the areas of guidance listed above,
Strengthen and expand the environmental and disease warning and monitoring systems
that are currently operating in Vietnamese aquaculture regions, and
Promote Good Aquaculture Practices (VietGAP).
Shrimp farming associations (clubs) provide possible forums for farmer training and
organization of improvement efforts. The number of shrimp clubs is increasing in Vietnam,
mainly at the community scale. Official statistics are, however, not available. Clubs are either
formed independently by the farmers or upon recommendation of local government, NGOs,
national projects, etc. Tasks of the clubs include facilitation of joint negotiation with suppliers
and development of agreements among neighboring farmers regarding zonal management.
Examples of established clubs include the My Thanh Shrimp Association, Cai Doi Vam Shrimp
Farmers Group in Phu Tan, Ca Mau Club (established with strong supports from the Department
of Agriculture and Rural Development of Ca Mau, SFP, and Mekong Tomland Co.), and several
groups established by the CRSD project in its eight target provinces. Thus far, My Thanh has
established itself as the largest association. At the national scale, all of these clubs could be
supported or coordinated by the Vietnam Fisheries Society (VINAFIS). However, activities of
VINAFIS are currently limited.

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32

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

India
Country Snapshot: India
National Overview

Year: 2013

India has quickly become a major player in the global


shrimp industry since the country initiated culture of
whiteleg shrimp in 2009, with production rising from
1,700 to over 250,000 metric tons in a span of five
years. Of Indias 36 states and territories, eight account
for 98% of national shrimp production: Andhra,
Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharastra, Gujarat,
Odisha, and West Bengal. Of those eight, Andhra is, by
far, the leading farmed shrimp producer, accounting for
64% of Indian farmed shrimp production. The Arabian
Sea harvests by Maharastra and Gujarat fisheries,
meanwhile, comprise 63% of Indian wild-capture
shrimp production (Figure 10).

Farmed production:

333,382 tons

Wild production:

410,416 tons

Total production:

743,798 tons

Export volume,
product weight:

255,603 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~426,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~57%

Export market value:

~$3 billion

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports (volume):

82:18

Ratio of farmed
product that is
exported:farmed
product that stays on
the domestic market:

Unlike the four countries described above, wild harvest


still exceeds farmed harvest in India, but this is likely to
>99 : <1
no longer be the case in the near future should current
dynamics persist (Figure 11). Since 2009, Indian
shrimp aquaculture production has more than tripled due to rapid development of whiteleg
shrimp semi-intensive farming capacity. Meanwhile, farming of other species, particularly giant
tiger shrimp, has declined in recent times, although the increase in whiteleg shrimp production
has more than made up for this. As for wild harvest species composition, more than 15 species
are treated as targets of the fishery in terms of stock assessment. Among main species on the
west coast are kadal shrimp, kiddi shrimp, Kuruma shrimp, and red-legged banana prawn. On the
east coast, grooved tiger prawn is a key species. Harvest statistics are lumped as penaeids and
non-penaeids, and they account for roughly equivalent volumes at the national scale.
The in-country expert for India was able to obtain separate export statistics for wild and farmed
shrimp, albeit with some recent wild export volumes missing. Farmed production accounted for
82% of national shrimp exports in 2013, the most recent year for which data is available. Farmed
dominance of national exports is a fairly new phenomenon, as wild product accounted for a
comparable portion of exports through 2010 (Figure 12). However, following 2010, farmed
exports rose sharply, while wild exports appear to have held steady. The overwhelming majority
(>99%) of farmed product leaves the country, a figure arrived at using an estimate of 60% yield
of prepared or processed product from wild production (the 2013 national export breakdown by
product indicates that frozen shrimp, assumed to be mostly headless shell-on, account for 99% of
exports).
As for export destinations for Indian shrimp, the United States leads the way, followed by
Vietnam, Japan, and Europe, respectively. Export trends have been quite dynamic over the past
eight years: Europe was the leading destination for Indian shrimp in 20072009, while at that
time Vietnam was a very minor player. Since then, Vietnam has increasingly looked to India for
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33

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Figure 10: Map of India with the major aquaculture province of Andhra indicated with a
circle. A square encompasses the major shrimp fishery regions of Gujarat and
Maharashtra.

raw material for processing and re-export (Table 17).


Provincial Overview
Provincial production statistics for 20002013 illustrate the rapid rise of aquaculture in Andhra,
as well as more modest investments in aquaculture in other provinces: farmed production has
steadily increased in West Bengal over the past six years, and in Tamilnadu over the past five
years. Other regions with aquaculture expansion are Gujarat, Maharastra, and Odisha.
Meanwhile, shrimp farming has contracted in Karnataka and Kerala, and production in these
regions is mostly from wild fisheries (Table 18).
Provincial export data was not available, but the in-country expert gathered anecdotal
information for three priority provinces: Andhra, Tamilnadu, and Kerala. In all three of these
regions, more than 90% of farmed supply is being exported. However, fisheries also make
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34

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

1950
1954
1958
1962
1966
1970
1974
1978
1982
1986
1990
1994
1998
2002
2006
2010

Annual Production (metric tons)

significant contributions to the


provincial exports of the three
400000
regions. Indian shrimp
350000
transactions in Metrics were
300000
traceable to four provinces:
Andhra, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, and
250000
Orissa. The Andhra transactions
200000
accounted for more volume than
150000
those of the other three provinces
100000
combined, a reflection of the
50000
provinces growing importance
for the national shrimp
0
aquaculture industry (Table 19).
Metrics data for India was
Year
remarkable compared with the
other countries included in this
Figure 11: Indian farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue) annual
production, 19502013 (FAO 2015).
analysis in terms of the high
proportion of transactions (22%)
accounted for by wild shrimp. However, it should be noted that Metrics is estimated to have
accounted for less than one percent of Indian shrimp exports in 20092013 (see Data Annex).
450000

Fishery Sustainability Information


Annual Export Volumes
(metric tons)

Fishery management is well350000


structured in India, with state
governments serving as the
300000
main regulatory bodies while
250000
the national Centre for
Agriculture Research, part of
200000
the Ministry of Agriculture,
150000
gathers data on stock status and
100000
environmental impacts. The
main harvest method is trawl
50000
netting. Harvests are delivered
0
to several harbors along the
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Indian coastlinethe major
Year
harbors for the shrimp fishery
are Chennai, Tuticorin,
Figure 12: Indian exports of shrimp from wild (gray) and farmed (black)
Chinnamuttom, Mallipattinam, sources, 20062014. Farmed exports now far exceed wild exports, although
the two sources were approximately equal contributors to national exports as
Pazhayar, and Valinokkam.
of 2010. Wild export information was not available for all years in the series.

Stock status of wild shrimp


differs by region. While harvests in the main producer regions of Gujarat and Maharastra have
been stable, shrimp catches in Kerala have dropped off since 2010, with particular abundance
declines within 12 nautical miles of the coastline.

www.sustainablefish.org

35

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 17: Indian shrimp exports to main destination nations, 20072014 (in metric tons of product) (New Delhi Export Inspection Agency 2015).

Year

USA
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Vietnam
346
322
808
2,094
13,129
13,991
35,917
47,419

25,228
25,012
22,231
44,997
98,674
101,794
92,014
86,576

Japan
25,840
25,312
25,258
32,436
37,687
31,534
21,534
27,275

EU
34,882
33,136
32,452
35,120
39,499
40,731
17,134
15,763

Table 18: Production of wild and farmed shrimp in coastal provinces of India, 20002014 (metric tons) (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute 2015).
Year

Andhra

Gujarat

Karnataka

Kerala

Maharastra

Odisha

Tamilnadu

West Bengal

Farmed
0

Wild
n/a

Farmed
0

Wild
9,508

Farmed
0

Wild
24,006

Farmed
0

Wild
12,796

Farmed
0

National
Total
440,575

n/a

5,199

21,748

21,238

449,119

2,620

7,570

n/a

640

5,999

10,280

24,803

4,990

27,098

28,270

491,397

12,072

1,828

40,204

6,461

n/a

981

10,316

12,390

17,651

6,070

33,497

29,714

500,153

1,500

9,147

1,328

39,201

7,573

n/a

1,068

14,003

9,896

17,783

6,674

22,138

35,432

452,262

3,322

21,523

1,843

38,752

6,883

n/a

683

17,293

9,739

15,493

7,036

27,787

42,336

479,196

109,868

3,227

11,147

1,883

47,650

5,151

n/a

979

13,094

9,726

22,171

5,307

n/a

42,006

517,709

56,557

99,550

3,149

13,895

2,119

43,191

5,903

n/a

946

23,077

5,410

18,294

3,438

n/a

28,000

467,630

44,068

29,706

111,811

3,107

10,593

2,138

51,084

4,309

101,040

1,130

13,373

3,544

23,258

4,133

16,000

27,418

491,661

2009

44,357

42,951

101,081

3,970

1,581

50,170

7,495

109,955

1,805

14,065

7,873

23,092

2,814

12,364

35,410

517,842

2010

48,692

66,631

53,093

6,392

11,855

2,090

49,371

8,225

102,253

1,721

14,363

7,995

23,554

4,279

13,731

42,983

532,778

2011

27,449

126,941

n/a

6,064

n/a

841

41,460

8,190

n/a

2,700

n/a

11,514

21,752

15,245

n/a

48,905

679,493

2012

31,416

159,363

n/a

9,393

n/a

664

39,036

5,181

n/a

3,573

n/a

15,124

24,040

25,869

n/a

55,027

694,526

2013

31,328

213,543

137,442

10,688

10,514

576

35,756

3,511

116,616

4,458

15,557

14,436

28,226

27,256

25,926

56,302

743,798

2000

Wild
22,573

Farmed
0

Wild
121,562

Farmed
0

Wild
6,876

Farmed
0

2001

17,676

91,731

8,933

2002

19,378

59,190

80,466

1,050

17,782

2003

32,827

53,124

75,601

1,510

2004

28,384

68,355

2005

24,778

70,669

72,769

2006

32,937

75,414

2007

35,623

2008

61,609

Wild
-

www.sustainablefish.org

36

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 19: Anecdotal information on exports from three priority provinces of India. Information was gathered from
shrimp processors and exporters, fishermen cooperatives, aquaculture societies, NaCSA, NETFISH, and MPEDA.

