You are on page 1of 134

T hc v vt liu t

lebien_bn@yahoo.com

PDF c to bng b cng c m ngun m mwlib. Xem http://code.pediapress.com/ bit thm thng tin.
PDF generated at: Wed, 06 Oct 2010 18:02:36 UTC

Ni dung
Bi
Chng 1:Cc khi nim

T hc

t ha

cm t

t thm

T ha

11

T gio

13

T tr

16

Lc khng t

19

Nhit Curie

22

ng cong t ha

24

ng cong t nhit

26

Mmen lng cc t

27

Nhit Nel

29

Nng lng vi t

30

phn cc spin

33

Chng 2: Cc vt liu t

35

Thun t

35

Siu thun t

37

Nghch t

38

Sng spin

39

St t

40

men t

43

Vch men

45

Phn st t

49

Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert

51

Vt liu t cng

52

Vt liu t mm

56

Cng ngh ngui nhanh

60

FINEMET

63

Hiu ng Hopkinson

66

Hiu ng Meissner

68

Hiu ng t nhit

69

Hiu ng t quang Kerr

75

Hiu ng t in tr

76

Hp kim Heusler

79

Magnetit

81

Nam chm

84

Nam chm Neodymi

85

Nam chm samarium coban

88

Nam chm vnh cu

90

Nam chm in

93

Nam chm t him

94

Nc t

97

Permalloy

99

Perovskit (cu trc)

101

Spin valve

104

Terfenol-D

106

Tng phn pha vi sai

107

T in tr chui hm

109

T in tr d hng

110

T in tr khng l

112

T in tr siu khng l

115

Chng 3: ng dng

117

Thu knh t

117

in t hc spin

119

Ton nh in t

123

Knh hin vi lc t

125

Ch thch
Ngun v ngi ng gp vo bi

127

Ngun, giy php, v ngi ng gp vo hnh

129

Giy php Bi vit


Giy php

131

Chng 1:Cc khi nim


T hc
T hc (ting Anh: magnetism) l mt ngnh khoa
hc thuc Vt l hc nghin cu v hin tng ht
v y ca cc cht v hp cht gy ra bi t tnh
ca chng. Mc d tt c cc cht v hp cht u
b nh hng ca t trng to ra bi mt nam
chm vi mt mc no nhng mt s trong
chng c phn ng rt d nhn thy l st, thp,
-xt st. Nhng cht v hp cht c t tnh c bit
l i tng ca t hc dng ch to nhng sn
phm phc v con ngi c gi l vt liu t.
T tnh gy ra bi lc t, lc t l mt dng lc
in t, mt trong nhng lc c bn ca t nhin,
n c sinh ra do chuyn ng ca cc ht c in
tch. Phng trnh Maxwell cho bit ngun gc v
mi lin h ca cc t trng v in trng gy ra
lc t. Mi quan h gia lc t v lc in rt mt
thit, mn khoa hc nghin cu v vn ny c
gi l in t hc.

Nam chm vnh cu, mt trong nhng sn phm lu i nht ca t hc.

T tnh ca vt cht
M t v m
Cm ng t v t trng

T trng sinh ra khi c dng in chy qua.

V t trng c to ra khi c chuyn ng ca cc in tch nn nu ta c mt dy in c dng in


th n s to ra mt cm ng t

chy qua

xung quanh. Cm ng t l mt i lng vc t, chiu ca n ph thuc vo

chiu chuyn ng ca dng in v c xc nh bng quy tc bn tay phi. By gi nu ta thay dy in trn


bng mt ng dy in th cm ng t to ra trong lng ng dy cng c xc nh bng quy tc trn. Nu xung

T hc

quanh cun dy l chn khng th chng ta nh ngha t trng


Nh vy th vc t t trng

ch ph thuc vo dng in

nh sau:

, vi

l t thm chn khng.

v hnh dng ca dy ch khng ph thuc vo mi

trng bn trong ng dy.


T thm v t cm
By gi trong lng ng dy khng phi l chn khng m l mt vt no th s c mt ca vt s lm thay i
cm ng t trong ng dy. Cm ng t ny t l vi t trng vi h s t l c gi l t thm th cm ng t
trong lng vt l:

Ta nh ngha

l vc t t xut hin bn trong vt


vi

l t cm ca vt liu

vi:
Ngi ta cn nh ngha:

vi

: t thm tng i ca vt so vi chn khng.

Phn loi vt liu


T cm ca vt liu l mt i lng
c trng cho s cm ng ca vt liu
di tc ng ca t trng ngoi.
Ngi ta da vo i lng ny
phn chia cc vt liu thnh 5 loi nh
sau:
Nghch t: l vt liu c

nh

hn khng (m) v c gi tr tuyt


i rt nh, ch c khong 10- 5.
Thun t: l vt liu c

ln hn

khng (dng) v c gi tr tuyt


i nh c 10- 3.
St t: l vt liu c

dng v

rt ln, c th t n 10 5.
Feri t: l vt liu c

dng v

a cng, mt trong nhng thnh tu tiu biu ca t hc ng dng trong vic lu tr


thng tin.

ln (tuy nh hn st t).
Phn st t: l vt liu c

dng nhng rt nh.

M t vi m
Chuyn ng ca cc in t
Chuyn ng ca cc in t trong nguyn t to nn cc m my in tch. Chnh chuyn ng qu o l mt
trong nhng nguyn nhn gy ra t tnh ca nguyn t lm cho nguyn t c mt m men t. Mt nguyn nhn khc
l spin, c th c hnh dung th thin nh s t quay ca in t, mc d v bn cht, spin l mt khi nim ch c
trong c hc lng t. Nh vy t tnh ca nguyn t c hai ngun gc: spin v qu o, m men t tng ng vi
hai ngun gc ny c gi l m men t spin v m men t qu o.

T hc

Tnh nghch t ca vt cht


Nghch t l mt hin tng c hu ca vt cht, tn ti mi loi vt liu theo quy tc chung v cm ng in t.
Khi c mt ca t trng ngoi, cc in t s hng ng vi t trng bng cch to ra mt m men t cm ng.
M men t ny c xu hng chng li t trng ngoi, n t l nhng ngc hng vi t trng p dng. chnh
l nguyn nhn gy ra hin tng nghch t trong mt s cht.

Vi t hc
Mt cch tng qut, tnh cht ca cc vt liu t tun theo cc quy lut v vi t hc m tnh cht t b quy nh
bi cu trc t hc vi m v cu trc ny c quy nh bi s cc tiu ha nng lng vi t, c th quy thnh 5
dng nng lng:

Nng lng trao i


Nng lng d hng
Nng lng tnh t
Nng lng Zeeman
Nng lng t gio
(xem chi tit bi Nng lng vi t)

Lch s t hc
T hc l mt ngnh c ng dng trong cuc sng con ngi t rt sm m u tin l Trung Hoa v Hy Lp c
i. Hy Lp, lch s ghi nhn nhng i thoi v t hc gia Aristotle v Thales t nhng nm 625 n 545 trc
cng nguyn song song vi vic s dng nam chm vnh cu (l nhng thin nhin) cho mt s mc ch khc
nhau[1] phng ng, Trung Hoa l ni sm nht s dng cc nam chm lm kim ch nam ch phng
Nam-Bc t thi i ca Chu Cng (thi i nh Chu, 1122 - 256 trc Cng nguyn), v cun sch chnh thc ghi
li vic s dng cc nam chm l cun Qu Cc t ( , thy dy ca Tn Tn) vo th k th 4 trc cng
nguyn[2] , [3] .
Alexander Neckham l ngi Chu u u tin m t v la bn v vic s dng la bn cho vic nh hng vo nm
1187. Vo nm 1269, Peter Peregrinus de Maricourt vit cun Epistola de magnete, c coi l mt trong nhng
lun thuyt u tin v nam chm v la bn. Nm 1282, cc tnh cht ca cc nam chm v la bn kh c tho
lun bi Al-Ashraf, mt nh vt l, thin vn, a l ngi Yemeni [4] .
Cun sch kho cu chi tit u tin v cc hin tng l cun De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de
Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on the Great Magnet the Earth) ca William
Gilbert xut bn nm 1600 Anh Quc. Cun sch tho lun v nhiu th nghim in t do ng xy dng, ng
thi gi thit v t trng ca Tri t, nguyn nhn gy ra s nh hng Nam-Bc ca cc la bn.
Tng tc gia dng in v t trng ln u tin c pht hin v m t bi Hans Christian Oersted, mt gio s
i hc Copenhagen (an Mch). ng pht hin ra vic kim la bn b lch hng khi t gn mt dy dn mang
dng in. Th nghim ny c coi l bc ngot trong lch s ngnh t hc, v c t tn l Th nghim Oersted.
Sau Oersted, hng lot cc nh khoa hc tin hnh cc th nghim v cc cng trnh nghin cu v mi quan h
gia in v t trng nh Andr-Marie Ampre, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Michael Faraday dn n vic hnh thnh
nhng kin thc c bn v t hc cng nh t trng.
James Clerk Maxwell tng hp cc l thuyt v t trng, in trng, v quang hc pht trin thnh l thuyt
tng qut v trng in t. Vo nm 1905, Albert Einstein s dng nhng nh lut ny xy dng l thuyt
tng i hp[5] .
Th k 20 cng l th k m t hc c pht trin mnh m t vic to ra cc vt liu t a chc nng, xy dng
cc l thuyt vi m v hin tng t da trn cc l thuyt ca c hc lng t v vt l cht rn nh l thuyt vi t
hc, l thuyt v men t, vch men, vt liu st t, tng tc trao i, phn st t,... i km vi n l s pht

T hc

trin ca nhiu k thut chp nh cu trc t v o c cc tnh cht t ca vt liu. Cui th k 20, u th k 21,
ngnh mi spintronics ra i da trn nhng thnh tu ca t hc v in t hc.

n v in t
Cc n v chun SI
SI electromagnetism units
[6]

Tn i lng

K hiu i lng

n v dn xut

K hiu n v

n v c bn

Dng in

ampere (SI base unit)

A (= W/V = C/s)

in tch

coulomb

As

U, V, ; E

Hiu in th; Sut in ng

volt

J/C = kgm2s3A1

R; Z; X

in tr; Tr khng; in khng

ohm

V/A = kgm2s3A2

in tr sut

ohm metre

kgm3s3A2

Cng sut

watt

VA = kgm2s3

in dung

farad

C/V = kg1m2A2s4

Cng in trng

volt per metre

V/m

N/C = kgmA1s3

phn cc in

coulomb per square metre C/m2

Asm2

Hng s in mi

farad per metre

F/m

kg1m3A2s4

cm in

(khng n v)

G; Y; B

dn; Admittance; Susceptance n v Siemens

1 = kg1m2s3A2

, ,

dn in

siemens per metre

S/m

kg1m3s3A2

T trng, Cm ng t

tesla

Wb/m2 = kgs2A1 = NA1m1

T thng

weber

Wb

Vs = kgm2s2A1

Cng t trng

ampere per metre

A/m

Am1

L, M

t cm

henry

Wb/A = Vs/A = kgm2s2A2

t thm

henry per metre

H/m

kgms2A2

cm t

(khng n v)

T hc

Cc n v khc

gauss Vit tt l G l n v ca cm ng t B trong h CGS


Oersted vit tt l Oe l n v ca cng t trng H trong h CGS.
Maxwell l n v ca t thng trong h CGS.
gamma l n v ca mt t thng (trong h SI l Tesla - T), 1 gamma = 1 nT.
0 l k hiu vit tt quen thuc ca t thm tuyt i ca chn khng, c gi tr 4x10-7
N/(ampere-vng).

T hc v spintronics
Nhng thnh tu v t hc cui th k 20[7] , [8] dn n vic hnh thnh mt lnh vc mi gi l spintronics[9] ,
ngnh nghin cu to ra cc linh kin in t mi khai thc c thuc tnh spin cng nh in tch ca in t, thay
th cc linh kin in t truyn thng li thi. S hp dn ca spintronics cng dn n vic thc y vic nghin
cu v t hc tm hiu v bn cht t tnh, ng thi nghin cu to ra nhiu vt liu t c bit ng dng trong
cc linh kin t tnh.
Mc tiu quan trng ca spintronics l hiu v c ch tng tc gia spin ca cc ht v mi trng cht rn, t
c th iu khin c v mt cng nh s chuyn vn (transportation) ca dng spin trong vt liu. Nhng cu hi
ln c t ra cho ngnh spintronics l:
Cch no hiu qu nht phn cc mt h spin?
Mt h spin c th nh trng thi nh hng trong bao lu?
Lm th no ghi nhn spin?
Spintronics ha hn l mt th h linh kin mi trong th k 21 vi mc tiu tng tc x l, gim nng lng hao
tn v gi thnh m t hc l mt nn tng ca spintronics.
Xem bi chi tit Spintronics

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Fowler, Michael (1997). Historical Beginnings of Theories of Electricity and Magnetism (http:/ / galileoandeinstein. physics. virginia. edu/
more_stuff/ E& M_Hist. html). Truy cp 2 April nm 2008.
[2] Li Shu-hua, Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole, Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul., 1954), p.175
[3] Li Shu-hua, Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole, Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul., 1954), p.176
[4] Schmidl, Petra G. (1996-1997), Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass, Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 1: 81132
[5] A. Einstein: On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, June 30, 1905. (http:/ / www. fourmilab. ch/ etexts/ einstein/ specrel/ www/ )
[6] International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1993). i Lng, n V v K Hiu trong Ha L, n bn th hai, Oxford: Blackwell
Science. ISBN 0-632-03583-8. pp.1415. Bn ton vn. (http:/ / www. iupac. org/ publications/ books/ gbook/ green_book_2ed. pdf)
[7] M. N. Baibich, J. M. Broto, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Eitenne, g. Creuzet, A. Friederich, and J. Chazelas, Giant
Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988) 2472. (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v61/
i21/ p2472_1)
[8] G. Binasch, P. Grnberg, F. Saurenbach, W. Zinn, Enhanced magnetoresistance in layered magnetic structures with antiferromagnetic
interlayer exchange, Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 4828. (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v39/ i7/ p4828_1)
[9] I. Zutic, J. Fabrian, S.D. Sarma, Spintronics: Fundamentals and applications, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76 (2004) 323 (http:/ / link. aps. org/ abstract/
RMP/ v76/ p323)

T hc

Xem thm

Vi t hc
St t
Nng lng vi t
Nam chm vnh cu

Lin kt ngoi

Lch s ca t hc (http://www.rare-earth-magnets.com/magnet_university/history_of_magnetism.htm)
S lc v t hc v vt liu t (http://ndthe.multiply.com/journal/item/5)
Magnetism flash (http://www.albinoblacksheep.com/flash/magnetism)
Electricity and Magnetism: Video lectures (http://web.mit.edu/smcs/8.02/)
P10D Electricity and Magnetism P10D Electricity and Magnetism, online lectures (http://scitec.uwichill.edu.
bb/cmp/online/P10D/p10D.htm)
Exploring magnetism lesson series (http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/SEGwayed/lessons/exploring_magnetism/)

t ha
t ha hay t (ting Anh: Magnetization) l mt i lng s dng trong t hc c xc nh bng tng
mmen t nguyn t trn mt n v th tch ca vt t. i khi, t cn c nh ngha l tng mmen t trn
mt n v khi lng. T l mt i lng vct.

nh ngha
T , M, c nh ngha l tng mmen t trn mt n v th tch. V mt ton hc, n c cho bi cng thc:

vi m l mmen t nguyn t, V l th tch.


T c cng th nguyn vi cng t trng, uc lin h vi t trng qua h s t ha (hay cn gi l
cm t ca vt liu, k hiu l ):
M = H

n v
Do c cng th nguyn vi cng t trng nn t mang n v ca t trng, n v trong SI l A/m. Trong
t hc, ngi ta cn s dng n v khc cho t c k hiu l emu/cm3 = 1000 A/m. emu l ch vit tt ca
electromagnetic unit - n v in t. n v ny c dng ph bin trong t hc, xut pht t h n v CGS.

T t pht
L khi nim m t t ca cc cht st t khng tuyt i (0 K). i lng t t pht mang c trng ca
mi cht st t, 0 K, tt c cc mmen t ca cht st t song song vi nhau, to nn t t pht ca cht st t
(to nn t tnh m khng cn c t trng ngoi). khng tuyt i, do khng c cc thng ging nhit, tng
tc trao i gia cc mmen t s khin cho tt c cc mmen t song song vi nhau (ging nh trng thi bo ha
t) to nn t t pht ca vt liu st t.

t ha

Xem thm

T hc
St t
Mmen t
S lc v t hc v vt liu t [1]

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.

Ch thch
[1] http:/ / ndthe. multiply. com/ journal/ item/ 5

cm t
cm t l i lng vt l c trng cho kh nng t ha ca vt liu, hay ni ln kh nng phn ng ca cht
di tc dng ca t trng ngoi. cm t cn c tn gi khc l h s t ha (khng nhm vi t ha).
cm t th hin mi quan h gia t (l i lng ni ti) v t trng ngoi, nn thng mang nhiu ngha vt
l gn vi cc tnh cht ni ti ca vt liu.
cm t, thng c k hiu l

, hay

( phn bit vi

- cm in) c nh ngha l t s gia

t ha v ln ca t trng:

vi M l t ha, H l cng t trng. T M v t trng H c cng th nguyn do

l i lng

khng c th nguyn.

cm t v t thm
Cm ng t, B quan h vi t v cng t trng theo biu thc:

vi

l hng s t, hay t thm ca chn khng, c ln

i lng

. Nh vy:

c gi l t thm. t thm c cng ngha vi cm t, u ni ln kh

nng phn ng ca cc vt liu di tc dng ca t trng ngoi.


Trong k thut, ngi ta thng quan tm n gi tr t thm hiu dng c nh ngha bi:
.

cm t

cm t vi phn
Trong cc vt liu st t, cm t khng phi l mt hng s, m c gi tr bin thin ph thuc vo t trng
ngoi v ph thuc c vo tin s t (tc l ph thuc c vo cc qu trnh t din ra trc ), nn ngi ta s dng
khi nim cm t vi phn:

cm t xoay chiu
Hay l h s t ha xoay chiu, l cm t to ra khi vt liu c t trong t trng xoay chiu. Cc php o
cm t xoay chiu ph thuc vo nhit rt quan trng trong cc nghin cu chuyn pha t trong cc vt liu st
t. cm t xoay chiu thng c k hiu l
(ch AC l k hiu ca dng in xoay chiu).

Xem thm
St t
Vt liu t mm
t ha

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.
2. ^ Derek Craik (1995). Magnetism: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 471 92959 X.

t thm
t thm (ting Anh: Magnetic
permeability, thng c k hiu l l
mt i lng vt l c trng cho tnh thm
ca t trng vo mt vt liu, hay ni ln
kh nng phn ng ca vt liu di tc
dng ca t trng ngoi. Khi nim t
thm thng mang tnh cht k thut ca vt
liu, ni ln quan h gia cm ng t (i
lng sn sinh ngoi) v t trng ngoi.
t thm thc cht ch ng k cc vt
liu c trt t t (st t v feri t).

Mi quan h gia t thm v


cm t
Cm ng t, B quan h vi t v cng
t trng theo biu thc:

S thay i ca t thm ban u ca permalloy theo hm lng Ni 1) Ch to


bng phng php cn lnh, 2) Ch to bng cn nng

t thm
vi

9
l hng s t, hay c gi l t thm ca chn khng, c ln

Nh vy:
Nh vy, i lng t thm v cm t quan h vi nhau qua biu thc[1] :

t thm c cng ngha vi cm t, u ni ln kh nng phn ng ca cc vt liu di tc dng ca t


trng ngoi.
Trong k thut, ngi ta thng quan tm n gi tr t thm tng i c nh ngha bi:

Khi ni t thm th ngi ta thng ngm hiu l l t thm tng i, v i lng ny l i lng khng
c th nguyn.

Cc khi nim v t thm cc vt liu c trt t t


Trn thc t, gi tr t thm ch ng k cc vt liu c trt t t. T trn ng cong t ha ca vt liu, ngi
ta c quan tm n mt s t thm khc nhau:

t thm ban u
c nh ngha l t thm ca vt liu di t trng ngoi bng khng, hay thng qua biu thc:

Trn thc t, khng th xc nh gi tr t thm ban u khi t trng ngoi chnh xc bng 0 nn ngi ta xc
nh bng cch t t trng t ha rt nh trong li dn t c ch to thnh dng mch t kn ( kh hiu ng
trng kh t dn n vic d t ha) v nu phi o trong t trng xoay chiu th o trong tn s rt nh (gi l
php o chun tnh). Gi tr t thm ban u rt c ngha trong vic s dng cc vt liu st t mm v vt liu
t mm rt d bo ha v cn s dng trong t trng nh.
Trong cc vt liu t mm c kch thc ht ln (vt kch thc vch men), t thm ban u t l thun vi
kch thc ht theo cng thc[2] :

Cn cc vt liu c kch thc ht mn, t thm ban u t l nghch vi ly tha bc 6 ca kch thc ht[3] :

Vi:

l h s t l,

l t bo ha,

ln lt l hng s trao i v d hng t tinh th bc 1.

t thm

t thm cc i
L gi tr cc i ca t thm trong ton di t trng t ha. Trn thc t, nu t trng ngoi vt ngng (
qu trnh t ha vt qua qu trnh t ha ban u (xy ra bc nhy Barkhausen) th gi tr t thm s t cc
i, sau s gim dn khi vt liu tin ti trng thi bo ha t.

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Derek Craik (1995). Magnetism: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 471 92959 X.
[2] Y. Yoshizawa, Nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials in Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials ed. by Y. Liu et al., Vol. 4, Springer,
2006, ISBN-10 1-4020-7983-4.
[3] Herzer, Grain size dependence of coercivity and permeability innanocrystalline ferromagnets, IEEE Trans. Magn. 26 (1990) 1397-1402.
(http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=104389)

Xem thm

St t
cm t
Permalloy
Vt liu t mm

10

T ha

11

T ha
T ha l qu trnh thay i cc tnh cht t (cu trc t, mmen t...)
ca vt cht di tc dng ca t trng ngoi. Khi c s dng nh
mt ng t, t ha c ngha l lm thay i tnh cht t ca cht bng
t trng ngoi.

Qu trnh t ha
Xt v mt hin tng, t ha l s thay i tnh cht t ca vt cht
theo t trng ngoi, xt v mt bn cht, y l s thay i cc
mmen t nguyn t. Khi t vo t trng ngoi, cc mmen t
nguyn t c xu hng b quay i theo t trng ngoi dn n s thay
i v tnh cht t. Ty theo s hng ng ny m c th phn ra nhiu
loi vt liu t khc nhau:
Nghch t
Nghch t l bn cht c hu ca mi loi vt cht, , cht
khng c mmen t nguyn t, v to ra mt t trng ph
ngc vi chiu ca t trng ngoi theo xu hng ca cm ng
in t (quy tc Lenz). V th, cht nghch t c mmen t m v
ngc vi chiu t trng ngoi.
Thun t
Qu trnh t ha cht thun t, cht c mmen t nguyn t
nh v khng lin kt, xy ra n gin, cc mmen t nguyn t
s quay theo t trng ngoi v to ra mt t trng ph dng
(thng th hiu ng nghch t c hu). V th, qu trnh t ha
ch n gin l s tng tuyn tnh ca t theo t trng ngoi
v t bo ha khi t trng rt ln v nhit rt thp.

Cu trc t ca mng mng hp kim permalloy


(dy 20 nm) thay i trong qu trnh t ha (nh
quan st bng knh hin vi Lorentz Philips
CM20.

St t v cc vt liu c trt t t khc (phn st t, feri t)


Trong cc vt liu ny, mmen t nguyn t ln v c lin kt vi nhau thng qua tng tc trao i nn qu
trnh t ha tr nn rt phc tp. Qu trnh ny ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh cu trc t, cu trc tinh th
cng nh s ng nht ca vt liu. Cc qu trnh t ha lc ny l s thay i cu trc men ca cht, v dn
n nhiu loi cht khc nhau, v d nh vt liu st t mm, vt liu st t cng...

T ha

12

t ha
t ha l mt i lng vt l ni ln kh nng b t ha ca mt vt t, c xc nh bng tng mmen t
nguyn t trn mt n v th tch, hoc mt n v khi lng.

Qu trnh kh t
Ngc vi qu trnh t ha l qu trnh kh t. Kh t l qu trnh lm trit tiu t tnh ca vt t, bng cch t vo
mt t trng ngc ln, hoc lm tng nhit n trn nhit nh hng ca cht.
Kh t bng t trng:
Kh t bng t trng l cch thng dng nht, bng cch t vo t trng ngc (vi chiu ca t d
trong cht) bng vi gi tr lc khng t ca cht. Nu t trng ngc t vo tip tc tng, t ca cht s
b o ngc, v ta c qu trnh o t. kh t hon ton, ngi ta khng dng t trng ngc mt chiu
m dng t trng xoay chiu c bin gim dn (tt dn theo hm s m v i chiu), nh vy, t trng
d trong mu s b nh dn v o lin tc quay gi tr 0 v ngy cng tin ti gi tr 0.
Cc cch khc:
C nhiu cc khc kh t, v d t nng vt t n trn nhit trt t t ca cht (nhit Curie vi cc
cht st t, hay nhit Nel vi cc cht phn st t...), lc ny cc cht t trng thi c t ln s b mt t
tnh v tr thnh cht thun t. Ngoi ra, s va p c hc v n mn ha hc cng l nhng cch kh i t
tnh ca cht.

Xem thm

T hc
St t
Thun t
Mmen t

Lin kt ngoi
S lc v t hc v vt liu t [1]

T gio

13

T gio
T gio (ting Anh: magnetostriction)
l hin tng hnh dng, kch thc
ca cc vt t (thng l st t) b thay
i di tc dng ca t trng ngoi
(t gio thun) hoc ngc li, tnh
cht t ca vt t b thay i khi c s
thay i v hnh dng v kch thc (t
gio nghch). Trong cc sch gio
khoa vt l c Vit Nam, ngi ta
cn dng thut ng "p t" cho t
gio ( tng ng vi hin tng p
in l s thay i kch thc do in
trng). Tuy nhin, thut ng ny hin
nay hu nh khng c s dng.
Ngi ta nh ngha h s t gio (hay
t gio Joule) l t l phn trm s thay
i v chiu di hoc th tch:

C ch hin tng t gio do tng tc spin-qu o v s phn b m my in t: a)


dng i xng cu: khng c t gio; b) khng c i xng cu: c t gio

hoc:

vi

ln lt l chiu di (hay th tch) ca vt th trong t trng (H) v khi khng c t

trng. H s t gio l i lng khng c th nguyn.


Theo nh ngha ny, nu
ta c t gio dng,

ta s c t gio m.

Hin tng t gio dn n s thay i v chiu di gi l t gio di, cn hin tng dn n s thay i v ton th
tch gi l t gio khi.
Trong cc nghin cu v t hc v k thut, ngi ta cn quan tm n i lng cm t gio, c nh ngha
bi s bin thin ca h s t gio theo t trng:

cm t gio mang ngha tng t nh cm t, u ch kh nng phn ng ca cht di t trng ngoi,


trong trng hp t gio, cm t gio c ngha ch kh nng thay i tnh cht t gio do t trng. cm t
gio c th nguyn l nghch o ca t trng, c n v l m/A hay Oe-1.

T gio

C ch hin tng t gio


Bn cht ca hin tng t gio l do
tng tc spin-qu o trong cc in
t trong vt liu st t. Hin tng t
gio ch c th xy ra khi m my
in t khng c dng i xng cu v
c tng tc spin-qu o mnh. Di
tc dng ca t trng ngoi, s phn
Hnh nh m t c ch hiu ng t gio.
b ca cc in t ( y l mmen
qu o) s quay theo s quay ca mmen t (mmen spin) t hng ny sang hng khc v t gio c to ra do
s thay i tng ng ca tng tc tnh in gia in t t v in tch ca mi trng.
Khi m my in t c dng i xng cu (c ngha l mmen qu o bng 0), tt c cc v tr ca cc in ln cn
u tng ng i vi s phn b in t. Khi c s tc ng ca t trng ngoi, mmen spin tuy c quay i,
nhng s phn b khng gian ca in t hon ton khng thay i nn khong cch gia cc in t vn gi
nguyn (khng dn n s thay i v kch thc cng nh hnh dng mu. Nu m my in t khng c dng i
xng cu (c ngha l mmen qu o khc 0), lc ny cc v tr phn b xung quanh khng cn tnh cht i xng,
s quay ca mmen spin khi c t trng ngoi dn n s thay i m my in t, do dn n s thay i v
kch thc cng nh hnh dng mu. Hay ni mt cch n gin, t gio phn nh tnh cht i xng ca mng tinh
th.
T gio mang tnh cht ca i xng tinh th nn n ph thuc vo phng ca t trng, vct t v hng ca
tinh th. Ngi ta thng s dng i lng t gio bo ha (k hiu l
l h s t gio t c trong trng
thi bo ha t. T gio bo ha l mt hm (lin hp tuyn tnh) ca cc h s t gio o theo cc phng khc
nhau ca tinh th.

Vt liu t gio
Hu ht cc nguyn t st t u c t gio. Trong cc nguyn t st t, cban (Co) l nguyn t c h s t gio ln
nht nhit phng(do cban c cu trc bt i xng kh cao - lc gic xp cht), t ti 60.10-6 trong t trng
bo ha. Cc vt liu c h s t gio ln c gi l vt liu t gio khng l.
C nhiu loi vt liu t gio khc nhau, ti thi im hin ti, vt liu t gio thng phm tt nht l Terfenol-D
(c tn l cc t vit tt ghp bi: Ter - Terbium - Tb, Fe - st, Nol - Naval Ordnance Laboratory, D - Dysproxium Dy) l hp kim TbxDy1-xFe2 c h s t gio t ti 2000.10-6 trong t trng 2 kOe[1] , v ch t 400.10-6 dng
mng mng [2] . y l vt liu t gio c dng ph bin nht hin nay.
Gn y, nhm nghin cu ti Vit Nam Phng Th nghim Vt l Nhit thp, i hc Khoa hc T nhin, i
hc Quc gia H Ni lnh o bi Gio s Nguyn Hu c cng b vt liu t gio khng l dng cc mng
mng (h s t gio t ti 720.10-6)[3] , l cc mng mng hp kim TbFeCo) mang tn TerfecoHan (Ter - Terbium
- Tb, Fe - st, Co - Cban, Han - H Ni, ng thi cng ci tin to ra cc mng mng a lp trn c s TerfecoHan
to ra cc mng mng t gio vi h s t gio ln v cm t gio cao trong t trng thp[4] .

14

T gio

ng dng ca hin tng t gio


Vt liu t gio c ng dng trong cc linh kin, thit b chuyn i in - t - c c dng cc vt liu dng khi
v vt liu dng mng mng, v d nh cc cm bin t trng (da trn t hp t gio-p in), cc cm bin o
gia tc, cm bin c o dch chuyn c hc, cc my pht siu m - t gio, cc linh kin vi c trong cc b vi c
in t (MEMS)...

Xem thm
D hng t tinh th
St t
p in

Ti liu tham kho


[1] http:/ / aml. seas. ucla. edu/ research/ areas/ magnetostrictive/ mag-composites/ Magnetostriction%20and%20Magnetostrictive%20Materials.
htm
[2] N.H. Duc, Jornal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 242-245 (2002) 1411-1417 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/
science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-44N027N-14& _user=5613324& _coverDate=04/ 30/ 2002& _fmt=full& _orig=search&
_cdi=5312& view=c& _acct=C000067901& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=5613324& md5=10c452ca6b484972a24c29577dfab6a9&
ref=full)
[3] N.H. Duc, Jornal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 242-245 (2002) 1411-1417 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/
science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-44N027N-14& _user=5613324& _coverDate=04/ 30/ 2002& _fmt=full& _orig=search&
_cdi=5312& view=c& _acct=C000067901& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=5613324& md5=10c452ca6b484972a24c29577dfab6a9&
ref=full)
[4] D.T.H. Giang et al., Applied Physics Letters 85 (2004) 1565-1567 (http:/ / scitation. aip. org/ getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal&
id=APPLAB000085000009001565000001& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes)

1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.
2. ^ Nguyn Hu c (2003). Vt liu t lin kim loi. Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia H Ni. ISBN
1K-02044-01403.

Lin kt ngoi
T gio khng l thm mt bc tin vo tng lai (http://datrach.blogspot.com/2004/12/
t-gio-khng-l-thm-mt-bc-tin-vo-tng-lai.html)

15

T tr

16

T tr
T tr (ting Anh: magnetic
hysteresis) l hin tng bt thun
nghch gia qu trnh t ha v o t
cc vt liu st t do kh nng gi li
t tnh ca cc vt liu st t. Hin
tng t tr l mt c trng quan
trng v d thy nht cc cht st t.
Hin tng t tr c biu hin thng
qua ng cong t tr (T - t
trng, M(H) hay Cm ng t - T
trng, B(H)), c m t nh sau:
sau khi t ha mt vt st t n mt
t trng bt k, nu ta gim dn t
trng v quay li theo chiu ngc,
th n khng quay tr v ng cong
t ha ban u na, m i theo ng
khc. V nu ta o t theo mt chu
trnh kn (t chiu ny sang chiu kia),
th ta s c mt ng cong kn gi l
ng cong t tr hay chu trnh t tr.
Tnh cht t tr l mt tnh cht ni ti
c trng ca cc vt liu st t, v
hin tng tr biu hin kh nng t
tnh ca ca cc cht st t.

ng cong t tr ca 2 loi vt liu st t, vt liu t cng v vt liu t mm, v cc


thng s ca vt liu c xc nh trn ng cong t tr

Cc tham s
T bo ha
L gi tr t t c khi c t ha n t trng ln (vt qua gi tr trng d hng) sao cho vt
trng thi bo ha t, c ngha l cc mmen t hon ton song song vi nhau. Khi ng cong t tr T
-T trng, M(H) c dng nm ngang. T bo ha l tham s c trng ca vt liu st t. Nu khng
tuyt i (0 K) th n l gi tr t t pht ca cht st t. T bo ha thng c k hiu l Ms hoc
Is (ch "s" c ngha l saturation - bo ha).
T d
L gi tr t cn gi c khi ngt t trng (H = 0), thng c k hiu l Mr hoc Ir (ch "r" c ngha l
remanent - d). T d khng phi l thng s mang tnh cht ni ti ca vt liu m ch l thng s dn xut,
ph thuc vo cc c ch t tr, cc phng t ho, hnh dng vt t...
T s gia t d v t bo ha Mr/Ms c gi l t rt gn hoc h s ch nht ca ng cong t tr
(gi tr Mr/Ms cng gn 1 th ng cong t tr cng tin ti dng hnh ch nht).

T tr

17

Lc khng t
L gi tr t trng ngc cn
t vo trit tiu t ha (M
= 0). Lc khng t thng c
k hiu l Hc (Coercivity), i
khi c gi l trng o t
(nhng khng hon ton chnh
xc). Lc khng t cng khng
phi l tham s ni ti ca vt
liu m l tham s ngoi ging
nh t d.
Tn hao nng lng tr
Bin dao ng ca t trng ngoi khc nhau s to ra cc ng cong t tr khc
nhau.

L din tch ng cong t tr,


l nng lng tiu tn cn thit
cho mt chu trnh t tr, c n v ca mt nng lng.
Tch nng lng t cc i

L nng lng t ln nht c th tn tr trong mt n v th tch vt t, lin quan n kh nng sn sinh t


trng ca vt t, thng l tham s k thut ca cc nam chm vnh cu v vt liu t cng. Tch nng lng
t cc i c xc nh trn ng cong kh t B(H) trong gc 1/4 th 2, l im c gi tr tch B.H ln nht.
Tch nng lng t l tham s dn sut, ph thuc vo cc tnh cht t ni ti ca vt liu v hnh dng ca vt
liu, thng mang ngha ng dng trong cc nam chm vnh cu v vt liu t cng.
T s tch nng lng t cc i chia cho tch lc khng t v t d c gi l h s li ca ng cong t tr,
hay h s li ca vt t.

Cc c ch
Nguyn nhn c bn ca hin tng t tr l s tng tc gia cc mmen t c tc dng ngn cn cc mmen t b
quay theo t trng. C nhiu c ch khc nhau to nn hin tng t tr, to nn cc hnh dng ng cong t tr
khc nhau:
C ch quay cc mmen t
i khi cn c tn di l "c ch quay kt hp ca cc mmen t", l c ch o t khi cc mmen t ghim
trng thi nh hng, sau t ngt quay theo chiu ca t trng o t khi t trng vt gi tr trng
o t. C ch ny thng xut hin trong cc vt liu st t c cu trc gm cc ht n men hoc khi b
o t theo phng ca trc d t ha. C ch ny thng to ra ng cong t tr c dng hnh ch nht.
C ch hm dch chuyn vch men
Trong qu trnh o t, cc mmen t c xu hng b quay theo chiu ca t trng o t, dn n vic cc
vch men b dch chuyn. Tuy nhin, nu c cc tm tp, hoc cc sai hng, chng ngi... trn chiu dch
chuyn ca vch men, chng c tc dng hm s dch chuyn ca vch men v to nn hin tng tr.
C ch hm s pht trin ca mm o t
Mm o t l mt vng rt nh hnh thnh trong qu trnh t ha, c chiu ngc vi ton khi (cng chiu
vi trng o t) v c tc dng nh mt mm ko cc mmen t quay theo chiu t trng o t. Tuy
nhin, c nhiu nguyn nhn khc nhau dn n vic ngn cn s pht trin ca cc mm o t ny cng l
mt c ch to nn hin tng tr.

