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# UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Dept of Mechanical and Production engineering

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Practical Report

COMPRESSION OF SPRINGS

Details:

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Workshop:

EXPERIMENT

Programme:

Module:

## Mechanics of Materials & Machines 1 (MECH 1001)

Group:

MTX 12

Names:

OOZEERKHAN M. Heykaal

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PEERBUX M. Mehdi

Date Submitted:

POORUN Rishikesh
PIRTHEE Medha (1016737)

28 February 2011

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## Compression of Springs Experiment

Contents
Information Sheet3
Introduction.4

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Experiment5

Procedure..5

Results..6
Observation10

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Discussion10

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## Compression of Springs Experiment

Information Sheet
Below is the list of variables and constants as defined throughout this report;
Independent variables:
-

The different loads (Newton, N) are applied to the springs and the
Variables are measured.

## The extension produced by the spring when a load is applied to it,

Measures in millimeter (mm)

Dependent variables:
1. Deflection

1. Modulus of Ridigity, G-

## ( 77kN/mm2 for spring steel)

Accuracy:

Constants:

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Principle:

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All data are recorded and calculated up to 4 significant figures, or otherwise stated as follows;

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For this experiment, data are recorded while the material obeys Hookes law of elasticity.

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## Compression of Springs Experiment

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Introduction
In this experiment, we will be dealing with three different helical steel wire springs (ground flattened coils
with standard industrial ends). When the springs are subjected to different loads, the extension produced
is directly proportional to the load applied while the spring obeys Hookes law.

If a graph of deflection produced against load is plotted, the reciprocal of the gradient will give the spring
stiffness, while obeying Hookes law.
Stiffness = n

The theoretical value of spring stiffness can be determined by using the formula:

Stiffness = d4G
8xNxD3

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## Where, d= Wire diameter

N= Number of turns

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## Compression of Springs Experiment

Experiment:
Objectives:
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Measuring the stiffness of a spring and compare it with the theoretical value.

Observing how the stiffness of the spring is affected by the physical dimensions of the springs.
- a wall mounted channel fitted with a means of holding one end of a helical spring
while a loading rod with a shaped cone bears on the other end, Spring, masses, vernier
caliper, micrometer screw gauge.

Apparatus

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Equipment

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Figure 1:

Procedure:

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1. The springs internal diameter is measured using the vernier caliper. The wire diameter is measured
using the micrometer screw gauge. The spring length is measured using a ruler.
2. The apparatus is setup up as shown or otherwise arranged using spring A.
3. The spring is loaded by 5N increments.
4. The change in length of the spring is recorded (up to the greatest readable deflection).
5. The experiment is repeated with springs B and C.

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## Compression of Springs Experiment

Results:
Below is the tabulated representation of the data recorded and the workings according as described in the
experiment above.
Compression of spring

## Micrometre zero error :- (-00.13mm)

Table1:
A
Wire diameter

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1. Spring data:

= <3.61mm>

= <2.94mm>

= <3.09mm>

= <31.13mm>

= <31.12mm>

= <25.05mm>

= <150.61mm>

= <150.12mm>

= <121.11mm>

23

23

14

External diameter

Length of spring

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No of turns

A/ mm

B/ mm

C/ mm

10

12

15

17

20

22

25

28

10

30

11

33

12

35

13

39

14

40

15

45

15

45

18

50

18

50

19

Off scale

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55

20

Off scale

20

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Table 2:

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## Compression of Springs Experiment

For each spring, a graph of deflection against load is plotted.
The gradient of the linear graph or graph of best fit is calculated;
Spring A:

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1.

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Calculations:

S=
S=(

(
(

) (

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)
)

)
= 2.3560 kg/m

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Spring B:

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2.

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Calculations:

S=
S=(

(
(

)
)

) (

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= 1.080 kg/m

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Spring C :

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3.

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Calculations:

S=
S=(

) (
)

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0.75

)
= 3.987 kg/m

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## Compression of Springs Experiment

Observation:

Discussion:

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The differences between the answers obtained from the graphs and those obtained by calculations
are not large except for spring C.

The springs did not exhibit elastic deflections as not all the graphs obtained passed through the origin as
should have been the case according to Ohms Law.

A source of error in this experiment can be that parallax error occurred while measuring the length of
springs or deflection.

The springs used in this experiment could have been distorted thus not deflecting correctly.

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