Province

Andhra

Tamilnadu

Kerala

% of Prod.
Exported

Main
Exported
Species

Destination Countries

90% of farmed
supply and 50% of
wild supply

whiteleg
shrimp

99% of farmed
supply, unknown
proportion of wild
supply
99% of farmed
supply, unknown
proportion of wild
supply

whiteleg
shrimp,
penaeid wild
shrimp
penaeid wild
shrimp,
whiteleg
shrimp

Note
Of the total provincial export,
15% is being procured from
other provinces and then
departing abroad from Andhra
Export was mainly wild shrimp
until 2010, now aquaculture also
a major contributor. Export
proportion of production for this
province is increasing
Export mainly comprised of wild
shrimp. Export proportion of
production for this province is
increasing.

USA, Britain, Belgium,


Chile, Canada

Britain, Japan, USA,


Vietnam

USA, Belgium, Britain,


Vietnam

Table 20: Summary of Metrics entries for Indian shrimp. 37% of transactions and 69% of reported volumes for
Indian shrimp were attributable to the province in which production occurred. The four provinces to which
transactions were attributed together accounted for 53% of national production in 20102013.
# of
Transactions

Total Volume
Accounted for in 20092015 (metric tons)

Andhra

155

2,819

176,341

Gujarat

77

103,808

Tamilnadu

363

42,555

Orissa
TOTAL (FOR
IDENTIFIED PROVINCES)

165

26,176

167

3,425

348,880

450

4,953

662,649

37%

69%

53%

Province

NATIONAL TOTAL
% IDENTIFIABLE BY
PROVINCE

Avg Production,
20102013 (metric
tons)

State
governments have put into place some precautionary management measures,
including net mesh size restrictions (generally diamond meshes of >30 mm are required of
trawlers by the coastal states) and 45-day closed seasons during breeding and monsoon seasons.
However, there are additional measures that would further ensure healthy status of Indian shrimp
stocks, including:

Extension of trawl closed seasons from 45 to 60 days split into two periods that cover
breeding timing of the major species,
Analysis of reasons for stock status declines on the west coast (Kerala),
Fishing pressure reductions in Kerala accomplished by strict regulations of the number
and size of trawlers, as well as engine power to a maximum of 250 HP (there is general
concern among the local scientific community over high power engines, which maximize
fishing capacity and allow for fishing in deeper waters with associated bottom habitat
impacts),
www.sustainablefish.org

37

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Reduction of pollution in coastal waters,


Risk assessment of bycatch species, as trawlers are increasingly retaining bycatch for use
in the fishmeal and fish oil industries,
Development of forums for consensus-based decision making that engage policy makers,
fishermen, the scientific community, and NGOs together,
Improvements to enforcement capacity to ensure that mesh size regulations and closed
seasons are complied with, and
Organized outreach to the fisher community regarding sustainability concerns.

Aquaculture Sustainability Information


As described above, the Indian shrimp aquaculture industry has rapidly transitioned from giant
tiger shrimp to whiteleg shrimp in terms of focal species. Increased production efficiency and
profits lie behind this trend, as semi-intensive whiteleg shrimp farming has an output of
approximately six tons per hectare, compared with one ton per hectare for giant tiger shrimp
farming. A key difference between production of the two species is broodstock source: Indian
whiteleg shrimp broodstock is entirely produced in hatcheries, while giant tiger shrimp
broodstock has, until recently, been sourced entirely from wild stocks (the government has
recently started a domestication program for giant tiger shrimp). There is also production of
scampi in traditional-style, freshwater reservoirs using broodstock from hatcheries.
Most Indian shrimp farms were sited and zoned in the 1990s without serious problems with
respect to vegetation and mangrove loss. However, concerns about land salinization were raised
by agricultural farmers and residents in areas adjacent to shrimp farms. In response to those
concerns, India established the Aquaculture Authority of India, a central government body tasked
with regulation of the aquaculture industry (now the Coastal Aquaculture Authority). At this
point in time, best practices for giant tiger shrimp farming are well defined and codified in India,
whereas guidelines for whiteleg shrimp production practices are lacking, as regulation has not
kept up with the fast pace of development of the industry.
While most farms were built during the 1990s, in regions of major aquaculture development such
as Andhra, agricultural lands are still being converted into shrimp farms. In Andhra due to a
temporary peak in costs associated with rice farming, over the last two years over 1,000 hectares
have been converted from rice to shrimp farming in the Godavari Delta. There is concern that the
balance of land use between rice and shrimp farming should be more closely regulated rather
than being allowed to vary with market forces. Impacts of shrimp farms upon rice farms and vice
versa are also not adequately studied. In Kerala, innovative crop rotation (shrimp/rice)
approaches are being used, but the aquaculture in this region is mostly traditional and extensive
(i.e., focused upon production of giant tiger shrimp).
Polluted effluent is one means by which shrimp farms can impact surrounding farmland.
Generally the water source for shrimp aquaculture is the same as that for agriculture, albeit with
seasonal variations. Agricultural farmers in Andhra have complained about high organic loads in
their water supply due to adjacent shrimp farming operations. In other regions where shrimp
aquaculture is less developed (e.g. Tamilnadu, Kerala, etc.) such concerns about water quality
have not been raised. There is not a system in place for regular water quality monitoring,
www.sustainablefish.org

38

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

although the Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture in Chennai near Andhra has
organized some relevant studies recently. Cluster management of farms (see below) appears to
have significant benefits for water quality in India.
The shrimp farming industry in India uses pelleted feed. Up until 2000, there was no domestic
production of fishmeal and oil. However, local production of these items has been quickly
organized, with a current annual fishmeal production volume of 200,000 metric tons, of which
70,000 metric tons are exported. Trawl bycatch (small pelagic species) is being used to produce
the fishmeal, and there is concern that fishers are violating mesh size violations and disturbing
the seafloor bottom in order to harvest more small pelagic species. Most (95%) of fishmeal and
oil production occurs along the west coast of India, and issues with wild stock status in western
India may be directly related to the increased demand for bycatch in the region.
As for disease, no outbreaks of EMS have been officially confirmed in India, despite earlier
worries regarding EMS-like symptoms at farms in Ponneri, Tamilnadu. However, farmers in
several regions, including Andhra, are dealing with Running Mortality Syndrome, which is
resulting in small-scale, daily production losses. In association with this disease, survival rates of
4050% were noted at Andhra farms in 2014, compared with 80% survival in 2012.
Since 2002, the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) has been working to
organize farmers into clusters (groups of approximately 25 farmers that reside together in a
single village and can work together upon shared sustainability issues). A separate organization,
the National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture, was subsequently launched by MPEDA to
further the cluster initiative. Over 750 clusters have been formed to date in six provinces, but not
all of the clusters are active (of 601 clusters in Andhra, about 50% are active, while 10 of 49
clusters in Tamilnadu are active). Cluster activities have been associated with improvements to
local water quality.
Below follows a list of recommended improvements for the Indian shrimp aquaculture industry:
Outline best practice guidelines and associated regulations for whiteleg shrimp
production, with particular focus upon proper water and soil management, as well as
disease prevention,
Encourage formation and activation of farm clusters;
Ensure that all hatcheries are using SPF broodstock,
Revise regulations regarding approval of new farms to ensure a desirable local balance
between agriculture and shrimp farming, and
Elucidate best practices regarding crop rotation (rice/shrimp) in order to control disease
spread.

www.sustainablefish.org

39

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Bangladesh

Country Snapshot: Bangladesh

National Overview

Year: 2014

In terms of global shrimp markets, Bangladesh is


overshadowed by its neighbor India. However, as in
India, shrimp aquaculture is also on the rise in
Bangladesh, albeit with more modest growth.
Information gathered in country indicates how
Bangladeshi shrimp aquaculture has grown steadily
since the 1980s, surpassing wild production in 2012
(Figure 13). Highlighting the importance of shrimp for
the Bangladeshi seafood industry, in 2013 shrimp
accounted for 59% of national seafood exports by
volume and 81% by value.

Farmed production:

148,200 tons

Wild production:

92,917 tons

Total production:

241,117 tons

Export volume,
product weight:

54,500 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~109,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~45%

Export market value:

~$500 million

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports (volume):

89:11

Ratio of farmed

Bangladesh is divided into six divisions, three of which


product that is
exported:farmed
have coastline along the Bay of Bengal: Khulna,
product that stays on
Barisal, and Chittagong. Khulna is the largest farmed
the domestic market:
~66:34
shrimp producer, accounting for 86% of national
shrimp aquaculture production in 2014. Chittagong
ranks second with 10% of farmed production. Meanwhile, Chittagong, the only region where
trawling occurs, led the other two coastal divisions in terms of wild shrimp capture in 2014
(Figure 14).

Annual Production (metric


tons)

Among major Asian aquaculture producers Bangladesh is notable for its ban upon vannamei
(whiteleg shrimp) production, in place until 2012, at which time the government began a pilot
vannamei production program. Despite initiation of the pilot project three years ago, whiteleg
shrimp has yet to become a commonly produced species in the country. Bangladesh has been
reluctant to allow commercial whiteleg shrimp production due to concerns over the lack of
technical and financial
160000
resources needed to cultivate
140000
the species safely.
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
1982
1983
1986
1987
1990
1991
1995
1996
2000
2001
2005
2006
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Year
Figure 13: Bangladeshi farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue)
annual production in metric tons, 19822014 (FRSS 19832015).
www.sustainablefish.org

In the absence of intensive


whiteleg shrimp production,
more traditional, extensive
approaches to farming are
dominant in Bangladesh. The
main farmed species is giant
tiger shrimp (49% of farmed
production), followed by
giant river prawn (31%),
brown shrimp (Metapenaeus
monoceros) (6%), and Indian
white prawn (Penaeus
40

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Figure 14: Map of Bangladesh with the major shrimp aquaculture division of Khulna
indicated with a circle and the 2014 leading division for wild harvest, Chittagong,
indicated with a square.