T tr

18

Phng php o
Nguyn tc chung ca php o t tr l o s bin i ca mmen t hoc cm ng t theo s thay i ca t trng.
T trng t vo c bin i theo mt chu trnh (t gi tr 0 n gi tr cc i, sau gim dn v i chiu n
t trng ngc hng, v li o tr li gi tr cc i ban u). C th o ng cong t tr bng cc phng
php:

o bng in k xung kch


o bng t k v cc thit b o t tr
o bng php o quang t (hiu ng Kerr)
(cc phng php khc)...

ng dng
Cc vt liu t c tnh cht t tr cao c th c s dng ch to nam chm vnh cu. Khi t vt liu ny trong
t trng mnh, s xut hin t mnh trong vt liu, v sau khi b t trng ngoi i, vt liu vn gi t mnh
ny, v th hin nh nam chm vnh cu.
Hin tng t tr c th lm mt s r le t khng kp nh kt ni ngay sau khi t trng b ngt. y cng l hin
tng quan trng cn xt ti khi thit k thit b lu tr d liu bng vt liu t (nh bng t, a cng ca my
tnh). Trong cc vt liu ny, d liu bao gm cc bit 0 v 1 c ng vi chiu mmen t hng ln hoc xung ca
cc vng trn vt liu. thay i gi tr mt nh, cn p dng mt t trng ngoi vo n. Hin tng t tr
khin cho chng ta cn bit chnh xc gi tr hin c ca nh ny tm ra t trng ph hp. trnh phc tp
ha vn , nhiu h thng s ghi ln nh mt gi tr bit trc, trong mt qu trnh gi l lm lch bng t.
Vt liu t tr khi t trong t trng bin thin s tiu th nng lng ca t trng ngoi (vi mt tiu th chnh
bng din tch ng cong t tr), bin n thnh nhit nng v b nng ln. y c th l hiu ng khng mong
mun trong nhiu ng dng, v nhng ng dng ny, cn chn vt liu c tn hao nng lng tr nh.

Xem thm

St t
Vt liu t cng
Vt liu t mm
T k mu rung

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ D.C. Jiles (1990). 1st. ed. Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Springer; 1 edition (December
31, 1990). ISBN 10 0412386402.
2. ^ Derek Craik (1995). Magnetism: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 471 92959 X.

Lc khng t

19

Lc khng t
Lc khng t, i khi cn c gi l
trng khng t, hoc trng o
t, l mt i lng ngoi s dng
trong ngnh t hc, c nh ngha
bng gi tr ca t trng cn t vo
trit tiu t hoc cm ng t ca
vt t. Khi gi l trng o t, i
lng ny c nh ngha l t trng
cn t o chiu t ca vt t.

Cc khi nim v lc
khng t
Lc khng t thc t l mt i lng
ngoi ca mi vt t v vt liu t.
Thc t, lc khng t ch tn ti cc
vt liu c trt t t (st t, feri t,...).
Thng thng, lc khng t thng
c xc nh t ng cong t tr ca
vt t. Nh khi nim lc khng t,
ng cong t tr ca cc vt liu st t cho php xc nh lc khng t.
ngi ta phn loi c 2 loi vt liu
st t l vt liu st t cng (c lc
khng t ln) v vt liu st t mm (c lc khng t nh). Do s lin quan gia t trng (
), cm ng t (
v t

),

bi cng thc:

Do , s xut hin 2 loi gi tr lc khng t:


Lc khng t lin quan n t (

L gi tr ca lc khng t, cho php trit tiu t ha ca mu. Gi tr ny mang tnh cht chung, khng ph
thuc vo hnh dng vt t, v trong k thut thng c k hiu l
. Thng thng, nu ch ni n
khi nim lc khng t thng ch khi nim ny.
Lc khng t lin quan n cm ng t (

L gi tr ca lc khng t cho php trit tiu cm ng t ca vt t. Gi tr ny mang tnh cht k thut, ph


thuc vo hnh dng vt t (do c b sung yu t d hng hnh dng ca vt t khi o), v thng c k
hiu l
.
i vi cc vt liu c lc khng t nh, s sai khc gia hai i lng ny rt nh, v i khi thng b nhm ln
vi nhau. S sai khc ny ch tr nn ng k i vi cc vt liu t cng.

Lc khng t

20

C ch to lc khng t
C ch to lc khng t lin quan n c ch t ha v o t ca vt liu, hay ni cch khc l lin quan n s
thay i ca cu trc t v b nh hng mnh bi cu trc ht ca vt liu. Yu t ln nht chi phi lc khng t l
d hng t tinh th v ty tng loi vt liu m lc khng t c th ph thuc khc nhau vo yu t ny.

Trong cc vt liu c d hng t yu


Thng thng, i vi cc vt liu t mm (c d hng t yu), lc khng t t l thun vi d hng t tinh th theo
cng thc[1] :

vi

ln lt l h s t l, hng s d hng t tinh th v t bo ha ca vt liu.

Vi cc vt liu t mm c kch thc ht ln


i vi cc vt liu loi ny (vt liu truyn thng c in c kch thc ht ln hn kch thc vch men), lc
ny, qu trnh t ha v o t thng b nh hng bi qu trnh hm dch chuyn vch men do bin ht nn lc
khng t s t l nghch vi kch thc ht theo cng thc[2] :

vi

l hng s trao i,

l kch thc ht trung bnh.

Vi cc vt liu t mm c kch thc ht mn


L cc vt liu t mm c cu trc nano, vi kch thc ht nh hn chiu di tng tc trao i st t, d hng t
tinh th b trung bnh ha, v lc khng t li thay i[3] :

Trong cc vt liu t c d hng t mnh


Trong cc vt liu c d hng t ln, lc khng t thay i rt phc tp, v ph thuc tng qut theo hm s[4] :

y,

l h s phc,

liu; cn

l nng lng vch men,

l th tch kch hot nhit v

l h s nht t ca vt

l tha s kh t hiu dng.

i vi cc vt liu t c cu trc n men, cu trc n men l cu trc khng c vch men nn khng c
cc qu trnh dch chuyn vch hay hm cc vch men trong qu trnh t ha. V th, qu trnh t ha v kh t
trong vt t c cu trc n men l qu trnh quay kt hp cc mmen t. V th, lc khng t to ra l do ng
gp bi 3 yu t d hng: d hng t tinh th, d hng t hnh dng v d hng t do s bt ng nht cu trc:
[5]
:

vi

l hng s d hng t tinh th bc mt;

lt l t gio bo ha v ng sut ni;

l tha s kh t o theo 2 phng khc nhau;

l cc h s phn trm ng gp ca tng s hng.

ln

Lc khng t

21

Lc khng t v trng d hng


Trng d hng (thng c k hiu l

) l trng lin quan n nng lng d hng t tinh th, l mt gi

tr ni ca vt liu. Vt liu s t trng thi bo ha nu t t trng vt qu gi tr trng d hng. Trng d


hng c gi tr cho bi:

Lc khng t quan h vi trng d hng theo cng thc[6] :

Di y l mt s gi tr lc khng t mt s vt liu t tiu biu:


Vt liu

Lc khng t (Oe)
[7]

Supermalloy Fe15,7Ni79Mo5Mn0,3

0,002

St

0,05

Permalloy, Ni81Fe19

0,05-1

C ban

20

Niken

150

Ni1-xZnxFeO3, ferrite t mm siu cao tn

15-200

Alnico (nam chm ph bin)

1500-2000

Co-Pt-Cr mng mng t cng s dng trong a cng

1700

NdFeB (nam chm t him mnh nht

10.000

Fe48Pt52
SmCo5

[7]
[8]

[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]

[13]
[14]

12.300
40.000

[15]

|+

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Herzer, Grain size dependence of coercivity and permeability innanocrystalline ferromagnets, IEEE Trans. Magn. 26 (1990) 1397-1402.
(http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=104389)
[2] Y. Yoshizawa, Nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials in Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials ed. by Y. Liu et al., Vol. 4, Springer,
2006, ISBN-10 1-4020-7983-4.
[3] Herzer, Grain size dependence of coercivity and permeability innanocrystalline ferromagnets, IEEE Trans. Magn. 26 (1990) 1397-1402.
(http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=104389)
[4] X. C. Kou, H. Kronmller, D. Givord and M. F. Rossignol, Coercivity mechanism of sintered Pr17Fe75B8 and Pr17Fe53B30 permanent
magnets,Phys. Rev. B 50 (1994) 3849 - 3860 (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v50/ i6/ p3849_1)
[5] N.D. The et al. High hard magnetic properties and cellular structure of nanocomposite magnet Nd4.5Fe73.8B18.5Cr0.5Co1.5Nb1Cu0.2, Journal
of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 303, e419 - e422 (2006) (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL&
_udi=B6TJJ-4J91N66-4& _user=121723& _coverDate=08/ 31/ 2006& _alid=619302256& _rdoc=21& _fmt=full& _orig=search&
_cdi=5312& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=68& _acct=C000009999& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=121723&
md5=6755d58bd7f3d7bb5d968f95618884bb)
[6] L. Jinfang, L. Helie and W. Jiang, Discussion of the coercivity mechanism of RE-TM-B permanent magnets, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 25 (1992)
1238 - 1242. (http:/ / www. iop. org/ EJ/ abstract/ 0022-3727/ 25/ 8/ 014)
[7] http:/ / mysite. du. edu/ ~jcalvert/ phys/ iron. htm#Magn
[8] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 365100
[9] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 348151
[10] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 355560
[11] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1109/ 20. 619559
[12] http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpl/ abs_free. jsp?arNumber=1066731

Lc khng t

22

[13] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1109/ 20. 278737


[14] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 353563
[15] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 368075

Xem thm

T tr
T
Mmen t
St t

Nhit Curie
Nhit Curie, hay im Curie (thng c k hiu l

, l khi nim trong vt l cht rn, khoa hc vt liu

l nhit chuyn pha trong cc vt liu st t hoc st in, c t theo tn ca nh vt l hc ngi Php Pierre
Curie (1859 - 1906). i khi, k hiu
cn c s dng l k hiu cho cc nhit ti hn (v d nhit
chuyn pha siu dn...).

Nhit Curie trong cc cht


st t
Nhit Curie trong cc cht st t l nhit
chuyn pha st t - thun t. di nhit
Curie, vt liu mang tnh cht st t,
trn
, cht s b mt tnh st t v tr
thnh thun t. Nhit Curie st t t l vi
s phi v (s ln cn gn nht), tch phn
trao i ca cht theo cng thc:

Bin i ca mmen t ti nhit Curie st t

vi

l s ln cn gn nht,

l nng lng tch phn trao i,

l hng s Boltzmann. trn nhit Curie,

cm t ca cht bin thin theo nhit tun theo nh lut Curie:

Chuyn pha ti nhit Curie l chuyn pha loi 2, tc l chuyn pha khng c s thay i v cu trc.

Nhit Curie

23

* Cht feri t
Cht

(K)

Co

1388

Fe

1043

FeOFe2O3*

858

NiOFe2O3*

858

CuOFe2O3* 728
MgOFe2O3* 713
MnBi

630

Ni

627

MnSb

587

MnOFe2O3* 573
Y3Fe5O12*

560

CrO2

386

MnAs

318

Gd

292

Dy

88

EuO

69

Nhit Curie trong cc cht st in


Cng c ngha ging vi nhit Curie trong cc cht st t, l nhit m ti cc cht st in b mt phn
cc (mt tnh st in) tr thnh cc cht thun in (paraelectric).

Xem thm
St t
t ha
St in

ng cong t ha

24

ng cong t ha
ng cong t ha (hay y l ng cong t
ha ban u) l th m t qu trnh t ha vt t t
trng thi ban u cha nhim t (trng thi kh t), m
th hin trn th l s thay i ca tnh cht t
(thng qua gi tr ca t , cm ng t...) theo gi tr
ca t trng ngoi. phm vi cu trc vi m, qu
trnh t ha chnh l s thay i v cu trc t (cu trc
men) thng qua cc c ch khc nhau.
Thut ng ting Anh ch "ng cong t ha" c s
dng ph bin l "Magnetization curve", tuy nhin,
trong nhiu thit b o c tnh cht t, ngi ta cn
dng nhiu thut ng khc nhau v d nh "Virgin
curve", "Initial curve"...

ng cong t ha c dng tuyn tnh trong cc cht thun t v


nghch t

Hnh dng ng cong t ha cc vt liu t khc nhau


i vi cc cht nghch t v thun t, ng cong
t ha c dng l ng thng (t ph thuc
tuyn tnh vo t trng), t ca cht thun t
mang gi tr dng trong khi cc cht nghch t c
t nhn gi tr m.
i vi cc cht c trt t t (st t, phn st t, feri
t), ng cong t ha l cc ng phi tuyn. i
vi st t v feri t, khi t ha vi t trng ln
s c hin tng bo ha t (ng cong t ha nm
ngang, t t bo ha). Hin tng bo ha t
cng xy ra vi cc cht thun t v phn st t,
nhng phi trong t trng rt ln v nhit thp
thm ch rt thp.

ng cong t ha ca cht st t M(H), ng cong t thm ph


thuc vo t trng v cc gi tr thu c: T bo ha Ms, t
thm ban u i, t thm cc i max..

Cc thng s thu c t ng
cong t ha
t thm ban u
t thm c nh ngha l o hm ca cm ng t B theo t trng:

t thm ban u c xc nh t s ph thuc ca cm ng t B vo t trng, c nh ngha l t


thm ti gi tr H = 0, cho bi cng thc:

ng cong t ha

25

t thm cc i l gi tr cc i ca t thm trn ng


cong (H), thng k hiu l
T bo ha: Nu t trng t ha ln sao cho tt c cc
mmen t song song vi nhau, ta s thu c gi tr t bo ha
(k hiu l
)

Cc c ch t ha
i vi cc cht st t v feri t, ng cong t ha phn nh cc c
ch t ha trong vt liu (th hin qua s bin i cu trc men).
Qu trnh dch chuyn vch men: Khi c t trng t ha, cc
vch men s b dch chuyn theo xu th cc men c chiu ca
vct t hng theo t trng s ln dn, cn cc men khc s
b thu hp dn. Qu trnh ny thng th hin thng qua on ng
cong t ha c dng tuyn tnh vi h s gc thp.
Qu trnh quay mmen t: tng vt liu v ty trng thi cu trc
m c th din ra qu trnh t ha bng cch cc mmen t b quay
theo chiu t trng, th hin qua ng cong t ha dng phi tuyn
v tng rt nhanh, hoc ch xy ra trong t trng ln.
Bc nhy Barkhausen: L qu trnh xy ra khi c s dch chuyn
mt cch t ngt ca cc vch men, bn cht l s thay i tng
nng lng ton phn ri vo mt v tr cc tiu nng lng.
Bc nhy Barkhausen l nguyn nhn dn n hin tng c ting
lo xo (nhiu Barkhausen) trong cc loa in ng s dng cc li
st t khi va bt ngun in.

Xem thm
St t
ng cong t tr
men t

S phn chia thnh cc men t trong mng


mng hp kim NiFe quan st trn knh hin vi
in t truyn qua Lorentz ch Fresnel. Cc
ng en, trng l cc vch men, mi tn ch
chiu ca mmen t trong cc men. Trong qu
trnh t ha, cu trc men b thay i

ng cong t nhit

26

ng cong t nhit
ng cong t nhit (ting Anh: thermomagnetic curve) l thut ng trong ngnh t hc, ch ng cong m t s
ph thuc nhit ca t ha ca cc vt liu t. ng cong ny cn c tn l ng cong dng Weiss.
i vi cc cht trng thi st t, t ph thuc vo nhit theo hm Brillouin cho bi [1] :

vi:

l magneton Bohr, n v ca mmen t

l t trng.

l mt ,

l hm ph thuc nhit ca cng sng spin,

l nhit ,

ch s ti hn (x = 3/2

vi st vi c ch sng spin, hoc x = 5/2 cho cc c ch khc). Mt cch gn ng, gn ln cn nhit Curie,
ng cong t nhit c th khai trin thnh hm n gin hn, v d nh theo m hnh sng spin:
vi A l hng s.
i vi cc cht trng thi thun t, t ha ph thuc vo nhit theo nh lut Curie-Weiss:

vi N l mt nguyn t,

l mmen t nguyn t,

l cm ng t v hng s Boltzmann.

Php o ng cong t nhit


Php o ng cong t nhit thng
thng
L k thut o ng cong t nhit
trong t trng nhit bt u t
nhit thp (thp hn nhiu so vi
cc nhit trt t t: nhit Curie,
nhit Nel...). y l mt k thut
hiu qu nht cho php xc nh chnh
xc cc nhit chuyn pha v cc
loi chuyn pha trong vt liu.
ng cong t nhit FC v ZFC
ZFC v FC l ch k hiu ca
Zero-Field Cooled v Field
Cooled l ch k thut o ng cong
t nhit c bit hn so vi k thut o
ng cong t nhit thng thng.
ng cong t nhit ca hp kim v nh hnh FeSiBNbCu o trong t trng 20 Oe
Trong k thut ny, ban u cht c
lm nng ln trn nhit Curie, sau
lm lnh v nhit thp di nhit Curie v sau mi tin hnh o ng cong t nhit. Nu trong qu
trnh lm lnh, ta c t t trng ngoi, ta c ng cong t nhit FC, nu khng t t trng ngoi, ta c ng
cong ZFC. Hai ng cong ny thng c o lin tc v rt hu hiu trong vic xc nh cc hiu ng t c bit,
v d nh hiu ng thy tinh-spin (spin-glass). im khc bit quan trng nht ca n so vi k thut o t nhit

ng cong t nhit

27

thng thng l s lm lnh c t trng hoc khng c t trng v qu trnh ny c th dn ti vic ng bng cc
mmen t hoc ph v s ng bng...

ng dng ca ng cong t nhit


Xc nh cc nhit chuyn pha (nhit Curie, nhit Nel...), loi chuyn pha (loi I, loi II...), xc nh
cc c ch to t tnh: v d c ch sng spin..
Quan st cc hiu ng c bit v d nh hiu ng Hopkinson, hiu ng thy tinh-spin...

Xem thm
Nhit Curie
Hiu ng Hopkinson

Ti liu tham kho


[1] E.P. Wohlfarth, Ferromagnetic materials - A handbook on the properties of magnetically ordered substances, Vol. 1, Elsevier North-Holland
Inc. (1980) ISBN 0-444-85311-1

Mmen lng cc t
Mmen t, hay mmen lng cc t (magnetic
dipole moment) l i lng vt l, c trng cho
mnh yu ca ngun t. Trong trng hp n gin l
mt dng in kn, mmen lng cc t c nh
ngha bi:

Moment t

vi
phi,

l vct din tch (c ln l din tch, chiu l vct php tuyn ca mt , xc nh t quy tc bn tay
l cng dng in. Trong trng hp mt in tch chuyn ng quay, mmen t s c cho bi biu

thc:

vi

l mt dng in.

Trong vt l nguyn t, vt l ht nhn, ngi ta dng khi nim mmen t ca cc ht, c n v l magneton Bohr
(hay Bohr magneton, k hiu l
). Mmen t ca cc ht lin quan n chuyn ng ni ti ca cc ht
(chuyn ng spin) hoc mmen t ca nguyn t c to ra t mmen t tng cng ca cc ht (chuyn ng spin)
v chuyn ng trn qu o ca cc ht. Trong mt h ht, mmen t c xc nh bi tng mmen t ca cc ht

Mmen lng cc t

28

thnh phn.

Ngun gc
Mmen t c th gii thch bng m hnh mt thanh nam chm thng c cc t cc nm 2 u v ngc du nhau.
Mi t cc l mt ngun to ra lc t c ln gim dn theo khong cch. Khi 2 cp n cc t ny kt hp vi
nhau thnh mt cp, cc lc tng tc s ngc chiu nhau v to nn mmen lng cc, t l vi ln ca n cc
t v khong cch gia chng:

v y,

chnh l mmen lng cc t Bt c mt vt th mang in no khi chuyn ng quay u to ra

mmen t, mmen t cng l c trng ca cc ht c bn. Mmen t ca mt h xc nh trn mt n v th tch


hay mt n v khi lng to ra t ha. n v ca mmen t l

Tng tc vi t trng
Khi mt vt th c mmen t m t trong t trng c cm ng t B, s c mt mmen lc tc dng ln mmen
lng cc t cho bi:
T=mB
Mmen lc ny khin cho cc mmen lng cc t c xu hng nh hng theo chiu t trng. y l nguyn l
hot ng ca la bn hay nhiu loi ng c in.
Do lc t tc ng ln mment t l lc th, cc mmen t nm trong t trng cng c th nng:
U = -m.B
Nu mmen t nm trong t trng khng u, n va chu mmen lc va chu lc y hoc ko F:

Lc ht y ny l gii lc ht y gia cc nam chm.

Mmen t ca in t
in t trong nguyn t c mmen t to nn do ng gp ca 2 thnh phn:
Mmen t qu o: c to ra khi in t chuyn ng quanh ht nhn. Theo c hc lng t, gi tr ny b gin
on v c ln:

hnh chiu ca n ln trc ca t trng s nhn gi tr:

vi

l s lng t qu o v s lng t t.

Mmen t spin: do in t c moment ring spin (xem bi Spin).


V mmen t tng cng ca in t trong nguyn t s l:

vi

l mmen tng cng to nn t 2 mmen spin v qu o


l tha s Land,

l cc s lng t qu o v spin.

Mmen lng cc t

29

Mmen t ht nhn
Mmen t ht nhn c to nn t mmen t ring ca cc ht thnh phn cu to nn ht nhn (proton, neutron..)

Xem thm
t ha
T tnh

Nhit Nel
Nhit Nel hay nhit trt t phn st t (thng c k hiu l TN) l nhit chuyn pha phn st t thun t, , mt cht phn st t s b mt trt t t, v tr thnh thun t. Tnh cht phn st t s xut hin
di nhit Nel, v trn nhit Nel, nng lng nhit ln ph v trt t t trong vt, bin vt tr thnh
thun t.
V mt ngha, nhit Nel cng tng t nh nhit Curie trong cc cht st t. Tn gi ca i lng ny
c t theo tn ca nh vt l hc ngi Php Louis Nel (1904-2000), ngi ginh gii Nobel Vt l nm 1970
cho cc nghin cu v t hc v vt liu t.
Bng di y thng k nhit Nel mt s vt liu [1] :
Cht

Nhit Nel temperature (K)

MnO

116

MnS

160

MnTe 307
MnF2

67

FeF2

79

FeCl2

24

FeO

298

CoCl2 25
CoO

291

NiCl2

50

NiO

525

Cr

308

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2005

Xem thm
Phn st t
St t
Nhit Curie

Nng lng vi t

30

Nng lng vi t
Nng lng vi t (ting Anh: Micromagnetic energy)
l tng hp cc dng nng lng th hin cc tng tc
vi m gia cc mmen t vi nhau v vi trng tng
tc bn ngoi trong mt vt st t. Nng lng vi t c
th quy gn thnh nm s hng[1] : nng lng trao i,
nng lng d hng, nng lng tnh t, nng lng
Zeeman, v nng lng t gio. S cc tiu ha nng
lng tng hp s quy nh cu trc men ca vt
t[2] .

Nng lng trao i


Nng lng trao i (Exchange energy) l dng nng
lng c c do tng tc trao i gia cc spin cnh
nhau khi hm sng ca in t ph nhau, lm cho cc
spin song song vi nhau[3] , [4] . Nng lng ny c
cho bi:
Mt v d tnh ton s dng nng lng vi t hc, mt hnh vung
permalloy cnh 600 nm, dy 20 nm. Cc dng nng lng ch yu
chi phi trng hp ny l nng lng d hng, nng lng Zeeman
v nng lng t gio. Bi ton ny c ti u ha tnh ton nh kt
hp vi phng trnh Landau-Liftshitz-Gilbert

vi J, S ln lt l tch phn trao i v ln ca spin, ij l gc gia hai spin i v j.

Nng lng d hng


Nng lng d hng (Anisotropy energy) l dng nng lng lin quan n cc tnh cht d hng ca vt t trong
, qu trnh t ha b ph thuc vo phng t ha do s nh hng u tin ca cc mmen t v do cu trc tinh
th ca vt t quy nh. C th chia dng nng lng ny thnh hai s hng: nng lng d hng t tinh th v nng
lng d hng hnh dng.

Nng lng d hng t tinh th (Magnetocrystalline anistropy energy)


Nng lng ny lin quan n s d hng to ra do tnh cht bt ng hng ca cu trc tinh th. Mmen t s u
tin nh hng theo mt trc (gi l trc d t ha), v mt trc khc (vung gc vi trc d) c gi l trc kh
s hu nh khng c mmen t nh hng. Nng lng d hng t tinh th l nng lng cn thit quay mmen
t t trc d sang trc kh. Nng lng ny ph thuc vo s nh hng tng i ca mmen t vi cc trc tinh
th v i xng tinh th. V d nh trong cu trc lp phng th nng lng d hng t tinh th cho bi:

vi K1, K2 ln lt l hng s d hng t tinh th bc 1, bc 2; , , l cc csin ch phng gia mmen t vi


cc trc tinh th, V l th tch vt t.

Nng lng vi t
Xem bi chi tit D hng t tinh th

Nng lng d hng hnh dng (Shape anistropy energy)


L nng lng c c do s bt i xng trong qu trnh t ha do hnh dng hnh hc ca vt t quy nh. Do
tng tc gia cc t cc, s xut hin mt trng kh t ngc vi chiu t ha, chng li s t ha. Do , mmen
t s c xu hng nh hng theo trc di ca vt. V s hng nng lng ny c xc nh bi:

vi

y, Keff, M l d hng t hiu dng v t ca vt t; l gc gia trc di v phng t ha; Na, Nb l tha
s kh t theo 2 trc vung gc.

Nng lng tnh t


Nng lng tnh t (Magnetostatic energy) l dng nng lng c c do s phn b cc mmen t trong vt t. S
phn b bt ng nht cc mmen t s dn n vic xut hin cc t tch b mt v to ra hai dng trng: ni
trng (trng kh t) v ngoi trng (trng phn tn bn ngoi vt). Nng lng ny c xc nh bi:

vi 0 l t thm ca chn khng, Hd l trng tnh t, c xc nh bi:

Nng lng Zeeman


Nng lng Zeeman l nng lng c c do tng tc gia mmen t v t trng ngoi v c cho bi cng
thc:

Nng lng t gio


Nng lng t gio (Magnetostrictive energy) l dng nng lng lin quan do hiu ng t gio, c c do s bin
i v hnh dng hnh hc ca vt t do t trng ngoi (t gio thun) hoc s thay i tnh cht t khi c s thay
i v th tch hay hnh dng. Bn cht ca hin tng t gio l do tng tc spin-qu o trong cc in t trong
vt liu st t. Hin tng t gio ch c th xy ra khi m my in t khng c dng i xng cu v c tng tc
spin-qu o mnh. Di tc dng ca t trng ngoi, s phn b ca cc in t ( y l mmen qu o) s
quay theo s quay ca mmen t (mmen spin) t hng ny sang hng khc v t gio c to ra do s thay i
tng ng ca tng tc tnh in gia in t t v in tch ca mi trng. Nng lng ny c cho bi:

vi s l t gio bo ha ca vt t, l ng sut c hc trong vt, l gc gia vct t v ng sut c hc.

31

Nng lng vi t

Nng lng tng cng


L tng cng ca 5 s hng nng lng ni trn, cho bi:

Cc tiu ha nng lng tng cng s quy nh cu trc men ca vt t. Ty vo hnh dng vt t v cu hnh
mmen t m c th xut hin tng dng nng lng tuy nhin s cc tiu ha nng lng tng cng lun l iu
kin cn cho vic xc nh trng thi cn bng ca h spin. Ngoi ra, p dng phng trnh Landau-Liftshitz-Gilbert
c th b sung y hn cho vic xc nh cc trng thi ca h t. Xc nh nng lng tng cng l mt trong
nhng ni dung c bn ca phng php vi t hc. i khi, cc s hng c th c vit di cc dng ton hc
khc trong cc gio trnh khc nhau, nhng cng c cng bn cht v u c th quy v mt cch biu din ton hc.

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Robert C. O'Handley (1999). Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN-13 978-0471155669.
[2] C.H. Marrow, "Spin-polarised currents and magnetic domain walls", Adv. Phys. 54 (2005) 585. (http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/
content~content=a741576309~db=all~order=page)
[3] W. Heisenberg, Mehrkrperproblem und Resonanz in der Quantenmechanik, Zeitschrift fr Physik 38, 67 (June 1926), pp. 411426 (http:/ /
dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ BF01397160)
[4] P. A. M. Dirac, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 112, 762 (http:/ / links. jstor. org/
sici?sici=0950-1207(19261001)112:762<661:OTTOQM>2. 0. CO;2-X)

Xem thm

St t
men t
Phng trnh Landau-Liftshitz-Gilbert
D hng t tinh th
T gio

32

phn cc spin

33

phn cc spin
phn cc spin (ting Anh: Spin polarization) l i lng c xc nh bng mc nh hng theo mt
chiu nht nh ca spin trong cc ht c bn. Trn thc t, khi nim ny c s dng nhiu cho dng ht in t,
hay cho cc h cht rn m phn cc spin lin quan n cc tnh cht st t v tnh cht t-vn chuyn ca
h. Khi nim phn cc spin cng l mt khi nim c bn quan trng ca spintronics [1] .

Xc nh phn cc spin
Do thuc tnh ca spin, spin trong cc ht c bn ch c th nh hng theo 2 chiu ln (up) hoc xung (down).
phn cc spin c xc nh l phn trm sai khc gia nng cc spin nh hng theo hai phng ln hoc
xung [2] :

vi

ln lt l mt spin up v spin down.

Trong k thut, ngi ta c th c nhiu cch khc nhau xc nh ln ca phn cc spin nh s dng knh
hin vi in t, s dng k thut ph pht x quang phn gii thi gian, k thut cng hng thun t hay cng
hng st t in t...

ng dng trong t hc v spintronics


phn cc spin l mt khi nim tng
qut trong vt l nhng thc cht n c s
dng nhiu nht trong lnh vc t hc v
spintronics m phn cc spin lin
quan nhiu n tnh cht st t hoc tnh
cht t in tr.
phn cc spin c th c dng lm i
lng ca tng loi vt liu st t, m vt
liu c phn cc spin tt nht hin nay l
cc vt liu bn kim (hp kim Heusler) vi
phn cc spin ti gn 100%.
Trong cc cu trc chui hm t, phn cc
spin l mt khi nim quan trng xc
nh t s t in tr ca h. i vi cc tip
xc t chui hm c 2 lp st t kp gia bi
mt lp in mi, t s t in tr (trong
trng hp ny s dng l TMR) ph thuc
vo phn cc spin ca 2 lp (
),
v c cho bi cng thc:

Hiu ng t in tr chui hm: t s TMR c xc nh lin quan trc tip n


phn cc spin ca cc lp st t cu thnh h a lp.

phn cc spin

Ti liu tham kho


[1] I. Zutic, J. Fabrian, S.D. Sarma, Spintronics: Fundamentals and applications, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76 (2004) 323 (http:/ / link. aps. org/ doi/ 10.
1103/ RevModPhys. 76. 323)
[2] C.H. Marrow, Spin-polarised currents and magnetic domain walls, Adv. Phys. 54 (2005) 585. (http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/
content~content=a741576309~db=all~order=page)

Xem thm
Spin
Spintronics
Vt liu bn kim

34

35

Chng 2: Cc vt liu t
Thun t
Thun t l nhng cht c t tnh yu
(trong ngnh t hc xp vo nhm phi
t, c ngha l cht khng c t tnh).
Tnh cht thun t th hin kh nng
hng ng thun theo t trng ngoi,
c ngha l cc cht ny c mmen t
nguyn t (nhng gi tr nh), khi c
tc dng ca t trng ngoi, cc
mmen t ny s b quay theo t
trng ngoi, lm cho cm ng t tng
cng trong cht tng ln.
Thun t v nghch t c xp vo
nhm cc cht phi t, hoc nhm
M hnh v cu trc mmen t ca cht thun t: h mmen t ca cht thun t c
xem nh cc nam chm nh, c lp, khng tng tc.
khng c trt t t. t thm ca cc
cht thun t l ln hn 1 nhng xp x
1 (ch trnh lch c 10-6). T tnh yu ca thun t do hai yu t em li:
- Mmen t nguyn t
- Cc mmen t nguyn t ny nh v hon ton khng tng tc vi nhau.
Cc cht thun t in hnh l: xi, nhm...

Cht thun t theo l thuyt c in Langevin


T tnh ca cht thun t c tnh theo mmen t nguyn t m trong , coi rng cc mmen t ny khng tng
tc (khng tn ti tng tc trao i trong cc cht thun t). Tng thng k ca h s c cho bi[1] :

v t ha ca cht thun t c xc nh bi:

vi:
-

l hng s Boltzmann, t trng ngoi v nhit .


l s nguyn t, th tch ca vt v mmen t ca mt nguyn t.

Thun t

36

Theo l thuyt lng t


Trong c hc lng t, t c xc nh bng phng php thng k lng t v cho kt qu tng t:
vi

l Bohr magneton v mmen spin.

Cht thun t trong cc gii hn


Trong gii hn t trng nh
T hm t ca cht thun t, c th khai trin gn ng trong gii hn t trng nh (hoc nhit cao):
Khi

, th

Do , t ca cht thun t t l thun vi t trng ngoi v t l nghch vi nhit theo hm:

Trong gii hn t trng ln v nhit thp


nhit thp v t trng ln (

) th cht thun t t trng thi bo ha t, t s nhn

gi tr:

Siu thun t
L mt trng thi ca cht cc cht st t t c khi kch thc cc ht nh hn gii hn siu thun t, khi cht
s mang hnh vi nh mt cht thun t vi t ln v bin thin theo hm Langevin.

Xem thm

Siu thun t
Nghch t
St t
T
Bohr magneton

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers. ISBN
0-306-48408-0.

Siu thun t

37

Siu thun t
Siu thun t (ting Anh: Superparamagnetism) l mt hin tng, mt trng thi t tnh xy ra cc vt liu t,
m cht biu hin cc tnh cht ging nh cc cht thun t, ngay di nhit Curie hay nhit Nel. y
l mt hiu ng kch thc, v mt bn cht l s thng th ca nng lng nhit so vi nng lng nh hng khi
kch thc ca ht qu nh.

Hin tng siu thun t


Hin tng (hay trng thi) siu thun t xy ra i vi cc cht st t c cu to bi cc ht tinh th nh. Khi kch
thc ht ln, h s trng thi a men (tc l mi ht s cu to bi nhiu men t). Khi kch thc ht gim
dn, cht s chuyn sang trng thi n men, c ngha l mi ht s l mt men. Khi kch thc ht gim qu
nh, nng lng nh hng (m chi phi ch yu y l nng lng d hng t tinh th) nh hn nhiu so vi
nng lng nhit, khi nng lng nhit s ph v s nh hng song song ca cc mmen t, v khi mmen
t ca h ht s nh hng hn lon nh trong cht thun t.
Gii hn siu thun t xy ra khi nng lng nh hng nh hn nng lng nhit, c ngha l [1] :

vi

ln lt l hng s d hng t tinh th bc 1 ca vt liu, th tch ca ht;

l hng s

Boltzmann, nhit ca mi trng xung quanh.


Khi xy hin tng siu thun t, cht vn c mmen t ln ca cht st t, nhng li th hin cc hnh vi ca cht
thun t, c ngha l mmen t bin i theo hm Langevin [2] :

vi

l mt ht,

l t trng.

ng dng
Cc vt liu siu thun t ang c ng dng nhiu trong vt l v y-sinh hc nh kh nng hi p nhanh vi s
tc dng ca t trng bn ngoi[3] . Siu thun t c s dng trong cc ht nano t tnh, t trong cc cht lng
t.

ng dng vt l
y l cc ng dng c in, c s dng t rt lu [4] :
S dng cc cht lng t lm tng tnh truyn dn trong cc h dn lc, dn nhit, dn t, lm gim nhiu n loa
in ng...
Lm nhn cho cc h ht t lp ghp

Siu thun t

ng dng y - sinh hc
Cc ng dng ny mi c pht trin trong thi gian gn y [5] :
Dn thuc
Lm tng tng phn ca nh chp cng hng t ht nhn
iu tr ung th bng t nng thn nhit cc b...

Ti liu tham kho


[1] ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers. ISBN
0-306-48408-0.
[2] ^ Derek Craik (1995). Magnetism: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 471 92959 X.
[3] Q.A. Pankhurst, J. Connolly, S.K. Jones, J. Dobson, Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 (2003)
R167-R181 (http:/ / www. iop. org/ EJ/ abstract/ 0022-3727/ 36/ 13/ 201)
[4] Rosensweig, R.E., Ferrohydrodynamics. 1985, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
[5] Leslie-Pelecky, D.L., V. Labhasetwar, and J. Kraus, R.H., Nanobiomagnetics, in Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures, D.J. Sellmyer and R.S.
Skomski, Editors. 2005, Kluwer: New York

Xem thm
Thun t
St t
Nc t

Nghch t
Cc cht nghch t c cu to t mt loi phn t khng c t tnh. Khi t vo t trng ngoi trong cc phn t
s xut hin dng in ph v to ra t trng ph ngc chiu t trng ngoi (v vy c tn l cht nghch t)
Do cm ng t tng cng nh hn cm ng t ca t trng ngoi (<1)

Xem thm
Thun t

38

Sng spin

39

Sng spin
Sng spin (ting Anh: Spin wave) l mt m hnh trong t hc, c dng miu t nhng nhiu lon lan truyn
trong trt t spin ca cc vt liu t. Nhng kch thch tp th ny xy ra trong cc phn mng t vi i xng lin
tc. Chun ht ca sng spin c gi l magnon, l ht boson ca cc phn mng spin gn nh tng ng vi s
kch thch phonon trong mng tinh th. Khi nhit tng, cc kch thch nhit ca sng spin dn n s suy gim t
t pht ca vt liu st t v nng lng sng spin ch vo c eV.

L thuyt sng spin


C ch ca sng spin c th hiu thng qua vic xem xt Hamiltonian,

, trong vt liu st t:

vi J l nng lng trao i, S l ton t spin, g l t s t - c, B l Bohr magneton, H l t trng ngoi.