indicus) (2%) (Figure 15). These species are all native to the region and comprise the
Bangladeshi wild harvest together with a variety of other species, some found in salt water
(Penaeus merguiensis, P. semisulcatus, P. japonicus, P. latisulcatus, P. canaliculatus, P.
penicillatus; Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis, M. brevicornis, M. dobsoni, M. ensis, M.
lysianassa, M. tenuipes, Parapenaeusopsis coromandidelica, and Parapenaeusopsis lysianassa)
and some in fresh water (Parapeneopsis coromandelica, Parapeneopsis hardwickii,
Parapeneopsis maxillipedo, Parapeneopsis sculptilis,Parapeneopsis stylifera, Parapeneopsis
uncta, Trachypenaeus curvirostris, Metapenaeopsis stridulans, Solenocera crassicornis, S.
hextii, S. indica, S. melantho, Acetes chinensis, and A. erythraeus).
Along with production, national exports have also been steadily increasing over the past
two decades. While farmed giant tiger shrimp account for 30% of Bangladeshi shrimp
production (farmed and wild combined), they account for 59% of shrimp exports (Table
21). Bangladesh exports approximately half of its shrimp (if yield after preparation and
www.sustainablefish.org

41

80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
1982
1983
1986
1987
1990
1991
1995
1996
2000
2001
2005
2006
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Annual Production (metric tons)

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Year

Figure 15: Bangladeshi farmed shrimp production, 19822014,


by species in metric tons: giant tiger shrimp (blue), giant river
prawn (red), others (turquoise), brown shrimp (green) and
Indian white prawn (purple).

processing is estimated at
50% on the basis of product
information provided from
two exporter- processing
plants, which indicated that
most product is headless shellon, some deveined, some not).
As for export destinations,
quantitative figures were not
available at the national scale
(see Provincial Overview
below for province-scale
information regarding export
destinations).
Provincial Overview

Production information was


gathered for the three coastal
provinces by species and gear type (for wild fisheries). Wild fishery production
information indicates that marine and estuarine set netting is the most important gear
Table 21: Bangladeshi shrimp exports in metric tons of product by species, 19822014.

Year

Farmed
Farmed
Wild giant tiger giant river
spp.
shrimp
prawn

Farmed
Farmed
brown Indian white
shrimp
prawn

1982

3,542

2,347

294

89

64

569

6,903

1983

3,421

3,993

561

165

99

1,041

9,312

1986

3,345

6,134

1,886

733

241

1,528

13,631

1987

3,542

7,287

2,458

975

216

1,985

16,275

1990

3,876

7,988

2,468

1,263

532

1,937

17,505

1991

3,679

8,393

2,238

1,698

621

1,916

17,985

1995

4,568

12,816

4,919

1,288

719

1,678

26,277

1996

5,023

14,221

4,026

528

521

936

25,255

2000

4,876

17,678

3,800

550

498

1,112

28,514

2001

4,656

20,413

3,715

324

315

290

29,713

2005

5,295

24,980

6,282

2,528

822

2,500

42,943

2006

5,654

25,182

7,158

2,178

982

5,379

46,533

2009

5,805

28,658

9,282

1,928

678

4,017

50,368

2010

5,365

30,172

11,322

1,623

876

2,241

51,599

2011

6,217

31,371

11,980

1,820

996

2,507

54,891

2012

5,666

28,556

10,228

1,529

835

1,193

48,007

2013

5,977

30,124

10,615

1,126

927

1,564

50,333

2014
% Total

5,929
11%

32,188
59%

11,622
21%

1,218
2%

955
2%

2,588
5%

54,500
-

www.sustainablefish.org

Other
farmed
spp.

TOTAL
EXPORTS

42

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

type, with set net fisheries in the three provinces accounting for over one-third (38%) of total
shrimp harvest (Table 22). Meanwhile, provincial aquaculture statistics indicate the dominance of
Khulna in production of each of four species, plus all others combined (Table 23). As for trade,
two prominent processing plants located in Chittagong and Khulna were visited (there is no
processing capacity in Barisal). Information regarding the processing volumes and exports out of
the two plants indicates growing importance of Europe as a shrimp trade destination for
Bangladesh and waning importance of the United States. Notably, the Khulna plant is exporting
predominantly farmed product, while one-third of the exports out of Chittagong are of wild origin
(Table 24).
Among 33 transactions for Bangladeshi shrimp registered in Metrics, 10 were traceable to
Satkhira district within the division of Khulna. The Satkhira district accounted for 33% of
Khulna shrimp farm production and 28% of national shrimp farm production in 2013. The other
23 transactions could not be traced to a particular division or district.
Fishery Sustainability Information
Generally, fishery management in Bangladesh is more vigilant when it comes to the open-water,
trawl fishery as compared with coastal, artisanal fisheries. The Chittagong Port Authority, for
example, conducts active surveillance of the trawl fleet. However, the problem with this
approach is that coastal and estuarine set nets account for a much greater proportion of total
shrimp harvest than trawls, and there are compliance issues in these artisanal fisheries
(unlicensed fishing) as well as lack of adequate regulations (for example, regulations governing
set net mesh size are absent).
There is no regional stock assessment of wild shrimp in Bangladesh. However, there is concern
that populations of wild, commercial shrimp species are not as healthy as they could be: declines
in average body sizes of harvested individuals have been noted. Particularly in the case of giant
river prawn, these declines have been linked to indiscriminate harvest of immature shrimp in set
net fisheries for use in shrimp farming. This used to be a grave problem for giant tiger shrimp as
well, although now giant tiger shrimp farming operations are dependent upon hatcheries for their
post-larvae supply rather than wild sources. This change seems to have slowed the declines in
body size of giant tiger shrimp, presumably because harvest of immature individuals was
reduced. A similar approach to giant river prawn farming could have positive impacts for wild
stocks.
In summary, the following sustainability improvements are recommended to the Bangladeshi
authorities:

Outlaw set net fisheries altogether or put into place and adequately enforce mesh size
regulations,
Reduce fishing pressure in coastal and estuarine areas,
Outlaw brood and post-larvae harvest of giant river prawn from river mouths, estuaries
and mangroves, and
Encourage brood farming of giant river prawn so that the farming industry will no longer
need so many immature giant river prawns.
www.sustainablefish.org

43

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 22: Wild shrimp harvests of the three coastal divisions of Bangladesh separated by gear type, 20002014 (in metric tons).

Div.
Year

Marine
&
Estuarine
Set Nets

Barisal
Other
Gear,
Trammel SeaNets
water

Other
Gear,
Freshwater

Total

Marine &
Estuarine
Set Nets

Trawl

Chittagong
Other
Gear,
Trammel SeaNets
water

Khulna
Other
Gear,
Freshwater

Total

Marine &
Estuarine
Set Nets

Trammel
Nets

Other
Gear,
Seawater

Other
Gear,
Freshwater

Total

Others

TOTAL

All gear

All gear

2000

4,057

38

102

6,475

10,672

13,523

2,915

604

340

2,158

19,540

9,466

113

238

8,633

18,450

25,900

74,562

2001

3,935

41

121

6,726

10,823

12,116

3,172

660

383

2,242

18,573

9,181

124

283

8,969

18,557

27,427

75,380

2005

5,574

96

281

8,299

14,250

18,579

3,311

1,538

935

2,766

27,129

13,005

288

654

11,066

25,013

33,199

99,591

2006

5,850

93

303

9,736

15,982

19,545

3,444

1,484

1,010

3,246

28,729

13,650

278

707

12,982

27,617

40,701

113,029

2009

6,903

109

166

9,124

16,302

23,112

2,932

1,740

554

7,105

35,443

16,100

326

388

18,566

35,380

54,993

142,118

2010

6,699

192

239

6,958

14,088

22,329

2,496

3,074

798

2,319

31,016

15,630

576

558

9,278

26,042

27,834

98,980

2011

6,956

287

313

8,687

16,243

23,187

2,785

4,594

1,044

2,896

34,506

16,231

861

731

11,582

29,405

34,747

114,901

2012

7,065

307

330

6,347

14,049

23,551

2,212

4,917

1,121

2,116

33,917

16,486

922

770

8,462

26,640

40,742

115,348

2013

5,079

361

362

6,739

12,541

16,930

3,083

5,780

1,211

2,247

29,251

11,851

1,083

840

8,987

22,761

26,948

91,501

2014
% of
Total
(2013)

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

17,890

3,000

5,860

1,200

2,256

30,206

11,980

987

857

9,123

22,947

39,764

92,917

6%

0.4%

0.4%

7%

14%

19%

3%

6%

1%

2%

32%

13%

1%

10%

25%

29%

www.sustainablefish.org

1%

44

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 23: Farmed shrimp production of the three coastal divisions of Bangladesh, separated by species of production, 20002014 (in metric tons).

Barisal
Chittagong
Khulna
Giant Giant
Indian
Giant Giant
Indian
Giant Giant
Indian
tiger
river
Brown white
tiger
river Brown white
tiger
river Brown white
Year shrimp prawn shrimp prawn Others Total shrimp prawn shrimp prawn Others Total shrimp prawn shrimp prawn Others Total
2000
29
491
45
10
811 1,386 9,786
21 1,646
414
1,932 13,799 33,885 5,013 5,128
501 7,560 52,087
2001
34
384
40
10
216 684 9,413
34 2,345
693
1,386 13,871 25,704 9,072 7,560
504 1,386 44,226
2005
722 1,290
45
20
262 2,339 8,871
42 2,836 1,161
1,140 14,050 28,748 18,252 11,538
262 6,759 65,559
2006
743 1,543
53
23
440 2,802 8,303
72 4,503
411
1,820 15,109 30,187 19,686 1,836 10,083 5,696 67,488
2009
992 2,016
58
27
320 3,413 10,242
97 4,525 1,526
3,899 20,289 38,475 23,568 6,975
810 3,822 73,650
2010
731 1,987
55
31
234 3,038 13,751
110 2,863 1,238
4,201 22,163 34,621 27,693 5,256
841 1,677 70,088
2011
858 3,284
240
32
48 4,462 17,260
122 1,200
950
4,502 24,034 38,451 35,165 17,489 2,331 3,498 96,934
2012 1,558 1,689
449
150
106 3,952 16,302
640 2,580
860
1,147 21,529 39,924 41,768 10,114 3,341 10,894 106,041
2013 2,084 2,642
278
89
58 5,151 13,400
483
321
108
143 14,455 52,906 40,633 6,954 2,502 10,720 113,715
2014
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
510
320
110
210 15,150 55,500 40,800 7,650 2,550 10,500 117,000
n/a 14,000