Xem thm

Spin
St t
ng cong t nhit
Spintronics

Ti liu tham kho

St t

40

St t
St t l cc cht c t tnh mnh, hay kh
nng hng ng mnh di tc dng ca t
trng ngoi, m tiu biu l st (Fe), v tn
gi "st t" c t cho nhm cc cht c
tnh cht t ging vi st. Cc cht st t c
hnh vi gn ging vi cc cht thun t
c im hng ng thun theo t trng
ngoi.
Tnh st t dng ch thuc tnh (t tnh
mnh) ca cc cht st t.
Cht st t l mt trong nhng vt liu c
s dng sm nht trong lch s loi ngi,
vi vic s dng cc nam chm lm la
bn hoc lm cc vt dng ht st thp (thc
cht l cc qung Fe3O4) t hn 2000
nm trc (m xut pht l t Trung Hoa v
Hy Lp c i).

Cc tnh cht c trng ca


cht st t

ng cong t tr - c trng quan trng nht ca cht st t

Cc cht st t (v d nh st (Fe), cban (Co), niken (Ni), gali (Gd)... l cc cht st t in hnh. Cc cht ny l
cc cht vn c mmen t nguyn t ln (v d nh st l 2,2 B, Gd l 7 B...) v nh tng tc trao i gia cc
mmen t ny, m chng nh hng song song vi nhau theo tng vng (gi l cc men t tnh. Mmen t trong
mi vng gi l t t pht - c ngha l cc cht st t c t tnh ni ti ngay khi khng c t trng ngoi.
y l cc ngun gc c bn to nn cc tnh cht ca cht st t.

St t

41

Hin tng t tr: L mt c trng d


thy nht cht st t. Khi t ha mt
khi cht st t cc mmen t s c xu
hng sp xp trt t theo hng t
trng ngoi do t ca mu tng
dn n bo ha khi t trng ln
(khi cc mmen t hon ton song
song vi nhau). Khi ngt t trng hoc
kh t theo chiu ngc, do s lin kt
gia cc mmen t v cc men t, cc
mmen t khng lp tc b quay tr li
trng thi hn n nh cc cht thun t
m cn gi c t gi tr khc
khng. C ngha l ng cong o t s
khng khp vi ng cong t ha ban
u, v nu ta t ha v kh t theo mt
chu trnh kn ca t trng ngoi, ta s c
mt ng cong kn gi l ng cong t
tr. C nhiu c ch khc nhau to ra
Hnh nh cc men t ca mng CoIr chp ch Fresnel trn knh hin vi in
hin tng tr nh c ch dch chuyn
t truyn qua
vch, c ch quay mmen t, c ch hm
s pht trin ca cc mm o t... V trn ng cong t tr, ta s c cc i lng c trng ca cht st t nh
sau:
T bo ha: L t t c trong trng thi bo ha t, c ngha l tt c cc mmen t ca cht st t
song song vi nhau.
T d: L gi tr t khi t trng c kh v 0.
Lc khng t: L t trng ngoi cn thit kh mmen t ca mu v 0, hay l gi tr t i chiu.
i khi lc khng t cn c gi l trng o t.
T thm: L mt tham s c trng cho kh nng phn ng ca cc cht t tnh di tc dng ca t trng
ngoi. T thm ca cc cht st t c gi tr ln hn 1 rt nhiu, v ph thuc vo t trng ngoi (xem thm
trong bi Vt liu t mm).
Nhit Curie: L nhit m ti , cht b mt t tnh. di nhit Curie, cht trng thi st t, trn
nhit Curie, cht s mang tnh cht ca cht thun t. Nhit Curie l mt tham s c trng cho cht st t,
v d nh:

St: 1043 K
Cban: 1388 K
Niken: 627 K
Gali: 292,5 K
Dysproxium (Dy): 88 K
MnBi: 630 K
MnSb: 587 K

D hng t tinh th: L nng lng lin quan n s nh hng ca cc mmen t v i xng tinh th ca vt
liu. Do tnh d hng ca cu trc tinh th, s c s khc nhau v kh nng t ha khi ta t ha theo cc phng
khc nhau, dn n vic vt liu c phng d t ha, gi l trc d (t ha) v phng kh t ha (gi l trc
kh). Nng lng d hng t tinh th l nng lng cn thit quay mmen t trc kh sang trc d. Hng s d
hng t tinh th l cc i lng c trng cho cc cht st t.

St t

42

Tng tc trao i v men t


Tng tc trao i l tng tc c gi thit theo l thuyt st t Heisenberg nhm gii thch s nh hng song
song ca cc mmen t trong vt liu. Tng tc trao i c bn cht l tng tc tnh in c bit gia cc in
t to ra s nh hng song song (hoc i song song) ca cc spin khi cc in t mt khong cch gn
sao cho cc hm sng ca chng ph nhau cc tiu ha nng lng ca h. Nng lng tng tc trao i c
cho bi cng thc:

vi S1, S2 l cc spin, J l tch phn trao i, cho bi:

J mang gi tr dng khi cc spin song song nhau (tng tc trao i st t) v m khi cc spin phn song song
(tng tc phn st t). l hm sng ca cc in t.
men t: Nh c tng tc trao i, cc mmen t ca cht st t sp xp hon ton song song vi nhau, nhng
khng phi trong ton b vt th m trong tng vng, gi l cc min t ha, hay cc men t. Trong mi
men, cc mmen t song song vi nhau to nn t t pht ca cht st t, nhng trong ton vt th trng
thi kh t th mmen t ca cc men s sp xp hn lon nn tng t trong ton khi vn bng 0. Khi c t
trng ngoi, do cc mmen t c xu hng b quay theo t trng nn s dn n s thay i v cu trc men
nh s dch chuyn vch men, s thay i kch thc men, s nh hng mmen t... to nn qu trnh t
ha phc tp ca cht st t. Cc men t c th quan st bng nhiu cch khc nhau v d nh bng knh hin vi
in t truyn qua Lorentz cc ch khc nhau (nh Fresnel, Foucault..) hay phng php nh tng (nay t
dng v qu phc tp v chnh xc khng cao), hay phng php o quang - t...

Cc loi vt liu st t
C nhiu cch khc nhau phn chia cc vt liu st t, nhng cch thng dng nht vn l phn chia theo kh
nng t ha v kh t ca vt liu. Theo cch phn chia ny s c 2 nhm vt liu st t chnh:
Vt liu t cng: L cc vt liu st t kh t ha v kh kh t thng dng cho cc ng dng lu tr t trng
nh nam chm vnh cu, vt liu ghi t... Cc vt liu t cng in hnh l Nd2Fe14B, Sm2Co5, FePt.. (xem bi
Vt liu t cng)
Vt liu t mm: L cc vt liu st t d t ha v d b kh t, thng dng cho cc ng dng hot ng trong
t trng ngoi nh li bin th, nam chm in, li dn t, cm bin t trng... Cc vt liu t mm in hnh
l st silic (FeSi), hp kim permalloy NiFe... (xem bi Vt liu t mm)

ng dng ca vt liu st t
C th ni vt liu st t ang c nghin cu v ng dng ht sc rng ri trong khoa hc, cng nghip cng nh
trong i sng, t cc nam chm vnh cu, n cc li bin th, hay cao hn l cc cng my tnh, cc u c
cng... Mt hiu ng khc ca cht st t l hiu ng t nhit khng l ang c nghin cu pht trin cc th h
my lnh hot ng bng t trng thay th cho cc my lnh truyn thng vi u im khng nhim, tit kim
nng lng v nh gn. Cc hiu ng t in tr ca cc cht st t cng ang c khai thc ra i cc linh kin
in t th h mi gi l spintronic, tc l cc linh kin hot ng bng cch iu khin spin ca in t...

St t

43

Xem thm

Vt liu t cng
Vt liu t mm
Phn st t
Thun t
T hc

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.
2. ^ Derek Craik (1995). Magnetism: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 471 92959 X.

men t
men t (xut pht t thut ng ting Anh: magnetic domain) l
nhng vng trong cht st t m trong cc mmen t hon ton song
song vi nhau to nn t t pht ca vt liu st t. Thut ng
"men t" c nhng ngi dy vt l bc ph thng v nhng
ngi khng lm cng tc nghin cu vt l Vit Nam dch l "min
t ha", tuy nhin nhng ngi lm nghin cu vt l (c bit l
nhng ngi trong lnh vc t hc) khng chp nhn tn gi ny m ch
gi l "men t".

Ngun gc ca men t
Khi nim v men t ln u tin c a ra vo nm 1907 bi
Weiss gii thch cc tnh cht c bit ca cc vt liu st t, v m
hnh c s dng l gii l m hnh trng phn t (L thuyt
trng phn t). Sau , hnh nh v cc men t c quan st v
cc l thuyt sau l gii chnh xc s to thnh ca men t. S
hnh thnh ca cc men t l do tng tc trao i dn n vic cc
mmen t sp xp song song vi nhau. C ngha l trong mi men,
cc mmen t sp xp theo 1 chiu nht nh to nn t t pht ca
st t. L thuyt v men t tip tc c hon thin bi Van Vleck
(nm 1945) v Stoner (nm 1948), Nel (nm 1948)...
Tuy nhin, khng phi s sp xp song song ny tn ti trn ton vt
st t m mi vt ty theo kch thc, hnh dng m c th b chia
S phn chia thnh cc men t trong mng
mng hp kim NiFe quan st trn knh hin vi
thnh nhiu men khc nhau to nn cu trc men ca vt (trong
in t truyn qua Lorentz ch Fresnel. Cc
cc men khc nhau chiu ca cc mmen t s khc nhau). Cu trc
ng en, trng l cc vch men, mi tn ch
men hnh thnh chi phi tnh cht t vi m ca vt liu. trng thi
chiu ca mmen t trong cc men. Trong qu
kh t, chiu ca mmen t trong cc men sp xp sao cho tha mn
trnh t ha, cu trc men b thay i
cc iu kin: trit tiu t v cc tiu ha nng lng tng cng
trong vt st t. Khi c t trng ngoi, cu trc men b thay i (s ln ln ca cc men t c chiu cng chiu

men t

44

vi t trng, s quay mmen t trong cc men c chiu khc...) dn n s thay i v tnh cht t. S bin i
khc nhau v men t trong qu trnh t ha to nn cc c ch t ha v cc tnh cht t khc nhau ca mi loi
vt liu st t.
Trong cc tnh ton v t hc, cu trc men c xc nh bng vic cc tiu ha nng lng vi t, vi nm s
hng ca nng lng vi t:

Nng lng trao i


Nng lng d hng
Nng lng tnh t
Nng lng Zeeman
Nng lng t gio

chnh xc ha vic xc nh cu trc men, cc tnh ton v nng vi t cn c kt hp vi vic gii phng
trnh Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert.

Vch men
Vch men (domain wall) l vng chuyn tip ngn
cch gia 2 men t lin k nhau. Gia hai men t,
mmen t khng th t ngt bin i v chiu v s
dn n trng thi km bn do hnh thnh nn vng
chuyn tip l cc vch men. Trong cc vch men,
mmen t bin i v chiu dn dn t chiu ca
men ny ti men kia. Ty theo s nh hng m
s c th c 2 kiu vch men t chnh:
Vch Bloch: L cu hnh vch tn ti trong cc vt
liu khi hoc mng dy, c cc mmen t trong
vch phn b trong khng gian 3 chiu.

V d v vch men: vch 180o v vch 90o

Vch Nel: L loi vch men hnh thnh trong cc mng mng t (khi kch thc mt chiu b hn ch), cc
mmen t sp xp trong mt mt phng.
Cc nghin cu v vch men ang l mt ch thu ht nhiu nghin cu bi trin vng ng dng trong cc linh
kin spintronic iu khin bng vch men. Trong cc linh kin ny, thng tin c m ha nh s vn chuyn ca
cc vch men trong cc cu trc nano t tnh (cc dy nano, cc chm nano...), c kh nng to ra cc cng logic,
cc b nh, my pht cht lng cao.

K thut quan st men v vch men


K thut s dng nh sng kh kin: c th l phng php c in nh tng nh (phng php Bitter) hoc
phng php s dng hiu ng quanh t Kerr. Hn ch ca nhm k thut ny l phn gii khng cao, b gii
hn bi hin tng nhiu x nh sng nn cho phn gii c vi trm nanomet.
K thut s dng knh hin vi qut u d: l cc k thut s dng knh hin vi lc t, knh hin vi qut chui hm
c phn tch phn cc (SP-STM)... Cc k thut ny cho phn gii tt (tt nht l SP-STM), nhng hn ch bi
tc ghi nh rt thp.
K thut s dng chm in t: l cc k thut trong cc knh hin vi in t c th l knh hin vi Lorentz, knh
hin vi in t qut c phn tch phn cc, ton nh in t. Cc k thut ny c u im phn gii cao, tc
tt, nhng ch s dng cho mu mng.
K thut s dng chm bc x kt hp: s dng mt bc x kt hp (thng l tia X) c phn cc t kch thch
mu pht x ra cc photon, in t th cp t to ra nh cu trc t. u im l nhanh, phn gii kh tt,
nhng hay b nhiu v i hi ngun bc x kt hp.

men t

45

Cc k thut khc...

Xem thm

St t
Knh hin vi in t truyn qua
T
n men

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.
2. ^ De Graef M. (2003). Introduction to Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-62995.
3. ^ J N Chapman, "The investigation of magnetic domain structures in thin foils by electron microscopy", J. Phys.
D: Appl. Phys. 17 (1984) 623-647. [1]
4. ^ K.H. Stewart (1954). Ferromagnetic domains. Cambridge University Press. ISBN.

Ch thch
[1] http:/ / www. iop. org/ EJ/ abstract/ 0022-3727/ 17/ 4/ 003

Vch men
Vch men l khi nim s dng trong vt
l hc, c th l hai khi nim c lp:
Vch men trong ngnh t hc l mt
sai hng v cu trc t, ngn cch gia
hai men t trong cc vt liu st t;
Vch men trong L thuyt dy l mt
im k d hai chiu.

V d v vch men phn chia theo gc: vch 180o v vch 90o.

Vch men

46

Vch men trong t hc


Vch men l mt vch ngn gia 2
men t m trong vch cc mmen
t quay mt cch u n t chiu t
men t ny, sang chiu ca t
men lin k. S hnh thnh ca
cc vch men l s cc tiu ha cc
nng lng vi t ca h cc mmen t.
Nng lng ca vch men chi phi
ch yu bi nng lng trao i, v
nng lng d hng t tinh th.

Cu hnh mmen t trong mt s loi vch men trong mt phng mng mng t: (a)
vch Nel, (b) vch Bloch v (c) vch cross-tie.

Ty theo cch phn b cc mmen t


ny m c th c cc cch phn loi vch khc nhau. Cch phn loi vch men n gin l theo gc gia 2 men
lin k, v d vch 180o l vch ngn cch gia 2 men c t hng ngc chiu nhau, vch 90o l vch gia 2
men c t hng vung gc vi nhau. Nhng cch phn bit ph bin nht l theo kiu vch Bloch, vch Nel
v vch cross-tie ph thuc vo chiu dy ca vt liu.

Cc kiu vch men


Vch Bloch

Vch men

47

:L kiu vch men thng hnh thnh trong cc vt liu khi hoc
trong cc mng dy m trong vch men mmen t quay trong
khng gian 3 chiu t hng ca men ny sang hng ca men t
khc, chiu ca t trong vch vung gc vi mt phng cha t
trong hai men thnh phn. Tn ca loi vch ny c t theo nh
vt l ngi Thy S Felix Bloch, ngi ln u tin gi thuyt v vch
men v xy dng l thuyt v loi vch ny vo nm 1932 [1] .
dy ca vch men loi vch Bloch c xc nh bi[2] :

nh chp hin vi Fresnel tng phn cc vch


men t (trng - en) trong mng mng NiFe.
Vch men s b dch chuyn trong qu trnh t
ha to nn s bo ha t.

vi:
l hng s trao i,
l hng s mng,

l mt nng lng vch,


l h s t l (

).

Vch Nel
L kiu vch ch xut hin trong cc mng mng t (c chiu dy nh di mt gii hn), m , cc
mmen t trong vch quay trong mt phng mng mt cch u n t chiu ca men ny sang chiu ca
men khc. Cu trc ca vch Nel chi phi ch yu bi nng lng trao i v nng lng tnh t. Trong
cch mng mng, v dy ca mng rt nh, trng kh t theo phng vung gc vi mng rt ln, khin
cho cc mmen t khng th hng ra ngoi m buc phi nm trong mt phng mng. Chiu dy ca vch
Nel ph thuc vo hng s ca vt liu, v chiu dy ca mng.
Gi thuyt v vch Nel sinh ra sau gi thuyt v vch Bloch, v c t tn theo nh vt l hc ngi Php
Louis Eugne Flix Nel [3] .

Vch men

48

Vch cross-tie
L loi vch men "trung gian" gia 2 loi Nel v Bloch. Nu nh vch Bloch ch xut hin trong cc mng
dy (vt liu 3 chiu), vch Nel xut hin trong cc mng rt mng (2 chiu) th vch cross-tie xut hin trong
cc mng mng c chiu dy trung bnh (nm gia 2 gii hn. Vch cross-tie c cu hnh mmen t pha trn
c 2 loi: bn ra ngoi th bin i theo vch Nel, trung tm th c t hng vung gc nh vch Bloch
[4]
.

S dch chuyn ca vch men


:Vch men c th dch chuyn trong qu
trnh t ha (di s tc dng ca t trng
ngoi). S dch chuyn ca cc vch men
dn n s thay i cc tnh cht t ca vt
liu m c th y l nh hng ln qu
trnh t ha. C ch dch chuyn ca cc
vch men trong qu trnh t ha gii thch
cc tnh cht t vi m ca vt liu.
Vch men c th dch chuyn di
s tc dng ca dng in v dng
in t phn cc spin do khi truyn
qua vch men, spin ca in t s
tng tc vi mmen t trong vch,
to nn cc mmen quay y cc vch
dch chuyn [5] , [6] .

Quan st cc vch men v ng


dng ca vch men
S dch chuyn ca vch men khi gp cc tm hm to nn hiu ng bc nhy
Barkhausen trong cc vt liu t.

Vch men c th quan st bng nhiu


phng php khc nhau, c th phn chia
cc phng php ny da trn cng c s dng cho vic quan st:

Quan st bng nh sng kh kin: hiu ng quang t Kerr(MOKE), phng php nh tng nh Bitter;
Quan st bng cc knh hin vi qut u d: s dng knh hin vi lc t, knh hin vi qut chui hm c cng c
phn tch spin (SP-STM);
Quan st bng chm ngun synchrotron: s dng k thut hin vi pht x in t vi ngun kch thch l cc tia X
phn cc trn;
Quan st bng chm in t: Knh hin vi in t qut c phn tch phn cc, Knh hin vi in t truyn qua,
ton nh in t;

Vch men

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Z. Phys. F. Bloch, 74 (1932) 295 (http:/ / www. oac. cdlib. org/ findaid/ ark:/ 13030/ tf2n39n5nt)
[2] ^ K.H. Stewart (1954). Ferromagnetic domains. Cambridge University Press. ISBN.
[3] A. Hubert, R. Schfer, Magnetic domains: The Analysis of Magnetic Microstructures, Springer; Corrected edition (November 1, 2008),
ISBN-10: 3540641084.
[4] N. Wiese, S. McVitie, J. N. Chapman, A. Capella-Kort, F. Otto, On the scaling behaviour of cross-tie domain wall structures in patterned
NiFe elements, Eu. Phys. Lett. 80 (2007) 57003. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1209/ 0295-5075/ 80/ 57003)
[5] C.H. Marrow, Spin-polarised currents and magnetic domain walls, Adv. Phys. 54 (2005) 585. (http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/
content~content=a741576309~db=all~order=page)
[6] D.A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C.C. Faulker, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, R.P. Cowburn, Magnetic Domain-Wall Logic, Science 309 (2005) 1688-1692
(http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 309/ 5741/ 1688?maxtoshow=& HITS=10& hits=10& RESULTFORMAT=&
andorexacttitleabs=and& andorexactfulltext=and& searchid=1& FIRSTINDEX=0& volume=309& firstpage=1688& resourcetype=HWCIT)

Xem thm
men t
Knh hin vi Lorentz
St t

Phn st t
Phn st t l nhm cc vt liu t c trt
t t m trong cu trc gm c 2 phn mng
t i song song v cn bng nhau v mt
gi tr.
Thut ng "phn st t" cn c dng
m t tnh cht ca cc vt liu phn st t,
hoc dng ch cc lin kt spin trong t
hc c spin i song song vi nhau. Ngi
ta cn dng tn "phn st t b tr khng
hon ton" cho mt nhm vt liu c trt t
t khc l feri t.

C ch ca tnh phn st t
Vt liu phn st t c lit vo nhm vt
liu c trt t t. i khi, cng c ngi gi
Cu trc t ca vt liu phn st t, gm 2 phn mng spin i song v bng nhau
vt liu phn st t l vt liu phi t bi t
tnh ca chng cng yu. Tnh cht phn st
t bt ngun t tng tc trao i gia cc spin. Nu nh tng tc trao i trong cc vt liu st t l tng tc trao
i dng, lm cho cc spin song song nhau th tng tc trao i trong phn st t l tng tc trao i m, lm cho
cc spin phn song song vi nhau. nghin cu r rng cc tnh cht ca cc phn mng ny, phng php nhiu
x neutron thng c dng kho st do neutron khng c in tch, nhng c mmen t nn gy ra cc tn x
trn cc phn mng t.

49

Phn st t

50

Cc tnh cht c bn
khng tuyt i (0 Kelvin), cc spin ca vt liu phn st t sp xp i song song nhau nn t . Nhit
tng dn dn n vic ph v trt t t kiu phn song song lm tng t ha (v cm t, ) ca vt liu phn
st t. T trng ngoi cng l nguyn nhn ph v trt t phn song song ca vt liu.
Nhit Nel (TN, t theo tn nh vt l
ngi Php Louis Nel): L i lng
c trng ca vt liu phn st t (cng
ging nh nhit Curie trong cht st
t) l nhit m ti trt t phn st
t b ph v v vt liu s chuyn sang
tnh cht thun t. di nhit Nel,
vt liu s mang tnh cht phn st t.
Nu ta o s ph thuc ca h s t ha
( cm t ) vo nhit ca cht phn
st t th ti nhit Nel s xut hin
mt cc i, hay ni cch khc c chuyn
pha ti nhit Nel. Mt s cht phn
st t in hnh:

Lin kt phn st t trong cc mng mng a lp valse spin trong a cng

Crm - Cr, TN = 310 K


FeO - TN = 198 K
MnO - TN = 122 K
NiO - TN = 523 K
CoO - TN = 291 K

ng dng ca vt liu phn st t


Vt liu phn st t trong cc ng dng t tnh thng khng c s dng c lp m thng dng lm cc cht
b tr, v d lp ngn cch Cr trong cc mng a lp Fe/Cr c hiu ng t in tr khng l. ng dng ln nht
ca phn st t l trong cc mng van spin (valse-spin) t in tr khng l trong cc u c a cng.
Lin kt phn st t: S dng trong cc cu trc mng mng a lp c cc lp st t xen k bi cc lp khng t
tnh hoc cc lp phn st t lm cho mmen t gia cc lp st t sp xp phn song song vi nhau, thng s
dng trong cc mng t in tr.

Xem thm

T hc
St t
Thun t
T in tr khng l
Nhit Curie

Phn st t

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ D.C. Jiles (1990). 1st. ed. Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Springer; 1 edition (December
31, 1990). ISBN 10 0412386402.
2. ^ Derek Craik (1995). Magnetism: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 471 92959 X.

Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert


Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, vit tt l phng trnh LLG) l mt
phng trnh vi phn o hm ring c t tn theo cc nh vt l Lev Landau, Evgeny Lifshitz v T. L. Gilbert
m t chuyn ng hi chuyn ca mmen t hay t ha trong cht rn. Phng trnh ny c b sung bi
Gilbert t phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz nguyn bn.

Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz nguyn bn


Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz c xy dng bi hai nh vt l X Vit l Lev Landau v Evgeny Lifshitz v c
cng b vo nm 1935. Phng trnh ny m t chuyn ng ca t ha qua l gii v l thuyt s tn ti ca
cc men t[1] :

Vi: l h s tt dn hin tng lun Landau-Lifshitz ph thuc vo vt liu rn, l t s t c ca in t. M, H


ln lt l t ha v t trng ngoi, t l thi gian.

Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert y


Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz c th ng dng tt cho vic tnh ton cc h vi h s tt dn nh, nhng li tr nn
sai lch nhiu khi h s tt dn ln. b sung iu ny, Gilbert sa i li phng trnh ny vo nm 1955 v
thay i h s tt dn bng h s tt dn khc, v phng trnh tr thnh[2] , [3] :

y, c gi l hng s tt dn Gilbert, v mi nghim ca phng trnh ny u tha mn phng trnh


Landau-Lifshitz nguyn bn khi thay bi /(1+2). Phng trnh c th khai trin di dng vct nh sau:

ng dng ca phng trnh LLG


Phng trnh LLG l mt trong nhng phng trnh c bn s dng trong cc tnh ton v vi t hc xc nh
trng thi v cu hnh t ha trong cc h spin. LLG c bit hiu qu trong cc h cc cu trc t nh. xc nh
trng thi, ngi ta cn kt hp vi bi ton xc nh nng lng vi t ca h. Hai h phn mm rt thng dng s
dng phng trnh LLG m phng trng thi cc cu trc t nh l OOMMF[4] (pht trin bi Vin Tiu chun v
Cng ngh Quc gia Hoa K) v NMAG[5] (pht trin bi Trng i hc Southampton, Anh Quc), v mt s
nhm chng trnh m phng khc kt hp vi bi ton nng lng vi t[6] , [7] .

51

Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert

52

Ti liu tham kho


[1] L. D. Landau, E. M., Lifshitz, Theory of the dispersion of magnetic permeability in ferromagnetic bodies, Phys. Z. Sowietunion 8 (1935) 153.
(http:/ / www. iop. org/ EJ/ abstract/ 1063-7869/ 41/ 6/ A11)
[2] T. L. Gilbert, A Lagrangian formulation of the gyromagnetic equation of the magnetic field, Phys. Rev. 100 (1955) 1243.
[3] T. L. Gilbert, A phenomenological theory of damping in ferromagnetic materials, IEEE Trans. Mag. 40 (2004) 3443-3449. (http:/ / dx. doi.
org/ 10. 1109/ TMAG. 2004. 836740)
[4] OOMMF Project at NIST (http:/ / math. nist. gov/ oommf/ )
[5] NMAG - Computational micromagnetism (http:/ / nmag. soton. ac. uk/ nmag/ )
[6] T. Schrefl, J. Fidler, H Kronmller, Remanence and coercivity in isotropic nanocrystalline permanent magnets, Phys. Rev. B 49 (1994) 6100.
(http:/ / link. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v49/ p6100)
[7] magpar - Parallel Finite Element Micromagnetics Package (http:/ / magnet. atp. tuwien. ac. at/ scholz/ magpar/ )

Xem thm
T hc
Mmen t
t ha

Vt liu t cng
Vt liu t cng l vt liu st t, kh kh t v kh t ha.
ngha ca tnh t "cng" y chnh l thuc tnh kh kh t v
kh b t ha, ch khng xut pht t c tnh ca vt liu t.

Lch s
Vt liu t cng l loi vt liu t c pht hin v s dng sm
nht trong lch s loi ngi. Ngi Trung Quc cho rng t i
Hong (tr v Trung Hoa t nhng nm 2698 TCN n 2599
TCN), ch to ra cc kim ch nam dng xc nh phng
hng. l cc nam chm c kh nng ht st v nh hng
Bc-Nam. Chnh s u tin ghi chp vic ch to cc la bn ny
l u i Nh Chu (1046-771 TCN) v la bn thc s xut hin
nhiu l th k th 7 trc cng nguyn (ng thi Trung Quc
v Hy Lp). Cc kim ch nam trong la bn l mt dng ca vt liu
t cng, l cc xit st
.

Hnh nh cc nam chm t him NdFeB - vt liu t


cng in hnh

Cc vt liu t cng thng phm dng ch to nam chm vnh cu xut hin ln u tin vo nhng nm t 1740
n 1750 chu u v thc s pht trin mnh t cui th k 19, u th k 20 n nay.

Vt liu t cng

53

Cc c trng
Vt liu t cng c nhiu c trng t hc,
s ph thuc ca tnh cht t vo nhit ,
bn, chng mi mn... Di y lit
k mt s c trng quan trng.

Lc khng t
Lc khng t, k hiu l

l i lng

quan trng c trng cho tnh t cng ca


vt liu t cng. V vt liu t cng l kh
t ha v kh kh t, nn ngc li vi vt
liu t mm, n c lc khng t cao. iu
kin ti thiu l trn 100 Oe, nhng vt liu
t cng ph bin thng c lc khng t c
hng ngn Oe tr ln. Ngun gc ca lc
khng t ln trong cc vt liu t cng ch
yu lin quan n n d hng t tinh th
ln trong vt liu. Cc vt liu t cng
thng c cu trc tinh th c tnh i xng
km hn so vi cc vt liu t mm v
chng c d hng t tinh th rt ln.

ng cong t tr v cc c trng ca vt liu t cng

Lc khng t ca vt liu t cng thng thng c bit n qua cng thc:

trong :
Thnh phn th nht c ng gp ln nht vi

l hng s d hng t tinh th bc 1,

l t bo ha.

Thnh phn th 2, ng gp nh hn mt bc vi
l tha s kh t o theo hai phng khc nhau.
Thnh phn th 3 c ng gp nh nht vi
l t gio bo ha, l ng sut ni.
V a, b, c ln lt l cc h s ng gp.

Tch nng lng t cc i


Tch nng lng cc i l i lng c trng cho mnh yu ca vt t, c c trng bi nng lng t cc i
c th tn tr trong mt n v th tch vt t. i lng ny c n v l n v mt nng lng

Tch nng lng t cc i c xc nh trn ng cong kh t (xem hnh v) thuc v gc phn t th 2 trn
ng cong t tr, l mt im sao cho gi tr ca tch cm ng t B v t trng H l cc i. V th, tch nng
lng t cc i thng c k hiu l
.
V l tch ca B (n v trong CGS l Gauss - G), v H (n v trong CGS l Oersted - Oe), nn tch nng lng t
cn c mt n v khc l GOe (n v ny thng dng hn n v chun SI trong khoa hc v cng ngh vt liu
t)

c tch nng lng t cao, vt liu cn c lc khng t ln v cm ng t d cao.

Vt liu t cng

54

Cm ng t d
Cm ng t d, thng k hiu l

hay

, l cm ng t cn d sau khi ngt t trng (xem hnh).

Nhit Curie
y l nhit m ti vt liu b mt t tnh, tr thnh cht thun t. Mt s vt liu t cng c ng dng trong
cc nam chm hot ng nhit cao nn n i hi nhit Curie rt cao. Loi vt liu t cng c nhit Curie
cao nht hin nay l nhm cc vt liu trn nn SmCo c nhit Curie t 500C n trn 1000C.

Mt t tch hiu dng


Cc phng trnh Maxwell (trong h o lng SI) p dng cho vt liu t cng, khi khng c dng in t do chy
bn trong vt liu ny:

y, B l cm ng t, H l cng t trng, M l t ha. Vy tn ti trng v hng Vm, gi l th v


hng t (ng vai tr tng t in th trong tnh in hc), tha mn:

vi m l mt t tch hiu dng (ng vai tr tng t mt in tch trong tnh in hc):

ng dng
Vt liu t cng c th dng ch to cc nam chm vnh cu hoc c s dng lm vt liu ghi t trong cc a
cng, cc bng t.

Mt s loi
Hp kim AlNiCo: L hp kim c s dng trong nam chm vnh cu, c thnh phn ch yu l nhm (Al),
niken v cban (Co), c th c thm cc thnh phn ph gia nh ng (Cu), titan (Ti),... Hp kim ny c t d
cao, nhng c lc khng t kh nh (thng khng vt qu 2 kOe) v c gi thnh cao.

Vt liu t cng

55

Vt liu t cng ferrite: L cc gm ferrite, m in


hnh l ferrite bari (BaFexO), stronsti (SrFexO) v
c th b sung cc nguyn t t him (v d
lanthannium (La)) ci thin tnh t cng. Ferrite
l vt liu c 2 phn mng t b tr nhau, v cha
hm lng xi ln nn kh to ra t ln, nhng
li c lc khng t ln hn rt nhiu so vi AlNiCo.
Lc khng t ca ferrite c th t ti 5 kOe. Ferrite
c im mnh l r tin, ch to d dng v c
bn cao. V th n chim phn ln th phn nam
chm th gii (ti hn 50%) d c phm cht khng
phi l cao.
Cc vt liu t cng lin kim loi chuyn tip - t
him: in hnh l hai hp cht
v h
SmCo (Samarium-Cobalt), l cc vt liu t cng tt
nht hin nay. Hp cht Nd2Fe14B c cu trc t
Cu trc tinh th ca NdFeB
gic, c lc khng t c th t ti trn 10 kOe v c
t bo ha cao nht trong cc vt liu t cng, do to ra tch nng lng t khng l. SmCo l loi vt liu
t cng c lc khng t ln nht (c th t ti 40 kOe), v c nhit Curie rt cao nn thng s dng trong
cc my mc c nhit hot ng cao (nam chm nhit cao). Tuy nhin, nhc im ca cc nam chm t
him l c bn khng cao (do cc nguyn t t him d b xi ha), c gi thnh cao do cc nguyn t t
him c gi thnh rt cao, vt liu NdFeB cn c nhit Curie khng cao lm (312oC) nn khng s dng
iu kin khc nghit c. Nam chm t him c tch nng lng t k lc l

t ti 57 MGOe.

Hp kim FePt v CoPt: Bt u c nghin cu t nhng nm 1950s. H hp kim ny c cu trc tinh th t


gic tm din (fct), thuc loi c trt t ha hc L10, c u im l c lc khng t ln, c kh nng chng mi
mn, chng xi ha rt cao. Loi hp kim ny hin nay ang c s dng lm vt liu ghi t trong cc cng.
Nam chm t hp trao i n hi: Loi vt liu c bt u pht trin t nhng thp k 90 ca th k 20, vi
cu trc t hp ca 2 loi vt liu: vt liu t mm cung cp t bo ha ln, vt liu t cng cho lc khng t
cao, v cc ht t hp kch thc nanomet, c lin kt trao i vi nhau, to ra tnh cht t hp v s cho loi
nam chm mi vi tnh t cng tuyt vi, ln hn tt c cc vt liu t cng bit. Tuy nhin, vo thi im
hin ti, cc tnh cht t c trong thc t cn thua xa d on l thuyt do cha to c cu trc hon ho
nh d on. Loi vt liu ny vn trong giai on nghin cu pht trin.

Xem thm

T hc
St t
Vt liu t mm
Magnet [1]

Lin kt ngoi
Hard magnets in University of Birmingham [2]
Bi vit v vt liu t cng v t mm trn Din n Vt l Vit Nam [3]

Vt liu t cng

56

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.
2. ^ Robert C. O'Handley (1999). Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications. Wiley-Interscience.
ISBN-13 978-0471155669.
3. ^
4. ^

Ch thch
[1] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Magnet
[2] http:/ / www. aacg. bham. ac. uk/ magnetic_materials/ hard_magnets. htm
[3] http:/ / www. vatlyvietnam. org/ forum/ showthread. php?t=1190

Vt liu t mm
Vt liu t mm, hay vt liu st t mm (ting Anh: Soft magnetic material) l vt liu st t, "mm" v phng
din t ha v kh t, c ngha l d t ha v d kh t. Vt liu st t mm thng c dng lm vt liu hot
ng trong trng ngoi, v d nh li bin th, li nam chm in, cc li dn t...

Cc thng s ca vt liu t mm
* Thng s quan trng u tin ni ln
tnh cht t mm ca vt liu t mm l lc
khng t (coercivity, thng k hiu l
). Lc khng t l t trng ngoi ngc cn
thit trit tiu t ca mu. Lc khng
t ca cc vt liu t mm phi nh hn c
100 Oe. Nhng vt liu c tnh t mm tt,
thm ch c lc khng t rt nh (ti c 0,01
Oe).
t thm ban u (intial permeability):
L thng s rt quan trng ni ln tnh t
mm ca vt liu t mm. t thm
ban u c nh ngha bi cng thc:

ng cong t tr ca vt liu t mm v mt s thng s trn ng tr

Vt liu t mm c t thm ban u t vi trm, n vi ngn, cc vt liu c tnh t mm tt c th t ti vi


chc ngn, thm ch hng trm ngn. Ch : t thm (permeability) l i lng c trng cho kh nng phn

Vt liu t mm

57

ng ca vt liu t di tc dng ca t trng ngoi. Nh ta bit quan h gia cm ng t B, t trng ngoi H v


t ha M theo cng thc:

vi

l hng s t, hay t thm ca chn khng. H v M quan h theo biu thc:

c gi l cm t (magnetic sucseptibility). Nh vy, B c quan h vi H theo cng thc:

v gi tr

c gi l t thm (hiu dng) ca vt liu)

t thm cc i (Maximum permeability): Ta bit rng vt liu st t khng nhng c t thm ln m cn


c t thm l mt hm ca t trng ngoi. V t thm cc i cng l mt thng s quan trng. C nhng
vt liu st t mm c t thm cc i rt cao, ti hng vi trm ngn v d nh permalloy, hay hp kim nano
tinh th Finemet...
Cm ng t bo ha,

hay t bo ha

cao nht l hp kim

: Vt liu t mm thng c t bo ha rt cao. Loi c t

c t bo ha t ti 2,34 T.

Cc thng s ng ch khc
Tn hao dng xoy: Nh bit, vt liu t mm c s dng trong t trng ngoi, v nu s dng trong
trng xoay chiu, s sinh ra cc dng in Foucault gy mt mt nng lng v ta nhit. Cng sut tn hao
Foucault c tnh theo cng thc:

vi:
l cm ng t bo ho ca li
: dy ca li
l mt h s c trng
: Tn s t trng xoay chiu
: Khi lng ring vt liu
: in tr sut
T cng thc ny ta l gii c vic cc li bin th tn Si (FeSi) c ch to thnh cc l mng nhm lm gim
dy, gim tn hao dng xoy. ng thi, li FeSi ch c th s dng cho bin th tn s thp v tn s cao, tn
hao s rt ln (do FeSi c in tr sut thp), trong khi cc vt liu gm ferrite c th s dng cc tn s rt cao do
chng c bn cht gm, c in tr sut rt ln, lm gim tn hao dng xoy.
Tn hao tr (Hysteresis Loss): Khi vt liu t mm c s dng trong trng ngoi, n s b t ha v to ra chu
trnh tr, v s c nng lng b tn hao cho vic t ha vt liu
c trng tn s: Khi s dng tn s cng cao, phm cht ca vt liu cng b suy gim, do s thay i ca
phm cht theo tn s l mt thng s rt ng quan tm.
T gio: V mt bn cht, t gio l s thay i hnh dng vt liu t di tc dng ca t trng ngoi. Vic kh
t gio gip cho vic to ra tnh t mm tt. C nhng vt liu c t gio bng 0 nh vt liu v nh hnh nn
Co.

Vt liu t mm

58

Mt s loi vt liu t mm

ng dng ca vt liu t mm trong k thut (Qung co ca cng ty Hitachi)

* Tn Silic: L hp kim ca st (khong 85%), vi Silic (Si), hoc cha thm khong 5,4% nhm (Al), cn c gi
l hp kim Sendust, l mt trong nhng vt liu st t mm c dng ph bin nht c cng cao, c t thm
cao v tn hao tr thp. Tuy nhin, vt liu ny trn nn kim loi, nn c in tr sut thp, do khng th s dng
tn s cao do s lm xut hin tn hao xoy ln.
Hp kim Permalloy
L hp kim ca niken (Ni) v st (Fe), c lc khng t rt nh, t thm rt cao (vt liu

c t thm

ban u ln ti 10000), c bn c hc v kh nng chng n mn cao. Tuy nhin, permalloy c t bo ha


khng cao.
Hp kim FeCo: l cc hp kim t mm c t bo ha cao, nhit Curie cao
Cc vt liu gm ferrite: L hp cht ca xit Fe (
chung l

) vi mt xit kim loi ha tr 2 khc, c cng thc

. Cc ferrite mang bn cht gm, nn c in tr sut rt cao nn tn hao dng xoy ca

ferrite rt thp, c dng cho cc ng dng cao tn v siu cao tn.


Hp kim v nh hnh v nan tinh th:
L cc hp kim nn st hay c ban (Co), trng thi v nh hnh, do c in tr sut cao hn nhiu so vi cc
hp kim tinh th, ng thi c kh nng chng n mn, bn c hc cao, v c th s dng tn s cao hn so vi
cc vt liu tinh th nn kim loi. Vt liu v nh hnh khng c cu trc tinh th, nn trit tiu d hng t tinh th,
v th n c tnh t mm rt tt. Vt liu v nh hnh nn Co cn c t gio bng 0 nn cn c lc khng t cc nh.
Khi kt tinh t trng thi v nh hnh, ta c vt liu nano tinh th, l cc ht nan kt tinh trn nn v nh hnh d,
trit tiu t gio t t hp hai pha v nh hnh v tinh th nn c tnh t mm cc tt v c th s dng tn s cao.
Vt liu t mm nano tinh th thng phm tt nht l [FINEMET] (
) c pht minh
bi Yoshizawa (Hitachi Metal Ltd, Nht Bn) nm 1988 v nhiu th h khc c pht trin sau .

Vt liu t mm
V nhiu loi khc...

ng dng ca vt liu t mm

Li bin th, li dn t, cun cm


Nam chm in
Cun chn, cm bin o t trng
...

Xem thm

T hc
Vt liu t cng
St t
Bi vit v vt liu t mm trn Din n Vt l Vit Nam [3]

Lin kt ngoi
http://www.aacg.bham.ac.uk/magnetic_materials/soft_magnets.htm
http://www.hitachi-metals.co.jp/e/prod/prod02/p02_22.html

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.
2. ^
3. ^

59

Cng ngh ngui nhanh

60

Cng ngh ngui nhanh


Cng ngh ngui nhanh (ting Anh: rapid cooling, melt-spinning) hay cn c gi l phng php lm lnh
nhanh hoc ti nhanh (rapid quenching) l mt cng ngh luyn kim dng ch to cc bng hp kim hoc kim
loi v nh hnh bng cch lm lnh nhanh hp kim nng chy vi tc thu nhit rt ln (t 104 K/s n 107 K/s).

Nguyn tc chung
Tc lm lnh c xc nh bng cng thc:

Nguyn l phng php ngui nhanh trn trng quay

vi

ln lt l nhit ca hp kim nng chy, v nhit ca mi trng lm lnh,

l thi gian thu

nhit. Nguyn tc chung ca phng php ngui nhanh l dng mt mi trng lm lnh thu nhit nhanh ca hp
kim nng chy, gi cu trc ca hp kim ha rn ging nh trng thi ca cht lng (trng thi v nh hnh).
Mi trng lm lnh c th l cc khi kim loi quay nhanh, hoc cc kh ha lng (nit lng, hli lng...).
to cho tc thu nhit rt nhanh, mi trng thu nhit phi va c kh nng hp th nhit ln ng thi phi
to sao cho hp kim lng ch tip xc trong thi gian rt ngn (tc thu nhit ngn) nhm to ra tc ln.

Cng ngh ngui nhanh

61

Cng ngh ngui nhanh trn trng quay


Nguyn l ca phng php ny l dng mt trng
quay c b mt nhn bng vi tc cao lm mi
trng thu nhit ca hp kim nng chy. Hp kim c
lm nng chy trong ni nu bng phng php nng
chy cm ng bng dng in cao tn. Ni nu c
thit k c bit sao cho khe n c mt khe hp v t
gn st b mt trng. Dng mt dng kh nn (thng
l cc kh tr trnh xi ha) thi hp kim nng chy
ln b mt trng quay. V ming vi phun t rt gn
mt trng nn hp kim b dn mng v rt d b ly
nhit, ng thi nh trng quay vi tc cao nn hp
kim va b lm lnh nhanh, va b dn mng ko thnh
bng di.
Phng php ngui nhanh trn trng quay n trc

Thi gian thu nhit trong phng php ny rt ngn (t


l nghch vi tc quay ca trng) ch c 10-3 n 10-2 giy nn tc lm ngui c th t ti t 104 K/s n 107
K/s, d dng to ra cc hp kim v nh hnh dng bng mng.
Phng php ngui nhanh n trc:
L phng php ngui nhanh trn trng
quay, nhng s dng mt trng quay vi
tc cao, hp kim c phun trn b
mt trng nh vi phun t st b mt.
dy ca bng hp kim ph thuc vo
2 yu t l khong cch t vi phun n
mt trng v tc trng. Phng php
ny d tin hnh v gi thnh thp nhng
c mt nhc im l d xy ra s sai
khc v cu trc cng nh tnh cht b
mt 2 pha ca bng hp kim ng thi
tnh lp li v chiu dy ca hp kim
thng khng cao.
Thit b ngui nhanh n trc ti Trung tm Khoa hc Vt liu, Trng i hc
Khoa hc T nhin (H Ni)

Phng php hai trc: L phng php


ngui nhanh s dng 2 trng quay t
tip xc vi nhau v quay ngc chiu nhau. Hp kim c lm lnh gia 2 khe ca b mt trng, va b lm lnh
va b cn p nn c dy rt chun xc (ch ph thuc vo khong cch gia hai trng v tc trng) ng
thi tnh cht hai b mt sai khc rt thp. Nhng im kh ca phng php ny l tnh ng b gia hai trng
quay.

im quan trng ca phng php ngui nhanh l ch to cc trng quay trn mt trc cc k chnh xc ( rung
ca b mt trng rt thp, ch c mt vi micromet), ng thi b mt ca cc trng phi c x l rt sch v
nhn. Cc trng thng c ch to bng cc kim loi c kh nng thu nhit nhanh v t b xi ha. Hai loi vt liu
ph bin c dng l ng v mlipen. ch to cc bng hp kim c bit cha cc kim loi d b xi ha,
ngi ta c th t c h trong mi trng bo v (c ht chn khng cao, v c np cc kh bo v).

Cng ngh ngui nhanh

Lch s
Phng php ngui nhanh ln u tin c xy dng vo nm 1960 bi nhm ca Pol Duwez (P. Duwez, W.
Klement Jun, R,H. Willens) Vin Cng ngh California (Caltech), ch to thnh cng mt lot hp kim Eutectic v
nh hnh nh AuSi, AgCu, AgGe...

ng dng cng ngh


Cng ngh ngui nhanh hin ang c ng dng rt rng ri ch to cc hp kim dng bng mng c cu trc v
nh hnh. u im ca n l n gin, gi thnh r v kt hp mt cch lin tc cc cng on ca k thut luyn
kim nn d dng c trin khai quy m cng nghip. Ngy nay, phng php ngui nhanh vn l mt phng
php ph bin s dng trong c nghin cu khoa hc v cng ngh vt liu, cng nh trong cng nghip sn xut vt
liu v nh hnh. Tnh hu ch ca cng ngh ny dn n vic thut ng "nng chy-quay" (ting Anh l
melt-spinning) c dng l "phng php ngui nhanh". Ngoi vic ch to hp kim v nh hnh, n cn l mt
phng php tng t nh phng php cn lnh nn cn c dng ch to cc bng kim loi, hp kim mng.
Trong cng nghip, phng php ny c th ch to cc bng hp kim (c v nh hnh v khng v nh hnh) c
chiu rng hng met v chiu di hng vi chc mt vi dy t mt vi micromet n vi chc hoc vi trm
micromet. Nhc im ca n l ch cho php ch to cc hp kim v nh hnh dng bng mng, m khng th
to ra cc hp kim v nh hnh dng khi.

Ti liu tham kho


H. Jones, "A perspective on the development of rapid solidification and nonequilibrium processing and its future",
Mater. Sci. Eng. A 31 (2001) 11-19. [1]
P. Duwez et al. "Non-crystalline Structure in Solidified GoldSilicon Alloys", Nature 187 (1960) 869-870 [2]
P. Duwez et al. "Continuous Series of Metastable Solid Solutions in Silver-Copper Alloys", J. Appl. Phys. 31
(1960) 11361137 [3]
P. Duwez et al. "Metastable Electron Compound in Ag-Ge Alloys", J. Appl. Phys. 31 (1960), p. 1137 [4]

Ch thch
[1] http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TXD-42TC6T2-3& _user=10& _coverDate=05%2F31%2F2001&
_rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d& view=c& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10&
md5=20251527f278402052d0191c9351d042
[2] http:/ / www. nature. com/ nature/ journal/ v187/ n4740/ abs/ 187869b0. html;jsessionid=459829654AA7C6F1C9E90EC74CB422F8
[3] http:/ / scitation. aip. org/ getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal& id=JAPIAU000031000006001136000002& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes
[4] http:/ / scitation. aip. org/ getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal& id=JAPIAU000031000006001137000001& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes

62

FINEMET

63

FINEMET
FINEMET l tn mt loi vt liu t mm
thng phm c cu trc nan da trn nn
hp kim ca st c cng thc l
Fe73,5Si13,5B9Nb3Cu1 (t l phn trm
nguyn t). Finemet l mt trong nhng vt
liu t mm tt nht. Hin nay, Finemet l
thng phm t mm c gi bn quyn
bi Hitachi Metals (Nht Bn) [1] v
Metglas (M) [2] . Tn FINEMET l t ghp
ca Fine metal, do trong cu trc ca
FINEMET c cha cc ht kim loi siu
mn kch thc nano.

Cu trc v tnh cht ca


FINEMET
FINEMET ln u tin c ch to v
cng b bi nhm nghin cu ca Y.
Yoshizawa, S. Oguma, K. Yamauchi (Phng
th nghim Nghin cu cc vt liu t v
ng dng ca vt liu t mm FINEMET trong k thut (Qung co ca cng ty
in t, Hitachi Metals, Nht Bn) vo nm
Hitachi)
1988 [3] . Theo bi bo ny, Finemet c
rt ra t h vt liu nn st c cng thc chung l Fe74,5-xSi13,5B9Nb3Cux vi x thay i t 0 n 1,5% t phn
nguyn t, v thnh phn cho tnh cht tt nht vi x = 1,0 c pht trin mnh tr thnh thng phm v gi tn l
FINEMET. V FINEMET tr thnh mt vt liu vi tnh t mm tuyt vi vi nhiu c tnh l th c v mt
cng ngh cng nh ng dng [4] .

Tnh cht ca FINEMET


Khi mi ch to, FINEMET dng cc
bng kim loi mng, dy t 10
micromet n vi chc micromet.
FINEMET l vt liu t mm c tnh
cht t mm hon ho, v c xp
vo nhm cc vt liu t siu mm v
khc phc c nhng nhc im ca
cc vt liu t mm truyn thng:
t thm cc cao

nh TEM chp cu trc ht ca FINEMET a) nh trng sng, b) nh trng ti.

t thm (tng i) ca
FINEMET c th t ti vi trm ngn ln (tt nht) trong s cc vt liu t mm c t thm cao.
Lc khng t rt nh
Lc khng t ca FINEMET rt nh, c th ti mc di 1 A/m (tc l xp x 0,01 Oe)[5] , ngang vi mc vt
liu c lc khng t nh nht l Permalloy.

FINEMET

64

Cm ng t bo ha cao v kh nng hot ng tn s cao


Khc vi vt liu siu mm permalloy bn cnh cc gi tr t thm cao, lc khng t cc nh nhng cm
ng t li rt thp (di 1 T) th FINEMET li c cm ng t bo ha rt ln t 1,2 T n 1,5 T. Khng nh
cc loi vt liu t mm nn kim loi khc l khng th lm vic trong t trng xoay chiu c tn s cao do
in tr sut rt b (kim loi) th FINEMET li c in tr sut ln (do c pht trin t cu trc v nh
hnh) nn c kh nng lm vic trong t trng xoay chiu c tn s cao (t c kHz n MHz) v tn hao tr
cng nh tn hao xoy cc nh. c trng tn s c FINEMET c th coi tng ng vi vt liu gm ferrite
chuyn dng cho cao tn (nhng phm cht ca ferrite khng tt).
Hnh dng ng tr rt d thay i v c tnh c hc tt
ng cong t tr ca FINEMET c th d dng thay i nh vic trong t trng. Ngoi ra, FINEMET c
kh nng chng n mn (mi mn c hc v ha hc) cao, ng thi rt do dai. Trong cng nghip, FINMET
c ch to dng cc bng kim mng rt do, c cun thnh tng cun c th di ti vi chc m v rng
t vi chc cm n 1 m.
Hiu ng t tng tr khng l
Gn y, ngi ta cn thu c hiu ng t tng tr khng l (s thay i ca tng tr hoc t thm ngang)
trn cc bng t Finemet t ti vi trm % [6] . Tnh cht ny rt hu hiu trong vic to ra cc sensor o t
trng siu nhy [7] .

Cu trc v c ch to tnh t mm
FINMET l hp kim c cu trc nanomet vi cc ht st t mm bbc-Fe(Si) (ht Fe(Si) c cu trc lp phng tm
khi) vi t phn khong 80% th tch, v 20% cn li l nn cc ma trn v nh hnh bao quanh. Tnh cht ca hp
kim c to ra t do s t hp tnh cht ca hai pha tinh th v v nh hnh. Herzer l ngi l gii thnh cng
c ch v tnh cht t mm trong cc hp kim ny [8] :
D hng t hiu dng
Trong h cc ht st t siu mn, d hng t tinh th khng cn mang gi tr nh trong vt liu khi m b hiu dng
ha, t l vi ly tha bc 6 ca kch thc ht:

v khi , lc khng t s t l thun vi bc 6 ca kch thc ht:

Vi:
K1 l h s t tinh th bc 1 ca vt liu khi, D l kch thc ht, Lex l di tng tc trao i. Tng t,
h s t thm th t l nghch vi bc 6 kch thc ht. V th, vi cc ht mn 10-20 nm, lc khng t tr nn
rt nh cn t thm th tr thnh rt ln.

T gio bng 0
T gio ca FINEMET c to ra nh t hp t gio ca hai pha: cc ht nano tinh th bbc-Fe(Si) vi t
gio bo ha m v pha v nh hnh vi t gio bo ha dng. t phn hp l ca pha nano tinh th (theo
tnh ton th t 78-82%) s b tr t gio, to ra t gio hon ton bng 0.

FINEMET

65

K thut ch to v cc ci tin t FINEMET


K thut ch to
Phng php thng dng nht ch to FINEMET l k thut ngui nhanh. Cng ngh ngui nhanh c s dng
to ra cc bng hp kim v nh hnh mng. Cu trc nano c to ra nh vic nhit thch hp trong mi
trng chn khng hoc mi trng c s dng cc kh tr bo v hp kim khi b xy ha. Qu trnh (thng
s dng nhit t 500oC n 600oC vi thi gian c th ko di t 30 pht n 1 gi) gip cho vic ti kt tinh hp
kim v nh hnh to ra cc ht nano c cu trc tinh th. Qu trnh c th dn n vic hp kim b gi ha v
do dai b suy gim. Ngoi ra, ngi ta c th to trc tip cu trc nano ngay t qu trnh ngui nhanh bng cch
gim tc lm ngui v to ra qu trnh kt tinh khi lm ngui. Tuy nhin, k thut ny thng kh iu khin v
gim i ng nht ca cu trc.

Ci tin t FINEMET
FINEMET l hp kim t mm u tin s dng cu trc nano trn nn v nh hnh v nhanh chng c thng
mi ha nh nhng phm cht tuyt vi. T s xut hin ca FINEMET, ngi ta ci tin thnh phn to ra
nhiu loi hp kim t mm c cu trc nano vi nhiu tnh cht c bit hn:
NANOPERM
L hp kim vi cc thnh phn Fe-M-B vi thnh phn Fe c th ln ti 64% nguyn t, M c th l Zr-Cu,
Hf-Cu..., ln u tin xut hin vo nm 1998 theo cng b ca nhm A. Makino (Nht Bn) [9] .
NANOPERM c cm ng t c bit cao (vt trn 1,5 T), c t thm rt ln (t PERM trong ci tn
NANOPERM lin quan n t thm cao - PERMEABILITY) v c bn c hc cao hn FINEMET.
HITPERM
L hp kim tng t nh NANOPERM, nhng s dng mt na l Co thay th cho Fe nh nng cao c
nhit Curie ln rt ln. Ci tn HITPERM c ngha l hp kim c nhit Curie cao (trn 1000oC). Thnh
phn thng mi ban u ca HITPERM l (Fe,Co)88Zr7B4Cu1, ln u tin c to ra bi nhm nghin cu
ca M. A. Willard (Carnegie Mellon University, Hoa K)[10] . HITPERM c cu to bi cc ht nano ca pha
-FeCo, nn c nhit Curie rt cao v cm ng t bo ha c bit ln (vt trn 2 T) nn c s dng
trong li dn t ca cc ng c phn lc - ni i hi nhit lm vic rt cao.

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Nanocrystalline soft magnetic material FINEMET (http:/ / www. hitachi-metals. co. jp/ e/ prod/ prod02/ p02_21. html)
[2] Finemet Products (http:/ / www. metglas. com/ products/ page5_2_2. htm)
[3] Y. Yoshizawa, S. Oguma, and K. Yamauchi, New Fe-based soft magnetic alloys composed of ultrafine grain structure, J. Appl. Phys. 64,
6044 (1988). (http:/ / link. aip. org/ link/ ?JAPIAU/ 64/ 6044/ 1)
[4] M. E. McHenry, D. E. Laughlin, Nano-scale materials development for future magnetic applications, Acta Materialia 48 (2000) 223-238.
(http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TW8-3YDG01N-F& _user=121723& _coverDate=01/ 01/ 2000&
_alid=820500214& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=search& _cdi=5556& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1& _acct=C000009999&
_version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=121723& md5=e9d13e87446db3218b739aa035bb6f5c)
[5] D.T.H. Gam, N.D. The, N.H. Hai, N. Chau, N.Q. Hoa, Md.S. Mahmud, Investigation of the nanocrystallization process and the magnetic
properties pf Finemet-like Fe73.5Si17.5B5Nb3Cu1, J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 52 (2008) 1423-1426. (http:/ / direct. bl. uk/ bld/ PlaceOrder.
do?UIN=229722500& ETOC=RN& from=searchengine)
[6] F. Shahri, A. Beitollahi, S.G. Shabestari, M. Ghanaatshoar, M.M. Tehranchi, S.M. Mohseni, S.E. Roozmeh, N. Wanderka, F. Fiorillo,
Structural characterization and magnetoimpedance effect in amorphous and nanocrystalline AlGe-substituted FeSiBNbCu ribbons, J. Magn.
Magn. Mater. 312 (2007) 35-42. (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleListURL& _method=list&
_ArticleListID=820508247& _sort=d& view=c& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10&
md5=40e0a8f83790b941e12a81e454af0e2d)
[7] M. Hauser, L. Kraus, P. Ripka, Giant magnetoimpedance sensors, IEEE Inst. Meas. Mag. 4 (2001) 28-32. (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpl/
freeabs_all. jsp?tp=& arnumber=930983& isnumber=20136)

FINEMET

66

[8] Herzer, Grain size dependence of coercivity and permeability innanocrystalline ferromagnets, IEEE Trans. Magn. 26 (1990) 1397-1402.
(http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=104389)
[9] A. Makino, T. Bitoh, J.-I. Murakami, T. Hatanai, A. Inoue and T. Masumoto, Nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-M-B (M = Zr, Hf, Nb) alloys
"NANOPERM" with high magnetic induction, J. Phys. IV France 08 (1998) Pr2-103-Pr2-106. (http:/ / jp4. journaldephysique. org/ articles/
jp4/ abs/ 1998/ 02/ jp4199808PR224/ jp4199808PR224. html)
[10] M. A. Willard, M.-Q. Huang, D. E. Laughlin, M. E. McHenry, J. O. Cross, V. G. Harris, C. Franchetti, Magnetic properties of HITPERM
(Fe, Co)88Zr7B4Cu1 magnets, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4421 (1999). (http:/ / link. aip. org/ link/ ?JAPIAU/ 85/ 4421/ 1)

Xem thm
Vt liu t mm
Permalloy
Cng ngh ngui nhanh

Lin kt ngoi
Metglas (http://www.metglas.com/index.asp)
Hitachi Metals, Ltd (http://www.hitachi-metals.co.jp/e/index.html)

Hiu ng Hopkinson
Hiu ng Hopkinson l l hin tng bo ha t trong t trng thp trong cc vt liu st t gn nhit Curie
do qu trnh quay thun nghch. Hiu ng Hopkinson ch xy ra trong cc vt liu st t c tn ti d hng t tinh
th.
Hiu ng Hopkinson cn c nh ngha khc l hiu ng m t thm ca cht st t t cc i gn nhit
Curie [1] .

M t hiu ng
Hiu ng Hopkinson ch xy ra trong
cc vt liu st t c tn ti d hng t
tinh th v xy ra gn nhit Curie.
Khi , qu trnh t ha vt liu l qu
trnh quay thun nghch, v t trng
quan h vi t M, d hng t tinh
th bc mt K1 theo biu thc:

Hiu ng Hopkinson quan st trn ng cong t ph thuc nhit ca cht st t:


Hiu ng Hopkinson tng ng vi cc i ca t gn nhit Curie, v bin mt khi
o trong t trng ln

Hiu ng Hopkinson
vi Ms l t bo ha. Khi nhit tng n gn nhit Curie, d hng t tinh th bc mt K1 gim nhanh hn
t bo ha rt nhiu nn ch cn mt t trng H rt nh cng bo ha t. Nu ta o ng cong t ph
thuc vo nhit (gi l ng cong t nhit) trong t trng nh th khi xy ra hiu ng Hopkinson, ta s quan st
thy t t gi tr cc i trc khi gim nhanh xung gi tr nh ti nhit Curie. Tuy nhin, hiu ng
Hopkinson bin mt khi o trong t trng ln.

ng dng ca hiu ng Hopkinson


Hiu ng Hopkinson c t tn theo ngi pht hin ra n l nh vt l hc ngi Php John Hopkinson, pht hin
ln u tin vo nm 1885.Hiu ng Hopkinson l hiu ng thun ty vt l, mang tnh cht c bn, cha tng c
ng dng trong cng ngh, thng c dng xc nh cc c tnh ca vt liu st t. Hiu ng Hopkinson l
bng chng khng nh s tn ti ca d hng t tinh th, xc nh cc tnh cht chuyn pha , cc tnh cht nh
hng trong vt liu, h n men, a men v xc nh nhit Curie, [2] , [3]

Xem thm
St t
D hng t tinh th
Nhit Curie
Hiu ng t nhit

Ti liu tham kho


[1] http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ hopkinson-effect?cat=technology
[2] N.S. Gajbhiye et al. IEEE Transaction on Magnetics 35 (1999) 2155-2161 (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ iel5/ 20/ 16804/ 00774187. pdf?tp=&
isnumber=& arnumber=774187)
[3] Hae-Woong Kwon, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 239 (2002) 447-449 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/
science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-45NGBFX-4K& _user=121723& _coverDate=02/ 28/ 2002& _alid=598817946& _rdoc=1&
_fmt=full& _orig=search& _cdi=5312& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1& _acct=C000009999& _version=1& _urlVersion=0&
_userid=121723& md5=e915f5ea27f7fa019bcb5d2301550ecf#bib1)

67

Hiu ng Meissner

68

Hiu ng Meissner
Hiu ng Meissner hay hiu ng Meissner-Ochsenfeld l hiu ng
t thng b y ra hon ton khi bn trong ca vt siu dn. Hin
tng ny l hin tng nghch t hon ho (en:Superdiamagnetism).
T thng sinh ra bi vt siu dn b tr hon ton t thng mi
trng ngoi. Do , t thng bn trong vt siu dn bng 0. Hin
tng ny c khm ph bi hai nh vt l ngi o Walther
Meissner v ngi c Robert Ochsenfeld vo nm 1933.

Mt nam chm c nng trn mt mt vt liu


siu dn nhng trong nit lng lnh ti 200C,
th hin hiu ng Meissner

L gii
Xem thm
Dng in Phuc

Lin kt ngoi
Hiu ng Maixn trn BKTT VN [1]

Hiu ng Meissner.
ng t thng i thng khi T>Tc: nhit trn
nhit critical
ng t thng i vng khi T<Tc: nhit thp
hn nhit critical

Ch thch

[1] http:/ / dictionary. bachkhoatoanthu. gov. vn/ default.


aspx?param=24D9aWQ9OTc4MCZncm91cGlkPSZraW5kPWV4YWN0JmtleXdvcmQ9SEklZTElYmIlODZVKyVlMSViYiVhOE5HK01BSVhOJWM2JWEw&
page=1

Hiu ng t nhit

69

Hiu ng t nhit
Hiu ng t nhit l mt hin tng nhit ng hc t tnh, l s thay i nhit (b t nng hay lm lnh) ca
vt liu t trong qu trnh t ha hoc kh t. Hiu ng t nhit thc cht l s chuyn ha nng lng t - nhit
trong cc vt liu t.

S lc v hiu ng t nhit
Khi ta t mt t trng vo mt vt liu t, cc
mmen t s c xu hng sp xp nh hng theo t
trng. S nh hng ny lm gim entropy ca h
mmen t. Nu ta thc hin qu trnh ny mt cch
on nhit (tng entropy ca h vt khng i) th
entropy ca mng tinh th s phi tng b li s
gim ca entropy mmen t. Qu trnh ny lm cho vt
t b nng ln. Ngc li, nu ta kh t (on nhit),
cc mmen t s b quay tr li trng thi bt trt t,
dn n vic tng entropy ca h mmen t. Do ,
entropy ca mng tinh th b gim, v vt t b lnh i.
Hiu ng t nhit ln u tin c pht hin nm 1881
bi E. Warburg khi tin hnh t ha st to ra s thay
i nhit t 0,5 n 2 K cho mt T bin thin t
trng.

Nguyn l hiu ng t nhit - T trng lm nh hng cc mmen


t, lm thay i entropy ca h cc mmen t

Hiu ng ny c pht trin v gii thch nguyn l bi Debye (nm 1926) v Giauque nm 1927. Theo , t c
h thc Maxwell, ta c bin thin entropy ca h:

v ta c:
S hng th nht tng ng c

l nhit dung. S hng th hai chnh l bin thin entropy t:

Nh vy, nu ta thc hin mt qu trnh t t trng H = 0 n H, th bin thin entropy t s


c cho bi:

Bin thin nhit trong cc qu trnh on nhit ny s c cho bi cng thc:

y C(T,H) l nhit dung ca vt liu. Tham s


liu. Cn tham s bin thin nhit on nhit

c coi l tham s c trng cho hiu ng t nhit ca vt


cc k quan trng cho ng dng. Mt cch gn ng, c th

xem rng bin thin nhit on nhit t l thun vi bin thin entropy t, t l nghch vi nhit dung v t l thun
vi nhit hot ng. Hiu ng t nhit ln u tin c ng dng vo cc my lnh hot ng bng t trng vo
nm 1933 to ra nhit rt thp l 0,3 Kelvin bng cch kh t on nhit cc mui thun t.

Hiu ng t nhit

70

ng dng ca hiu ng t nhit


C hai xu hng nghin cu ng dng hiu ng t nhit:
Nghin cu cc vt liu c hiu ng t
nhit ln nhit thp cho k thut to
nhit rt thp. Vi phng php ny,
ngi ta to ra nhit cc thp, ti
c miliKelvin hay microKelvin.
Nghin cu cc vt liu c hiu ng t
nhit ln xung quanh nhit phng
(hoc cao hn) s dng trong cc my
lnh thay th cho cc my lnh truyn
thng s dng chu trnh nn kh vi u
th:
Khng gy nhim (my lnh dng
kh nn thi ra kh ph hy tng zn)
do khng thi ra cc cht thi
nhim.
Hiu sut cao: Cc mnh lnh dng t
c th cho hiu sut cao trn 60%
trong khi cc my lnh nn kh ch
cho hiu sut khng qu 40%.
Kch thc nh gn.

Qu trnh nhit ng trong cc thit b lm lnh bng t trng so snh vi lm


lnh bng kh nn truyn thng

Cc qu trnh nhit ng trong cc thit b s dng hiu ng t nhit


T ha on nhit: Tc l t mt t trng (+H) nh hng cc mmen t, dn n vic tng nhit ca
khi vt liu t.
Hp thu nhit: Ngi ta s dng cc cht lng (nc, du, nit lng...) thu nhit, a nhit ca mu tr li
ban u m vn gi nguyn t tnh ca khi vt liu.
Kh t on nhit: Qu trnh ny, t tnh ca mu b ph hy bng cch t cc t trng ngc, to nn s hn
lon trong nh hng ca cc mmen t, v khi vt liu b lnh i.
Ly nhit ca mi trng lm lnh: S dng cc cht dn nhit truyn nhit t mi trng cn lm lnh vo
vt. Vt tr li trng thi ban u, quay tr li im bt u ca chu trnh.

Hiu ng t nhit

71

Vt liu t nhit

My lnh dng t trng ca Astronautics Co. (2001)

Hiu ng t nhit l mt hiu ng c hu ca cc vt liu t, c ngha l tnh cht ny c mt tt c cc vt liu t.


Hiu ng ny t gi tr cc i ti nhit chuyn pha t tnh ca vt liu (theo cng thc v bin thin entropy t
trn, gi tr ny cc i khi bin thin ca mmen t cc i - xy ra nhit chuyn pha t tnh). Thng thng,
bin thin entropy t v bin thin nhit on nhit s ln khi vt liu l st t, v xy ra ln nht nhit
chuyn pha loi 2 (l thuyt tnh ton mi y cho rng hiu ng ny ln nht ti nhit chuyn pha loi 1). Cc
vt liu ang c nghin cu v s dng gn y:
Gadolinium (Gd) v cc hp kim ca chng: Gd l mt nguyn t st t c mmen t ln nn c kh nng cho
hiu ng t nhit ln. Cc hp kim ca n ang c s dng l
, hay
. Cc
vt liu ny u cho hiu ng t nhit ln v c gi l hiu ng t nhit khng l (Giant magnetocaloric effect GMCE). Cho n hin nay, Gd v cc hp kim ca n vn l loi c s dng ph bin nht trong cc my lnh
th nghim.
Cc hp cht lin kim loi khc:
, cc hp kim nh hnh (
...) l cc vt liu ang c nghin cu gn y c hiu ng t nhit khng l xung quanh nhit
phng.
Tuy nhin, cc vt liu lin kim loi - t him c nhc im l quy trnh ch to phc tp, gi thnh cao v
thng c bn km nn ngi ta ang nghin cu pht trin cc vt liu khc c gi thnh r hn v d ch to
hn. Cc vt liu gm perovskite cng l nhm cc vt liu c hiu ng t nhit xung quanh nhit phng
nhng chng mc nhc im l c nhit dung cao, mmen t nh nn t kh quan cho ng dng. Gn y, cc
vt liu v nh hnh nn st c coi l rt kh quan cho ng dng vi hiu ng t nhit khng l trong di rng
nhit , d ch to v gi r...
Cc mui thun t cho k thut nhit rt thp
Cc vt liu ny v mt thc cht l cc vt liu t c nhit trt t rt thp, ngi ta s dng chng to ra cc
nhit rt thp (ti c 1 vi miliKelvin). Nhit thp ban u c to ra nh Hli lng v sau to qu trnh
kh t on nhit to nhit rt thp.

Hiu ng t nhit

72

Phng php o c hiu ng t nhit trong vt l cht rn


Hiu ng t nhit ang l mt ch hp dn ca vt l cht rn, khoa hc vt liu ni chung v ngnh t hc ni
ring. Trong nghin cu v cc vt liu c hiu ng t nhit ln, c th c nhiu cch khc nhau xc nh tnh
cht ca hiu ng ny, v c 2 cch c dng ph bin nht:
o trc tip
Mu cn o c t vo bung
cch nhit v c th iu khin
nhit , tip xc vi cm bin
nhit . t t trng vo
t ha v kh t mu o, cm
bin nhit s ghi li trc tip
s bin i nhit ca vt
liu. Cc ny cho trc tip bin
thin nhit on nhit
nhng kh thc hin
hn do phi to cho vt khng
c s trao i nhit trong qu
trnh o.
o gin tip

H cc ng cong t ha ng nhit ca mt vt liu c hiu ng t nhit ln

c o ti Trng i hc Khoa hc T nhin (H Ni)


L cc o c dng ph bin
nht, tc l ngi ta xc nh
bin thin entropy t
t xc nh bin thin nhit on nhit. Cc ny c chnh xc

khng cao, nhng li d tin hnh nn c dng ph bin nht. Cch thc ca php o da trn biu
thc:

Ta c th bin i biu thc nh sau:

chnh l din tch ng cong chn di ng cong t ha M(H). Nh vy, o bin


thin entropy t, ta ch vic o mt lot cc ng cong t ha ng nhit cc nhit khc nhau, xc
nh din tch chn bi ng cong v bin thin entropy t l hiu cc din tch lin tip chia cho bin
thin nhit (xem hnh v).

Cc my lnh lm lnh bng t trng thng phm


Cha c cc my lnh hot ng cho vng nhit phng bng t trng thng phm ti thi im hin ti. Cc
thit b vn cn trong giai on th nghim v mc tiu hin nay vn l tm ra cc loi vt liu t nhit c cc c
tnh:
C hiu ng t nhit khng l xy ra xung quanh nhit phng
Hiu ng t nhit phi xy ra trong bin thin t trng nh v cc my mc dn dng khng th to ra t trng
ln. Hu ht cc vt liu c hiu ng t nhit khng l hin ti u t c t trng ln gy nhiu kh khn
cho ng dng.
Vt liu phi c nhit dung nh ( to ra bin thin nhit ln, d truyn nhit...), ch to khng qu phc tp
v c bn trong qu trnh hot ng.

Hiu ng t nhit

73

My lnh hot ng vng nhit phng u tin c sn xut vo nm 1997 bi nhm Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr.
Phng Th nghim Ames, Trng i hc Tng hp bang Iowa (M). Cho n nay, c nhiu cng ty ang
nghin cu pht trin thit b ny v thng bo rng trong mt vi nm ti s chnh thc a ra th trng cc sn
phm ny.
Cc my lnh dng t trng nhit phng
Cng ty/Vin nghin cu

Quc gia

Ames Laboratory/Astronautics Madison,


Zimm C, Jastrab A, Sternberg Wisconsin,
A, Pecharsky V K, Gschneidner USA
K Jr, Osborne M and Anderson
I, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 43, 1759
(1998).

Ngy cng Chng


b
loi

T
T
trng
(K)
bin
cc
[2] thin
i
(T)

Vt liu

600

10

5 (S)

Khi cu Gd

0.95
(P)

Gd foil

100

21

4 (S)

Khi cu Gds

14

2 (S)

Gd & Gd1xTbx L.B.

95

25

1.5
(P)

Khi cu Gds

23

1.4 (P) Khi cu Gds v


Gd5Si1.985Ge1.985Ga0.03
bt

40

27

0.6
(P)

Gd1xDyx L.B.

60

10

0.76
(P)

Gd 1xDyx L.B.

Khi
lng
(kg)

20/02/1997 Chuyn
ng
qua li

Mater. Science Institute


Barcelona,
Barcelona Bohigas X, Molins E, Ty Ban
Roig A, Tejada J and Zhang X Nha
X, IEEE Trans. Magn. 36 538
(2000).

05/2000

Chubu Electric/Toshiba Hirano Yokohama,


N, Nagaya S, Takahashi M,
Japan
Kuriyama T, Ito K and Nomura
S 2002 Adv. Cryog. Eng. 47
1027

2000

University of Victoria Rowe A


M and Barclay J A, Adv. Cryog.
Eng. 47 995 (2002). Rowe A M
and Barclay J A, Adv. Cryog.
Eng. 47 1003 (2002). Richard M
A, Rowe A M and Chahine R, J.
Appl. Phys. 95 2146 (2004).