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45

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 24: Processing and export statistics for two shrimp processing operations located in the divisions of Chittagong and Khulna. For each processing plant
the top three export destinations and the volumes shipped are indicated in metric tons of product, as is the proportion of processed product that was from
farmed sources and from wild sources.
Plant

Year

Chittagong Plant

Farmed:Wild

EU

USA

Far
East

Russia

Khulna Plant

Other
Destinations

Total
Export
Volume
(metric
tons)

1982

49:51

532

152

684

76

1,519

Farmed:Wild
mostly
farmed

2000

55:45

2,096

2,395

898

599

5,988

mostly
farmed

2001

58:42

2,236

2,555

958

639

6,388

2005

62:38

3,350

3,350

837

837

8,374

2006

62:38

4,293

3,339

763

1,145

9,539

2009

65:35

4,533

3,526

806

1,209

10,074

2010

63:37

5,602

3,361

1,008

1,344

11,204

2011

64:36

6,351

2,309

808

1,848

11,547

2012

65:35

6,101

1,279

1,771

9,841

2013

65:35

7,082

951

317

2,220

10,570

2014

65:35

7,333

850

372

2,126

10,628

83:17
mostly
farmed
mostly
farmed
mostly
farmed
mostly
farmed
mostly
farmed
mostly
farmed
mostly
farmed
mostly
farmed

www.sustainablefish.org

EU

Far
East

USA

Russia

Other
Destinations

Total
Export
Volume
(metric
tons)

2,154

538

2,423

269

5,384

7,884

9,010

3,379

2,253

22,526

8,164

9,330

3,499

2,333

23,325

13,828

13,828

3,457

3,457

34,569

16,647

12,948

2,960

4,439

36,994

18,132

14,103

3,224

4,835

40,294

20,198

12,119

3,232

4,847

40,395

23,839

8,669

3,901

6,935

43,344

23,663

4,962

2,672

6,870

38,166

26,521

3,562

1,187

8,312

39,583

30,272

3,510

1,536

8,774

43,872

46

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Aquaculture Sustainability Information


As stated above, Bangladesh does not currently farm whiteleg shrimp intensively. For this
reason, it was able to avoid the EMS outbreak. However, a growing number of farmers in
Khulna and Chittagong are upgrading from extensive to semi-intensive or intensive giant tiger
shrimp cultures, and this has resulted in cases of white spot disease in both divisions. There have
also been some isolated cases in Barisal, although farming in this region is still entirely
traditional.
The transition toward intensive cultures is resulting in farm management changes including
changes in the types of feed used. Traditional farming practice in Bangladesh entails preparation
of mash feed from low-cost, locally available ingredients including rice bran, wheat bran, oil
cake, snail meat, and fishmeal. However, there is now increasing demand for supplemental pellet
feed, and this is likely to result in higher organic loads in effluent as well as impacts to small
pelagic fish species harvested in order to manufacture the pellet feed. With respect to effluents,
there are some farms in Khulna and Chittagong that are now operating as closed systems within
which water is being treated. Meanwhile, in Barisal, water continues to be handled traditionally
(intake and discharge occur during new and full moons): in the absence of supplemental feeds,
this does not pose a problem to water quality in surrounding territories.
As for sustainability issues associated with the siting of farms, there is a precedent for
destruction of valuable mangrove habitat: Chittagongs Chokoria Sundarban mangrove forests
have been converted to shrimp farming areas. There are vast mangrove forested areas in Khulna
(known simply as Sundarban) and these areas need to be protected so that they do not face a
similar fate as Chokoria Sundarban. There are also coastal mangroves and offshore islands in
Chittagong that could be encroached upon by further development of the industry. Meanwhile,
Barisal, particularly its southwestern portion, is home to the worlds largest continuous
mangrove tract, which has been granted the status of Ecologically Critical Area, preventing the
encroachment of new shrimp farms upon a 10 km-wide swath of mangrove forest.
The Bangladeshi coastal zone is prone to floods and other natural disasters. Frequently, farmed
shrimp escape to the wild during floods. However, impacts upon wild populations have not been
studied.
The following recommendations are made to the Bangladeshi industry and regulatory authorities:

Farms should not source post-larvae shrimp from the wild, and instead source from
hatcheries (see Fishery Sustainability Information section above),
Dykes and embankments should be strengthened to prevent escape of farmed shrimp
during floods, and
Closed culture systems in Khulna and Chittagong merit expansion both within those
provinces and in Barisal.

The national farmers association, Fish and Shrimp Exporters Association, and Khulna regional
farmers association are all organizations that could be engaged in improvement efforts.

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47

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Malaysia

Country Snapshot: Malaysia

Of all countries covered by this report, data gathering


for Malaysia was among the most challenging, as we
had trouble identifying an in-country expert to collect
information. The data gatherer ultimately engaged in
the project was based in neighboring Indonesia, and
gathered mainly production and sustainability
information while providing limited trade information.
An in-country expert may have been able to gather
some of the missing Malaysian trade information.

Year: 2013
Farmed production:

50,414 tons

Wild production:

109,216 tons

Total production:

159,630 tons

Export volume,
product weight:

33,584 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~56,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~35%

Export market value:


$355 million
Malaysia is divided into western and eastern portions
that together comprise 13 states and three federal
Ratio farmed:wild of
exports (volume):
~50:50
territories. Western Malaysia consists of the Malaysian
Peninsula (11 states and two federal territories) and
Ratio of farmed
Eastern Malaysias main feature is the island of Borneo, product that is
exported:farmed
which two Malaysian states share with Indonesia and
product that stays on
Brunei. Important states for fishing are located along
the domestic market:
~55:45
the west coast of the Malaysian Peninsula (Perak and
Selangor), while the top two shrimp aquaculture states
of Sabah and Pulau Penang are situated in eastern Borneo and in the northwest portion of the
Malaysian Peninsula, respectively (Figure 16).

Figure 16: Map of Malaysia with the major shrimp aquaculture states of Sabah and Pulau Penang indicated with
circles and the main states for wild harvest, Perak and Selangor, indicated with a square.

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48

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Annual Production (metric tons)

Wild shrimp
harvest has always
120,000
and continues to
exceed farmed
100,000
shrimp production
in Malaysia,
80,000
although as of 2010
60,000
farmed production
appeared on track
40,000
to overtake wild
shrimp, buoyed by
20,000
new intensive
0
whiteleg shrimp
production facilities
(Figure 17).
Year
However, problems
Figure 17: Malaysian wild shrimp (blue) and farmed shrimp (red) annual production in
with EMS and other
metric tons, 19802013 (Fisheries Department of Malaysia 2015).
diseases have since
hampered
Malaysias farmed shrimp industry. Wild target species include banana prawn (10% of national
wild harvest) and giant tiger shrimp (1% of national wild harvest), with a variety of species
accounting for the remaining 89% of harvest (flower prawn, geragau shrimp, king prawn,
Parapenaeopsis spp., pink shrimp, red Sandakan prawn, red Semporna shrimp, red tiger prawn,
yellow shrimp, etc.). Meanwhile, whiteleg shrimp is the dominant aquaculture species (89% of
farmed production), with giant tiger shrimp (10%) and giant freshwater prawn (1%) comprising
the remaining 11% of farmed production.
140,000

As for national trade statistics, the proportion of shrimp production that is exported has
fluctuated over the years, even exceeding 100% of production in a couple of years, drawing into
question the accuracy of data and suggesting the occurrence of illegal harvest. In 2013, the most
recent year for which data is available, Malaysia exported an estimated 35% of its shrimp harvest
(Table 25yield after preparation and processing was estimated at 60% on the basis of national
export statistics, which indicated that most product was frozen and presumed headless shell-on).
Frozen shrimp exports to the United States, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Hong Kong
account for over 80% of total national exports. Generally, the United States has consistently been
the leading export destination for Malaysian shrimp over the last 10 years, but the importance of
the Asian market has also been growing over the last several years (Table 26).
Clear, detailed information on the proportion of exports accounted for by wild and farmed
shrimp was not available, but some customs information on frozen shrimp exports was provided
indicating volumes of frozen whiteleg shrimp, giant tiger shrimp, giant river prawn shrimp, and
other shrimp that were exported in 2013. If the other category is presumed to be all wild-origin
shrimp and the remaining three categories are presumed to be all farmed-origin shrimp (this may
not be true in the case of giant tiger shrimp, as 26% of this species production in Malaysia is
attributed to wild sources), and if frozen export ratios are presumed to be representative of ratios
across all products, then farmed shrimp comprise approximately half of Malaysian shrimp
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49

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 25: Malaysian shrimp production and Malaysian shrimp exports, 19912013.
Year
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013

National Production
(metric tons)
105,627
130,447
110,893
107,558
100,256
28,765
19,845
95,216
29,364
114,143
123,921
103,870
100,353
111,784
100,072
106,771
90,547
144,877
160,969
204,957
178,097
177,014
159,630

Exported Production (metric


tons of product weight)
31,634
19,895
21,017
25,199
25,300
25,553
24,520
28,703
35,362
37,084
40,069
79,012
49,879
62,349
71,012
67,063
72,336
71,955
65,211
81,023
85,748
65,535
33,584

Exported Production (metric


tons of live weight)
52,723
33,158
35,028
41,998
42,167
42,588
40,867
47,838
58,937
61,807
66,782
131,687
83,132
103,915
118,353
111,772
120,560
119,925
108,685
135,038
142,913
109,225
55,973

Percent
Exported
50%
25%
32%
39%
42%
148%
206%
50%
201%
54%
54%
127%
83%
93%
118%
105%
133%
83%
68%
66%
80%
62%
35%

Table 26: Top destination-product type combinations for Malaysian shrimp exports and the volumes exported (in
metric tons of product), 20042013.
Destination:
Product
type:
Year

Australia

Hong
Kong

Japan

South
Korea

Taiwan

US

Vietnam

Thailand

Singapore

Frozen

frozen

frozen

frozen

frozen

frozen

Frozen

frozen

fresh or
chilled

2004

280

1,431

3,519

336

108

13,966

437

6,817

2005

316

1,291

3,321

319

109

26,653

221

8,126

2006

413

643

3,022

588

70

21,165

122

8,326

2007

895

1,145

3,816

1,747

400

26,017

59

2008

2,232

1,013

4,830

3,723

1,025

32,808

746

309

8,187

2009

2,098

1,292

5,620

6,348

1,231

20,290

1,366

585

10,395

2010

3,253

1,100

8,491

8,548

3,148

25,269

4,261

499

2011

2,822

1,327

9,940

8,261

2,775

28,324

2,819

5,844

2012

2,892

1,231

7,126

4,273

1,475

20,921

6,414

2,368

7,779

2013

3,609

1,217

5,277

4,434

1,675

8,735

2,341

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8,174

50

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

exports (47% to be exact).