7/2001

Victoria,
British
Columbia
Canada

Cng
sut
lm
lnh
cc i
(W)[1]

Quay

Chuyn
ng
qua li

Chuyn
ng
qua li

Astronautics Zimm C, Paper No Madison,


K7.003 Am. Phys. Soc. Meeting, Wisconsin,
March 4, Austin, TX (2003) [1] USA

18/09/2001

Quay

Nanjing,
Sichuan Inst. Tech./Nanjing
China
University Wu W, Paper No
K7.004 Am. Phys. Soc. Meeting,
March 4, Austin, TX (2003) [1]

23/04/2002 Chuyn
ng
qua li

Chubu Electric/Toshiba Hirano Yokohama,


N, Paper No K7.002 Am. Phys. Japan
Soc. Meeting March 4, Austin,
TX, [1]

5/09/2002

Chubu Electric/Toshiba Hirano Yokohama,


N, Paper No K7.002 Am. Phys. Japan
Soc. Meeting March 4, Austin,
TX, [1]

4/03/2003

Chuyn
ng
qua li
Quay

Hiu ng t nhit

74

Lab. dElectrotechnique
Grenoble Clot P, Viallet D,
Allab F, Kedous-LeBouc A,
Fournier J M and Yonnet J P,
IEEE Trans. Magn. 30 3349
(2003).

Grenoble,
France

4/2003

George Washington University

USA

7/2004

8.8

0.8
(P)

Gd phoi

? (P)

Gd phoi

95

25

1.5
(P)

Gd v GdEr spheres /
La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13H1.0

15

50

2 (S)

Gd, Gd0.74Tb0.26 and


Gd0.85Er0.15

Chuyn
ng
qua li

Chuyn
ng
qua li
Astronautics Zimm C, Paper No Madison,
K7.003 Am. Phys. Soc. Meeting, Wisconsin,
March 4, Austin, TX (2003) [1] USA
University of Victoria Rowe A
M and Tura A, International
Journal of efrigeration 29
1286-1293 (2006).

Victoria,
British
Columbia
Canada

2004

Quay

2006
Chuyn
ng
qua li

0.12

Cng sut lm lnh cc i khi (T=0); 2Bin thin nhit on nhit cc i khi (W=0); L.B. = layered bed; P = Dng
t trng nam chm vnh cu; S = Dng t trng siu dn

c thm

T hc
Vt liu t
My lnh
Magnetocaloric Effect [2]

Lin kt ngoi
NASA - How does an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator Work ? [3]
Magnetocaloric effect [4]

What is magnetocaloric effect and what materials exhibit this effect the most? [5]
Magnetocaloric materials keep fridges cool by C. Wu [6]
Ames Laboratory news release, 25 thng 5 nm 1999, Work begins on prototype magnetic-refrigeration unit [7].
Magnetic refrigerator successfully tested [8]
Refrigeration Systems [9] Terry Heppenstall's notes, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (thng 11 nm 2000)
XRS Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator [10]

Hiu ng t nhit

75

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Buschow K.H.J, de Boer F.R. (2004). Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Kluwer Academic /
Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-48408-0.
2. ^ Robert C. O'Handley (1999). Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications. Wiley-Interscience.
ISBN-13 978-0471155669.

Ch thch
[1] http:/ / www. aps. org/ meet/ MAR03/ baps/ tocK. html
[2] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Magnetocaloric
[3] http:/ / imagine. gsfc. nasa. gov/ docs/ teachers/ lessons/ xray_spectra/ background-adr. html
[4] http:/ / www. accessscience. com/ Encyclopedia/ 3/ 39/ Est_399200_frameset. html?doi
[5] http:/ / www. physlink. com/ Education/ AskExperts/ ae488. cfm
[6] http:/ / www. sciencenews. org/ pages/ sn_arc98/ 3_28_98/ fob3. htm
[7] http:/ / www. ameslab. gov/ News/ release/ crada. html
[8] http:/ / www. eurekalert. org/ features/ doe/ 2001-11/ dl-mrs062802. php
[9] http:/ / lorien. ncl. ac. uk/ ming/ cleantech/ refrigeration. htm
[10] http:/ / www. universe. nasa. gov/ xrays/ programs/ astroe/ eng/ adr. html

Hiu ng t quang Kerr


Hiu ng t quang Kerr (ting Anh: Magneto-optic Kerr effect, vit tt l MOKE) l mt hiu ng quang t m
nh sng phn x trn cc b mt ca b t ha th b thay i c v tnh cht phn cc cng nh phn x. Tn
hiu ng ny c t theo tn ca nh vt l ngi Scotland Rev. John Kerr, ngi pht hin ra hiu ng ny vo
nm 1877[1] . MOKE l mt hiu ng thuc nhm hiu ng Kerr.

M t hiu ng
Khi nh sng phn x trn mt b mt vt liu b t ha, tng tc gia mmen t v nh sng c th dn n vic
nh sng phn x b thay i tnh cht phn cc cng nh phn x ty theo chiu ca t . Hiu ng ny khc
vi hiu ng Faraday ch hiu ng Faraday ghi nhn nh sng truyn qua v ty theo s nh hng ca chiu t
m c th c nhiu kiu MOKE.

Ba kiu MOKE tng ng vi s nh hng tng i gia t ha v chiu ca nh sng ti

Hiu ng t quang Kerr

76

Hiu ng t quang Kerr ng (Polar MOKE)


Hiu ng MOKE ng xy ra khi vct t vung gc vi mt phng phn x (b mt ca mu t ha) v song
song vi mt phng ca nh sng ti. Trong cc thc nghim ca hiu ng ny, ngi ta thng s dng chm tia ti
gn nh vung gc vi b mt ca mu.

Hiu ng t quang Kerr dc (Longitudinal MOKE)


MOKE dc l hiu ng xy ra khi vct t song song vi c mt thng ti v mt phng phn x. Trong c cu
th nghim ca MOKE dc, chm tia s dng thng khng vung gc vi b mt mu, v nu chm sng ti l mt
chm sng phn cc thng th chm phn x s tr thnh phn cc ellipse vi thay i t l thun vi thnh phn
t song song vi mt phng phn x v song song vi mt phng ti.

Xem thm
Hiu ng Kerr

Ti liu tham kho


[1] J. Kerr, On rotation of the plane of polarization by reflection from the pole of a magnet, Phil. Mag. 3 (1877) 321-343

Hiu ng t in tr
T in tr, hay cn gi tt l t tr, l
tnh cht ca mt s vt liu, c th thay i
in tr sut di tc dng ca t trng
ngoi. Hiu ng ny ln u tin c pht
hin bi William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
vo nm 1856 vi s thay i in tr
khng qu 5%. Hiu ng ny c gi l
hiu ng t in tr thng. Gn y, cc
nh khoa hc pht hin ra nhiu loi hiu
ng t in tr trong nhiu loi vt liu khc
nhau em li kh nng ng dng ht sc to
ln. Ngi ta thng dng khi nim t s t
tr ni ln ln ca hiu ng t in
tr, cho bi cng thc:

Hiu ng t in tr ln trong cc mng a lp Fe/Cr (Fert et al.)

i khi, trong mt s thit b, t s ny cng c nh ngha bi:

Hiu ng t in tr

Vi:

77

ln lt l in tr sut v in tr ti t trng H v t trng H = 0. V hon

ton tng t cng thc th hai

l t trng cc i. Hai cch nh ngha ny hon ton tng ng nhau.

T in tr d hng
xem bi chi tit T in tr d hng
(Ting Anh: Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect - AMR). Hiu ng ny cng c William Thomson pht hin
vo nm 1857 khi quan st thy in tr ca cc vt liu st v niken ph thuc vo gc gia dng in chiu ca
vct t . Hiu ng ny pht hin trong nhiu cht bn dn v nhiu mng mng t.
Hiu ng AMR trong cc cht bn dn ch yu l do s lch qu o ca dng ht ti (in t hay l trng) di
tc dng ca t trng, thng c ng dng trong mt s cm bin o t trng nh o t trng Tri t, hay
cm bin o dng in...

T in tr khng l
(Ting Anh: Giant Magnetoresistance Effect - GMR), mt s nh nghin cu Vit Nam cn dch hiu ng GMR
l "t in tr ln" do khng thng nht vic dch "Giant" l "khng l" hay "ln" nhng tn gi quen thuc
thng dng l GMR. Hiu ng GMR l mt hiu ng lng t quan st thy trong mt s mng mng t tnh a
lp hoc n lp, vi s thay i ln gi tr in tr sut di tc dng ca t trng ngoi.
Tn gi Giant (ln, khng l) ca hiu ng ny khng phi l do gi tr ln ca t s MR m do c ch to nn
hiu ng, l c ch tn x ph thuc spin ca in t khi truyn qua cc lp st t c kp gia bi cc lp
phi t. Hiu ng GMR ln u tin c pht hin vo nm 1988 ng thi bi 2 nhm nghin cu, l nhm ca
Peter Grnberg Trung tm Nghin cu Jlich (c) trn mng mng kiu bnh kp Fe/Cr/Fe; v bi nhm ca
Albert Fert i hc Paris-Sud trn cc mng a lp Fe/Cr. Pht hin ny m ra mt ngnh mi gi l in t
hc spin (spintronics) nghin cu cc linh kin in t mi hot ng da trn iu khin tnh cht spin ca in
t.
Ngoi ra hiu ng GMR cn pht hin thy trn mt s mng mng dng ht (v d mng hp kim d th CoCu,
CoAg...).
Vo ngy 9-10-2007, U Ban Trao Gii Nobel cng b gii thng Nobel Vt L 2007 c trao cho hai nh
vt l Albert Fert (Php) v Peter Grnberg (c) v s khm ph ra T in tr khng l (Giant
Magnetoresistance).

T in tr chui hm
xem chi tit ti bi vit Hiu ng t in tr chui hm
(Ting Anh: Tunneling Magnetoresistance' - TMR). L hiu ng t tr xy ra khi cc lp st t b ngn cch
bi cc lp mng cch in cho php in t xuyn hm qua cc lp cch in ny, v tn x trn cc lp st
t, gy ra hiu ng t tr ln.
Hiu ng TMR ln u tin c pht hin trn cc mng a lp st kp gia l lp germanium (Ge) ng vai tr
lp cch in. Hiu ng TMR nhit phng ln u tin c pht hin vo nm 1995 trn cc mng mng
CoFe/Al2O3/Co vi Al2O3 ng vai tr lp cch in, cho hiu ng MR ti 11,8% nhit phng. Cng vi
pht minh v hiu ng GMR, hiu ng TMR c cng ng vai tr cc k quan trng trong cc nghin cu v
linh kin spintronic.

Hiu ng t in tr

T in tr siu khng l
Xem chi tit bi vit T in tr siu khng l
(Ting Anh: Colossal Magnetoresistance - CMR), i khi cng c cc nh nghin cu Vit Nam gi l "Hiu
ng t in tr khng l" (khi gi hiu ng GMR l "T in tr ln") nhng thng gi tt l hiu ng CMR.
Hiu ng ny xy ra vi cc vt liu t c cu trc perovskite (v d manganese, cobaltite,...) c in tr thay i
cc ln c th ti hng ngn %.
Hiu ng CMR ln u tin c pht hin vo nm 1993, nhng n gi vn cha c l gii mt cch chnh
xc, v vn ang l mt vn l th cho nghin cu c bn. Mt l thuyt ang c s dng rng ri gii
thch l m hnh tng tc kp (double-exchange interaction).
Hiu ng CMR cng c ng dng trong cc u c/ghi ca cng, pht trin cc linh kin spintronic...

T in tr d hng xung kch


(Ting Anh: Ballistic Anisotropy Magnetoresistance - BAMR). L hiu ng t in tr xy ra khi cc in t
chuyn ng trong mt dy rt mng cng ging nh mt vin n i trong nng sng - chng u b cng p
chuyn ng trn mt chiu nht nh v hu nh t b van chm hay ni cch khc l khng c s cn tr dc
theo ng truyn. Nu dy c chiu dy ch vi lp nguyn t, kh nng dn in t - dn in - s b lng
t ha, l mt s nguyn ln (N) ca dn ca mt in t bi v nng lng ca in t b cm t trong dy
trong dy l cc di hp v N s tng ng vi s di nng lng trn mc Fermi, m xy ra tnh dn in.
Nm 2005, Evgeny Tsymbal v cc ng nghip i hc Nebraska gi thit rng s N c th thay i bng
cch t mt t trng vo mt dy rt mnh lm bng cc kim loi t tnh. Trong cc vt liu , cc in t dn
di tc dng ca t trng s phi dch chuyn mc nng lng so vi mc Fermi v do dn n vic thay
i N. Do dn ca dy t l vi N, nn cc nh nghin cu gi nh rng c th quan st thy s thay i kiu
nhy bc ca dn (hay ni cch khc l in tr). H gi hiu ng ny l "hiu ng t in tr d hng xung
kch" (ballistic anisotropy magnetoresistance) - t "d hng" y l do hiu ng ny ph thuc vo gc tng
i gia t trng v chiu ca dng in dn. Mi y, Bernard Doudin Vin Vt l v Ha hc Vt liu
(Strasbourg) v cc ng nghip i hc Nebraska quan st thy hiu ng BAMR trong mt lot cc dy
khc nhau kch c nguyn t ch to bng Co. Trong mt mu, cc nh nghin cu o c s thay i ca
dn tng ng vi N = 6, 7 khi m chiu ca t trng thay i. Cc nh nghin cu cho hay s phn ng ny
c lin quan n s chnh lch thang nguyn t trong cu trc ca cc dy nano v c th gii thch bng l
thuyt ca Tsymbal v BAMR.

ng dng ca hiu ng t tr

Ch to cm bin o t trng, o dng in


u c, ghi trong cc cng my tnh
Cc linh kin spintronics
...

Xem thm

T in tr d hng
T in tr khng l
T in tr chui hm
T in tr siu khng l
T in tr d hng xung kch

Spintronics

78

Hiu ng t in tr

Ti liu tham kho


Baibich et al., Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices, M. N. Phys. Rev. Lett. vol.
61, no. 21, pp. 2472, November 1988 [1]
J. S. Moodera et. al. "Large Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Ferromagnetic Thin Film Tunnel
Junctions". Phys. Rev. Lett. 74: 32733276, 1995 [2]
M. Salamon, M. Jaime, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 583 - 628, 2001 [3]
J. Velev et al., "Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance", Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 127203 - 127205, 2005 [4]

Ch thch
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v61/ i21/ p2472_1


http:/ / link. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v74/ p3273
http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ RMP/ v73/ i3/ p583_1
http:/ / scitation. aip. org/ getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal& id=PRLTAO000094000012127203000001& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes

Hp kim Heusler
Hp kim Heusler l mt hp kim st t da trn pha Heusler, l dng hp kim lin kim loi ca cc n cht (kim
loi, phi kim) c th khng mang tnh st t, v c cu trc tinh th lp phng tm mt. Tn loi hp kim ny c
t theo nh ha hc, khong hc ngi c Friedrich Heusler (1866-1947), ngi ln u tin tm ra loi hp kim
ny vo nm 1903 [1] . Hp kim Heusler l mt trong nhng loi hp kim st t c phn cc spin ln nht (gn
nh 100%).

Lch s nghin cu
Hp kim Heusler u tin c pht hin v nghin cu nm 1903 bi Friedrich Heusler l hp kim Cu2MnAl vi t
bo ha l 8000 G (ln hn ca Ni, nhng nh hn ca Fe)[2] . Hp kim c th nng chy trn 910oC. di
nhit ny, hp kim ng rn vi trng thi bt trt t ca pha beta lp phng tm khi. Di 750oC, pha B2 trt
t c hnh thnh vi mang nguyn t lp phng ca ng, v c tm khi l phn mng bt trt t MnAl. Khi
c lm lnh xung di 610oC, phn mng MnAl tr thnh trt t v to thnh pha L21. Tnh cht t ca hp kim
c th thay i mnh nh qu trnh x l nhit hoc thay i thnh phn[3] ,[4] .

Danh sch mt s hp kim

Cu2MnAl, Cu2MnIn, Cu2MnSn,


Ni2MnAl, Ni2MnIn, Ni2MnSn, Ni2MnSb
Co2MnAl, Co2MnSi, Co2MnGa, Co2MnGe
Pd2MnAl, Pd2MnIn, Pd2MnSn, Pd2MnSb

Ti liu tham kho


[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

Glenn Elert, Ferromagnetism: The Physics Hypertextbook, 1998-2008. (http:/ / hypertextbook. com/ physics/ electricity/ ferromagnetism/ )
*Bouchard M. (1970). Ph.D. Thesis, Imperial College London.
Heusler F. (1903). Verh. Deut. phys. Ges. 5: 219.
Johnston G.B. and Hall E.O. (1968). Studies on the Heusler alloysI. Cu2MnAl and associated structures. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29: 193,
201. doi: 10.1016/0022-3697(68)90062-0 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ 0022-3697(68)90062-0).

79

Hp kim Heusler

Xem thm
phn cc spin
in t hc spin
Hp kim

80

Magnetit

81

Magnetit
Magnetit

Magnetit bn o Kola, Nga


Thng tin chung
Th loi

Khong vt xt

Cng thc ha hc

st (II,III) xt, Fe3O4

Mu

en, xm

Dng thng tinh th Tm mt, ht mn dng khi


H tinh th

Lp phng

Song tinh

Him gp song tinh bt din quy lut spinel

Ct khai

khng r

Vt v

Khng phng

cng Mohs

5,56,5

nh

Kim loi

Mu vt vch

en

T trng ring

5,175,18

Chit sut

Chn sng

[1]

[1]

[1]

Cc bin th chnh
Lodestone

Nam chm xc nh cc bc v cc nam

Magnetit l mt khong vt st t c cng thc ha hc Fe3O4, mt trong cc xt st v thuc nhm spinel. Tn


theo IUPAC l st (II,III) xt v thng c vit l FeOFe2O3, c xem l tp hp ca wstit (FeO) v hematit
(Fe2O3). Cng thc trn cp n cc trng thi xi ha khc nhau ca st trong cng mt cu trc ch khng phi
trong dung dch rn. Nhit Curie ca magnetit l 858 K.

Tnh cht
Magnetit l khong vt c t tnh mnh nht trong cc khong vt xut hin trong thin nhin.[2] Cc mnh magnetit
b t ha t nhin c gi l lodestone s ht cc mu st nh, v y cng l cch m ngi c i khm ph ra
tnh cht t u tin. Lodestone c s dng trong cc la bn. Magnetit thng mang cc du hiu t trong cc
v v th n c xem nh l mt cng c nghin cu c t, mt khm ph khoa hc quan trng hiu c qu
trnh kin to mng v d liu lch s cho t thy ng lc hc v cc chuyn ngnh khoa hc khc. Cc mi quan
h gia magnetit v cc khong vt xt giu st khc nh ilmenit, hematit, v ulvospinel cng c nghin cu
nhiu, cng nh cc phn ng phc tp gia cc khong vt ny v oxy nh hng nh th no n s bo tn
trng t ca Tri t.

Magnetit

82

Magnetit c vai tr quan trng trong vic tm hiu cc iu kin mi trng hnh thnh . Magnetit phn ng vi
oxy to ra hematit, v cp khong vt hnh thnh mt vng m c th khng ch s ph hy ca xy. Cc
mcma thng thng cha cc ht ca 2 dung dch rn, mt bn l gia magnetit v ulvospinel cn mt bn l gia
ilmenit v hematit. Cc thnh phn ca cc cp i khong vt c s dng tnh s xy ha din ra nh th no
trong macma (nh s ph hy ca oxy trong magma): mt di cc iu kin oxi ha c tm thy trong mcma v
trng thi oxy ha gip xc nh lm th no mma c th lin quan n s kt tinh phn on.
Cc ht magnetit nh c mt trong hu t cc mcma v cc bin cht. Magnetit cng c tm thy trong
mt s loi trm tch nh trong cc thnh h st phn di. Trong mt s mcma, cc ht giu magnetit v
ilmenit xut hin dng kt ta cng nhau trong mcma. Magnetit cng c sn xut t peridotit v dunit bng
phng php serpentin ha.
Magnetit l ngun qung st c gi tr, n ha tan chm trong axt clohiric.

Phn b
Magnetit i khi c tm thy vi s lng ln trong ct bin. Cc
loi ct en (ct khong vt hoc ct st) c tm thy nhiu ni nh
California v b bin ty ca New Zealand. Magnetit c mang n
cc bi bin thng qua cc con sng mang cc vt liu xi mn v
chng c tp trung nh tc ng ca sng v cc dng chy.
Cc m ln c tm thy trong cc thnh h st di. Cc trm tch
ny c dng suy ra hm lng oxy trong kh quyn Tri t lc
n c lng ng.
Mu c kin trc mn, ~5cm

Magnetit v cc khong vt nng khc (mu ti)


trong ct thch anh bi bin (Chennai, n ).

Cc m magnetit ln cng c tm thy vng Atacama ca Chile,


Kiruna, Thy in, Pilbara, cc khu vc trung ty v bc Goldfields
ty c, v trong khu vc Adirondack ca New York Hoa K. Cc
m cng c tm thy Na Uy, c, , Switzerland, Nam Phi, n
, Mexico, v Oregon, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Bc Carolina,
Virginia, New Mexico, Utah, v Colorado Hoa K. Gn y, vo
thng 6 nm 2005, cng ty khai thc khong sn, Cardero Resources,
pht hin mt m ct cha magnetit ln dng cn ct Peru. M
ph trn din tch 250 km2(100sqmi), vi cn cn cao nht nm
cao trn 2.000 m (6,560ft) so vi nn sa mc. Ct cha 10%
magnetit.[3]

Xut hin trong sinh vt


Cc tinh th magnetit c tm thy trong mt vi vi khun (nh Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum) v trong no
ca ong, ca mi, c, mt vi loi chim (nh b cu) v con ngi.[4] Cc tinh th ny c cho l lin quan n s
cm nhn t,[5] mt kh nng cm nhn cc hoc nghing ca t trng Tri t, v lin quan n s nh
hng.[6] c song kinh c b rng lm bng magnetit trn li gai ca chng lm cho chng d phn bit vi cc
ng vt khc.[7] iu ny c ngha rng b li ca chng c kh nng mi mn kim thc n trn .
Vic nghin cu t sinh hc bt u vi nhng khm ph ca ca nh c sinh vt hc Caltech Heinz Lowenstam thp
nin 1960.[8]

Magnetit

83

Tng hp
Magnetit c th c ch trong phng th nghim dng nc t theo phng php Massart bng cch trn st(II)
clorua v st(III) clorua trong hydroxit natri.
Magnetit cng c th c ch bi s ng kt ta, gm mt hn hp dung dch FeCl36H2O v FeCl24H2O 0,1 M
vi quay bng ng c vi tc khong 2000 vng/pht. T l mol FeCl3:FeCl2 c th l 2:1; nung dung dch ny
70C, v ngay sau nng tc quay ln 7500 vng/pht v thm nhanh dung dch NH4OH (10% v th tch),
ngay lp tc s hnh thnh kt ta mu en cha cc ht magnetit kch thc nano.

ng dng lm cht hp th
Bt magnetit loi b As(III) v As(V) ra khi nc rt hiu qu, v hiu qu loi b tng ln ~200 ln khi chng c
kch thc t 300 n 12nm.[9] Nc ung nhim arsen (As) l mt vn nn trn ton th gii, do ng dng
magnetit vi vai tr cht hp th l mt trong nhng gii php loi b arsen trong nc.

Trang sc
Magnetit c dng ph bin dng nguyn liu th trong cc
trang sc ca nhng chng li gi khoa hc[10] v nam chm liu php.
Khi c nh bng v lm thnh trang sc, magnetit c mu ti,
sng bng vi b mt lng.

Tham kho
[1] Mineral galleries (http:/ / www. galleries. com/ minerals/ oxides/ magnetit/ magnetit.
htm)
[2] Harrison, R. J. (2002). Direct imaging of nanoscale magnetic interactions in
minerals (http:/ / www. pnas. org/ content/ 99/ 26/ 16556. full. pdf) (free-download
pdf). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99: 16556. doi:
10.1073/pnas.262514499 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1073/ pnas. 262514499). .

Nhn magnetit

[3] Ferrous Nonsnotus (http:/ / www. 321gold. com/ editorials/ moriarty/ moriarty070505. html)
[4] Baker, R R; J G Mather, J H Kennaugh (6 January nm 1983). Magnetic bones in human sinuses. Nature 301 (5895): 7980. PMID
6823284.
[5] Magnetic bones in human sinuses (http:/ / www. nature. com/ nature/ journal/ v301/ n5895/ abs/ 301078a0. html). Truy cp 14 December
nm 2009.
[6] Joseph L. Kirschvink; James L. Gould (1981). Biogenic magnetite as a basis for magnetic field detection in animals (http:/ / www.
sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6T2K-49N97M9-Y& _user=131115& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d&
_docanchor=& view=c& _acct=C000009658& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=131115&
md5=45627d578a55f772b006a38ed4a6c12d). Biosystems (Elsevier Ireland Ltd) 13 (3): 181-201. . Truy cp 14 December nm 2009.
[7] Chang, Shih-Bin Robin; Kirschvink, Joseph Lynn (1989). Magnetofossils, the Magnetization of Sediments, and the Evolution of Magnetite
Biomineralization (http:/ / www. gps. caltech. edu/ ~jkirschvink/ pdfs/ AnnualReviews89. pdf). Annual Review of Earth and Planetary
Sciences 17: 169195. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ea.17.050189.001125 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1146/ annurev. ea. 17. 050189. 001125). .
[8] Biographical memoirs:Heinz Adolf Lowenstam (http:/ / books. nap. edu/ readingroom/ books/ biomems/ hlowenstam. html) By Joseph L.
Kirschvink, truy cp 24 May 2008
[9] J.T. Mayo et al. (2007). The effect of nanocrystalline magnetite size on arsenic removal (free download). Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 8: 71.
doi: 10.1016/j.stam.2006.10.005 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. stam. 2006. 10. 005).
[10] Wanjek, Christopher (2003). Bad Medicine: misconceptions and misuses revealed from distance healing to vitamin O. Hoboken, New
Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. 1253. ISBN 0-471-43499-X.

Magnetit

84

Lin Kt ngoi

Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis (1985). Manual of Mineralogy (n bn 20th). Wiley. ISBN 0471805807.
Webmineral data (http://webmineral.com/data/Magnetite.shtml)
Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Pattern (http://www.piroxllc.com/tech_info.html)
Lowenstam, Heinz A.; Weiner, Stephen (1989). On Biomineralization. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN
0195049772.
History of Magnetite Mining in the NJ Highlands (http://abandonedmines.net)
Magnetite mining in New Zealand (http://www.crownminerals.govt.nz/cms/minerals/overview/
overview?searchterm=ironsand) Truy cp 25-Mar-09
Magnetite mining in Santa Cruz (http://www.santacruzpl.org/history/work/miner3.shtml)

Nam chm
Trong cuc sng hng ngy, c th nhn ra nam chm
l cc vt c kh nng ht v y vt bng st hay thp
non. Trong t hc, nam chm l mt vt c kh nng
sinh mt lc dng ht hay y mt t vt hay mt
vt c cm t cao khi nm gn nam chm. Lc pht
sinh t nam chm gi l t lc.
Nam chm l mt ngun t c hai cc: Bc v Nam, v
mt t trng to t cc ng t (ng sc) i t cc
Bc n cc Nam.

Cc loi nam chm

ng sc t trng quanh hai cc ca mt nam chm c th hin


qua cc mt st trn tm giy t ngay trn nam chm

C 2 loi nam chm:


Nam chm in
Nam chm vnh cu

Tham kho
Lin kt ngoi
Nam chm (http://dictionary.bachkhoatoanthu.gov.vn/default.
aspx?param=1605aWQ9MTk0MjQmZ3JvdXBpZD0ma2luZD1zdGFydCZrZXl3b3JkPW4=&page=1)
Nam chm vnh cu (http://dictionary.bachkhoatoanthu.gov.vn/default.
aspx?param=160AaWQ9MTk1MTkmZ3JvdXBpZD0ma2luZD1zdGFydCZrZXl3b3JkPW4=&page=1)
Cc ch chnh trong in t hc
Cm bin dynamo | Cht cch in | in hc | in ly | in trng | Gauge | Nam chm | ng dn sng | Sng in t | T trng | Vt l radio

Nam chm Neodymi

85

Nam chm Neodymi


Nam chm Neodymi hay nam chm
Neodymi-St-Bo, hoc i khi cn c vit
tt l NdFeB l mt loi nam chm t him
c to ra t hp cht ca Neodymi (Nd) St (Fe) - Bo (B), vi cng thc phn t l
Nd2Fe14B. Nam chm Neodymi c c
General Motors Corporation (M) [1] v
Sumitomo Special Metals (Nht Bn) [2]
ng thi pht minh ra nm 1982 v hin
vn ang l loi nam chm vnh cu mnh
nht tng c bit[3] .

Nam chm t him NdFeB c s dng trong cng my tnh

Cu trc v tnh cht


Nd2Fe14B l mt hp cht thuc nhm
2:14:1, c cu trc tinh th t gic vi hng
s mng a = 0,882 nm v c = 1,224 nm;
thuc nhm khng gian P42/mm, khi
lng ring 7,55 g/cm. n v ca tinh th
Nd2Fe14B cha 68 nguyn t nm trong 4
n v: vi cc nguyn t Fe nm 6 v tr
khc nhau v mt tinh th, hai v tr cha cc
nguyn t Nd v mt v tr cho B 3 [4] . Cu
trc tinh th vi bt i xng rt cao to
ra tnh t cng mnh ca vt liu ny.
Nd2Fe14B c d hng t tinh th K1 =
4,9.106 J/m3, t bo ha 0Ms = 1,61 T
Nam chm Neodymi c ch to dng hnh xuyn.
(tng ng vi mmen t l 37,6 B, trng
d hng HA = 15 T) v nhit Curie l TC = 585 K (312oC) [4] , [5] . Cc thng s cu trc v tnh cht ni ti ny
cho php to ra tch nng lng t cc i (B.H)max ln nht ti 64 MGOe [5] , [6] . Hin nay, ngi ta to ra nam
chm Nd2Fe14B c tch nng lng t cc i ln ti 57 MGOe [7] . Nam chm NdFeB l loi nam chm vnh cu
cc mnh, c kh nng cho t d ti b mt ln ti 1,3 T, nhng c c nhc im l c tnh xy ha cao (do hot
tnh ca Nd), nhit hot ng thp v gi thnh t (do cha nhiu t him). Bng di y so snh t tnh ca
nam chm NdFeB vi cc loi khc:

Nam chm Neodymi

86

Nam chm

Mr (T)

Hci (kA/m) BH
(kJ/m3) TC (C)
max

Nd2Fe14B (thiu kt)

1,01,4

7502000

200440

310400

Nd2Fe14B (kt dnh)

0,60,7

6001200

60100

310400

SmCo5 (thiu kt)

0,81,1

6002000

120200

720

Sm(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)7 (thiu kt) 0,91,15 4501300

150240

800

Alnico (thiu kt)

0,61,4

275

1088

700860

Sr-ferrite (thiu kt)

0,20,4

100300

1040

450

K thut ch to
Phng php ph bin ch to nam
chm Neodymi l k thut luyn kim
bt v thiu kt. Ban u hp kim
NdFeB c to ra bng cch nu
chy cc n cht thnh phn trong l
cao (thng thng Nd v B thng
c b thm vi % so vi thnh phn
danh nh do cc cht ny d b xy
ha hoc bay hi). Trong qu trnh nu
chy, hp kim c nu trong mi
trng bo v trnh xy ha. Sau
, hp kim c nghin thnh bt
mn, sau c trn vi keo epoxy,
p thnh hnh sn phm, sau nung
thiu kt nhit cao trong mi
Nam chm Neodymi c s dng trong a cng my tnh.
trng bo v. Qu trnh p c th
c h tr bi t trng to d hng n trc. Qu trnh nung thiu kt c thc hin nhit cao trong mi
trng bo v to pha hp cht, sau h v nhit thp (1 vi trm ) n nh pha. Sau , nam chm
c np t trong t trng cao v ph keo bo v.
C th thay th cng on thiu kt bng k thut p nng. Ngi ta p cc bt trong t trng nhit cao nhm
to ra pha v nh hng nam chm (to ra nam chm d hng).
Gn y, ngi ta cn tin hnh to ra cc nam chm t him gi thnh r vi kiu nam chm kt dnh. Cc bt hp
kim mn c to ra sau khi nghin cc mnh vn hp kim c ch to bng cng ngh ngui nhanh, sau chn
keo epoxy v p nh hng trong t trng. K thut ny c u im l n gin v kinh t hn, nhng sn phm
cho phm cht thp hn nhiu so vi nam chm thiu kt.

Lch s v bn quyn
Nam chm NdFeB ln u tin c ch to thnh cng vo nm 1982, c cng b ng thi bi hai cng ty ln
l General Motors corporation (Hoa K)[1] v Sumitomo Special Metals (Nht Bn) [2] , v sau l Vin Hn lm
Khoa hc Trung Quc cng cng b ch to thnh cng loi nam chm ny [5] . Hin nay, NdFeB l thng phm
c bn rng ri trn th gii v cn c gi mt tn khc l Magnequench (do hng gi bn quyn ln nht l
Magnequench - nay l Neo Materials Technology Inc.)[8] . Hin nay, nam chm Neodymi chim khong 40% th
phn cc loi nam chm trn ton th gii. Nc gi th phn phn phi ln nht l Trung Quc, nhng nc thu li
nhun ln nht t sn phm ny l Hoa K [5] .

Nam chm Neodymi

87

ng dng, cc thng s vt l khc


Nam chm Neodymi c s dng l mt ngun to t trng mnh, ng vai tr l cc nam chm vnh cu:
- S dng nhiu trong cc cng my tnh. - Trong cc ng c cng sut ln. - Chp nh cng hng t - My pht
in - ...
Bng di y lit k mt s thng s vt l khc ca nam chm Neodymi:
dn nhit

7.7kcal/(hmC)

ng sut Young 1.7104Gg/m2


Gii hn b gy

24Gg/m2

Gii hn p nn

80Gg/m2

in tr sut

16mm

Khi lng ring 7.47.5Mg/m3


cng Vickers 500600

Xem thm
Nam chm t him
Neodymium
Vt liu t cng

Ti liu tham kho


[1] J. F. Herbst, J. J. Croat, W. B. Yelon, Structural and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B (invited), J. Appl. Phys. 57 (1985) 4086. (http:/ / link.
aip. org/ link/ ?JAPIAU/ 57/ 4086/ 1)
[2] M. Sagawa, S. Fujimura, N. Togawa, H. Yamamoto, and Y. Matsuura, New material for permanent magnets on a base of Nd and Fe (invited),
J. Appl. Phys. 55 (1984) 2083. (http:/ / link. aip. org/ link/ ?JAPIAU/ 55/ 2083/ 1,)
[3] S.D. Bader, Colloquium: Opportunities in nanomagnetism, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78 (2006) 1. (http:/ / link. aps. org/ doi/ 10. 1103/ RevModPhys.
78. 1,)
[4] M. Sagawa et al., Permanent magnet materials based on the Rare-earth-Iron-Boron tetragonal componds (Invited), IEEE Trans. Magn. 20
(1984) 1584-1589 (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ iel5/ 20/ 22871/ 01063214. pdf?tp=& isnumber=22871& arnumber=1063214)
[5] R. Skomski and J.M.D. Coey, Permanent magnetism (1999) Chapter 1, pp. 13, Institute of Physics Publishing, ISBN 07503 0478 2.
[6] E. F. Kneller, R. Hawig, The exchange-spring magnet: a new material principle for permanent magnets, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27 (1991) 3588 3560. (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ search/ srchabstract. jsp?arnumber=102931& isnumber=3181& punumber=20&
k2dockey=102931@ieeejrns& query=102931<in>arnumber& pos=0)
[7] W. Rodewald, B. Wall, M. Katter, and K. Uestuener, Topology of NdFeB Magnets With a High Energy Density, Trans. Magn. 39 (2003)
2932-2934. (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ stamp/ stamp. jsp?arnumber=01233263)
[8] History of Magnequench. (http:/ / www. magnequench. com/ )

Lin kt ngoi
International Magnetics Association (http://www.intl-magnetics.org/)
Geeky Rare-Earth Magnets Repel Sharks, Genevieve Rajewski, 05.15.07 , wired.com (http://www.wired.com/
gadgets/miscellaneous/news/2007/05/sharkmagnets)
MAGNEQUENCH INC (http://www.magnequench.com)

Nam chm samarium coban

88

Nam chm samarium coban


Nam chm samarium-cban (i khi c vit gn l nam chm SmCo, hoc cn c gi l nam chm nhit
cao) l mt loi nam chm t him mnh, da trn hp cht ca hai kim loi chnh l samarium (Sm) v cban
(Co), cng vi mt s nguyn t ph gia khc. y l loi nam chm t him mnh, ng th hai sau th h nam
chm Neodym v mnh, nhng li c kh nng hot ng nhit siu cao (trn 500oC)[1] nh c nhit
Curie rt cao. Nam chm Samarium bt u xut hin trn th trng vo nm 1966, v cho n nay n l loi nam
chm tt nht cho cc ng dng nhit cao [2] v d nh ng c phn lc, ng c in cng sut ln... Nam chm
Samarium Cban c chia lm hai h: h 1:5 v 2:17.

H 1:5
L loi nam chm da trn hp cht SmCo5,
vi khong 36% khi lng l nguyn t t
him samarium (Sm). Nam chm ny ln
u tin c pht minh bi Karl J. Strnat
(phng th nghim Vt liu Khng qun Hoa
K) vo nm 1966, cho tch nng lng t
cc i (B.H)max = 18 MGOe [3] , sau ,
hng loi cc hp cht t cng da trn cu
trc ny c pht trin thnh h vt liu t
cng RCo5 c nghin cu mnh m trong
ngnh t hc [4] .

nguyn t trong cu trc tinh th ca h hp cht SmCo5

SmCo5 thuc nhm hp cht RCo5 (R thng c dng k hiu cc nguyn t t him), c cu trc tinh th lc
gic. SmCo5 c hng s d hng t tinh th bc 1 K1 = 11,9.106 J/m3, t bo ha Ms = 840 kA/m v nhit
Curie TC = 1003 K, trng d hng HA = 28,6 T. Loi nam chm ny c kh nng cho tch nng lng t cc i
(BH)max ln nht ti 28,5 MGOe (220 kJ/m3) [5] .
im khc bit c bn ca nam chm Samarium-Cban so vi cc nam chm t him khc (v d nh nam chm
Neodym) l n c nhit Curie rt cao, ng thi s suy gim tnh cht theo nhit rt thp, do c s dng
trong cc ng dng nhit cao (c th ti hn 500oC) m khng loi nam chm no khc c th hot ng. Mt
tham s c quan tm ca loi nam chm ny l h s suy gim ca t d theo nhit (reversible temperature
coefficient, RTC), c nh ngha bi s suy gim ca t d, Br theo nhit :

i vi nam chm SmCo5 nguyn thy, h s RTC l m, c ngha l t d s b suy gim theo nhit . Tuy nhin,
gn y, ngi ta c nhiu ci tin nh b sung cc ph gia, to ra cc pha ph trong nam chm c h s RTC dng
b tr, to ra suy gim hu nh bng 0.

H 2:17
L h vt liu da trn hp cht Sm2Co17, c Karl J. Strnat v Dr. Alden Ray pht minh nm 1972 vi tch nng
lng t cc i ti 30 MGOe. H vt liu ny c cu trc tng t nh SmCo5, nhng c s khc bit v thng s
t ni ti. Hng s d hng t tinh th bc 1 K1 = 10.106 J/m3, t bo ha Ms = 990 kA/m v nhit Curie TC =
958 K. Loi nam chm ny c kh nng cho tch nng lng t cc i (BH)max ln nht ti 41,3 MGOe (331
kJ/m3). [6] . Trong cc nghin cu hin nay v nam chm nhit cao, ngi ta pha tp thm cc nguyn t khc (Fe,
Cu, Zr...) ci tin cu trc v tnh cht nhm nng cao nhit Curie cng nh phm cht t ca h vt liu ny[7]

Nam chm samarium coban


,[8]

C ch tnh cht t
C ch to ra d hng t tinh th khng l v nhit Curie cao ca nam chm samarium cban l vi cu trc c
bit cu trc bi cc l (lamelar structure) hoc cc si (cellular structure) c nh hng cao trong qu trnh ch
to. Cc l (si) ny c th c chiu dy t vi chc n 100 nm to ra d hng t hnh dng ln, ng thi l cc
tm hm s dch chuyn vch men trong qu trnh t ha. C ch t ha ch yu ca SmCo5 l c ch quay
mmen t, trong khi c ch t ha ch yu chi phi nam chm Sm2Co17 li l c ch hm s dch chuyn cc vch
men.

Cc thng tin khc


Nam chm SmCo c khi lng ring khong 8.4 g/cm, in tr sut 0.8104 cm v h s gin n nhit khong
12.5 m/(mK).
Nam chm samarium cban c sn xut ch yu bng k thut luyn kim bt v thiu kt nhit cao trong mi
trng bo v. samarium l kim loi c tnh xi ha mnh nn i hi mi trng c ht chn khng cao loi
tr xi. Do cha qu nhiu samarium nn hp kim SmCo thng b gin, d v hoc mm i khi ngoi khng kh.
Do , thng thng loi nam chm ny thng i km vi cnh bo bo v mt, mi khi tip xc, t xa tm tay tr
em.

Ti liu tham kho


[1] W. Tang, Y. Zhang, G. C. Hadjipanayis, A high performance magnetic alloy with an operating temperature of 500C, IEEE Trans. Magn. 36
(2000) 3294-3296. (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. jsp?arnumber=908775)
[2] L. Peng, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Song, H. Zhang, Application of high-temperature permanent magnets Sm(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)Z in PPM focusing
system, Journal of Rare Earth 26 (2008) 731-734. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S1002-0721(08)60172-6)
[3] History of Magnetism (http:/ / www. rare-earth-magnets. com/ magnet_university/ history_of_magnetism. htm)
[4] ^ Robert C. O'Handley (1999). Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN-13 978-0471155669.
[5] E. F. Kneller, R. Hawig, The exchange-spring magnet: a new material principle for permanent magnets, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27 (1991)
3588-3560. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1109/ 20. 102931)
[6] History of magnetism (http:/ / www. rare-earth-magnets. com/ magnet_university/ history_of_magnetism. htm)
[7] Sofoklis S. Makridis et al., Sm(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr, C)8.2 ribbons for high-temperature magnets, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276 (2004)
E1921-E1923 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. jmmm. 2003. 12. 457)
[8] Fernando M. F. Rhen et al., Effect of ZrB2 addition on SmCo-1:7 high temperature magnets, J. Appl. Phys. 93 (2003) 8683-8685 (http:/ / link.
aip. org/ link/ ?JAPIAU/ 93/ 8683/ 1)

Xem thm

Nam chm t him


Nam chm Neodym
Vt liu t cng
Lc khng t

Lin kt ngoi
Samarium Cobalt (http://www.magnetsales.com/SMCO/Smco1.htm)
Samarium cobalt magnets (http://www.mademagnet.com/samarium-cobalt-magnets.htm)

89

Nam chm vnh cu

Nam chm vnh cu


Nam chm vnh cu l cc vt c cu to t cc vt liu t cng c kh nng gi t tnh khng b mt t trng,
c s dng nh nhng ngun to t trng.

Cc c trng
Cc i lng ca nam chm vnh cu xut pht t
ng cong t tr, l cc thng s c trng ca
cc cht st t ni chung v vt liu t cng ni
ring v cc thng s c quan tm ch yu gm:
Lc khng t
Lc khng t ca nam chm vnh cu phi ln
khng b kh t bi cc t trng ngoi, kh
nng lu tr t trng ca nam chm cng ln khi
lc khng t cng ln. Cc nam chm vnh cu ph
bin hin nay c lc khng t t 1000 Oe n vi
chc ngn Oe.
T d (xem bi ng cong t tr).
H s ch nht hay vung
Tch nng lng t cc i
Ni ln kh nng lu tr nng lng t ca nam
Hnh nh cc nam chm vnh cu
chm vnh cu, l nng lng ln nht c th tn
tr trong mt n v th tch nam chm, c xc
nh t ng cong t tr. Mun c tch nng lng t cc i ln, nam chm cn c lc khng t ln, t d cao v
h s ch nht ca ng cong t tr ln.
Nhit Curie
L nhit m ti cc vt st t b mt t tnh v tr thnh thun t. Nhit Curie cho ta bit kh nng hot
ng ca nam chm trong iu kin nhit cao hay thp. C nhng nam chm c nhit Curie kh thp (v d
nh nam chm Nd2Fe14B c nhit Curie ch 312oC), nhng cng c nhng loi nam chm c nhit Curie rt
cao (v d h hp cht SmCo c nhit Curie hng ngn , c s dng trong ng c phn lc c nhit cao).
Ngoi cc tham s mang tnh cht t tnh, cc tham s khc cng rt c quan tm l cng, kh nng
chng mi mn, chng xi ha, mt ... Bn cnh , hnh dng nam chm cng l mt tham s rt quan trng
quyt dnh im lm vic ca nam chm do hnh dng nam chm quy nh tha s kh t ca vt t, c tc ng
ln n nng lng t ca nam chm.

90

Nam chm vnh cu

Phn loi theo vt liu


xit st: L loi nam chm vnh cu
u tin ca loi ngi c s
dng di dng cc " nam chm",
c s dng t thi c i, c ngay
trong t nhin nhng khi khoa hc
k thut pht trin loi ny khng
cn c s dng do t tnh rt
km.
Thp ccbon
L loi nam vnh cu c s
Nam chm t him NdFeB (neodymium) c s dng trong cng my tnh
dng t th k 18 n gia th
k 20 vi kh nng cho t d ti
hn 1 T, nhng lc khng t rt thp nn t tnh cng d b mt. Li nam chm ny hu nh khng cn c
s dng hin nay.
Nam chm AlNiCo
L loi nam chm c ch to t vt liu t cng l hp kim ca nhm, niken, cban v mt s cc ph gia
khc nh ng, titan..., l loi nam chm cho t d cao (ti 1,2-1,5 T) nhng c lc khng t ch xung quanh 1
kOe, ng thi gi thnh cng kh cao nn hin nay t l s dng ngy cng gim dn (ch cn khng y 10%
th phn s dng).
Ferrite t cng
L loi nam chm vnh cu c ch to t cc ferit t cng (v d ferit Ba, Sr..) l cc vt liu dng gm.
Nam chm ferit c u im l rt d ch to, gia cng, gi thnh r v bn cao. Tuy nhin, v y l nhm
cc vt liu feri t ng thi c hm lng xy cao nn c t kh thp, c lc khng t t 3 n 6 kOe, c
kh nng cho tch nng lng t cc i ln nht khng qu 6 MGOe. Loi nam chm ny hin nay chim ti
hn 50% th phn s dng nam chm vnh cu do nhng u im v gi thnh cc r, kh nng ch to, gia
cng v bn.
Nam chm t him
L loi nam chm vnh cu c to ra t cc vt liu t cng l cc hp kim hoc hp cht ca cc kim loi t
him v kim loi chuyn tip.
Nam chm nhit cao SmCo
L h cc nam chm vnh cu c ch to t hp cht ban u l SmCo5 c pht minh nm 1966 bi
tin s Karl J. Strnat ca U.S. Air Force Materials Laboratory (M) c tch nng lng t cc i 18
MGOe, sau Karl J. Strnat li pht minh ra hp cht Sm2Co17 c tch nng lng t ti 30 MGOe vo
nm 1972. H nam chm SmCo c nhit Curie rt cao (c th t ti 1100oC) v c lc khng t cc
ln (ti vi chc kOe) nh cu trc dng l c bit. Nh c nhit Curie cao v lc khng t ln nn
c s dng trong cc ng dng nhit cao (v d trong ng c phn lc...).
Nam chm NdFeB (neodymium)
L h cc nam chm da trn hp cht R2Fe14B (R l k hiu ch cc nguyn t t him v d nh Nd,
Pr...) c cu trc tinh th kiu t gic vi lc khng t ln (hn 10 kOe) v t bo ha rt cao (ti
1,56 T) nn l loi nam chm vnh cu mnh nht hin nay vi kh nng cho tch nng lng t ti 64
MGOe (tnh ton theo l thuyt) v hin nay xut hin loi nam chm Nd2Fe14B c tch nng lng
t 57 MGOe. Tuy nhin, loi nam chm ny li khng th s dng nhit cao do c nhit Curie
ch 312oC. Nam chm Nd2Fe14B ln u tin c pht minh nm 1983 bi R. Sagawa (Nht Bn).

91

Nam chm vnh cu


im yu chung ca cc nam chm t him l c gi thnh cao (do cha nhiu cc nguyn t t him t tin), c
bn km (do cc nguyn t t him c tnh xy ha rt cao). V nhng im yu ny m nam chm t him tuy
l loi mnh nht nhng vn khng phi l loi c s dng nhiu nht (ng sau nam chm ferit).
Nam chm t hp nano
L loi nam chm mi ra i t u thp k 90 ca th k 20, l loi nam chm c cu trc t hp ca 2 pha t
cng v t mm kch thc nanomet. Cc pha t cng (chim t phn thp) cung cp lc khng t ln, pha t
mm cung cp t ln. Tnh cht t hp ny c c l nh lin kt trao i n hi gia cc ht pha t cng
v t mm kch thc nanomet. Loi nam chm ny c tnh ton c kh nng cho tch nng lng t
khng l hn 3 ln so vi nam chm mnh nht hin nay l NdFeB nhng thc nghim mi ch t c rt
nh so vi l thuyt v cc sn phm thc nghim mi trong giai on sn xut th nghim.

Phn loi theo phng php ch to


Nam chm ng hng (Isotropic magnets)
L nam chm vnh cu c ch to bng cch p ng tnh m khng s dng cc phng php nh hng
ban u (t trng...).
Nam chm d hng (Anisotropic magnets)
L nam chm c nh hng trong qu trnh p ng tnh bng t trng. Khi , cc ht n men trong
vt liu s b nh hng theo chiu t trng, to nn kh nng d dng t ha theo phng nh hng.
Nam chm kt dnh
L cc nam chm c ch to bng cch nghin thnh bt mn, sau trn vi keo kt dnh (v d epoxy) v
p trong t trng nh hng. Cc keo va c tc dng kt dnh, li va c tc dng ng cng s nh hng
ca cc ht.
Nam chm thiu kt
L nam chm c ch to bng cch thiu kt cc bt kim loi c nghin mn v p khun. Vic thiu kt
nhm to ra hp cht c thnh phn hp phc xc nh vi tnh cht t ca hp cht .

Xem thm

Nam chm
Vt liu t cng
St t
ng cong t tr

Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ Robert C. O'Handley (1999). Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications. Wiley-Interscience.
ISBN-13 978-0471155669.
2. ^ K.H.J. Buschow (1998). Permanent-magnet Materials and Their applications. Trans Tech Publications. ISBN
0 8784978-796-x.

92

Nam chm vnh cu

93

Lin kt ngoi
History of magnetism [1]

Ch thch
[1] http:/ / www. rare-earth-magnets. com/ magnet_university/ history_of_magnetism. htm

Nam chm in
Nam chm in l mt dng c to t
trng hay mt ngun sn sinh t trng
hot ng nh t trng sinh ra bi cun
dy c dng in ln chy qua. Cm ng t
ca nam chm in c dn v to thnh
ln nh vic s dng mt li dn t lm
bng vt liu t mm c t thm ln v
cm ng t bo ha cao. Khc vi nam
chm vnh cu c cm ng t c nh, nam
chm in c cm ng t c th thay i
c nh vic iu khin dng in chy
qua cun dy.
Nam chm in ln u tin c pht minh
bi nh in hc ngi Anh William
Sturgeon (1783-1850) vo nm 1825. Nam
chm in ca Sturgeon l mt li st non
hnh mng nga c mt s vng dy in
cun quanh. Khi cho dng in sinh ra bi
mt pin nh chy qua, li st b t ha v
cm ng t sinh ra mnh ht ln c
mt hp st nng 7 ounce. Khi ngt dng
in, t trng ca li cng bin mt

S nguyn l ca nam chm in u tin. Dng in cung cp bi ngun


pin to ra t trng trong cun dy v c khuch i bi li dn t lm
bng st non.

Nguyn l ca nam chm


in
C th tng tng cun dy ca nam chm
in l do nhiu vng dy vi cng mt
dng in chy qua gp li . V vy , t
trng m nam chm in sinh ra cng ra l
Phn b ng sc t trong mt cun dy solenoid.
tng t trng ca tng vng dy ring l .
xc nh t trng ca mt vng dy
ring l , ta li dng Quy tc bn tay phi .Vi quy tc ny v tng tng rng , on dy thng by gi c un
thnh mt vng dy ,ta xc nh c t trng ca vng dy . Khi t trng ca nhiu vng dy kt hp li vi
nhau s to thnh t trng ca cun dy . T trng u v mnh nht trong lng cun dy .Chiu t trng ca

Nam chm in

94

cun dy cng tng ng vi chiu t trng ca cc vng dy. vng dy ngoi cng , ni cc ng sc t c
hng i ra khi cun dy l cc bc ca nam chm .Vng dy ngoi cng cn li , ni cc ng sc t i vo cun
dy l cc nam ca nam chm (tng t nam chm vnh cu)
T Trng ca cun dy dn in c tnh cht ging nh t trng ca mt Nam Chm cng ht hay
y mt t vt nm trong t trng ca cun dy .

Khi tch in khi cun dy, T Trng khng tn ti . Cun dy khng cn ht hay y t vt
Vy ch khi no cun dy dn in, cun dy tr thnh Nam Chm in
T Trng ca cun dy ty thuc vo s T Cm cun dy v dng in trong cun dy
B=LI
T Cm cun dy t l thun vi chiu di, s vng qun v t l nghch vi din tch ca cun dy

Cc Loi Nam Chm in


Cun Dy
Mt dy dn in vi

Cc kiu nam chm in v ng dng

Nam chm t him


Nam chm t him l tn gi ca cc loi
nam chm vnh cu c lm t cc hp
cht hoc hp kim ca cc nguyn t t
him v kim loi chuyn tip m in hnh
l 2 h nam chm t him 2:14:1 v Nam
chm SmCo.
Nam chm t him bt u xut hin t
na sau th k 20 c bit n l mnh hn
rt nhiu so vi cc loi nam chm truyn
thng nh nam chm ferrite, nam chm
AlNiCo, hay vt trn c nam chm hp
kim FePt, CoPt.

nguyn t trong cu trc tinh th ca h hp cht SmCo5

H nam chm t him da


trn hp cht SmCo
L cc nam chm vnh cu cu to t cc
hp cht ca Samarium (Sm) v Cban (Co)
(c th c thm mt s nguyn t khc), l
h cc vt liu t cng c d hng t tinh
th ln nht hin nay vi lc khng t rt
ln v nhit Curie rt cao, m ph bin nht l hai h hp cht SmCo5 v Sm2(Co,Fe)17. c im chung ca h
hp cht ny l c d hng t tinh th rt ln (nn c th cho lc khng t t vi kOe n vi chc kOe[1] ), nhng

Nam chm t him


c t bo ha khng cao, v c nhit Curie rt cao v suy gim phm cht theo nhit thp nn thng
c s dng trong cc ng dng nhit cao v do thng c gi vi tn chung l nam chm nhit cao[2]
, [3] ..
Hp cht SmCo5
c pht minh bi Karl J. Strnat
(U.S. Air Force Materials Laboratory)
ln u tin vo nm 1966 vi tch
nng lng t cc i (BH)max t 18
MGOe.
SmCo5 thuc nhm hp cht RCo5 (R
thng c dng k hiu cc
nguyn t t him, c cu trc tinh
th lc gic. SmCo5 c hng s d
hng t tinh th bc 1 K1 = 11,9.106
J/m3, t bo ha Ms = 840 kA/m v
Phn b th trng nam chm vnh cu trn th gii nm 1999, nam chm NdFeB chim
nhit Curie TC = 1003 K, trng d
37% th phn
hng HA = 28,6 T. Loi nam chm
ny c kh nng cho tch nng lng
t cc i (BH)max ln nht ti 28,5 MGOe (220 kJ/m3).
Hp cht Sm2Co17
c Karl J. Strnat v Dr. Alden Ray pht minh nm 1972 vi tch nng lng t cc i ti 30 MGOe. H vt liu
ny c cu trc tng t nh SmCo5, nhng c s khc bit v thng s t ni ti. Hng s d hng t tinh th bc 1
K1 = 10.106 J/m3, t bo ha Ms = 990 kA/m v nhit Curie TC = 958 K. Loi nam chm ny c kh nng cho
tch nng lng t cc i (BH)max ln nht ti 41,3 MGOe (331 kJ/m3). [4] . Trong cc nghin cu hin nay v
nam chm nhit cao, ngi ta pha tp thm cc nguyn t khc (Fe, Cu, Zr...) ci tin cu trc v tnh cht
nhm nng cao nhit Curie cng nh phm cht t ca h vt liu ny[5] ,[6]

Nam chm t him da trn nhm hp cht 2:14:1


H hp cht 2:14:1 l tn gi tt ca h hp cht c cng thc chung R2Fe14B hoc R2Co14B (nhng h hp cht
R2Co14B hu nh t c s dng), vi R l cc nguyn t t him (v d nh Nd, Pr, Dy...), v loi c s dng
nhiu nht l Nd2Fe14B (thng c gi tt l nam chm NdFeB) v Pr2Fe14B. c im chung l c d hng t
tinh th rt ln, c t bo ha rt ln nn c kh nng cho tch nng lng t khng l. Loi tt nht l NdFeB c
kh nng cho gi tr (BH)max ti 64 MGOe. Nhm hp cht ny u c cu trc tinh th kiu t gic. Cc tham s
t ca nhm hp cht ny c trnh by theo bng di y [7]

95

Nam chm t him

Hp cht

Hng s mng a
(nm)

96

Hng s mng c
(nm)

Mt

T bo ha Ms
(kG)

Trng d hng HA
(kG)

Nhit Curie TC
(K)

Ce2Fe14B

0,877

1,211

7,81

11,6

44,25

424

Pr2Fe14B

0,882

1,225

7,47

14,3

125

564

Nd2Fe14B

0,882

1,224

7,55

15,6

150

585

Sm2Fe14B

0,880

1,215

7,73

13,3

--

612

Gd2Fe14B

0,879

1,209

7,85

8,6

76,25

661

Tb2Fe14B

0,877

1,205

7,93

0,64

350

639

Dy2Fe14B

0,875

1,200

8,02

6,5

312,5

602

Ho2Fe14B

0,875

1,199

8,05

8,6

250

576

Er2Fe14B

0,874

1,196

8,24

9.3

--

554

Tm2Fe14B

0.874

1,195

8,13

10,9

--

541

Y2Fe14B

0,877

1,204

6,98

12,8

25,3

565

y l h vt liu c pht minh vo nm 1983 bi ng thi 2 nc l M (J. J. Croat[8] ) v Nht Bn (M.


Sagawa[9] ]) l hp cht Nd2Fe14B v cho n hin nay Nd2Fe14B vn l loi nam chm vnh cu tt nht vi d
hng t tinh th K1 = 9,4.106 J/m3, tch nng lng t cc i c th t ti 64 MGOe ( sn xut thng phm
t 57 MGOe).

K thut ch to nam chm t him


Nam cht t him c s dng nhiu nht l dng cc nam chm thiu kt. Ban u, ngi ta ch to cc hp kim
theo thnh phn danh nh ca hp cht (c b li mt phn cc nguyn t t him do chng d b xi ha. Sau
chng c nghin thnh bt mn, trn keo epoxy v p nh hng trong t trng, sau nung thiu kt nhit
cao (trong mi trng c ht chn khng cao v np kh bo v) to thnh hp cht, sau nhit nhit
thp n nh pha, t ha v ph keo bo v. Cc cng on trn u c tin hnh trong mi trng bo v
gim thiu xi ha.
C th thay th cng on thiu kt bng k thut p nng. Ngi ta p cc bt trong t trng nhit cao nhm
to ra pha v nh hng nam chm (to ra nam chm d hng.
Gn y, ngi ta cn tin hnh to ra cc nam chm t him gi thnh r vi kiu nam chm kt dnh. Cc bt hp
kim mn c to ra sau khi nghin cc mnh vn hp kim c ch to bng cng ngh ngui nhanh, sau trn
keo epoxy v p nh hng trong t trng. K thut ny c u im l n gin v kinh t hn, nhng sn phm
cho phm cht thp hn nhiu so vi nam chm thiu kt.

Nhc im ca nam chm t him


Nam chm t him c nhng nhc im chung thuc v c tnh vt l:
bn km do cc nguyn t t him c hot tnh ha hc cao, d b xi ha. Cc nam chm thng phi c
ph keo bo v chng xi ha.
Gi thnh cao (do cc cha hm lng ln cc nguyn t t him t tin v cc k thut ch to phc tp.
Nam chm mnh nht l Nd2Fe14B l loi mnh nht th li c nhit Curie tng i thp v c suy gim
phm cht do nhit kh ln.

Nam chm t him

Xem thm
Nam chm vnh cu
Vt liu t cng
D hng t tinh th

Ti liu tham kho


[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

George Rare Earth Magnet (SM-CO) (http:/ / www. allproducts. com/ metal/ micromeg/ 12-earth_magnet. html)
George Hadjipanayis et al. Magnets for High Temperature Applications (http:/ / www. stormingmedia. us/ 38/ 3830/ A383004. html)
George Rare Earth Magnet (SM-CO) (http:/ / www. allproducts. com/ metal/ micromeg/ 12-earth_magnet. html)
History of magnetism (http:/ / www. rare-earth-magnets. com/ magnet_university/ history_of_magnetism. htm)
Sofoklis S. Makridis et al. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 272-276 (2004) E1921-E1923 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/
science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-4BMJB5S-B& _user=121723& _coverDate=05/ 31/ 2004& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search&
_sort=d& view=c& _acct=C000009999& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=121723& md5=34c135ab6ee458d6b65510f78b006a38)
[6] Fernando M. F. Rhen et al. Journal of Applied Physics 93 (2003) 8683-8685 (http:/ / link. aip. org/ link/ ?JAPIAU/ 93/ 8683/ 1)
[7] M. Sagawa et al. IEEE Transaction Magnetics 20 (1984) 1584-1589 (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ iel5/ 20/ 22871/ 01063214. pdf?tp=&
isnumber=22871& arnumber=1063214)
[8] J.J. Croat et al. Journal of Applied Physics 55 (1984) 2078-2082 (http:/ / scitation. aip. org/ getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal&
id=JAPIAU000055000006002078000001& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes)
[9] M. Sagawa et al. Journal of Applied Physics 55 (1984) 2083-2087 (http:/ / scitation. aip. org/ getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal&
id=JAPIAU000055000006002083000001& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes)

Nc t
Nc t (ting Anh: ferrofluid), vit y
l nc st t (ferromagnetic fluid) hoc
cht lng t (magnetic fluid), l mt loi
cht lng c t tnh.
Hu ht cc vt liu c tnh st t u l cc
vt liu trng thi rn nh l cc nam
chm vnh cu, nam chm in bi v, ni
chung, cc vt liu t c nhit Curie
(nhit m ti vt liu mt i tnh cht
st t chuyn sang tnh thun t) nh hn
nhiu nhit nng chy ca chng.
nhit rt thp, Helium3 c t tnh khi
nhit di 2,7 mK. nhit rt cao,
hp kim dng lng c thnh phn Co80Pd20
Mt l nc t nm bn trn nh hng ca mt nam chm cho thy cc mi ni
cng c t tnh tt. Tuy nhin, cc cht
ln
khng th c nhng ng dng thc t. Nc
t l cht t duy nht trng thi lng trong
iu kin bnh thng. Khng ging nh He3 v Co80Pd20, nc t l mt cht lng c cu trc, l mt sn phm
hon ton nhn to m t trc n nay, ngi ta cha thy c trong t nhin.

97

Nc t

98

Thnh phn ca nc t
Cht lng bnh thng c to thnh t cc phn t hoc cc ion. Cc phn t to nn nc t li hon ton khc,
bn cnh cc phn t v ion, nc t cn c mt thnh phn, l cc ht cht rn c kch thc vi chc cho n
vi trm nm. Nc t gm ba thnh phn chnh l ht t tnh (cht rn), cht bao ph v mt (cn gi l cht hot
ha b mt, l cht rn hoc cht lng) v dung mi (cht lng). Cc ht t cn c phn tn trong cht lng to nn
mt th c gi l huyn ph c th c c cc tnh cht c bit.

Ht t tnh
Ht t tnh l thnh phn quan trng nht trong nc t, tnh cht c bit ca nc t ph thuc ch yu vo tnh
cht ca ht t. Ht t c kch thc t vi nm (nanmt) n vi chc nm.
Bt k mt vt liu no u hng ng di tc ng ca mt t trng (thng c k hiu l H) bn ngoi th
hin bng mt i lng vt l c gi l t (cn gi l t ha, thng c k hiu l M). i lng vt l
= M/H c gi l cm t ca vt liu. Ty theo cch m vt liu hng ng t trng ngoi m ngi ta chia
thnh vt liu thun t, nghch t, st t, ferri t v phn st t. Vt liu thun t l vt liu c
-6

10 ; vt liu thun t c
dng, gi tr ca

-6

nh v dng, c

nh v m, c -10 ; vt liu st t, ferri t, phn st t l cc vt liu c

rt ln v

c th ln hn vt liu thun t hng vn ln. Ta qui nh, vt liu t tnh l vt liu st t, ferri

t v phn st t. i vi vt liu st t v ferri t, kch thc ht ca vt liu cn nh hng mnh n t tnh ca


chng. Khi kch thc gim n mt gi tr ti hn ph thuc vo tng vt liu, tnh st t b mt i m thay vo ,
vt liu tn ti mt trng thi t tnh khc c gi l siu thun t.
i vi nc t, cc ht t tnh l st t hoc siu thun t. Chng c to thnh t cc hp cht ca cc kim loi
chuyn tip hoc kim loi t him. Nc t thng c dng nht l ht xt st -Fe2O3 (maghemite), Fe3O4
(magnetite) v t bo ha (t khi t trng ngoi ln) ln, r tin, n nh khi lm vic.

Cht bao ph b mt
Khi phn tn trong cht lng, cc ht t tnh ni trn s chu tc dng ca cc lc sau:
Lc hp dn ca Tri t c xu hng lm cho cc ht lng ng.
Nu c mt gradient t trng th cc ht s c xu hng co cm li vng c t trng ln.
Lc Van der Walls v lc lng cc t lm cho cc ht kt t li vi nhau.
h trng thi huyn ph th cc ht phi c mt nng lng chuyn ng nhit (chuyn ng Brown) thng
c nng lng hp dn v nng lng tng tc t.
Nng lng chuyn ng nhit: kBT
Nng lng hp dn ca tri t:
Nng lng tng tc t: 0mH

Vgl

Trong , kB l hng s Boltzmann; T l nhit tuyt i;

l s khc bit v khi lng ring ca ht t tnh

v cht lng; g l gia tc trng trng; l l cao ca cht lng trong trng hp dn;

l t thm ca chn

khng; m l m men t ca ht t tnh (m = MSV, vi MS l t bo ha ca vt liu to nn ht t tnh, V l th


tch ca ht).
Nu nng lng nhit khng thng nng lng hp dn v nng lng t th ngi ta phi b sung cho cc ht
nhng loi nng lng mi nh nng lng tnh in hoc nng lng y khng gian (steric force). Nng lng tnh
in c th xut hin do b mt cc ht b tch in cng du s y nhau. Nng lng y khng gian thng xuyn
c s dng phn tn cc ht. N xut hin do ht c bao ph bi mt lp b mt nh l cc cht hot ha b
mt, cao phn t,... Cht hot ha b mt c dng ph bin nht v phn t cht hot ha b mt l mt phn t di
gm mt u b phn cc nh cc nhm chc -COOH, -NH2,... v mt u khng b phn cc gm cc chui
hyrccbon. Khi c mt trong nc t, ty vo bn cht dung mi m cc u cc ht ny s bm ln b mt ht t
tnh hoc quay ra dung mi to nn mt lc y khng gian gia cc ht.

Nc t

99

Dung mi
Dung mi l mi trng cha ht t v cht bao ph b mt. Nu t tnh ca nc t do ht t quyt nh th tnh
lng ca n do dung mi quyt nh. Dung mi c th l cc cht phn cc nh nc, cn,.. hoc cc cht khng
phn cc nh du, dung mi hu c. Dung mi c th c nht rt khc nhau hoc c th c kh nng bay hi di
iu kin bnh thng cng khc nhau. Ty thuc vo cc ng dng c th m ngi ta dng dung mi thch hp.
Cc ng dng sinh ha thng dng dung mi l nc v nc c tnh tng hp sinh hc. Vi cc ng dng vt l,
dung mi thng dng l du v du rt n nh trong mi trng lm vic.

Ch to nc t
Tnh cht ca nc t
ng dng ca nc t

Permalloy
Permalloy l tn gi chung ca cc hp kim ca Niken v St, c thnh phn hp thc l

vi gi tr x

thay i t 20% n 85%. Trong cc sch v t hc v trong k thut, ngi ta gi tn ca hp kim ny tng ng
vi t l niken, v d Permalloy75 l hp kim permalloy c cha 75% nguyn t l niken (hay Ni75Fe25). Hp kim
permally l hp kim c t tnh, thng c s dng trong cc ng dng v t hc. Tn gi permalloy xut pht t
ch ghp per (trong ch permeability, c ngha l t thm), vi t alloy c ngha l hp kim, do permalloy l hp
kim c t thm rt cao.
Permalloy vi t l 75% nguyn t niken
c gi l permalloy chun (Standard
permalloy). Permalloy c pha tp mt s
nguyn t khc (v d nh Mlipen - Mo)
c gi l Supermalloy. Trong k thut,
Permalloy thng c vit tt l Py.

Cu trc v tnh cht ca


permalloy
dng khi v n tinh th, permalloy c
cu trc lp phng tm mt in hnh [1] [2]
, cu trc tinh th c th b thay i ty theo
phng php ch to (v d cu trc lc gic
xp cht khi dng mng mng ch to
bng phng php epitaxy chm phn t[3]
S thay i ca t thm ban u ca permalloy theo hm lng Ni 1) Ch to
). Hng s mng ph thuc vo thnh phn
bng phng php cn lnh, 2) Ch to bng cn nng
hp kim (cha xc nh quy lut r rng), v
d hp kim permalloy75 c cu trc lp phng tm mt vi hng s mng a = 0.3555 nm, khi lng ring 8,57.103
kg/m3, thuc nhm khng gian Pm-3m [4] , trong khi hp kim permalloy50 c hng s mng a = 0.3587 nm, thuc
nhm khng gian Fm-3m, khi lng ring 8,24.103 kg/m3[5] . S thay i ca cu trc tinh th theo hm lng cc
nguyn t ph thuc nhiu vo cng ngh ch to.

Permalloy

100

Permalloy l mt vt liu t mm in hnh vi tnh t mm rt tt: c t thm rt cao (c t thm ban u - c


th t ti 10.000 vi Permalloy75 v t thm cc i - c th t ti 300.000 ln), lc khng t rt nh (c th
ti 1 A/m), nhng li c t bo ha thp, nhn chung t bo ha gim theo hm lng Ni[6] .
Permalloy l vt liu c bn v do dai cao, kh nng chng n mn, chng xi ha, chng mi mn rt tt.
Do mang bn cht kim loi, permalloy c in tr sut rt thp. Hp kim permalloy c c th cho hiu ng t in
tr khong 5% nhit phng.

K thut ch to v x l permalloy
Permalloy l mt hp kim c nhit nng
chy trung bnh (xung quanh 1100oC) do
n c th d dng c to ra bng cc k
thut luyn kim:

Nng chy cm ng
Nng chy h quang
L in
Luyn kim bt

to ra cc tnh cht t nh mong mun,


ngi ta cn p dng cc k thut ch to v
x l sau khi to ra hp kim:
Cn nng, cn lnh
X l nhit trong t trng, trong kh
hydro
Mng mng permalloy c th d dng to ra
bng cc k thut mng mng:

S ph thuc ca t bo ha vo hm lng Ni trong cc hp kim permalloy

M in
Bc bay nhit trong chn khng
Phn x catt
Lng ng chm laser
Epitaxy chm phn t

ng dng ca permalloy
Cc vt liu dng khi c s dng trong cc li bin th, cc cun chn, li dn t cht lng cao s dng trong
t trng tn s thp do hp kim permalloy l hp kim c tnh cht t mm tuyt vi. Tuy nhin n khng th s
dng trong ng dng cao tn do c in tr sut thp.
Cc mng mng permalloy c s dng trong cc cm bin t trng, cc u c ca a cng, cc cu trc
nano nhn to... Mng mng permalloy hin nay ang l mt trong nhng vt liu c nghin cu mnh m nht
cho cc ng dng spintronic s dng cc vt liu st t kim loi.

Permalloy

101

Xem thm
Hp kim
T hc
Vt liu t mm

Ti liu tham kho


[1] G.E. Ice et al. Scripta Materialia 55 (2006) 57-62 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TY2-4JPHS85-1&
_user=121723& _coverDate=07/ 31/ 2006& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d& view=c& _acct=C000009999& _version=1&
_urlVersion=0& _userid=121723& md5=1dc41c32697576b2acb9d18ba9138db9)
[2] Shinji Narishige et al. IEEE Transaction on Magnetics 28 (1992) 990-993 (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ iel1/ 20/ 3500/ 00123849.
pdf?arnumber=123849)
[3] J. C. A. Huang et al. Journal of Applied Physics 83 (1998) 7046-7048 (http:/ / link. aip. org/ link/ ?JAPIAU/ 83/ 7046/ 1)
[4] Lutts A., Glelen P.M. Physica Status Solidi (b) 41 (1970) K81-K84 (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ cgi-bin/ abstract/ 112578307/
ABSTRACT)
[5] G. Dumpich et al. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 67 (1987) 55-64 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/
science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-46X4JHV-HW& _user=121723& _coverDate=05/ 31/ 1987& _alid=597455855& _rdoc=1&
_fmt=summary& _orig=search& _cdi=5312& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1& _acct=C000009999& _version=1&
_urlVersion=0& _userid=121723& md5=bbdc15b566404bba5c3b4d4dc2767a57)
[6] Soft Magnetic Materials Ed. by Richard Boll, Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Heyden & Son LTD (1979) ISBN 0-85501-263-3

Perovskit (cu trc)


Perovskite l tn gi chung ca cc vt liu
gm c cu trc tinh th ging vi cu trc
ca vt liu gm canxi titanat (CaTiO3). Tn
gi ca perovskite c t theo tn ca nh
khong vt hc ngi Nga L. A. Perovski
(1792-1856), ngi c cng nghin cu v
pht hin ra vt liu ny vng ni Uran ca
Nga vo nm 1839.

Cu trc v ch to
perovskite
Cu trc perovskit
Cng thc phn t chung ca cc hp cht
perovskite l ABO3 vi A v B l cc in
(cation) c bn knh khc nhau. v tr ca
in xy, c th l mt s nguyn t khc,
nhng ph bin nht vn l xy. Ty theo
nguyn t v tr B m c th phn thnh
nhiu h khc nhau, v d nh h manganite
khi B = Mn, h titanat khi B = Ti hay h
cobaltit khi B = Co...

Cu trc tinh th ca h perovskite ABO3.