Provincial Overview
Top Malaysian states for farmed shrimp produce over 10,000 metric tons annually (Sabah and
Pulau Penang), while leading states for wild shrimp harvest over 25,000 metric tons a year
(Perak and Selangor) (Table 27). While Sabah and Pulau Penang have recently become
important states for shrimp aquaculture due to investments in whiteleg shrimp culture, Selangor
continues to be the main producer of giant tiger shrimp, accounting for over 75% of national
farmed production of the species.
Table 27: Annual production of farmed and wild shrimp in metric tons in the seven most productive states of
Malaysia, 2000-2013.
Kedah
Year

Wild

Pulau Penang

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

Perak
Wild

Selangor

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

Johor
Wild

Sarawak

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

Sabah
Wild

Farmed

2000

7,614

503

7,217

126

30,967

2,718

15,447

1,357

2,387

2,613

17,293

3,521

11,529

2,067

2001

5,761

780

2,535

309

23,117

5,447

14,124

1,775

5,069

3,734

12,839

4,201

10,109

5,470

2002

5,180

1,339

2,558

357

22,547

5,385

11,450

2,272

5,628

3,517

15,475

5,986

8,601

3,105

2003

4,419

1,623

2,187

486

24,859

5,489

10,019

3,004

4,509

2,989

11,948

6,737

9,390

3,080

2004

3,566

1,891

2,347

541

25,360

7,781

11,115

3,354

5,484

3,368

18,637

8,110

9,269

2,241

2005

3,217

861

1,683

621

14,165

8,828

4,992

5,272

4,649

5,065

12,798

8,147

7,435

1,602

2006

3,080

1,308

2,916

896

2,859

11,951

4,534

4,729

6,035

6,010

3,966

2,242

2,568

2,242

2007

5,032

349

4,165

239

20,461

3,184

13,847

1,260

5,711

1,601

9,378

1,092

8,209

597

2008

3,391

892

3,628

2,664

17,582

13,119

28,797

8,620

3,109

10,217

9,619

3,362

8,498

10,746

2009

3,587

3,063

3,666

5,175

25,786

16,542

29,968

8,413

3,663

9,587

8,049

4,708

9,204

9,860

2010

3,325

3,135

6,758

7,984

29,538

18,216

45,773

8,549

6,295

13,859

6,401

7,501

10,503

14,145

2011

3,261

2,167

10,454

11,275

30,787

10,470

33,505

6,870

8,412

7,479

6,763

8,591

10,973

14,792

2012

3,335

1,504

9,399

11,341

32,229

5,237

33,672

5,896

16,305

5,419

7,665

8,972

11,848

12,070

2013

3,516

2,567

10,260

11,733

31,357

5,262

26,800

5,201

12,243

4,573

9,574

2,054

10,912

11,883

No information on the province of origin of exports was obtained, and the single Malaysian
shrimp recordable transaction in Metrics is not traceable to a province. However, incomplete
information was provided on the locations of the 98 Malaysian businesses engaged in exporting
shrimp: of 34 exporters for which locations were pinpointed, 19 are in Sebah; four in Johor; three
each in Lebuan and Selangor; two in Kedah; and one each in Penang, Perak, and Sarawak. Note
that product processed and exported from these facilities may not all have originated in the
provinces in which the facilities are located. Information on facility processing capacity
indicated that the greatest processing capacity exists at facilities located in Sedah.
Fishery Sustainability Information
The west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, bordering on the Malacca Strait and Andaman Sea, is the
most important for Malaysian shrimp fisheries, although surveys from the early 2000s indicated
overfishing and declining productivity (Chee 2000; Talib et al. 2000; Talib 2002). Meanwhile,
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51

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

the eastern Peninsula coastline of the South China Sea is less productive, but the shrimp catch
here is still of importance for meeting the subsistence needs of rural economies. Landings of
shrimp on the east coast have always been seasonal, usually becoming available during the
northeast monsoon months from November to March. Available data indicate that east coast
shrimp resources have been fully exploited. The potential yield has been estimated at around
6,000 metric tons (Pathansali 1976) as compared with a catch of between 3,9265,615 metric
tons annually in 20052009.
Fisheries management in Malaysia is chiefly the responsibility of state government. The state of
Sabah represents the only exception to this rule, as there is a mix of federal and state
responsibility over the fisheries there. Previously, fisheries in Malaysia were organized into four
zones by the Fisheries Act of 1985 (which was amended in 1993): Zone A (05 nautical miles
from the coastartisanal fisheries only), Zone B (512 nautical miles from the coastowneroperated, small trawlers and purse seiners), Zone C (1230 nautical miles from the coast
trawlers and purse seiners) and Zone C2 (30 nautical miles from the coast up to international
waterslarger trawlers and purse seiners). In June 2014, these zones were redrawn with the
implicit goals of reducing trawler intrusions into traditional, coastal fishing grounds and phasing
in trawl bans at the beginning of 2016. The new zones are as follows: no-fishing zone (within
one nautical mile of the coast), Zone A (18 nautical miles from the coastartisanal fisheries
only), Zone B (815 nautical miles from the coastas of 2016, only seiners will be allowed to
operate here), and Zone C (15 nautical miles from the coast through to international waters).
Main sustainability concerns of the Malaysian shrimp fishery include overfishing (as indicated
by declining CPUE in surveys as well as the greater incidence of small and juvenile fish in
landings), habitat destruction (coastal disturbance due to land-based activities, as well as ocean
bottom disturbance by trawlers), and water pollution (due to sewage release, as well as
agricultural and industrial effluents).
Adoption of more of an ecosystem-based management approach is encouraged in order to
address current challenges. Presently, fisheries management in Malaysia is quite focused upon
controlling fishing effort and does not take a holistic approach. There are also some issues
involving cross-jurisdiction collaboration: for example, marine protected areas are managed by
the federal government, while fisheries are mostly managed by state governments. The two
entities need to communicate and collaborate in order to ensure effectiveness.
Aquaculture Sustainability Information
As of 2013, there are 5,800 hectares of shrimp ponds in Malaysia, as well as 94 shrimp
hatcheries with an annual production capacity of 12 billion fry. Cages are also used for shrimp
culture. As with fisheries, management jurisdictions overlap: aquaculture is defined in the
National Land Code as an agricultural activity, and states are charged with management of
agriculture on their respective territories. However, there is also a National Agriculture Policy
that sets broad guidelines for the Malaysian agriculture industry. Particularly, national
government has authority over farm licensing, prescribing fish feed standards, and prescribing
measures for disease control.

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52

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

According to the National Agriculture Policy, aquaculture in Malaysia is intended to supplement


wild fishery resources that have already reached maximum sustainable yield. With this mandate,
the shrimp farming industry has grown over the past 15 years, albeit in dynamic spurts due to
disease outbreaks. Generally, periods of lucrative growth have interchanged with crop failures
and low production due to disease. Diseases that have affected the industry include white spot
syndrome, gill-associated virus, Taura syndrome virus, Monodon Baculo virus, Hepatopancreatic
parvo virus, and EMS. The latest case of EMS occurred in July 2013 in Johor, with all shrimp in
seven ponds dying due to infection. The lack of water treatment facilities for farm pond effluent
has played a role in enabling the spread of disease. Effluent needs to be both treated and released
slowly so that pond bottom sediments are not disturbed in the process and become suspended
(Nyanti et al. 2011).
Coastal cage culture facilities, meanwhile, also have impacts on the environment. Cages are
generally located in protected and shallow coastal areas with less water circulation. Water in
such areas can undergo eutrophication more quickly than more exposed areas of the coastline. So
effluent in these ecosystems can also be damaging despite the perception that, being immersed in
natural waters, there is no need to treat effluent or mitigate its impacts. One phenomenon
associated with coastal cage shrimp culture is the red tide (blooms of phytoplankton). Annual red
tides in the Strait of Malacca have been associated with coastal aquaculture (Khoo 1985).
Further expansion of the Malaysian shrimp farming industry also represents a threat to the
countrys mangrove ecosystems, which account for 641,172 hectares of the countrys territory.
Approximately 65,000 ha of mangroves are currently impacted by shrimp farming.
One recommended improvement is revision of the National Agriculture Policy to reflect that
Malaysian shrimp farming is not exclusively focused upon increased shrimp production, but
rather upon balancing production and conservation goals. It is also recommended that Fisheries
Protected Areas, allowed for under Section 65 of the Malaysian Fisheries Act, be used more
liberally to protect not only reef areas, but also mangroves endangered by expansion of the
shrimp farming industry.

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53

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Philippines

Country Snapshot: Philippines


Year: 2012

National Overview

Annual Production (metric tons)

In 2014, Undercurrent News called out the Philippines


for not taking advantage of opportunities in the global
shrimp market in the last decade and being left in the
dust by other Asian countries (Undercurrent News
2014). Indeed, current farmed shrimp production in the
Philippines is comparable to that of the late 1980s, and
giant tiger shrimp continues to be the focal species,
with very limited production of whiteleg shrimp. The
Philippines consists of over 7,000 islands that comprise
81 provinces and the worlds fifth largest coastline,
which borders on the South China and Sulu Seas to the
west, the Philippine Sea to the east, Luzon Strait to the
north, and Celebes Sea to the south. Main provinces for
shrimp aquaculture are located on Luzon Island in the
north and Mindanao Island in the south (Figure 18).