Perovskit (cu trc)

102

Thng thng, bn knh in A ln hn so vi B. Cu trc ca perovskite thng l bin th t cu trc lp phng


vi cc cation A nm nh ca hnh lp phng, c tm l cation B. Cation ny cng l tm ca mt bt din to ra
bi cc anion O. Cu trc tinh th c th thay i t lp phng sang cc dng khc nh trc giao hay trc thoi khi
cc in A hay B b thay th bi cc nguyn t khc m hnh thc ging nh vic mng tinh th b bp mo i, gi l
mo mng Jahn-Teller.

K thut ch to
Do perovskite l mt vt liu gm nn cc ch to perovskite
ph bin nht l k thut gm, hay cn gi l k thut phn
ng pha rn. Cc nguyn liu ban u l cc xit ca cc kim
loi c nghin trn trong thi gian di to s ng nht,
sau c p thnh vin v nung thiu kt nhit cao
to ra phn ng perovskite ha (phn ng pha rn). Phng
php ny c u im l r tin, n gin, d dng to ra vt
liu vi khi lng ln.
Ngoi ra, perovskite c th c ch to bng cc phng
php phn ng ha hc khc nhau v d nh phng php
sol-gel, phng php ng kt ta, vi u im l cho vt liu
c cht lng cao nhng li hn ch kh nng to vt liu vi
khi lng ln.

Tnh cht v ng dng


cu trc s khai ban u ( v tr A v B ch c 2 nguyn t)
th perovskite mang tnh cht in mi phn st t. S l th
trong tnh cht ca perovskite l n c th to ra rt nhiu tnh
cht trong mt vt liu cc nhit khc nhau [1] .

Tnh cht in

nh SEM ca mu gm perovskite La0,2Ca0,8MnO3 (ch


to ti Trng i hc Khoa hc T nhin, i hc Quc gia
H Ni) v cc ng cong t nhit th hin cc vng tnh
cht khc nhau ca vt liu: st t trong di nhit t 200
K n 300 K, phn st t di 200 K.

C nhiu perovskite l cc cht st in th hin tnh cht


nhit in tr ln [2] . Nh s pha tp, tnh cht dn in ca
perovskite c th thay i t tnh cht in mi sang tnh dn
kiu bn dn, hoc thm ch mang tnh dn kiu kim loi,
hoc tnh cht in c bit l trt t in tch, trng thi m cc ht ti dn b c lp bi cc in t tnh [3] , [4] .
Ngoi ra, nhiu perovskite c th mang tnh cht siu dn nhit cao [5] .

Tnh cht t
Thng thng, perovskite mang tnh cht phn st t nhng tnh cht ny c th b bin i thnh st t nh s pha
tp cc nguyn t khc nhau. S pha tp cc nguyn t dn n vic to ra cc in mang ha tr khc nhau v tr B,
to ra c ch tng tc trao i gin tip sinh ra tnh st t. iu c bit l tnh cht t c th thay i trong nhiu
trng thi khc nhau cng mt vt liu [1] [4] . Khi trng thi st t, perovskite c th tn ti hiu ng t in tr
siu khng l [1] , hoc hiu ng t nhit khng l [6] hoc trng thi thy tinh - spin nhit thp, trng thi m
cc spin b tn ti trong trng thi hn n v b ng bng bi qu trnh lm lnh [7] .

Perovskit (cu trc)

Cc tnh cht khc


Bn cnh cc tnh cht in t, perovskite cn mang nhiu c tnh ha hc nh c tnh hp ph mt s loi kh hoc
tnh cht xc tc ha hc.

ng dng
Do c nhiu c tnh in - t - ha khc nhau nn perovskite c mt trong rt nhiu ng dng [8] v c coi l mt
trong nhng vt liu rt l th. Nh vt l ngi n C. N. R. Rao tng pht biu rng perovskite l tri tim ca
vt l cht rn [9] . Vi tnh cht t in tr siu khng l, perovskite rt ha hn cho cc linh kin spintronics v cc
cm bin t siu nhy. Vi nhiu tnh cht c bit nh siu dn nhit cao, st in... perovskite rt hu ch cho
nhiu linh kin in t. Ngoi ra, perovskite vi cc tnh cht hp ph v xc tc cn c s dng trong cc pin
nhin liu.

Ti liu tham kho


[1] S. B. Salamon, M. Jaime, The physics of manganites: Structure and transport, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 583 - 628 (2001). (http:/ / prola. aps. org/
abstract/ RMP/ v73/ i3/ p583_1)
[2] P.Q. Thanh, B.T. Cong, C.T.A. Xuan, N.H. Luong, Melting of the charge-ordering state by ruthenium doping in Ca0.6Pr0.4Mn1yRuyO3
(y=0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07) perovskites, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310 (2007) e720-e722. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. jmmm. 2006. 10. 786)
[3] C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Cheetham, Charge Ordering in Manganates, Science 276 (1997) 911-912. (http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ cgi/ content/
summary/ 276/ 5314/ 911)
[4] N. Chau, D. H. Cuong, N. D. Tho, H. N. Nhat, N. H. Luong, B. T. Cong, Large positive entropy change in several charge-ordering
perovskites, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276 (2003) 1292-1294. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. jmmm. 2003. 12. 074)
[5] D. J. Singh, I. I. Mazin, Magnetism, Spin Fluctuations and Superconductivity in Perovskite Ruthenates, Lecture Notes in Physics 603 (2002)
256-270. (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ 814116qx40712u42/ )
[6] M. H. Phan, S. C. Yu, Review of the magnetocaloric effect in manganite materials, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 308 (2007) 325-340. (http:/ / dx.
doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. jmmm. 2006. 07. 025)
[7] X. L. Wang, J. Horvat, H. K. Liu, A. H. Li and S. X. Dou, Spin glass state in Gd2CoMnO6 perovskite manganite, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 118
(2001) 27-30. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S0038-1098(01)00033-3)
[8] Tejuca, Luis G (1993), Properties and applications of perovskite-type oxides, New York: Dekker, 382, ISBN 0-8247-8786-2.
[9] Nguyn Chu, Gn cht cng tc nghin cu khoa hc v o to cn b tr. (http:/ / www. bulletin. vnu. edu. vn/ btdhqghn/ Vietnamese/
C1177/ 2005/ 03/ N6842/ ?1)

Xem thm

Gm
T in tr siu khng l
Hiu ng t nhit
Tng tc trao i

Lin kt ngoi
"Cubic Perovskite Structure" (http://cst-www.nrl.navy.mil/lattice/struk/e2_1.html)
perovskites at NCSU (http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/index.php/Perovskite)

103

Spin valve

104

Spin valve
Spin valve (cha c tn gi ring trong
ting Vit) l mt linh kin t tnh cu to t
mt mng mng a lp gm cc lp st t
ngn cch bi cc lp phi t m in
tr ca h thay i ph thuc vo s nh
hng ca t trong cc lp st t. Tnh
cht ca spin valve da trn hiu ng t in
tr khng l v c ng dng trong cc
u c cng my tnh. Spin valve c
coi l th h linh kin spintronic th nht.

Hiu ng t in tr v spin
valve ban u
Khi nim v linh kin spin valse c xut
hin lin vi pht kin v hiu ng t in
tr khng l m in tr ca h mng
M hnh hiu ng t in tr khng l trong cc spin valve
mng t a lp gm cc lp st t ngn cch
bi lp phi t c th thay i rt ln di tc
dng ca t trng ngoi[1] [2] . C ch ca hiu ng c l gii qua c ch "tn x ph thuc spin" ca in t. V
c th thy rng trng thi ca h (in tr cao, in tr thp) ph thuc vo s nh hng tng i ca t ca
cc lp st t. C ngha l vic t cc lp ny nh hng tng i vi nhau ra sao (song song, phn song song)
c th cho php dng dng in t (dng spin) c truyn qua hoc khng th truyn qua, hay ni cch khc, t
ca cc lp st t hot ng nh mt chic van ng m spin. y chnh l tng v cu trc spin valve.

Spin valve vi lin kt phn st t


M hnh mng mng a lp vi cc lp st t xen k
bi cc lp mng phi t to ra hiu ng t in tr
khng l l m hnh s khai u tin. Tuy nhin, y l
cu trc n gin vi s quay ca cc lp st t theo t
trng kh t do v vic iu khin tn hiu tr nn kh
khn. V chnh nhm ca Peter Grunberg ci tin
m hnh ny thnh cu trc spin valve nh hin nay vi
vic s dng mt lp phn st t. Cu trc ct ngang
ca m hnh ny gm 4 lp chnh: bn di l lp
mng mng vt liu phn st t (hin nay s dng ph
bin l IrMn...), bn trn lp ny l lp st t u tin
c t b ghim bi lp phn st t nn c t b gi
theo mt hng (gi l lp ghim), pha trn l lp phi
t (hoc lp in mi), v trn cng l lp st t vi t
quay t do.

Cu trc ct ngang ca mng a lp spin valve vi lin kt phn st


t.

Vi m hnh ny, khi t t trng ngoi ch c t ca lp t do b quay theo t trng ngoi do hiu ng t
in tr hu nh ch ph thuc vo t lp bn trn. T ca lp ghim bn di ch b quay i khi c t trng

Spin valve

105

ngoi lp ph v lin kt vi lp phn st t.


Vi cu trc ny, ng cong t in tr ca h tr nn thay i nhy bc sc nt v ng cong t tr ca h cng
tr nn khc vi thng thng vi dng ng tr dch do s lin kt gia hai lp st t-phn st t vi hnh nh
ng cong t tr b dch i mt qung v pha t trng m gi l trng trao i dch (exchange-bias field)[3] .

Spin valve CPP v CIP


CPP (Current Perpendicular to Plane) v
CIP (Current In Plane) l hai cu hnh t
in tr trong cu trc spin-valve, c quy
nh bi chiu dng in chy trong linh
kin. Cu trc CPP c dng in chy
vung gc vi mt phng mng, trong khi
cu trc CIP c dng in chy song song
vi b mt mng. Thng thng, cu trc
CPP s cho gi tr hiu ng GMR (hoc
TMR) ln hn so vi cu hnh CIP v khi
in t ch yu b tn x trn chiu dy
mng, c qung ng t do trung bnh nh
hn so vi cu hnh CIP.

ng tr dch do lin kt trao i gia hai lp st t v phn st t. trn nhit


Neel, khng c s dch ng tr do khng c tnh st t. di nhit Neel,
lin kt st t-phn st t to nn ng cong t tr b dch i mt khong.

Cu hnh CPP ang l mi quan tm ln ca


cc nh nghin cu trong ng dng
spintronics v kh nng to ra cc linh kin mt v cht lng cao hn, tuy nhin cu hnh CIP li chim u th do
vic ch to cng nh hot ng rt n gin.

Ch thch
[1] M. N. Baibich, J. M. Broto, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Eitenne, g. Creuzet, A. Friederich, and J. Chazelas, Giant
Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988) 2472. (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v61/
i21/ p2472_1)
[2] G. Binasch, P. Grnberg, F. Saurenbach, W. Zinn, Enhanced magnetoresistance in layered magnetic structures with antiferromagnetic
interlayer exchange, Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 4828. (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v39/ i7/ p4828_1)
[3] Theory of exchange bias (http:/ / cnst. nist. gov/ epg/ Projects/ Theory/ theory_exbias. html)

Xem thm

St t
Phn st t
T in tr khng l
Spintronics

Terfenol-D

106

Terfenol-D
Terfenol-D l mt loi hp kim cha cc kim loi terbi, st v dysprosi vi cng thc phn t (Tb0,3Dy0,7)1Fe1,9,
c pht trin t nhng nm 1950, l loi hp kim c h s t gio ln nht nhit phng tng c bit v
c ng dng rng ri cho n nay. Tn ca Terfenol-D c t tn theo cc kim loi Terbi, Fe, NOL l tn vit
tt ni pht trin vt liu (Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Hoa K) v D l t kim loi Dysprosi[1] .

Cu trc v tnh cht ca Terfenol-D


Terfenol-D c cu trc lp phng vi i xng kiu MgCu2
mt s thng s tnh cht ca Terfenol-D nh sau [3] :
Thng s

[2]

vi hng s mng khong 0,735 nm, c th lit k

ln

Khi lng ring g/cm3

9,25

ko dn (MPa)

28,0

Mun n hi (GPa)

18-55

Mun khi (GPa)

90

Nhit nng chy (C) 1.240


in tr sut (Ohm.cm)

0,0000600

t thm

4,5-10,0

Nhit Curie (oC)

357-380

H s t gio (10-6)

1500-2000

ng dng v cc ci tin
Terfel-D l mt vt liu t gio in hnh (c h s t gio nhit phng cao nht tng c to ra cho n
nay)[4] , c ng dng rng ri trong cc ng dng chuyn i nng lng c-t nh: trong cc h thng nh v
thy m v cm bin ca hi qun, trong thit b SoundBug (ng dng thng mi u tin ca n) cng nh trong
cc thit b c-t khc; hay cc cm bin o gia tc, cm bin c o dch chuyn c hc, cc my pht siu m - t
gio, cc linh kin vi c trong cc b vi c in t (MEMS). Hin nay, Terfenol-D c sn xut thnh thng phm
rng ri [5] . Nu c to dng mng mng, Terfenol-D c th t h s t gio ti 400.10-6.

Xem thm
St t
T gio
Terbi

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Rodrguez et al., New elastomerTerfenol-D magnetostrictive composites, Sensors and Actuator A 149 (2009) 251-254. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/
10. 1016/ j. sna. 2008. 11. 026)
[2] Gran Engdahl, Handbook of Giant Magnetostrictive Materials, Elsevier Inc. (2000) trang 1-125, ISBN: 978-0-12-238640-4. (http:/ / www.
sciencedirect. com/ science/ book/ 9780122386404)
[3] ETREMA Products Terfenol-D Magnetostrictive Iron Alloy (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1. 92). (http:/ / www. matweb. com/ search/ datasheet.
aspx?matguid=aa68cad05c7c4d39932834d68e669a5d)
[4] What is Terfenol-D? (http:/ / etrema-usa. com/ core/ terfenold/ ). ETREMA Products, Inc. (2003). Truy cp 6-11-2008.

Terfenol-D
[5] J. D. Snodgrass and O.D. McMasters, Optimized TERFENOL-D manufacturing processes, J. All. Comp. 258 (1997) 24-29. (http:/ / dx. doi.
org/ 10. 1016/ S0925-8388(97)00067-4)

Lin kt ngoi
Terfenol-D data (http://etrema-usa.com/core/terfenold/)

Tng phn pha vi sai


DPC l ch vit tt ca Differential Phase
Contrast, dch sang ting Vit c ngha l
Tng phn pha vi sai) l k thut chp nh
t trong knh hin vi in t truyn qua
Lorentz, c thc hin trn cc knh hin vi
in t truyn qua qut (STEM), to ra hnh
nh tng phn v cm ng t trong vt rn
bng cch s dng mt chm in t qut
trn mu. Thc cht, thut ng DPC khng
ch mang ngha trong lnh vc chp nh t,
m l mt khi nim rng trong ngnh chp
nh hin vi hot ng da trn vic ghi li
tng phn v pha ca sng.

Nguyn l ca DPC
DPC hot ng ging nh mt STEM, ngi
ta hi t chm in t thnh mt chm hi t
rt hp v iu khin qut qua mu.
Thng thng, gc lch ca chm in t
truyn qua mu l rt nh, do khi s dng
chm in t hi t qut trn mu, chm
in t truyn qua s b lch gc ln hn, do
S khi nguyn l ca k thut DPC
nng cao kh nng kho st tng phn
v t tnh. Bn di mu, ngi ta s dng
cun dy hy qut v dng mt detector c 4 gc (gi l quadrant detector) ghi li chm in t bn di.
Khi , tn hiu thu c s l 4 tn hiu t 4 detector con, v tng phn v cm ng t thu c nh vic ly hiu
(vi sai) gia cc detector i din. Mt DPC thng c 2 lp detector 4 gc. Lp trong (E,F,G,H) l cc detector ghi
nh khi thc hin ch hot ng vi phng di nh, s dng chm tia c kch thc ln. Lp ngoi (A,B,C,D)
l 4 detector ghi nh phng i ln, s dng chm tia c hi t rt hp.
nh tng phn t l 2 nh vi sai t cc cp detector i din (E-G, F-H phng i nh, hay A-C, B-D
phng i ln) s tng ng vi tng phn v cm ng t theo 2 trc ta vung gc (Bx, By).

107

Tng phn pha vi sai

Khi nim v hin vi tng phn pha


vi sai ln u tin c nu vo nm
1974 bi N. H. Dekker v H. de Lang
[1]
v sau c nhm nghin cu
ca John Chapman (i hc Glasgow,
Vng quc Anh) pht trin thnh k
thut DPC trong knh hin vi Lorentz
vo nm 1983 [2] , [3] , v n nay DPC
Detector ca DPC v cp nh vi sai cho tng phn v cm ng t ca mu vt NiFe
tr thnh mt trong nhng k thut
ghi li trn knh hin vi Phillips CM20
chp nh t mnh nht c kh nng
cho nh vi phn gii rt cao v cht lng cao ng thi d dng phn tch thng tin. nh DPC cho trc tip
tng phn v cm ng t trong cc men t (cc tng phn trng-en tng ng vi chiu ca cm ng t) ng
thi rt mnh trong vic kho st tnh cht vch men. DPC l ch ghi nh in-focus.

c im ca nh DPC
DPC cho 2 nh vi sai (t tn hiu vi sai 2 cp detector i din) tng ng vi s tng phn v cm ng t theo
hai trc ta vung gc (hai thnh phn cm ng t Bx, By). Cc mu sc trn nh tng ng vi ln ca cm
ng t (mu trng cho gi tr dng cc i v mu en cho gi tr m cc tiu, mu xm nht cho gi tr 0). Vch
men c xc nh t bin gii ngn cch gia hai vng c s tng phn v cm ng t. Nh vy, nh DPC cho
hnh nh v cc men t (tri vi [[nh Fresnel cho hnh nh v cc vch men) v do rt d dng v ra s
phn b ca cm ng t trong mu mng.
nh DPC l nh v tr ly nt (in focus), do hon ton khng b nhiu bi cc vn giao thoa Fresnel. i vi cc
mu mng mng st t a tinh th, nh DPC cng c th cho hnh nh cc gn sng ging nh nh Fresnel v tnh
cht ca ph gn sng cng hon ton tng t nh trong nh Fresnel.
DPC c hai ch hot ng. Ch phng i thp, hot ng khi na bn trn ca thu knh Lorentz c tt v
chm tia hi t gc hi t ln, kch thc chm tia ln (thng xung quanh 20-45 nm) v s dng h detector nh
bn trong ghi nh, do cho phn gii t 20-45 nm, nhng li cho tng phn rt tt, cht lng nh cao.
ch phng i ln, na thu knh Lorentz bn trn c hot ng v chm tia c hi t thnh im rt nh (c
1 nm) nn nh thu c c phn gii rt cao (t 1-5 nm) nhng ngc li, tng phn li km so vi ch
phng i thp. Ch ny thng dng o vch men hoc cc tnh cht ca linh kin rt nh.

u im v hn ch ca DPC
u im ca DPC
DPC rt d dng cho nh cu trc t vi cht lng cao v phn gii rt cao.
DPC c th n gin thng dch v ra bn phn b cm ng t trong mu v tnh ton nh lng v cm
ng t, o kch thc vch men vi chnh xc cao mt cch d dng.
So vi cc k thut s dng ch qut khc, DPC l k thut ghi nh nhanh nht.

Hn ch ca DPC
DPC hot ng ch qut nn n ghi nh chm hn so vi ch nh Fresnel hay cc k thut quang khc.
DPC i hi qu trnh ci t sp xp phc tp v h detector rt t tin.
DPC i hi mu mng, sch nn hn ch qu trnh ch to.

108

Tng phn pha vi sai

Ti liu tham kho


[1] N. H. Dekker, H. de Lang, Optik 30 (1974) 452.
[2] J.N. Chapman, G.R. Morrison, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 35 (1983) 254-260. (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL&
_udi=B6TJJ-46GCYWW-C1& _user=121723& _coverDate=03/ 31/ 1983& _alid=799840409& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=search&
_cdi=5312& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1& _acct=C000009999& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=121723&
md5=621641bb4f10f527553be8a805f07bd9)
[3] J.N. Chapman, The investigation of magnetic domain structures in thin foils by electron microscopy, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 17 (1984)
623-647 (http:/ / www. iop. org/ EJ/ abstract/ 0022-3727/ 17/ 4/ 003)

Xem thm
Knh hin vi Lorentz
Knh hin vi in t truyn qua qut
nh Fresnel

T in tr chui hm
T in tr chui hm hay T in tr xuyn hm, (ting Anh: Tunnelling magnetoresistance, thng vit tt l
TMR) l mt hiu ng t in tr xy ra trong cc mng mng a lp c cc lp st t c ngn cch bi cc lp
in mi.

M t hiu ng
T in tr chui hm hiu n gin l
s thay i ln ca in tr sut xy ra
cc tip xc t chui hm, l cc
mng mng vi cc lp mng mng st
t c ngn cch bi lp in mi,
ng vai tr lp ro ngn cch chuyn
ng ca in t. Khi chiu dy lp
in mi mng, hiu ng chui hm
lng t s xy ra, cho php in t
xuyn qua ro th ca lp in mi,
to thnh s dn in, v do s tn x
trn cc lp st t, in tr ca mng
s b thay i ty theo s nh hng
ca mmen t ca cc lp st t.
Hiu ng t in tr chui hm thc
C ch to hiu ng t in tr chui hm trong cc tip xc t chui hm
cht c pht hin t nm 1975 bi
nhm nghin cu ca Michel Julliere khi pht hin ra hiu ng ny xy ra trong h mng a lp Fe/Ge/Co, xy ra
nhit thp ti 4,2 Kelvin vi lp germanium (Ge) ng vai tr l mt lp in mi[1] .
Hiu ng TMR nhit phng c pht hin ln u tin vo nm 1995 bi nhm nghin cu ca Jagadeesh
Moodera trn cc mng mng CoFe/Al2O3/Co vi Al2O3 ng vai tr lp cch in, cho hiu ng MR ti 11,8%
nhit phng[2] v nhm nghin cu c lp Nht Bn lnh o bi Terunobu Miyazaki[3] , tm thy hiu ng
TMR t ti 18% nhit phng v 30% 4,2 Kelvin trong mng a lp Fe/Al2O3/Fe.
i vi cc tip xc t chui hm c 2 lp st t kp gia bi mt lp in mi, t s t in tr (trong trng hp ny
s dng l TMR) ph thuc vo phn cc spin ca 2 lp (
), v c cho bi cng thc[4] :

109

T in tr chui hm

ng dng ca t in tr chui hm
Cng vi cc thnh tu v hiu ng GMR, hiu ng TMR l tr ct pht trin ca cng ngh spintronic. Cc tip xc
t chui hm ang c s dng trong cc linh kin th h spintronic th nht, in hnh l cc b nh RAM t in
tr (MRAM) khng t xa, cc transistor s dng tip xc spin chui hm v trong cc cm bin cht lng cao...

Xem thm
Hiu ng t in tr
T in tr khng l
Spintronics

Ti liu tham kho


[1] M. Julliere, Tunnelling between ferromagnetic films, Phys. Lett. A 54 (1975) 225-226 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science/ article/
B6TVM-46R3N46-10D/ 2/ 90703cfc684b0679356dce9a76b2e942)
[2] > J. S. Moodera, Lisa R. Kinder, Terrilyn M. Wong, R. Meservey Large Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Ferromagnetic Thin
Film Tunnel Junctions Phys. Rev. Lett. 74: 32733276, 1995 (http:/ / link. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v74/ p3273)
[3] T. Miyazaki, N. Tezuka, Giant magnetic tunneling effect in Fe/Al2O3/Fe junction, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 139 (1995) L231-L234 (http:/ /
www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-460MFGV-1& _user=121723& _coverDate=01/ 02/ 1995&
_alid=647142944& _rdoc=1& _fmt=summary& _orig=search& _cdi=5312& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1&
_acct=C000009999& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=121723& md5=f19cacba6dc33fe8e3912c3cf7067161)
[4] C.H. Marrow, Spin-polarised currents and magnetic domain walls, Adv. Phys. 54 (2005) 585. (http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/
content~content=a741576309~db=all~order=page)

T in tr d hng
T in tr d hng (ting Anh: Anisotropic magnetoresistance, vit tt l AMR) l mt hiu ng t in tr m
t s t in tr (s thay i ca in tr sut di tc dng ca t trng ngoi) ph thuc vo hng ca dng
in (khng ng hng trong mu), m bn cht l s ph thuc ca in tr vo gc tng i gia t v dng
in. y chnh l hiu ng c William Thomson pht hin vo nm 1856[1] .

Lch s v m t hiu ng
Hiu ng AMR ln u tin c William Thomson, mt gio s i hc Glasgow (Scotland, Vng quc Anh) vo
nm 1856. Trong bi bo cng b trn tp san ca Hip hi Hong gia Anh (Proceedings of Royal Society), William
Thomson ch ra s thay i ca in tr ca cc mu vt dn kim loi st t l Niken v St di tc dng ca t
trng ngoi ca mt nam chm in c th t ti 3-5% nhit phng. Ngoi ra, s thay i ny cn ph thuc
vo phng o, gc tng i gia cng dng in (ca b o in tr) v t trng ngoi, hay chiu ca t
ha ca mu. y l pht hin u tin v hiu ng t in tr v tn gi hiu ng t in tr d hng (AMR) sau
ny c t vo nm 1951 bi J. Smit[2] .
Hiu ng AMR ch xy ra trong cc mu kim loi st t (c th t ti 5% nhit phng trong vt liu
permalloy-90 (Ni90Fe10)) hoc trong mt s cht bn dn hoc bn kim (c xy ra hiu ng Hall ln d thng (v d
nh trn Bismut..) nhng kh nh. Trong t hc, ngi ta c trng cho tnh cht t in tr d hng bi bin
thin in tr sut theo hai phng song song v vung gc vi t trng[3] , [4] :

v hiu ng AMR c nh gi thng qua t s:

110

T in tr d hng

vi:

L thuyt v hiu ng AMR ln u tin c gii thch vo nm 1971 bi m hnh tn x in t trn cc in t


dn ca G. T. Meaden (Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada)[5] : hin tng t in tr y ch yu b tri
phi bi s thay i khi lng hiu dng ca in t khi tn x trn cc vng nng lng, v gi tr t s AMR c
th ph thuc vo bc hai ca t trng:

vi , e l thi gian hi phc v in tch ca in t, m1, m2 l khi lng hiu dng trn cc vng nng lng.

T in tr d hng v t in tr vch men


Trong thi gian gn y, vi s pht trin ca spintronics, hiu ng t in tr d hng li c quan tm mnh m
tr li vi cc ng dng s dng cc cu trc nano t tnh hot ng da trn vch men. Trong cc cu trc nh, s
xut hin ca cc vch men dn n vic thay i ln cc tnh cht in do s tn x ca in t trn cc vch
men l rt ln v c gi l t in tr vch men. T in tr vch men t l thun vi t in tr d hng
theo cng thc[6] :

vi RDW, Rsat l in tr ca mu khi c vch men v khi trng thi bo ha t; l in tr d hng, l l


dy vch men, w, t ln lt l chiu rng v dy ca mu.

ng dng
AMR c s dng trong cc sensor o t trng, sensor AMR rt hu ch trong vic o t trng Tri t.
AMR trc y s dng trong u c ca cng my tnh, sau b thay th bi cc u c s dng hiu ng
GMR.
Gn y AMR li hi sinh tr li vi vic xy dng cc linh kin vch men v s dng t in tr vch men.
Hiu ng AMR c bit hu ch cho vic o c vn chuyn cc vch men trong cc dy nano (xc nh s
xut hin, o hiu ng t in tr vch men, o tc chuyn ng ca vch men...).

Ti liu tham kho


[1] W. Thomson, On the Electro-Dynamic Qualities of Metals:--Effects of Magnetization on the Electric Conductivity of Nickel and of Iron, Proc.
Roy. Soc. 8 (1857) 546-550. (http:/ / journals. royalsociety. org/ content/ mn212547v04qw388/ )
[2] J. Smit, Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic metals and alloys at low temperatures, Physica 17 (1951) 612-627. (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10.
1016/ 0031-8914(51)90117-6)
[3] T. R. McGuire, R. D. Hempstead, and S. Krongelb, Anisotropic magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic 3d ternary alloys, AIP Conf. Proc. -May 1976 -- Volume 29, p. 526. (http:/ / link. aip. org/ link/ ?APCPCS/ 29/ 526/ 1)
[4] T. R. McGuire, R. I. Potter, Anisotropic magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic 3d alloys, IEEE Trans. Magn. 11 (1975) 1018-1038. (http:/ /
ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. jsp?arnumber=1058782)
[5] G. T. Meaden, Conduction electron scattering and the resistance of the magnetic elements, Cont. Phys. 12 (1971) 313 - 337. (http:/ / www.
informaworld. com/ smpp/ content~content=a752575867~db=all)
[6] L. Thomas and S.S.P. Parkin, Current induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowire, in Handbook of Magnetism and Advanced
Magnetic Materials, Ed. by H. Kronmueller and S. Parkin, Vol. 2: Micromagnetism (2007) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN:
978-0-470-02217-7.

111

T in tr d hng

112

Xem thm

T in tr
T in tr khng l
T
in tr sut
Vch men

T in tr khng l
Hiu ng t in tr khng l (ting Anh: Giant magnetoresistance, vit tt l GMR) l s thay i ln ca in
tr cc vt liu t di tc dng ca t trng ngoi. Tn gi gc ting Anh ca GMR l "Giant
magnetoresistance", dch sang ting Vit cn cha thng nht (gia t "ln" hay "khng l") do vic so snh vi tn
gi mt hiu ng t in tr khc c tn ting Anh l "Colossal magnetoresistance" (T "Colossal" c ngha cn ln
hn vi "Giant"). V th, nhng nh nghin cu khoa hc vt liu, vt l cht rn Vit Nam gi tt chung hiu ng
ny l GMR.
ln ca GMR c th hin qua t s t
in tr:

Kt qu v hiu ng t in tr khng l trong cc siu mng Fe/Cr pht hin bi


nhm ca Albert Fert

T in tr khng l

Lch s ca GMR
GMR l mt hiu ng t in tr nhng l mt hiu ng lng t khc vi hiu ng t in tr thng thng c
nghin cu t cui th k 19. Hiu ng ny ln u tin c pht hin vo nm 1988. Nhm nghin cu ca Albert
Fert i hc Paris-11 trn cc siu mng Fe(001)/Cr(001) cho t s t tr ti vi chc %. Nhm nghin cu ca
Peter Grnberg Trung tm Nghin cu Jlich (c) pht hin ng ny trn mng mng kiu "bnh kp"
(sandwich) 3 lp Fe(12nm/Cr(1 nm)/Fe(12 nm) ch to bng phng php epitaxy chm phn t trn GaAs. Hai
tc gi ny nhn gii thng Nobel Vt l nm 2007 cho pht minh ny.
y l hai nhm c lp nghin cu v pht hin ra hiu ng GMR trn cc mng a lp c cc lp st t b phn
cch bi lp phn st t hoc phi t, ng thi a ra cc gi thit gii thch hiu ng ny.
Nm 1992, nhm ca A. E. Berkowitz (i hc California, San Diego, M) pht hin ra hiu ng GMR trn cc
mng hp kim d th Co-Cu vi cu trc l cc ht Co siu thun t trn nn Cu c t s t tr t ti hn 20%. Cc
nghin cu v sau tip tc pht trin v l gii hiu ng ny, v tnh t "khng l" khng cn c hiu theo ngha
ln ca hiu ng t in tr na, m hiu theo c ch to nn hiu ng: l c ch tn x ph thuc spin ca
in t.

C ch ca hiu ng GMR
in tr ca cc cht rn c to ra do s tn x ca in t, v c cc ng gp cho s tn x ny gm:
Tn x trn mng tinh th do dao ng
mng tinh th gi l tn x trn phonon.
Tn x trn spin ca cc phn t mang t
tnh, gi l tn x trn magnon.
Tn x trn sai hng mng tinh th
(defect).
Gn y cn c cc nghin cu ch ra s
tn x ca in t trn cc polaron t
gii thch hiu ng CMR.
Nh vy, hiu ng GMR c c l do s
tn x ca in t trn magnon. Khi c cc
phn t mang t tnh (v d cc lp st t
trong cc mng a lp hay cc ht siu
thun t trong cc mng hp kim d th) c
s nh hng khc nhau v mmen t (do
tc ng ca t trng ngoi), s dn n s
thay i v tnh cht tn x ca in t v do
M hnh hai dng ca Mott gii thch hiu ng GMR
s lm thay i in tr ca cht rn. Mt
cch chnh xc hn, hiu ng GMR trong cc mng a lp c gii thch bng m hnh hai dng in ca Mott (
ra t nm 1936).
M hnh hai dng
L khi nim c xut nm 1935 bi Mott gii thch cc tnh cht bt thng ca in tr trong
cc kim loi st t. Mott cho rng nhit thp sao cho tn x trn magnon nh th cc dng
chuyn di in t chim a s (c spin song song vi t ) v thiu s (c spin i song song vi t
) s khng b pha trn trong qu trnh tn x. S dn in c th coi l tng hp ca hai dng c lp
v khng cn bng ca hai loi spin c chiu khc nhau.

113

T in tr khng l
Cc lp phn st t (v d Cr) hay phi t (v d Cu) ng vai tr ngn cch gia cc lp st t, khin cho
mmen t ca cc lp st t phi c s nh hng khc nhau sao cho c s cn bng v t . S tc
ng ca t trng ngoi dn n vic thay i s nh hng ca mmen t mi lp, dn n s thay
i v dng dn ca cc spin phn cc, v dn n s thay i v in tr sut.

ng dng ca hiu ng GMR


K t nm 1992, hiu ng GMR bt u c ng dng trong cc u c d liu ca a cng my tnh thay
cho cc u c s dng hiu ng t in tr d hng c, lm tng tc c ghi thng tin. Ngi ta s dng cc
mng mng spin valve cho cc ng dng ny. Mt u im khin chng d dng thay th l kh nng chng
nhiu v chng n rt cao.
ng dng trong vic ch to cc cm bin t trng nhy, cc cm bin o gia tc...
Mt ng dng ln nht m ra t hiu ng ny l vic pht trin cc linh kin spintronics, cc linh kin in t th
h mi hot ng da trn vic iu khin dng spin ca in t. Hiu ng t in tr khng l, t in tr chui
hm l hai tr ct ca spintronics.

c thm
Hiu ng t in tr
Spintronics

Ti liu tham kho


M. N. Baibich, J. M. Broto, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Eitenne, g. Creuzet, A. Friederich, and J.
Chazelas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988) 2472. [1]
G. Binasch, P. Grnberg, F. Saurenbach, W. Zinn, Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 4828. [1]
A. E. Berkowitz, J. R. Mitchell, M. J. Carey, A. P. Young, S. Zhang, F. E. Spada, F. T. Parker, A. Hutten, G.
Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 3745. [2]

Ch thch
[1] http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v39/ i7/ p4828_1
[2] http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v68/ i25/ p3745_1

114

T in tr siu khng l

T in tr siu khng l
T in tr siu khng l (ting Anh:
Colossal magnetoresistance, vit tt l
CMR) l mt hiu ng t in tr xy
ra trong cc vt liu gm, xit c cu
trc kiu perovskite m trong s
thay i ca in tr sut ca vt liu
di tc dng ca t trng ngoi t
ti vi cp so vi gi tr ban u ca
n. Trong thut ng ting Vit, tn gi
ca CMR cha c thng nht do s
so snh vi hiu ng t in tr khng
l (GMR). Nu hiu ng GMR c
dch sang ting Vit l T in tr
ln th CMR c gi l 'T in tr
Cu trc tinh th ca vt liu gm kiu perovskite c kh nng cho hiu ng CMR
khng l. y l vn mang tnh
cht ng ngha, khng lm thay i bn cht vt l ca hiu ng. V th, thun tin, nhng ngi lm cng tc
nghin cu vt l Vit Nam thng ch gi tt l Hiu ng CMR.

Cu trc perovskite v hiu ng CMR


Hiu ng CMR ln u tin c pht hin vo nm 1993 bi nhm nghin cu ca S. Jin (AT&T Bell Laboratories,
Murray Hill, Hoa K)[1] , cng vi mt s ng nghip khc i Loan trn cc mng mng vt liu perovskite
La-Ca-Mn-O. Nhm nghin cu pht hin ra s thay i in tr ti hng ngn phn trm v t tn l hiu ng
Colossal magnetoresistance. Tip theo , hng lot nghin cu pht hin ra hiu ng CMR trong c vt liu khi
perovskite.
Vt liu perovskite l nhm cc vt liu c cu trc gn ging nhau, c t tn t vt liu gc CaTiO3. Cng thc
chung ca nhm vt liu ny l ABO3, trong A l cc nguyn t kim loi ha tr 2 (v tr A), B l mt trong s cc
nguyn t thuc nhm Mn, Ti, Co... (v d nh trong vt liu LaCaMnO3). Nu A l gc ban u (kim loi kim th)
th perovskite mang tnh cht phn st t. S pha tp thm cc nguyn t vo v tr A (thng l cc nguyn t t
him) hay mt s nguyn t vo v tr B c th dn ti s thay i mnh trong cu trc tinh th, s mo mng v dn
n vic thay i cu trc t, do tnh cht t c th thay i t phn st t sang st t, hay thun t... Xt trn
phng din vt l, perovskite mang nhiu tnh cht l th t s thay i tnh cht ny, v hiu ng CMR cng b chi
phi bi s thay i cu trc ny.

C ch v ng dng ca hiu ng CMR


Tn gi ca CMR khng ch khc vi GMR trn phng din con s, m khc v mt bn cht cng nh c ch. C
ch hnh thnh nn CMR khc vi c ch ca GMR v n nay vn cha c nhng l gii tht s tha ng. S phc
tp ny bt ngun t c ch to tnh cht t ca cc vt liu perovskite. Khc vi cc vt liu st t khc, c ch to
ra t tnh ca cc perovskite khng n trc tip t cc mmen t nguyn t m bt ngun t cc tng tc trao i
gin tip gia cc in ng v tr B (trong cng thc phn t ABO3), v d nh Mn l mt in hnh, vi cc in
xi (O). Tng tc trao i xy ra khi hm sng ca cc in ph nhau. Cc in ti v tr B thng c 2 ha tr (v d
nh c Mn3+, Mn4+) v nu tng tc gia cc in cng ha tr gi l tng tc siu trao i (super exchange - SE),
tng tc gia cc in khc du l tng tc trao i kp (double exchange - DE). Tng tc trao i kp cho tnh
cht st t, tng tc siu trao i cho tnh cht phn st t.

115

T in tr siu khng l
Nu v tr A ch c mt nguyn t kim loi kim th th khng c s pha trn ha tr ca cc in v tr B, do n
mang tnh phn st t. Nhng khi pha tp thm cc nguyn t t him (c ha tr 3) th s to ra s mt cn bng v
ha tr trong cc in B. Hn na, s pha tp ny to ra s bin dng ca mng tinh th (mo mng Jall-Teller). y
l c ch thay i tnh cht t ca perovskite. V nhiu tc gi cho rng hiu ng CMR bt ngun t c ch ny[2] .
Tuy nhin, c ch DE - SE thc ra cha l gii mt cch tha ng hiu ng CMR. Gn y, c tc gi li xut c
ch da trn polaron t[3] , [4] , cho rng: khi t t trng vo vt liu, kch thc ca cc polaron t pht trin dn
n s thay i kh nng tp trung cc in t trong qu trnh vn chuyn, hay ni n gin l s tng tc gia in
t vi cc polaron t do thay i tnh cht in ca vt liu. Nhn chung, c ch ca CMR cn gy nhiu tranh ci
trong cng ng vt l v do n tr thnh mt hiu ng hp dn c v mt nghin cu c bn ln kh nng ng
dng.
Cng vi cc hiu ng GMR v TMR, hiu ng CMR cng l mt nn tng cho s pht trin ca cng ngh
spintronic trong tng lai. Hin ti, CMR c s dng hiu qu trong cc cm bin i hi nhy cao v di lm
vic rng do s thay i in tr sut ln trong qu trnh t t trng.

Xem thm
Hiu ng t in tr
T in tr khng l
T in tr chui hm
Perovskite

Ti liu tham kho


[1] S. Jin, T. H. Tiefel, M. McCormack, R. A. Fastnacht, R. Ramesh, L. H. Chen Thousandfold Change in Resistivity in Magnetoresistive
La-Ca-Mn-O Films, Science 264 (1994) 413 - 415 (http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 264/ 5157/ 413?maxtoshow=&
HITS=10& hits=10& RESULTFORMAT=& andorexacttitleabs=and& andorexactfulltext=and& searchid=1& FIRSTINDEX=0&
volume=264& firstpage=413& resourcetype=HWCIT)
[2] M.B. Salamon, The physics of manganites: Structure and transport, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 (2001) 583-628 (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/
RMP/ v73/ i3/ p583_1)
[3] J. Burgy, E. Dagotto, M. Mayr, Percolative transitions with first-order characteristics in the context of colossal magnetoresistance
manganites Phys. Rev. B 67 (2001) 014410-014415 (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v67/ i1/ e014410)
[4] Z Yang, X. Bao,S. Tan, Y. Zhang, Magnetic polaron conduction in the colossal magnetoresistance material Fe1-xCdxCr2S4, Phys. Rev. B 69
(2004) 144407-144412 (http:/ / link. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v69/ e144407)

116

117

Chng 3: ng dng
Thu knh t
Thu knh t (ting Anh: Magnetic
lens) l mt loi thu knh hay mt loi
thit b dng hi t hoc lm lch
chm ht mang in tch (v d nh
in t, in...) di tc dng ca lc t
do t trng trong thu knh tc dng
ln chm ht. Kh nng hi t hoc
lm lch chm ht c th thay i nh
vic thay i t trng trong thu knh.
Thu knh t c s dng trong cc
thit b iu khin chm ht, m nhiu
nht l trong cc knh hin vi in t,
ng tia catt...
Cu trc ct ngang ca mt thu knh t s dng trong knh hin vi in t truyn qua.

Cu trc ca thu knh t


V mt bn cht, thu knh t l mt nam chm in. T trng c to ra trong khe hp nh mt h cc cun dy
cun quanh li lm bng vt liu t mm). C th tng tng thu knh t nh mt ng cng vi t trng sn
sinh ra t thnh cng. T trng trong thu knh c thay i bng cch thay i cng dng in trong cun
dy. V cun dy mang dng in nn n ta rt nhiu nhit v i hi mt h lm lnh (thng thng bng nc,
du, nit lng...). Cu trc cc nam chm ca thu knh t s theo kiu 2 cp cc t cho nhau thnh mt vng lin
tc N-S-N-S.
Nguyn l s khai v thu knh t bt u c pht trin t nm 1858 khi Plcker ghi nhn s lch ca chm tia
catt trong t trng .[1] , v sau c pht trin xy dng nn dao ng k vo nm 1897 bi Ferdinand Braun
.[2] . Vo nm 1891, hiu ng lch chm tia ny c Riecke nhn ra v pht trin thnh mt thu knh t n gin
cho php hi t cc chm tia in t, v sau l thuyt v thu knh t c pht trin bi Hans Busch trong cng
trnh xut bn nm 1926 [3]

Thu knh t

Quang sai ca thu knh t


Quang sai v mt bn cht l s km hon
ho ca thu knh. Nu mt thu knh t
hon ho v mt quang hc, n phi chuyn
ha mi im trn vt thnh mt im nh
tng ng, v cho hnh nh hnh chiu hai
chiu chnh xc v mt hnh hc ca vt.
Trn thc t, vic hi t mt chm ht mang
in c nng lng cao thng khng d
dng v lc hiu ng quang sai b xut
hin.

Sc sai
Sc sai lin quan n s km n sc trong
bc sng ca chm ht mang in. Mt
chm ht mang in chuyn ng s tng
ng vi mt b sng c nhiu bc sng
khc nhau, hay bn cht l do mi ht mang
in s c ng nng khc nhau. Do , cc
sng c bc sng khc nhau s hi t ti
cc tiu im khc nhau, to ra mt a tn
rng ti thiu trn mt phng tiu (hiu
Hai loi quang sai, sc sai (a): chm ht c bc sng khc nhau do chm tia
dng) ca thu knh, thay v l chm tia
song song khng hi t ti mt im m to thnh mt a, cu sai (b): chm tia
song song hi t ti mt im nh nguyn l
cng xa trc chnh cng b km hi t.
ca quang hnh hc. Trn thc t, sc sai l
quang sai tn ti bt k dng thu knh no (k c thu knh thy tinh) do tnh cht khng n sc ca bc x.
Hin nay, ngi ta c nhiu cch khc nhau khc phc iu ny, v d nh s dng chm in t pht ra t
sng pht x trng c n sc rt cao, hoc s dng b lc nng lng, lm tn x i cc in t c nng lng
khng mong mun, do lm tng n sc ca sng.

Cu sai
Cu sai l dng quang sai ch c trong cc thu knh t do s phn b t trng khng hon ho. S km hon ho
ny dn n vic cc chm tia xa trc chnh s hi t km hn so vi cc chm tia i gn trc chnh v do cng
to ra mt a tn rng thay v hi t ti mt im.
Hin nay, vic loi tr cu sai ang l mt vn ln ca k thut hin vi in t nhm to ra cc knh hin vi in
t truyn qua c phn gii siu cao, di mc nguyn t.

118

Thu knh t

119

Ti liu tham kho


[1] Plcker, J. (1858). ber die Einwirkung des Magneten auf die elektrischen Entladungen in verdnnten Gasen. Poggendorffs Annalen der
Physik und Chemie 103: 88--106. doi: 10.1002/andp.18581790106 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ andp. 18581790106).
[2] Ferdinand Braun, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909, Biography (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1909/ braun-bio.
html).
[3] "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986, Perspectives - Life through a Lens" (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1986/
perspectives. html).

Xem thm
Knh hin vi in t
Nam chm in

in t hc spin
in t hc spin (ting Anh: spintronics) l mt ngnh a lnh vc m mc tiu chnh l thao tc v iu khin cc
bc t do ca spin trong cc h cht rn[1] . Ni mt cch n gin, spintronics l mt ngnh nghin cu mi nhm
to ra cc linh kin mi da trn vic iu khin v thao tc spin ca in t.

Spin ca in t
in t c hai c tnh rt quan trng l in tch v spin. in tch ca in t c gi l in tch nguyn t v c
gi tr c trng l e = 1,6.10-19 C (mang du m), v c con ngi khai thc t rt lu m c trng n gin
l dng in. Cc linh kin in t truyn thng s dng in trng iu khin in tch ca in t trong cc
linh kin.
Spin l mt c trng ca in t, c hiu mt cch n gin l to ra t vic in t (mang in tch) chuyn
ng quay quanh trc ca n ging nh Tri t v cc hnh tinh... to nn mmen ng lng spin v mmen t
spin. Spin ca in t c ln l

, v c th nh hng theo 2 chiu l chiu ln (spin up) v chiu

xung (spin down).


Mmen t spin ca in t c gi tr:
B = 9.274 009 49(80) 10-24 JTesla-1 l Magneton Bohr, n v ca mmen t, g = 2,0023 cho in t t do goi l
tha s Land.
Thc t m t spin nh chuyn ng quay ch l cch m t n gin mang tnh cht hnh nh nhng khng hon
ton chnh xc, spin thc t l c trng ca cc ht c bn. Cc ht c bn c spin bn nguyn gi l cc fermion,
chng tun theo phn b Fermi-Dirac, cn cc ht c bn c spin nguyn gi l cc boson, chng tun theo phn b
Bose-Einstein.

S ra i ca spintronics
S hnh thnh ca spintronics xut pht t nhng pht kin v hiu ng t in tr. Spintronics bt u ra i vi s
pht hin ca hiu ng t in tr khng l (giant magnetoresistance - GMR) c pht hin vo nm 1988, ng
thi bi 2 nhm nghin cu Php lnh o bi Albert Fert[2] v c do Peter Grnberg ng u[3] v hiu ng
t in tr chui hm (tunneling magnetoresistance - TMR) vo nm 1995[4] . Hai tc gi ng u hai nhm ny l
Albert Fert v Peter Grnberg nhn c gii thng Nobel Vt l nm 2007 cho nhng ng gp quan trng cho
s hnh thnh ca spintronics trn c s pht minh v hiu ng t in tr khng l.

in t hc spin

120

Mc tiu quan trng ca spintronics l hiu v c ch tng tc gia spin ca cc ht v mi trng cht rn, t
c th iu khin c v mt cng nh s chuyn vn (transportation) ca dng spin trong vt liu. Nhng cu hi
ln c t ra cho ngnh spintronics l:
Cch no hiu qu nht phn cc mt h spin?
Mt h spin c th nh trng thi nh hng trong bao lu?
Lm th no ghi nhn spin?

Cc khi nim v thao tc


trn linh kin spintronics
phn cc: Hiu mt cch n
gin l t l sai lch gia spin nh
hng theo 2 chiu ln v xung,
c cho bi cng thc:

M hnh mt s linh kin spin: a) spin diode, b,c,d) spin transistor

vi

ln lt l mt spin up v spin down.

Dng phn cc spin: L khi nim c xut nm 1935 bi Mott gii thch cc tnh cht bt thng ca
in tr trong cc kim loi st t. Mott cho rng nhit thp sao cho tn x trn magnon nh th cc
dng chuyn di in t chim a s (c spin song song vi t ) v thiu s (c spin i song song vi t ) s
khng b pha trn trong qu trnh tn x. S dn in c th coi l tng hp ca hai dng c lp v khng cn
bng ca hai loi spin c chiu khc nhau. chnh l khi nim v dng phn cc spin. V m hnh ca Mott
c gi l m hnh hai dng in, v sau c nhm ca Campel m rng vo nm 19367, v sau tip tc
c b sung hon thin v l mt khi nim quan trng m t hiu ng t in tr cng nh cc qu trnh
trong linh kin spintronics.
Tim spin, bm spin: Trong mt s cht trng thi st t, mt spin up v down l cn bng nhau v khng
to ra dng phn cc spin v khng hu ch cho cc linh kin spintronics. Ngi ta c th to ra cc dng phn
cc spin trong cc cht ny bng cch dng cc ngun a dng phn cc spin vo t bn ngoi, gi l qu
trnh tim spin (spin injection) hay bm spin (spin pumping).
Truyn dn spin
Tch ly spin
Vo thi im hin ti, cc nghin cu v spintronics c hai xu hng:

in t hc spin

Cc linh kin da trn cc vt liu t kim loi


Hng nghin cu ny pht trin da trn cc thnh tu v hiu ng t in tr, to ra t cc mng mng kim loi st
t. Sn phm mc thng phm ca hng nghin cu ny l cng dung lng cao, b nh RAM t in
tr... Hng nghin cu ny ang tr nn mnh m v rt c trin vng pht trin thnh hin thc vi s pht trin
ca dng linh kin iu khin cc vch men trong cc cu trc nano t tnh. Vic iu khin ng hc ca cc
vch men cho php to ra cc cng lgic, cc b nh... vi cht lng cao v c cu rt n gin.

Hng nghin cu da trn cc linh kin bn dn


Hng nghin cu ny to ra cc linh kin spintronic da trn vic iu khin dng in t phn cc spin trong cc
vt liu bn dn. to ra c linh kin loi ny th vic tim spin, iu khin spin v ghi nhn spin phn cc trong
cht bn dn ng vai tr then cht. Hin hng nghin cu ny ang gp nhng cn tr ln:
To ra cc cht bn dn mang tnh cht t (gi l cc cht bn dn pha long t) c tnh st t trn nhit
phng, hoc cc cht bn kim st t c phn cc spin cao.
a c dng in t phn cc spin vo trong cht bn dn trn qung ng di ghi nhn spin.
Cc vn gp phi ca cc lp chuyn tip gia cc lp vt liu gy s tn x v lm mt phn cc spin.
Vng mc gia vic s dng lp phn cc spin l cc kim loi st t hay cc vt liu bn dn t, s dng cc lp
tip xc t chui hm....

Mt s linh kin spintronics


Mt cch tng i, c th chia cc linh kin spintronics thnh 3 th h:
Th h th nht: Gm cc linh kin da trn cc hiu ng GMR, TMR, trong cc mng mng t tip xc d th
kim loi-kim loi hoc kim loi-in mi[5] ..., v d nh cc cm bin, u c t tr trong cc a cng, cc b
nh RAM t in tr (MRAM), cc transitor kim loi (hay transitor lng cc), transitor valse spin, cng
tc/kho ng m spin, ...
Th h th hai: Bao gm cc linh kin hot ng da trn vic tim hoc bm dng phn cc spin qua tip xc
d th bn dn-st t hay bn dn t-bn dn (iu ny gip cho vic tn dng c cc k thut vi in t hin
nay). l cc mch kho siu nhanh, cc b vi x l spin v mch logic lp trnh c,... Cc linh kin ny s
dng cc vt liu bn dn pha long t, bn dn st t hay cc bn kim, cc linh kin vn chuyn n o
(ballistic electron transport) s dng hiu ng t in tr xung kch, v cc loi transistor spin nh th h th
nht. Mt th h linh kin spin mi ang c pht trin mnh v rt c trin vng hin nay l cc b nh t v
cc cng lgic da trn iu khin vch men trong cc cu trc nano t tnh[6] , [7] .
Th h th ba: L cc linh kin s dng cc cu trc nano (dng chm lng t, dy v si nano) v s dng cc
trng thi spin in t n l nh cng logic lng t (l c s cho my tnh lng t), cc transistor n spin
(SSET), ...
Cm bin van spin thuc th h linh kin u tin c ch to v a vo s dng mc thng phm t
cui th k 20. Mt s linh kin in hnh ca th h ny l knh hin vi t in tr, u c ghi cng tc cao,
phm bm khng tip xc, ng c khng chi than, gii m vch, m tc , my tr thnh, ... Cc b nh MRAM
khng t xa ang bt u c sn phm thng phm, v c d on l s chim lnh th trng thng mi v
tiu dng trong nhng nm gn y.

121

in t hc spin

u im ca cc linh kin spintronics


Tiu th t nng lng hn: Vic chuyn trng thi 0 v 1 trong cc linh kin in t truyn thng c thc hin
bng cch vn chuyn in tch vo/ra khi cc knh catransistor. iu i hi phi tiu tn nng lng v
vic vn chuyn in tch i hi phi to ra c dc ca trng th (hay in trng), do b tn hao thnh
nhit v khng th b p c, trong khi cc linh kin spintronics o trng thi da trn vic i nh hng
spin.
Khng gy n/nhiu nh in tch: spin khng lin kt d dng vi in trng pht tn (tr khi tng tc
spin-qu o rt mnh trong cc vt liu) nn trnh c nhiu v n ca in tch.
Thao tc nhanh hn v khng phi mt thi gian cho vic vn chuyn in tch, ch mt thi gian o phng
spin. Tm li, i vi spin ch cn o chiu theo 2 chiu ln v xung nn i hi tiu tn t nng lng v
mt t thi gian hn nhiu.
Ngi ta d on rng cng ngh spintronics s gp phn quan trng vo s pht trin ca cng ngh in t - tin
hc - vin thng trong th k 21. Cc c trng ca cc thit b in t th h mi ny c tnh t hp cao (c in
t hoc, t hc v quang t), a chc nng, thng minh, nh gn, tiu th t nng lng nhng hiu sut cao, x l
v kh lm ti (refresh) thng tin vi tc rt cao...

Xem thm

St t
T in tr
T in tr khng l
Spin

Lin kt ngoi
Room temperature spintronics consortium [8]
B nh RAM t tr [9]

Ti liu tham kho


[1] I. Zutic, J. Fabrian, S.D. Sarma, "Spintronics: Fundamentals and applications", Rev. Mod. Phys. 76 (2004) 323 (http:/ / scitation. aip. org/
getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal& id=RMPHAT000076000002000323000001& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes)
[2] M. N. Baibich, J. M. Broto, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Eitenne, g. Creuzet, A. Friederich, and J. Chazelas, "Giant
Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices", Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988) 2472. (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/
v61/ i21/ p2472_1)
[3] G. Binasch, P. Grnberg, F. Saurenbach, W. Zinn, "Enhanced magnetoresistance in layered magnetic structures with antiferromagnetic
interlayer exchange", Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 4828. (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRB/ v39/ i7/ p4828_1)
[4] J. S. Moodera, Lisa R. Kinder, Terrilyn M. Wong, R. Meservey "Large Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Ferromagnetic Thin
Film Tunnel Junctions". Phys. Rev. Lett. 74: 32733276, 1995 (http:/ / link. aps. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v74/ p3273)
[5] C. Chappert, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau,"The emergence of spin electronics in data storage", Nat. Mat. 6 (2007) 813-823 (http:/ / www.
nature. com/ nmat/ journal/ v6/ n11/ abs/ nmat2024. html)
[6] C.H. Marrow, "Spin-polarised currents and magnetic domain walls", Adv. Phys. 54 (2005) 585. (http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/
content~content=a741576309~db=all~order=page)
[7] D.A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C.C. Faulker, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, R.P. Cowburn, "Magnetic Domain-Wall Logic", Science 309 (2005)
1688-1692 (http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 309/ 5741/ 1688?maxtoshow=& HITS=10& hits=10&
RESULTFORMAT=& andorexacttitleabs=and& andorexactfulltext=and& searchid=1& FIRSTINDEX=0& volume=309& firstpage=1688&
resourcetype=HWCIT)
[8] http:/ / www. spinart. org/
[9] http:/ / vatlyvietnam. org/ home/ modules. php?name=News& file=article& sid=161

122

Ton nh in t

123

Ton nh in t
Ton nh in t hay Ton k in t l mt k
thut phn tch cu trc in t ca vt rn, c
pht trin t knh hin vi in t truyn qua, da
trn nguyn tc ghi li nh ton k ca chm in
t tn x qua vt rn, vi chm in t gc ban u.

Nguyn l ca ton nh in t
Ton nh in t hon ton tng t vi php ton
nh quang hc (c pht minh bi Dennis Gabor),
ch c iu sng c s dng y l sng in t
v s tn x ca sng in t c ghi li l do s
tn x trn trng in t ca mu vt. thc hin
php ton nh in t, ngi ta ghi li s giao thoa
ca 2 chm in t kt hp c pht ra t cng
mt ngun (c chia thnh hai nh b lng knh
tch chm tia). to nh giao thoa cht lng cao,
in t c dng phi l sng in t c pht ra
t cc sng pht x trng (c n sc rt cao).
Khi mt chm in t chiu qua mu vt, sng in
t b lch pha do s tn x vi t trng v trng
tnh in ca mu vt. V s dch pha c cho bi
cng thc:

S nguyn l cu trc ca mt h ghi ton nh in t

s hng u tin l thnh phn tn x trn trng tnh in, s hng th hai l tn x trn t trng. Cng thc c th
vit gn li thnh[1] :

vi
t;

ln lt l trng tnh in ni trung bnh, dy ca mu vt,


l th vct sinh ra do t trng ca mu vt.

l bc sng v th tng tc ca in

Ton nh in t

124

nh ton nh ghi li trn mn nh l hnh nh


giao thoa ca chm tia in t ban u v
chm tia in t ( b lch pha) sau khi
truyn qua vt. Cng ca nh phn b
c cho bi cng thc[2] :

nh ton nh in t ghi li xung quanh mt vch men ca mu mng mng


t

vi

l bin sng in t v gc chng chp 2 chm tia.

Lch s pht trin, u im v hn ch


Ton nh in t c pht trin t nguyn l ton k ca Dennis Garbor[3] bi nhm nghin cu ca Gottfried
Mllenstedt, Heiner Dker, v Herbert Wahl Trng i hc Tbingen, c vo gia nhng thp nin 1950[4] v
tip tc c pht trin mnh k t thp nin 1970 vi s ra i ca sng pht x in t pht x trng.
Ngy nay, ton nh in t tr thnh mt k thut c pht trin mnh, cho php nghin cu cu trc t ca cc
mng mng (ging nh cc k thut khc ca TEM nh hin vi Lorentz...). im mnh ca ton nh in t l c
kh nng cho phn gii khng gian rt cao (c th t ti cp di 1 nm) v rt nhy vi s thay i ca
trng in t trong mu vt do vy c kh nng to phn gii thi gian rt tt.
im km l qu trnh ci t phc tp v i hi chm in t c tnh kt hp cao, c ngha l n i hi nhng
ngun pht in t pht x trng vi cht lng rt cao (iu ny nh hng nhiu n gi thnh v tnh cht hot
ng).

Ti liu tham kho


[1] J. N. Chapman, M. R. Scheinfein, Transmission electron microscopies of magnetic microstructures, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200 (1999)
729-740 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-3Y2NV45-1X& _user=10& _coverDate=10/ 31/ 1999&
_alid=663997334& _rdoc=1& _fmt=full& _orig=search& _cdi=5312& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1& _acct=C000050221&
_version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=0d8fff815d08bd4190ce4cc1ca977bca)
[2] H. Lichte, Electron holography approaching atomic resolution, Ultramicroscopy 20 (1986) 293-304 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/
science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TW1-46JGM9K-98& _user=6291618& _coverDate=12/ 31/ 1986& _alid=663999253& _rdoc=1&
_fmt=summary& _orig=search& _cdi=5549& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1& _acct=C000009999& _version=1&
_urlVersion=0& _userid=6291618& md5=d59252e454ccdcb55ae8d244c36f3232)
[3] D. Gabor, Nature 161 (1948) 777

Ton nh in t

125

[4] L. Allard, T. Nolan, D. Joy, Electron holography: A new view of materials structure, ORNL Review (http:/ / www. ornl. gov/ info/
ornlreview/ rev28-4/ text/ electron. htm)

Xem thm
Ton k
Knh hin vi in t truyn qua
Knh hin vi Lorentz

Knh hin vi lc t
Knh hin vi lc t (ting Anh: Magnetic
Force Microscope, thng vit tt l MFM)
l mt loi knh hin vi thuc nhm knh
hin vi qut u d (SPM), c s dng
xy dng hnh nh s phn b ca tnh cht
t trn b mt vt rn da trn vic ghi nhn
lc tng tc (lc t) gia mi d t tnh vi
b mt ca mu.

Nguyn l hot ng
V mt nguyn l, MFM hot ng tng t
nh AFM. Mi d qut trn b mt mu
c s dng l vt liu t tnh khi qut trn
b mt mu s c s tng tc vi cc thnh
phn t tnh trn b mt, qua v bn
phn b cc thnh phn t tnh b mt, m
c th y l cu trc men ca vt rn[1]
.

nh chp hin vi in t mi d ca MFM

Lc tng tc t gia mi d v b mt vt
rn c xc nh bi[2] :

hoc trong ch hot ng tip xc, ngi ta c th ghi li gradient lc t c xc nh bi:

vi
mu vt.

ln lt l thnh phn theo trc z ca t ha ca mi d, v cng t trng ti b mt

Knh hin vi lc t

126

u im v hn ch
u im ca MFM: MFM l thit
b dng phn tch cu trc t ca
vt rn c nhiu u im. u im
u tin l c kh nng phn tch
cu trc t m khng i hi s ph
hy hay x l mu nh knh hin vi
Lorentz, ng thi phn gii
khng b gii hn bi hin tng
nhiu x, m ch ph thuc vo kch
thc v bc qut ca mi d trn
b mt mu vt.

nh chp phn b men t ca b mt cng, s tng phn y l tng phn v


tnh cht t

im yu ca MFM: MFM ghi


nh da vo hin tng qut nn phn gii thi gian thp, kh nng ghi nh chm. ng thi, vic ghi nh tc
thi trong qu trnh t ha ca MFM km hn rt nhiu so vi knh hin vi Lorentz. Vic ghi li cu trc t ca
cc vt liu t mm kh hn do trng phn tn trn mi nh hng n men t ca mu vt.

Ti liu tham kho


[1] C. Schoenenberger and S. F. Alvarado, Magnetic force microscopy and its application to longitudinal thin films, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 93
(1991) 123-127 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-46G62NK-17R& _user=6291618&
_origUdi=B6TJJ-3V7S9C9-H& _fmt=high& _coverDate=02/ 28/ 1991& _rdoc=1& _orig=article& _acct=C000009999& _version=1&
_urlVersion=0& _userid=6291618& md5=469e032e995ebb369b80353a697f0a94)
[2] Leon Abelmann et al. Comparing the resolution of magnetic force microscopes using the CAMST reference samples J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
190 (1998) 135-147 (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TJJ-3V7S9C9-H& _user=10& _coverDate=12/
01/ 1998& _alid=661030238& _rdoc=1& _fmt=full& _orig=search& _cdi=5312& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=1&
_acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=818b5b41d1b002ef18f91dc7cefaed5f)

Xem thm
Knh hin vi qut u d
Knh hin vi lc nguyn t
Knh hin vi Lorentz

Ngun v ngi ng gp vo bi

Ngun v ngi ng gp vo bi
T hc Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3189246 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, Mxn, Tttrung, Zatrach, 1 sa i v danh
t ha Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2322523 Ngi ng gp: Anhdung86, Deshi, Nguyn Thanh Quang, Tttrung
cm t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2480084 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi, LMBRPOVOA
t thm Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3356144 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, Lu Ly
T ha Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3369203 Ngi ng gp: Anhdung86, Deshi, Nguyn Thanh Quang, Thaisk, Vinhtantran
T gio Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3369202 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, Mekong Bluesman
T tr Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2909060 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Dictator, Tttrung
Lc khng t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3355945 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi
Nhit Curie Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3354268 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Truong Manh An, 2 sa i v danh
ng cong t ha Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3373517 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi
ng cong t nhit Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3373518 Ngi ng gp: Apple, DHN, Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, Thaisk
Mmen lng cc t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3355973 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, Newone, Pham Thuc Tuyen, Tttrung
Nhit Nel Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2998750 Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Nng lng vi t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3354958 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Studryan
phn cc spin Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3374181 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, 1 sa i v danh
Thun t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3283002 Ngi ng gp: AnhAnh-Ams, Apple, Deshi, Lu Ly, Truong Manh An, 1 sa i v danh
Siu thun t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3356018 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Cheers!, Deshi, 1 sa i v danh
Nghch t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2574918 Ngi ng gp: AnhAnh-Ams, Apple, Lu Ly
Sng spin Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2154790 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, 1 sa i v danh
St t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3174055 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Casablanca1911, Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, 1 sa i v danh
men t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3373454 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Studryan, 1 sa i v danh
Vch men Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3371092 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, Vinhtantran
Phn st t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3356841 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi
Phng trnh Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3356757 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, 1 sa i v danh
Vt liu t cng Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3371715 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi, Nguyn Thanh Quang, Tttrung, 4 sa i v danh
Vt liu t mm Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3371717 Ngi ng gp: Casablanca1911, Deshi, 2 sa i v danh
Cng ngh ngui nhanh Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3339924 Ngi ng gp: DHN, Deshi, Mxn, Nguyn Thanh Quang, Vanminhhanoi, 2 sa i v danh
FINEMET Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3291360 Ngi ng gp: DHN, Deshi
Hiu ng Hopkinson Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3355842 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi
Hiu ng Meissner Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3310735 Ngi ng gp: Daotamb2, Mekong Bluesman, Mxn, Newone, Tttrung, 1 sa i v danh
Hiu ng t nhit Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3310744 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi
Hiu ng t quang Kerr Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3082952 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Tranletuhan
Hiu ng t in tr Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3342743 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Dang Nguyen Khang, Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, 2 sa i v danh
Hp kim Heusler Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2173891 Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Magnetit Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3401525 Ngi ng gp: DHN, Deshi, Tranletuhan, Volga
Nam chm Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3305230 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Hong Anh Quyt, Llevanloc, Mekong Bluesman, Mxn, Newone, Porcupine, Tttrung, 5 sa i
v danh
Nam chm Neodymi Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2894207 Ngi ng gp: DHN, Deshi, Meotrangden
Nam chm samarium coban Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2245856 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi, Paris
Nam chm vnh cu Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3353495 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Hong Anh Quyt, Kd, Llevanloc, Nguyn Thanh Quang, Tttrung, 4 sa i v danh
Nam chm in Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3213958 Ngi ng gp: Anh008, Ctmt, Deshi, Dinhtuydzao, Hong Anh Quyt, Vinhtantran, 20 sa i v danh
Nam chm t him Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3353496 Ngi ng gp: DHN, Deshi, Newone, 1 sa i v danh
Nc t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3411772 Ngi ng gp: Arisa, Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, Mxn, Tranletuhan, Tttrung, Zatrach, 11 sa i v danh
Permalloy Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3356186 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Vng Ngn H, 2 sa i v danh
Perovskit (cu trc) Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3356198 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Pq, Tranletuhan
Spin valve Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3363948 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, 1 sa i v danh
Terfenol-D Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2155603 Ngi ng gp: DHN, Deshi, Meotrangden
Tng phn pha vi sai Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3368952 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi
T in tr chui hm Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3369214 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, 1 sa i v danh

127

Ngun v ngi ng gp vo bi
T in tr d hng Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3356103 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, 1 sa i v danh
T in tr khng l Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3369215 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Guillom, 1 sa i v danh
T in tr siu khng l Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3369216 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi, 1 sa i v danh
Thu knh t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3366562 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!, Deshi
in t hc spin Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3373287 Ngi ng gp: Deshi, Mekong Bluesman, 5 sa i v danh
Ton nh in t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3367373 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Cheers!, Deshi
Knh hin vi lc t Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3346786 Ngi ng gp: Deshi

128

Ngun, giy php, v ngi ng gp vo hnh

Ngun, giy php, v ngi ng gp vo hnh


Tp tin:HM1.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:HM1.JPG Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Magnetisme 1.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Magnetisme_1.jpg Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: Zatrach
Tp tin:Hard disk platters and head.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Hard_disk_platters_and_head.jpg Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Ngi ng gp: User:Mfield
Tp tin:NiFe1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:NiFe1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi
Tp tin:Domain1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Domain1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Tugiao1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Tugiao1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Magnetostriction by Zureks.gif Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Magnetostriction_by_Zureks.gif Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: User:Zureks
Tp tin: HYSTERESIS.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:HYSTERESIS.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:B-H loop.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:B-H_loop.png Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Ngi ng gp: Alno, Chaiken,
Inductiveload, Omegatron, Pieter Kuiper, Sautoir, WikipediaMaster, Zureks, 3 sa i v danh
Tp tin:HYSTERESIS.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:HYSTERESIS.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Curie_temp1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Curie_temp1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:MAG2.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MAG2.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:MAG1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MAG1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:TMag.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:TMag.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Magnetic moment.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Magnetic_moment.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: User:Eman
Tp tin:Square Py.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Square_Py.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:TMR.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:TMR.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Paramagnetic_probe_without_magnetic_field.svg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Paramagnetic_probe_without_magnetic_field.svg Giy php: Public
Domain Ngi ng gp: User:Jensel
Tp tin:Domain_CoIr.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Domain_CoIr.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Hnh:Blochdomainwall.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Blochdomainwall.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Blochdomainwall.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Blochdomainwall.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:DWconfiguration.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:DWconfiguration.png Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Ngi ng gp: User:Ndthe
Tp tin:Barkhausensprung.gif Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Barkhausensprung.gif Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Denkwrdig, Denniss, Kersti
Nebelsiek, Mattes, Pieter Kuiper
Tp tin: Phansattu1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Phansattu1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Lienketphansattu.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Lienketphansattu.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:HM3.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:HM3.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: NdFeB.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:NdFeB.jpg Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:HYS_SM.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:HYS_SM.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:SM_Finemet.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:SM_Finemet.JPG Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: Meltspinning.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Meltspinning.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: Meltspinning2.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Meltspinning2.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Meltspinning3.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Meltspinning3.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:BF-DF TEM.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:BF-DF_TEM.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Hopkinson_eff.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Hopkinson_eff.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Magnet 4.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Magnet_4.jpg Giy php: GNU Free Documentation License Ngi ng gp: Andrius.v, ElRaki,
Materialscientist, Saperaud, The Evil IP address, Traitor, 4 sa i v danh
Tp tin:EfektMeisnera.svg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:EfektMeisnera.svg Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Piotr Jaworski, PioM ENDEPL;
POLAND/Pozna
Tp tin:MCE3.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MCE3.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi
Tp tin: MCE2.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MCE2.JPG Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: MCE1.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MCE1.JPG Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: M-H.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:M-H.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:MOKE.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MOKE.PNG Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Ngi ng gp: User:Tone
Tp tin:GMR.svg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:GMR.svg Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Ngi ng gp: Guillom, Igge, Nojhan,
Pieter Kuiper, 2 sa i v danh
File:Magnetite Russia.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Magnetite_Russia.jpg Giy php: GNU Free Documentation License Ngi ng gp: Akinom,
Kilom691, Sbisolo
Tp tin:Magnetite444.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Magnetite444.jpg Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: User:Benjamint444
Tp tin:HeavyMineralsBeachSand.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:HeavyMineralsBeachSand.jpg Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Photograph
taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster).
Tp tin:MagnetiteRing.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MagnetiteRing.jpg Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Ngi ng gp: Steelerdon (talk).
Original uploader was Steelerdon at en.wikipedia
Tp tin:Magnet0873.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Magnet0873.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: LeYaYa, Pieter Kuiper, , 1 sa i v
danh
Tp tin: Neodymag.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Neodymag.jpg Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Apple, Deshi, Vng Ngn H
Tp tin:Ring.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Ring.JPG Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Ngi ng gp: Magnequench
Tp tin:Hdd od srodka.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Hdd_od_srodka.jpg Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: EugeneZelenko, Qurren, TOR, Yann, 3
sa i v danh
Tp tin:RM1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:RM1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: HM1.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:HM1.JPG Giy php: khng r Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Electromagnet1.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Electromagnet1.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Solenoid.svg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Solenoid.svg Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: User Nmnogueira on en.wikipedia
Tp tin:Ferrofluid Magnet under glass edit.jpg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Ferrofluid_Magnet_under_glass_edit.jpg Giy php: GNU Free Documentation
License Ngi ng gp: Gregory F. Maxwell < gmaxwell@gmail.com>
Tp tin:RM2.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:RM2.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Ferrofluid-1.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Ferrofluid-1.JPG Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Ngi ng gp: User:Mnolf
Tp tin:NiFe2.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:NiFe2.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Thnh vin:Deshi

129

Ngun, giy php, v ngi ng gp vo hnh


Tp tin:Perovskite.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Perovskite.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Kilom691, Ndthe
Tp tin:La02Ca08MnO3.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:La02Ca08MnO3.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: User:Ndthe
Tp tin:Spin-valve GMR.svg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Spin-valve_GMR.svg Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Ngi ng gp:
Biezl, Guillom, Mdd, Pieter Kuiper, 1 sa i v danh
Tp tin:Spin valve 1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Spin_valve_1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: User:Ndthe
Tp tin:Exchange-bias.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Exchange-bias.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Lorentz microscopy2.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Lorentz_microscopy2.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:DPC Py 20nm.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:DPC_Py_20nm.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: GMR.svg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:GMR.svg Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Ngi ng gp: Guillom, Igge, Nojhan,
Pieter Kuiper, 2 sa i v danh
Tp tin: Spin-valve GMR.svg Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Spin-valve_GMR.svg Giy php: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Ngi ng gp:
Biezl, Guillom, Mdd, Pieter Kuiper, 1 sa i v danh
Tp tin:CMR1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:CMR1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:ElectromagneticLens.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:ElectromagneticLens.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Quangsai1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Quangsai1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin: Spintronicdevice.JPG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Spintronicdevice.JPG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Electronholography1.png Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Electronholography1.png Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:Electronholography2.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:Electronholography2.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:MFM1.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MFM1.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi
Tp tin:MFM2.PNG Ngun: http://vi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tp_tin:MFM2.PNG Giy php: Public Domain Ngi ng gp: Deshi

130

Giy php

Giy php
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

131