Farmed production:

50,858 tons

Wild production:

20,042 tons

Total production:

70,953 tons

Export volume, product


weight:

2,985 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~6,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~8%

Export market value:

$67.5 mil

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports:

~90:10

Ratio of farmed product


that is exported:farmed
product that stays on the
domestic market:

~11:89

120000

2010

2006

2002

1998

1994

1990

1986

1982

1978

1974

1970

1966

1962

1958

1954

1950

Farmed production currently


accounts for 72% of shrimp
100000
output in the Philippines,
having surpassed wild
80000
production in 2007 (Figure
19). Giant tiger shrimp
60000
account for 94% of farmed
shrimp in the Philippines,
40000
followed by whiteleg shrimp
(4%), endeavor prawn (2%),
20000
and freshwater prawn
(0.01%). Akiami paste
0
shrimp, meanwhile, comprise
67% of the wild shrimp
Year
harvest, followed by
Figure 19: Filipino farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue) annual
freshwater prawn (27%),
production in metric tons, 19802013 (FAO 2015).
endeavor prawn (4%), and
banana prawn (2%). Reported
production volumes differ remarkably between the FAO and Philippine Statistic Authority
(Table 28).
Farmed shrimp production in the Philippines achieved a peak in the 1990s and then dropped off
sharply and has not recovered since. Generally, production cycles in the country have followed a
boom-and-bust cycle as has been observed elsewhere in Asia, with disease, particularly white
spot syndrome, counteracting periods of production expansion, such as that of the early 1990s.
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54

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

PAMPANGA

Figure 18: Map of the Philippines with the major shrimp aquaculture provinces of Pampanga, Bulcan, and
Pangasinan on the northern island of Luzon encompassed by circles. Lanao del Norte on the southern island of
Mindanao, another important farming province, is also indicated with a circle. Two geographies of reported farm
expansion are also circled: South Cotabato province in Southern Mindanao and the Bicol Region (largest circle,
includes six provinces). A square also encompasses the main province for wild harvest, Iloilo.

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55

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

As for trade, according to FAO, national shrimp exports peaked in 1991 at 31,200 metric tons,
but have since fallen precipitously. The Philippines exported only 2,985 metric tons of shrimp in
2012, or approximately 8% of production when processing yield is estimated at 50%. The
leading destination for Philippine shrimp is Japan, followed by the United States, Korea, Hong
Kong, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Taiwan, and France.
Provincial Overview
Major Filipino regions for shrimp production (Table 29) include:
Central Luzon: includes the provinces Pampanga, Bataan, Bulacan, and Zambales.
Pampanga is the countrys largest farmed shrimp producer in terms of volume and area.
Most producers here operate extensive systems with an average recovery rate of only
40%,
Northern Mindanao: Lanao del Norte province and the city of Cagayan De Oro are
particularly important for farming, and farming is mainly intensive,
Southern Mindanao: production information was not obtained for provinces here, but
35% of Malaysian shrimp reportedly is processed in General Santos City of South
Cotabato province, and the industry is hoping to expand production here in coming years,
Bicol: as with Southern Mindanao, production figures were not obtained for the six
provinces that comprise this region, but the industry has expansion plans for shrimp
aquaculture here,
Northern Luzon: Pangasinan province is significant for farmed production and home to
many shrimp hatcheries,
Western Visayas: Iloilo province is an important producer of wild shrimp. Farming in this
region is mainly intensive, and
Central Visayas: farming in this region is also predominantly intensive.
Provincial export information obtained from the in-country expert is incomplete and anecdotal in
nature. Pampanga, where 97% of production is of farmed origin, is the major exporting province,
with 30% of provincial production exported annually. 90% of these exports are of farmed origin,
and Japan is the main destination. If these statistics are correct, Pampanga alone accounts for the
lions share of national exports. Bulacan, another province where production is predominantly of
farm origin (98%), reportedly exports 75% of its production, although this amounts to less
exported volume than that of Pampanga, because Pampanga is a much larger producer than
Bulacan. The farmed proportion of Bulacans exports is unknown.

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 28: National Filipino production in metric tons of shrimp by species, 20102014. All data are from the Philippine Statistic Authority (2015) with
the exception of the columns marked FAO, which are taken from FAOs FishStat J (2015). There is a sizeable discrepancy between the two sources,
particularly with respect to wild harvest.
Wild Harvest
banana freshwater
prawn
prawn

Year

Akiami
paste shrimp

Endeavor
prawn

2010

11,865

1,015

703

4,933

18,517

45,889

48,162

689

2,077

2011

14,704

992

665

5,072

21,433

48,944

47,495

690

2012

13,336

864

632

5,264

20,095

45,219

48,197

2013

9,484

709

463

5,398

16,053

39,189

2014

13,433

782

416

5,411

20,042

n/a

Total

FAO

Giant tiger
shrimp

Farmed Production
Endeavor whiteleg freshwater
prawn
shrimp
prawn

Total

FAO

50,931

55,899

1,974

50,161

54,341

778

1,879

50,858

56,412

49,467

757

1,871

52,101

59,692

47,843

1,151

1,827

50,824

n/a

Table 29: Filipino shrimp production in metric tons by province and source (wild/farmed), 20102014. Provinces are grouped by region.
Northern
Luzon

Central Luzon
Bulcan
Year

Wild

Bataan

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

Zambales
Wild

Pampanga

Farmed

Wild

Western Visayas

Pangasinan

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

Antique
Wild

Aklan

Farmed

Wild

Iloilo

Farmed

Wild

Capiz

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

2010

131

4,759

107

1,122

502

586

19,356

199

850

35

365

287

365

3,605

113

60

1,484

2011

120

5,206

107

1,052

481

619

19,232

128

940

39

474

207

474

4,741

46

69

1,418

2012

115

5,253

143

1,048

532

18

686

18,978

71

1,364

38

597

276

597

3,797

51

60

1,522

2013

102

4,649

139

1,066

595

13

693

19,581

128

1,531

36

695

267

695

2,317

39

65

1,410

2014

102

3,980

142

1,049

543

673

19,684

263

2,436

40

610

360

610

2,548

40

45

1,340

Central Visayas
Negros

Cebu

Farmed

Wild

Bohol

Farmed

Wild

Northern Mindanao
Misamis
Occidental
Lanao del Norte

Misamis
Oriental

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

Farmed

Cavite
Wild

Batangas

Year

Wild

2010

25

71

58

408

894

144

32

103

1,770

243

6,777

57

10

17

155

2011

45

138

66

528

412

49

89

2,040

232

6,679

101

21

51

2012

28

108

59

577

411

100

70

2,203

190

7,845

28

31

2013

15

81

97

265

259

78

75

1,584

164

11,553

30

23

2014

27

37

109

119

104

191

64

1,685

140

10,590

68

15

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Wild

Calabarzon (Southern Luzon)

Farmed

Wild

Farmed

43

57

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Fishery Sustainability Information


Artisanal push nets and lift nets are used to harvest paste shrimp in coastal areas. Trawlers,
meanwhile, target an aggregate of species including banana prawn and endeavor prawn further
from the coast. Important trawling areas are Samar Sea, Lingayen Gulf, San Miguel Bay, and
Manila Bay. Trawling was more widely distributed in earlier times (e.g., the 1950s), with 24
designated trawling areas, but in the 1980s some of the areas have been closed in reaction to
declines in CPUE. There are ongoing issues with enforcement of trawling closures.
There are also issues with illegal gear use in some areas: for example, the use of motorized
scissor nets in Pampanga province. Furthermore, there is a history of friction over allocations
between trawlers and artisanal fishermen (Gillett 2008). Overall, wild shrimp abundance appears
to be holding steady, with some upward and downward trends for particular species in particular
provinces. Furthermore, in some regions, stock dynamics have shifted (species that were once
abundant year-round are now only seasonally abundant).
Fisheries management in the Philippines entails national, provincial, and municipal components,
but generally there was a push in the 1990s to decentralize the management of coastal resources
and increase the responsibility of municipalities. The National Fisheries Code 850 from 1998 is a
seminal piece of legislation for the accomplishment of this decentralization, as it granted
municipalities (also known as LGUs Local Government Units) jurisdiction over fisheries
occurring up to 15 km from shore. The Code also provided for the creation of Fisheries and
Aquatic Management Councils (FARMCs, also known as Fisherfolk Councils) to serve as
advisory bodies in helping municipalities to fulfill their new management duties. While the Code
transferred many management responsibilities to municipalities, two national government
entities, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) and the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), continue to wield some important authority
notably, BFAR retains an important role in enforcement and both agencies are charged with
protection and management of mangrove forests (Lowry et al. 2005).
The municipalities and provinces are at various places in terms of the process of decentralizing
fishery management effectively. For example, municipalities in Pangasinan have put into place a
coastal resource management plan, and local government fishery managers in Pampanga are
deputized and conducting enforcement activities. Meanwhile, Bulcan lacks municipal ordinances
relevant for shrimp conservation, and Bataan is generally behind when it comes to passing
municipal ordinances governing fishery management.
The following general sustainability improvements are suggested:
- Lagging municipalities need to pass needed ordinances providing for adequate fishery
management and resource conservation, and can use the more advanced
municipalities as models.
- Some municipalities are lacking adequate funding to implement the Fisheries Code,
and require increased support from the federal government
- Municipalities need support from national-level experts (education, capacity building)
in order to best fulfill their management duties.

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58

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Aquaculture Sustainability Information


As with fisheries management, Fishery Code 850 decentralized management of aquaculture,
granting municipalities authority over zoning and permitting of shrimp farms, as well as
oversight over pollution from aquaculture facilities. Sustainability concerns associated with farm
effluent release and feeds used in farms are not as much of a concern for the Philippines as for
neighboring countries due to the Philippines relatively small scale of production and mostly
traditional approach to farming. However, there generally are not data to back up the assumption
that polluted effluent is not a problem in the Philippines, and producers in some provinces have
switched to using commercial feed (for example, in Pangasinan, 60% of producers are using
commercial feed), indicating that a local commercial feed industry may develop down the road
and put additional pressure on local marine resources. There are some sustainability concerns
associated with traditional feed, in which bivalves are a key ingredient: the bivalves are collected
from seafloor bottoms in bays in a way that disturbs the seafloor habitat and associated
organisms.
As mentioned above, disease has been a persistent problem for the Philippines shrimp
aquaculture industry. In addition to white spot syndrome, EMS has been documented in the
Philippines, as has Taura syndrome and luminous bacterial disease. An associated issue is the
failure of producers to report disease outbreaks.
As the Fishery Code covers both fisheries and aquaculture, the improvement recommendations
listed above for fisheries are equally relevant for aquaculture. In addition, there is a need for
outreach to producers regarding best practices in shrimp aquaculture as detailed in the ASEAN
Good Aquaculture Practices (GAqP) document. Improvements in pond preparation and sourcing
of stock only from accredited hatcheries could go a long way in the effort to mitigate disease.

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59

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Myanmar
Country Snapshot: Myanmar
National Overview

Year: 2013

Myanmar proved a difficult country to gather data for.


Published information on particular fisheries and farms is
limited, and local experts are also wary of sharing
unpublished information with outsiders.
Myanmar is comprised of 21 states, territories, regions,
and self-administered zones, with coastline along the Bay
of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Shrimp are farmed in
seven of the 21 regions, with Rakhine, Ayeyarwady, and
Yangon setting aside the most territory for shrimp ponds
(155,533, 57,149, and 10,229 acres, respectively). As for
shrimp fisheries, trawlers are registered in the provinces
of Taninthayi, Yangon, and Rakhine (Figure 20). Shrimp
are also harvested by artisanal fishers using trammel nets
in waters closer to shore.

Farmed production:

52,000 tons

Wild production:

49,409 tons

Total production:

101,409 tons

Export volume, product


weight:

16,509 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~22,000 tons

Exported proportion:

~22%

Export market value:

$62 mil

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports:

~18:82

Ratio of farmed product


that is exported:farmed
product that stays on the
domestic market:

~8:92

Myanmar began farming shrimp in the mid-1990s,


comparatively late with respect to the Southeast Asia region. Production ramped upward in the
early-2000s and then plateaued, and has been holding fairly steady for the last 10 years. Farmed
and wild sources presently make approximately equal contributions to national shrimp
production (Figure 21).
Myanmars main farmed shrimp species are giant tiger shrimp and freshwater prawn, although
national production volumes by species were not obtained. A minor amount of whiteleg shrimp
is also farmed in Myanmar. Meanwhile, approximately 25 species are endemic to the region.
Two Metapenaeus species, pink shrimp and yellow shrimp, predominate in offshore trawl
catches, while tiger prawn, banana prawn, and redtail prawn (all Penaeids) commonly occur in
the coastal, artisanal harvests.
National export information for 2013 was reported in the government publication Fishery
Statistics 2014 both by country and by species, although there is a discrepancy between the two
sets of data (Table 30) (Myanmar Department of Fisheries 2014). If all giant tiger shrimp are
presumed to be of farmed origin and other species of wild origin, then wild shrimp account for
the majority (82%) of national exports. Leading destinations for Myanmar shrimp are Japan,
China, Thailand and Malaysia, with a general preponderance of Asian rather than European,
American, or Oceanic destinations.
Species-specific 2013 export information was also provided by an in-country expert for three
destination countries: Thailand, China, and Bangladesh. Pink shrimp accounted for 65% of the
shrimp exports to these three destinations, and if all giant tiger shrimp are presumed to be of
farmed origin, wild shrimp accounted for 80% of exports (Table 31).

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Figure 20: Key regions of Myanamar for both shrimp aquaculture and wild harvest are indicated with both a square
and a circle: Rakhine (with coastline along the Bay of Bengal) and Yangon (bordering on the Andaman Sea.
Additionally, Ayeyarwady (circled) is a major aquaculture region and Taninthayi (square) is home to a trawl fleet.

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
2013

2011

2009

2007

2005

2003

2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

1991

1989

1987

Fishery Sustainability Information

1985

0
1983

Anecdotal trade information at the


province scale was provided by an
in-country expert for one province,
Yangon. 80% of shrimp production
in this region is currently exported,
with wild shrimp predominating
among the outbound product. The
proportion of production that is
exported is reportedly decreasing.

Annual Production (metric tons)

Provincial Overview

Year

Production of Myanmar wild


shrimp has generally been
Figure 21: Myanmar farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue) annual
production in metric tons, 19832013 (FAO 2015).
increasing over the last decade,
although some declines at the
regional scale are noted (for example, abundance has declined over recent years in Yangon).
Bycatch is an important concern in the trawl fishery, which has a lot of discards due to the lack
of sufficient, low-priced ice for trawlers to take on their trips. Generally, fishery management
structures in Myanmar are young and
Table 30: Myanmar shrimp exports in metric tons of product
capacity building is a priority. In addition to
weight, 2013, listed by destination and by species. Note that
building expertise at the national level (e.g.,
there is a discrepancy in total exported volume between the
in the Myanmar Department of Fisheries),
two sets of data (Myanmar Department of Fisheries 2014).
Volume
Exported

Species/Product

Volume
Exported

Japan

5,266

Pink Shrimp

9,839

China

4,152

White Shrimp

2,605

Thailand

2,048

Dried Prawn

2,654

Malaysia

1,587

Wild Total

15,098

Country

Singapore

Myanmar can look to neighboring countries


with relatively successful decentralization
models and likewise hand off a portion of
management to structures at the regional and
municipal scales.
Aquaculture Sustainability Information

896
Giant tiger
shrimp

The shrimp aquaculture industry in Myanmar


is in an underdeveloped state presently,
USA
438
which has pluses and minuses. On the plus
15 others
1,418
side, with only six companies pursuing
Total
16,509
Total
18,480
intensive farming operations, EMS has not
been an issue for Myanmar. The minuses, meanwhile, are economic: Myanmar, a very poor
country, is largely missing out on the global market for shrimp. Cyclone Nargis, which hit
Myanmar in 2008, destroyed shrimp farming infrastructure and left some local companies in the
industry in a crippled state from which they still have yet to recover.
Vietnam

704

3,383

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62

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 31: Myanmars 2013 shrimp exports by species to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh in metric tons of product.

Country

Pink

Wild Shrimp Exports


Cat
Bait
White Flower Tiger
Jade

Thailand

1,306

440

China

2,784

476

Bangladesh
TOTAL

4,090

916

38

19
-

38

Wild
Total

1,746

3,316

Farmed Shrimp Exports


Giant Freshwater Farmed
Whiteleg Tiger
Prawn
Total

19

5,062

22

24

256

301

2,047

770

66

835

4,152

133

133

133

1,270

6,333

22

927

322

Recommended improvements include overhauling existing hatchery facilities in order to produce


better-quality seed, as well as publication of materials for farmers describing best practices in
shrimp aquaculture that can be implemented at the farm scale.

Cambodia
National Overview
Among the countries profiled in this report, Cambodia is
the smallest shrimp producer, with national production
consistently below 10,000 metric tons and only 103 metric
tons of farmed shrimp production in 2014. The provinces of
Koh Kong and Sihanoukville account for 68% of national
production and all national shrimp exports (Figure 22).
Fisheries account for almost 99% of Cambodian shrimp
production (Figure 23). The Cambodian shrimp fishery
uses five gear types, listed in order of importance: trawls,
gillnets, push nets, stow nets, and barbed spears. As of
2004, 1,186 trawlers were registered in Cambodia, with
94% of the fleet based in Koh Kong and Sihanoukville. The
provinces of Kep and Kampot accounted for the remainder
of boats. In the same year, there were 515,250 shrimp
gillnets set along the coast of Koh Kong province, and
239,500 nets in Sihanoukville, accounting for 98% of the
total gillnets used in the national fishery (Gillett 2008).

Country Snapshot: Cambodia


Year: 2014
Farmed production:

103 tons

Wild production:

8,257 tons

Total production:

8,360 tons

Export volume, product


weight:

1,732 tons

Export volume, live


weight:

~2,300 tons

Exported proportion:

~28%

Export market value:

~$5 million

Ratio farmed:wild of
exports:

<1% : >99%

Ratio of farmed product


that is exported:farmed
product that stays on the
domestic market:

~100:0

There is some uncertainty regarding the taxonomy of the shrimp catch in Cambodia (Gillett
2008). The in-country expert engaged in this project provided a list of eight species and their
relative contributions to Cambodian shrimp production, but some of the Khmer species names
could not be matched with their English language counterparts with certainty (Table 32). Farmed
production consists of three species, with whiteleg shrimp the predominant farmed species.
Individual farmed species production volumes were not available.
As for national exports, Cambodia currently exports its shrimp only to Thailand. Thailand has
been the exclusive destination for Cambodian shrimp since 2008; before then, Vietnam and
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63

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Hong Kong also purchased shrimp from Cambodia. In 2014, Cambodia exported approximately
28% of its shrimp production. It is presumed that practically all of the countrys farmed
production was included among this exported volume. Quantitative per-species or per-product
export information was not available, but exports are known to consist of the following products:
mixed fresh shrimp (generally Jinga shrimp), frozen shrimp, and salted dry shrimp.

Figure 22: Key provinces of Cambodia for both shrimp aquaculture and wild harvest are indicated with
both a square and a circle: Kaoh Kong (in pink) and Sihanoukville (in darker pink).

Provincial Overview
Production and export data was obtained for the two main producer provinces, Koh Kong and
Sihanoukville. The information indicates that Sihanoukville is the more important of the two
provinces in terms of both fishery and farm production of shrimp, as well as exports (Table 33).
Koh Kong does not have any processing facilities, and thus exports are entirely comprised of
fresh product, mostly wild Jinga shrimp, but also some farmed product. Sihanoukville,
meanwhile, has some processing capacity, and 2014 provincial exports were comprised mainly
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64

Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Annual Production (metric tons)

of wild shrimp sold as fresh (46%), frozen (44%), and salted dry (10%) products. Exports from
both provinces have decreased over the last several few years, and domestic demand is said to be
increasing.
9000

Fishery Sustainability
Information

8000
7000

The in-country analyst


noted some regional
variation in wild shrimp
5000
stock status: while Koh
4000
Kong white shrimp
3000
production has recently
increased, possibly in
2000
connection with the
1000
creation of conservation
0
areas in 2005, shrimp
abundance in
Sihanoukville has
Year
trended downward in
Figure 23: Cambodian farmed shrimp (red) and wild shrimp (blue) annual
production in metric tons, 19932013 (Cambodian Fisheries Administration 2015). association with
overfishing, trawler
damage to the seafloor,
and mangrove forest destruction. Generally, there is a need for more qualified fishery managers,
particularly at the provincial scale. Outreach efforts are also necessary to increase fisher
knowledge of the resource and sustainability issues. Finally, the budget for monitoring and
enforcement in the Cambodian shrimp fishery is extremely limited.
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

6000

Suggested improvements include creation of conservation areas in Sihanoukville, capacity


building at the scale of community fisheries committees, and increasing enforcement with
respect to the use of
Table 32: Shrimp species harvested and farmed in Cambodia, and their relative
contributions to national production.
illegal fishing gears.
Aquaculture
Sustainability
Information
The shrimp farming
industry in Cambodia
has declined since the
1990s, when there were
over 40 shrimp farms
operating in Koh Kong
Province. Today, there
are only three, plus a
handful more in

Contribution
to Natl
Production

Khmer Name

English or Latin

Farmed/Wild

Bangkea Khhleung

giant tiger shrimp

Wild & Farmed

0.3%

Bangkea Sor

whiteleg shrimp

Wild & Farmed

11.7%

Bangkea Kong Lai

Wild

4.7%

Bangkea Para

green tiger shrimp

Wild

3.3%

Bangkea Aukhhak

Jinga shrimp (?)

Wild

46.7%

Bangkea Chhe Bouy

freshwater prawn (?)

Wild & Farmed

5.0%

Bangkea Lilong

Wild

1.7%

Bangkea Khloy

M. spinulatus (?)

Wild

26.7%
100%

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Table 33: Wild and farmed production of shrimp (live weight) and exports of shrimp
Sihanoukville. The
(product weight), 19932014, in metric tons, from Koh Kong and Sihanoukville
farmers in Koh Kong
Provinces, Cambodia.
Year

Koh Kong Province


Wild
Farmed
Export
harvest
Production
2,368
398
2,395
509
2,000
730
2,664
604
2,383
264
1,840
151
1,115
50
815
20
1,606
60
1,008
27
1,265
27
1,022
783
18
600
1,220
7
976
850
550
987
24
640
1,034
30
480
85
40
1,140
16
473
1,298
60
525
1,568
65
710
1,213
11
555
1,277
24
582

1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Sihanoukville Province
Wild
Farmed
Export
harvest
Production
4,076
7
855
3,719
21
776
3,994
32
1,247
4,430
80
1,315
4,425
95
1,185
4,280
79
1,150

operate semi-intensive
facilities and use feed
pellets imported from
Thailand, while their
colleagues in
Sihanoukville operate
more traditionally and use
natural feeds.
In the 1990s, water quality
of the coastal areas of both
Koh Kong and
Sihanoukville was
adversely affected by
shrimp farms, which
discharged their effluent
directly into the sea. Due
to the decline of the
industry, this is no longer
a concern. Now,
Cambodian shrimp
farmers are mainly
preoccupied with keeping
their fledgling industry
alive. Disease has also
been a recurring problem,
with cases of EMS and

red body disease reported.


Recommended improvements include overhauling existing hatchery facilities in order to produce
better-quality seed, as well as providing information on best practices to local farmers.
CROSS-COUNTRY RESULTS
Compiling the numeric data presented in the Country Snapshots above (Table 34) brings to
light the following:

Aquaculture is comprising a growing proportion of Asian shrimp production, currently


accounting for 58% of the cumulative production of these 10 countries,
Approximately half (49%) of these countries total shrimp production remains on
domestic markets,
Despite the growth of local demand for shrimp, western markets (the United States and
the European Union) are still leading destinations for Asian shrimp, as is Japan,
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

Of the 34% of shrimp production exported by these countries, 87% of the exported
volume is supplied by farms,
Thailand, previously the worlds leading shrimp exporter, particularly suffered from
production losses due to Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), and its export volume was
surpassed by Vietnam, China, and India,
While EMS affected its production as well, Vietnam currently appears to be the world
leader in shrimp exports and farmed shrimp exports, although it no longer reports export
volumes and only reports export value; thus, volume figures are only estimates,
Four nations that have made large-scale investments in intensive whiteleg shrimp farming
(Vietnam, Thailand, India, and Indonesia) all export more than half of their shrimp
production and have shrimp export values of over $1 billion,
Nations that have not made large-scale investments in intensive whiteleg shrimp
aquaculture (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines, and Myanmar) have
struggled to compete for the international market with those that have, and these
countries all export $500 million or less of shrimp annually and keep more than half of
their shrimp in-country for domestic consumption, and
China is an exceptional country in that it has both invested heavily in whiteleg shrimp
(Penaeus vannamei) culture and keeps 88% of its shrimp production for domestic
consumption. This is indicative of the high demand for shrimp in the Chinese market.

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Table 34: Production and trade data for the 10 countries included in this study in the most recent year for which data is available for each. Several of the
presented statistics are dependent upon estimates of processing yield. Country-specific estimates were generated on the basis of export information
indicating the product breakdown of national exports. Yields per product type, drawn from the FAO (Torry Research Station 2001), are as follows: frozen
headless shells-on60%, frozen headless shell-less45%, cooked28%, dry20%. If product export information was not available for a country,
national yield was taken as 50%, as the majority of exports were presumed to be headless shells-on (with the exception of Myanmar and Cambodia, for
which yield was taken as 75% as a large proportion of exports are presumed to be delivered to neighboring Asian countries without significant processing).
Because of the general uncertainty in yield estimates, the symbol ~ is used in the table below to indicate the approximate nature of associated data points.
Total
Production in
Metric Tons of
Live Weight
(Year)
806,960
(2013)

% of
Production
that is
Farmed

% of
Production
that is
Exported

67%

~74%

45%

~57%

China

743,798 (2013)
3,560,871
(2013)

55%

~12%

Thailand

376,339 (2013)

87%

~88%

Indonesia

547,934 (2012)

67%

~49%

Bangladesh

241,117 (2014)

61%

~45%

Malaysia

159,630 (2013)

32%

~35%

Myanmar

101,409 (2013)

51%

~22%

Philippines

70,953 (2012)
8,360
(2014)
6,617,371
(20122014)

72%

~8%

1.2%

~28%

58%

~34%

Country
Vietnam
India

Cambodia
TOTAL

Export
Value
$3.1
billion
~$3
billion
$2.2
billion
$2.16
billion
$1.3
billion
~$500
million
$355
million
$62
million
$67.5
million
~$5
million
$12.75
billion

Export
Volume in
Metric Tons
of Live
Weight

Export
Volume in
Metric Tons
of Product
Weight

Ratio
Farmed:Wild
of Exports
(volume):

Farmed
Exports in
Metric Tons
of Live
Weight

Ratio of Farmed
Product that is
Exported:Farmed
Product that Stays on
the Domestic Market

~600,000

~300,000

~88:12

~528,000

~97:3

~426,000

255,603

~82:18

~349,000

~ >99: <1

~425,000

212,698

~85:15

~361,000

~18:82

~330,000

197,238

>99 : <1

~327,000

~99:1

~270,000

162,068

~97:3

~262,000

~71:29

~109,000

54,500

89:11

~97,000

~66:34

~56,000

33,584

~50:50

~28,000

~55:45

~22,000

16,509

~18:82

~4,000

~8:92

~6,000

2,985

90:10

~5,400

~11:89

~2,300

1,732

<1% : >99%

~100

~100:0

~2,246,300

1,236,917

87:13

~1,961,500

~51:49

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

CONCLUSIONS
On the basis of the trade analysis, Table 35 (below) indicating 16 provinces with relatively large
production, high export proportion, and significant sustainability issues was compiled.
Table 35: Trade and sustainability information for sixteen provinces with high shrimp production, known exports to western supply
chains, and significant sustainability issues.

Country

Thailand

China

Province,
Country
1. Surat Thani
2. Chanthaburi
3. Songkhla
4. Thammarat
5. Trat
6. Trang
7. Rayong
8. PhangNga

Production in
Most Recent Year
of Data
Availability
(metric tons of
live weight)
67,405
61,817
47,832
45,585
39,452
38,275
25,269
23,755

Volume
Exported in
That Year
(metric tons
of product
weight)
33,703
30,909
23,916
22,793
19,726
19,138
12,635
11,878

9. Guangdong

808,194

117,396

10. Guangxi

294,923

98,838

11. Lampung

74,842

59,874

12. East Java

56,992

45,594

% of
Exports
That
Are
Farmed

Sustainability Issues, Notes on Data


- Disease transmission
- Sourcing fish feed from depleted small pelagic fisheries
- Mangrove habitat destruction
Provincial production data from 2012. Nationally, approx. 50% of
production was exported in that year. Applied this ratio to yield
exported volume per province.

>99%
- Disease transmission in farms
- Mangrove and wetland habitat destruction
- Poor data availability on shrimp culture
- Source of feed unknown

>90%

Indonesia

13. South
Sumatra

45,657

36,526

>99%

Vietnam

14. Ca Mau

130,490

~103,320

87%

India

15. Andhra

244,871

192,189

>99%

Bangladesh

16. Khulna

139,947

44,974

mostly
farmed

Provincial production data from 2013. Anecdotal information on


proportion exported, and proportion of exports that are farmed.
- Water quality, disease transmission, and escapee issues in
intensive-culture whiteleg shrimp facilities (esp. Lampung, South
Sumatra)
- Poor data availability on shrimp culture
- Source of feed unknown
Provincial production information from 2013, aquaculture only.
Anecdotal information on proportion exported from these
provinces (80%).
- Diseases (EMS, white spot, runt syndrome, white feces
syndrome) and the use of prophylactics and disinfectants to
combat them, resulting in negative environmental impacts.
Note: Production info is for 2014, but amount exported is for
2010.
- Water quality issues due to intensive whiteleg shrimp farming.
Water quality is also inadequately monitored.
- Feed used to be sourced from abroad, but now is entirely
sourced from domestic small pelagic fisheries, which have poorly
quantified impacts on harvested species and the seafloor bottom.
Provincial production data from 2013. Anecdotal information on
proportion and type exported.
- Growing concerns about effluent and water pollution as the
province transitions toward semi-intensive and intensive culture
operations.
Provincial production data from 2014. Quantitative export
volumes from two local processing plants.

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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

The following conclusions are noted:

Approximately 35% of global warm-water shrimp exports are accounted for collectively
by these 16 provinces,
Farmed shrimp generally account for >80% of the exports out of each of these provinces,
Disease proliferation, water pollution, and sustainability of feed are universal concerns of
these provinces and, generally, of whiteleg shrimp intensive culture,
Mangrove habitat destruction is also a localized sustainability issue.

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Much of the information used in preparation of this report was gathered by in-country experts
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Asian Shrimp Trade and Sustainability

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